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定语从句分析讲解


This is the film which I saw last night. Here are two pictures that are taken from the film .
This is the film whose name is Harry Potter . The man whom you see in the first picture is a headmaster.

the Attributive Clause

This is the film which I saw last night. Here are two pictures that are taken from the film .
This is the film whose name is Harry Potter . The man whom you see In the first picture is a headmaster.

定语从句
用作定语的从句叫定语从句。定语从句所修 饰的名(代)词叫作先行词。引导定语从句的词 叫“关系词”。关系词有两个作用:一、引导定 语从句。二、代替先行词在其引导的定语从句中 充当一定的句子成分。定语从句一般紧跟在先行 词的后面。

1. The students (who don’t study hard) will not pass 先行词 the exam. 主句: The students will not pass the exam. 2. The woman (whom you saw in the park) is our 先行词 定语从句 English teacher. 定语从句

主句: The woman is our English teacher.
you 从句的主语: 从句的宾语:whom

3. A shoe shop is a shop (which sells shoes). A shoe shop is a shop. 主句:

从句的主语: which
4. The book (that you want) is on the desk. 主句 The book is on the desk. 从句的主语: you 从句的宾语: that

注意:必须保持主句的完整性

引导定语从句的关系代词常见的有that, which,who whom等。关系代词放在先行词和定语从句之间, 起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的一个成份。 eg. The man (that/who told us a funny story) 主语 is in the next room. I lost the book(( that/which ) you gave me). 宾语

关系代词的用法

指代 that which who whom whose 人;物 物 人 人 人;物

所做成分

是否可省略

主语;宾语 作宾语可省 主语;宾语 作宾语可省 主语;宾语 作宾语可省 宾语 定语 可省 不可省

关系词 which that who

指代 物 人 物 人

所做成分 subject(主语) object(宾语)

whom
whose


人/物

object(宾语)
attribute(定语)

Fill in the blanks with : who, whom, whose, which, that

Mrnurse A He is the Black ________ man person _______________ work _________ is teaching looks I met in clock is awhose machine (whom/who/that) who/that ______________ that/which after the English sick yesterday ispeople regarded .. . as the best tellpark people the time teacher in the school .

定语从句:是指在复合句中, 修饰名词或 代词的从句. 被定语从句所修饰的名词或代 词叫做“先行词 ”. 引导定语从句的词叫“关系词 ”

引导定语从句的关系词
指代人 who,whom,that 指代事物 which,that 所属关系 whose,of which 指地点 where 关 指时间 when 系 指原因 why 副 词 关 系 代 词

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences: A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine the machine can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences: A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine that /which can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:

The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl we saw her yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
her The girl we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
her The girl we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl her we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
her The girl

we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl her we saw

yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl her is Mary.

we saw

yesterday

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.
The girl that/who/whom is Mary.

we saw yesterday

注意避免重复

a boy has a scar forehead

Harry Porter is a boy who/that has a scar on his forehead.

The boy is holding a dog . The boy is Jim . The boy is holding a dog . His hair is golden . The boy is holding a dog . He has golden hair . The boy who has hair golden is golden hair is isholding aadog. dog . Thewhose boy who is holding aholding dog is Jim .

He is one of the persons in the film.

The police are looking for him.

He is one of the persons that/whom/who the police are looking for.

This is a very interesting game .

Tom played it last night.

This is a very interesting game which/that Tom played last night.

the city
Beijing is the city where /in which the 2008 Olympic Games was held.

Beijing

2008

Oct. 1, 1949

the day

found

Oct.1,1949 is the day when/ on which the PRC was founded.

It

people live happily

a city

It is a city where/in which people are living happily.

He is the man who taught us how to be a soldier.先行词

To lead the clause 关系词
To act as one part of the clause

1. All All, that ismuch, needed isnone, a supply of oil. 1. everything,

anything, something, the one作先行 what 词时 2. The city is the one that /--- I remember.

3.The first book that I chose yesterday is interesting 2. 当先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰时 just the book 5. This is the best film that has been made by 4.当先行词为最高级或被最高级修饰时 children. He is the best man that/who/whom/--- I have met. (人不受限制)

4.This is the very/right that/--I, am looking 3.当先行词被 onlybook ,any ,just right , for

very,few,little,no,all修饰时

6. They are talking about the 5.当先行词中有人又有物时 people and the school that/--they paid a visit to.

6.which引导的特殊疑问句,避免 7. Which is the book that/--- you bought? 重复只用that 7.当关系代词在从句中作表语时 It isn ’ t the beautiful pig that it was. 只用that,且不可以省
8. 它不再是以前那只漂亮的小猪了。

1. 由who引导的特殊疑问句,为避免 重复只用that eg:Who is the man that is talking with Mr. Black? 2.当关系代词在从句中作表语时只用 that eg: He isn’t the clever boy that he was. =used to be.

1.先行词为one,ones,anyone, those,he时,只用who eg:He who laughs last laughs best. 2.在there be句型中,先行词为人 只用who

eg: 那儿有个偷东西的人。 There is a man who is stealing.

先行词与从句的主语构成从属关系 eg: He is the lawyer whose daughter went abroad. = the daughter of whom = of whom the daughter eg: 他们住在一间门是兰色的房子里。 They live in a house whose door is blue. = the door of which = of which the door

China has hundreds of islands, the largest _____which is Taiwan. of to He is the person_____whom you will write. by _____whom the book was written. _____whom from I learnt a lot. to _____whom I can turn for help. (turn to sb. for help) with _____whom I worked in the factory.

This is the book _____which I spent 8 on yuan. _____which for I paid 8 yuan. from which I learned a lot. _____

_____which they are talking. in _____ which there are few new words.

This is the river I have lots of friends, some/none of _____are friendly. by/beside whom _______which there is a factory. _______ there is a boat. on which I have lots of friends, and some of them ____are friendly. ______________a over/across which bridge was built.

I have lots of friends. Some of along which __________we often have a walk. them ____are friendly.

关系代词前介词的确定
如何选定介词: 1.根据从句中动词与先行词的逻辑关系,请体会: e.g. Is that the newspaper for which you often write articles? 2. 根据从句中动词或形容词的习惯搭配,如: e.g. Can you explain to me how to use these idioms about which I’m sure.

3. 根据先行词与介词的搭配习惯,请体会: e.g. 1949 was the year in which the P.R.C. was founded.

关系代词前介词的确定
4.非限制性定与从句中,要表示先行词的一部分时,可 用“数词/代词 + of + 关系代词”的结构,如:

e.g. There are 50 students in our class, twowhom have been to Beijing.

thirds of

5. Whose从句可转换为“ of +关系代词”型,如: e.g. They live in a house, whose door opens to the south. They lived in a house, of which the door opens to the south. They lived in a house, the door of which open to the south.

关系代词前介词的确定
? 关系副词when, where, why可以用适当的介词+which来替代。 如:when=in/on/at…+which, where=in/on/at…+which, why=for+which 介词的位置非常灵活,有时放在关系代词之前,有时放在动 词之后。 ? eg. 1. I won’t forget the date when( on which) I was born. ? 2. This is the room where (in which) I lived. = This is the room which I lived in.
? 3. I don’t know the reason why (for which) he haven’t come today.

?

4. Tom still remembers the days when (in which) they lived in Tianjin.

思考?是否所有的介词+关系代词都能用关系副词代替?
at which I looked) was painted by me. The painting (__________ about which I heard) was written twenty years ago. The book (______________ with which she wrote that book) can now be seen in The pen (____________ a museum. during which fell asleep) was very boring. The film (_____________I

where/in which ( flowers are seen all Kunming is a beautiful place _____________ the year round). on which/whenI first met you on the ship. I will never forgot the day _____________
结论:只有当介词+关系代词充当地点状语、时间状语或原因状语 时,才能用关系副词代替。

Correct the sentences:
1. I’m using the pen which he bought it yesterday. __ (去掉) 2. Is that factory which your father once worked in? ^ one the 3. The man whom I spoke is from Canada. ^ to 4. July 1,1999 is the day when ____ we’ll never forget. which 5. The students and things which ____ you spoke of are known to us. that

5.Einstein is such a great scientist ____ that we must learn from. as
6. The student _____ who’s book I had borrowed didn’t come to school today. Whose 7. Who is the worker who ____took some pictures of the factory. that 8. It is the one of the best films which ____ have been shown recently. that ____ we are going to visit is Hangzhou 9.The third place which that As _____ is known to all, many satellite are going around in 10.Which the sky.

Non-restrictive attributive clause(非限定 性定语从句) 特征:用逗号隔开,起补充说明作用,译 成两句话.

He will go to see his wife, who is in Beijing 他将去北京看望妻子,她在北京工作. (没有逗号翻译成:他将去看望在北京 工作的那个妻子.)
He passed the exam, which makes me happy.

定语从句分限制性定语从句和非限制性定语 从句。 非限制性定语从句的先行词和关系词常用逗 号隔开,且不能用that引导。 e.g. 1、She had eight children, three of whom lived to grow up. 2、Smoking, which is a bad habit,is very popular.

1. Watch the girl and her dog _____ are crossing the bridge! A.which C. they B. who D. that

D

单项选择 A you just talked to was 1. The man _____ a friend of mine. A. whom B. which D. whose D. where C my father bought me is 2. The necklace ____ very expensive. A. who B. whose C. that D. where 3. The doctor ____ B is leaving for Africa next month. A. the nurse is talking to him B. whom the nurse is talking to C. the nurse is talking to D. that the nurse is talking

4. Ms. Ji ____ A loves us very much is our math teacher. A. who B. whom C. whose D. which 5. The bike ________was stolen. C A. which my mother buys me B. who my mother bought me C. which my mother bought me D. that my mother buys me B owner is an old man is very lovely. 6. The dog ___ A. which B. whose C. that D. who

2. He is the only one of the three _____ got the new idea. A. who have B. whom have C. who has D. whose had

3. In the school there are one thousand students, and 45% of _____ are girls. A. which C. whom B. those D. them

4. The reason _____ he didn’t do his homework was _____ he wasn’t told to. A. why; that B. which; because

C. which; that D. why; because

5.You can hardly imagine the difficulty she had ______ enough evidence(证据)to prove the case. A. collected B. to collect C. collecting D. to have collected

6. Can you think of a scene _____ this word can be used?

A. where C. while

B. which D. why

Tips:
? 1. 关系词的选用,取决于先行词在 从句中的成份,而不是它本身。 ? 2.定语从句不能滥用。如果能用简单 句表达出来的东西就不用从句来表 达。



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