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刘国贞 简单句与并列句、复合句


简单句与并列句

1. — Someone wants you on the phone. — ______ nobody knows I am here. (2011· 新课标卷25) A. Although C. But B. And D. So

【解析】选C。本题要把握前后两个句子的逻辑关 系。前半句为,有人给你打电话;后半句为,没人知道

我在这儿,根据句意可知前后两句明显为转折关系,故
选C。

2. ______ a strange plant! I've never seen it before. (2011· 辽宁卷33)

A. Which
C. How

B. What
D. Whether

【解析】选B。what引导一个感叹句。

简单句 简单句所涉及的考点主要包括感叹句和反意疑问句。

一、感叹句
______ she sings! I have never heard a better voice.

A. How beautiful
B. What beautiful song C. How beautifully D. So wonderful

【解析】选C。此为“how+副词+主语+谓语”形
式的感叹句。

感叹句的基本结构特点是:

What + a(n) (+ adj.) + 单数可数名词(+ 主语+ 动 词)!
What + adj. + 不可数名词或复数可数名词! How + adj. /adv. (+ 主语 + 动词)! How + adj. + a(n) + 单数可数名词(+ 主语+ 动词)!

二、反意疑问句

考点1.主从复合句后面的反意问句
I don't suppose our team might have been beaten by theirs last night, ______?

A. do I
C. hasn't it

B. might it
D. was it

【解析】选D。陈述部分有I don't suppose时,反意
问句应与其后的宾语从句的主谓一致,本句的非推测句

为: I don't suppose our team was beaten by theirs last
night, 反意问句便是: was it。

如果陈述部分是主从复合句,后面的反意问句通常 与主句的主谓一致。如果主句的谓语动词是think, believe, suppose, imagine, guess, expect等,后面的反意问 句要注意3种情况:
1. 如果主语是第一人称I, 后面的反意问句需与从句 的主谓一致。 2. 如果主句的主语是其他人称,则后面的反意问句 常需与主句的主谓一致。 3. 如果主句的动词是否定式,后面的反意问句要用 肯定式。

考点2.强调结构后面的反意问句 It was at the gate that you met her, ______? A. wasn't it C. didn't you B. was it D. did you

【解析】选A。强调结构“It is / was+被强调部分
+that …”后的反意问句需与It is / was一致。

强调结构“It is / was+被强调部分+that …”后的 反意问句需与that前面的主谓一致。

考点3.并列句后面的反意问句
The man works hard and he is the best worker in his factory, ______? A. does he C. is he B. doesn't he D. isn't he

【解析】 选 D 。两个并列句后面的反意问句的主 谓一般需与后一个分句保持主谓一致。

两个并列句(常见的连词有: or, and, but, while,
for 等 ) 后面的反意问句的主谓一般需与距离它近的那个 分句的主谓一致。

考点4.否定句后面的反意问句
He had little idea that it was getting so serious, ______?

A. didn't he
C. wasn't it

B. did he
D. was it

【解析】 选 B 。陈述句是含有否定词 little 的否定句,
反意问句用肯定形式。

1. 前面的陈述部分有半否定词hardly, rarely, scarcely, few, little, seldom等时,反意问句用肯定形式。

2. 陈述部分虽有否定前(后)缀词(如: dis, in, un,less)时,反意问句仍要用否定形式。

考点5.祈使句后面的反意问句
Lily, help me put up the picture on the wall, ______?

A. will you
C. are you

B. don't you
D. didn't you

【解析】选A。陈述句是肯定祈使句,反问部分 用will you。

1. Let's开头(包括听话者), 反意问句用shall we;Let us开头(不包括听话者), 反意问句用will you。

2. 其他形式的肯定祈使句后面,一般用will you。

考点6.情态动词后面的反意问句 — I think it's high time that she made up her mind.

— The police must have known all about this, ______?
A. mustn't they B. haven't they

C. mustn't it

D. hasn't it

【解析】 选 B 。陈述部分用“ must(may , might) +
v.ed” 表示推测时,若句中不带有明显的过去时间的状

语,问句部分动词应该与must(may, might)后的动词形式
保持一致。

情态动词用于推测,后面的反意问句的谓语一 般要与情态动词后面的动词相一致。

考点7. have后面的反意问句
It's seven o'clock now. We have to leave for the cinema, ______? A. haven't we C. isn't it 【答案】选B。 B. don't we D. wasn't it

1. have表“有”时,后面的反意问句的谓语 可用have或do的适当形式。

2. have表“让、吃、患”等意思时,后面的反意 问句的谓语用do的适当形式。
3. have to表“不得不”时,后面的反意问句的谓 语要用do的适当形式。 4. have + done构成完成时时,后面的反意问句的 谓语要用have的适当形式。

考点8. 其他几种特殊的反意问句 例1: There will be an English party tomorrow, ______? A. isn't there B. isn't it

C. won't there

D. won't it

【解析】选C。在there be句型中,反意疑问句的
主语用there, 反意疑问句谓语部分视具体的助动词、

情态动词或系动词而定。

考点8. 其他几种特殊的反意问句
例2: It's the first time that he has been to Australia, ______?(辽宁锦州一中高中2011届高三第五次模拟卷) A. isn'the C. isn't it B. hasn't he D. hasn't it

【解析】选C。由句型it's the first time that +从句 可知,主语是it, be是is。因此用isn't it。

考点8. 其他几种特殊的反意问句 例3: — Alice, you feed the bird today, ______? — But I fed it yesterday. A. do you B. will you

C. didn't you

D. don't you

【解析】选B。Alice 为称呼语, 后接一个祈使 句,因此用will you。

1. 陈述部分是There be结构时,反意问句的主语用 there来充当。

2. I wish表示愿望,后面的反意问句常用may I。
3. I'm 开头,后面的反意问句常用aren't I。

4. 以So, Oh开头的句子,若是肯定句,其后的反意 问句也用肯定;若是否定句,其后的反意问句也用否定。
5. 在句型It's the first/second/third…time that从句中, 在It's+时间段+since从句中,以及It won't be long before从句中等等,反意部分由前面It+be来决定,与从 句的谓语动词无关。

并列句 考点1.转折并列句 例1: We thought there were 35 students in the dining hall,

______, in fact, there were 40.
A. while C. what B. whether D. which

【解析】选 A 。分析两句的关系可知应该用表示对 比的连词while。

例2: Excuse me for breaking in, ______ I have some news for you. A. so C. but B. and D. that

【解析】选C。 but 放在表示歉意的话之后,只起 连接作用; but 的语义非常丰富,用法灵活多变。随着

高考语境性意义的加强, but 出现的频率也越来越高,
下面是 but 的一些基本用法。

因为它在试题中对正确答案的选择起着重要的制约作用。

一、but 用作并列连词,意为“但是”,“然而”, 表示转折意义。
Rick made some more records, but he wasn't as popular as he had been before. 里克虽然灌制了更多唱片,但不像以前那样受欢迎。

此时要注意 but 与 however 的区别。 however 表示 “可是”,“但是”的意义时,常用作副词,可以放在 句首、句中、句尾,并常用逗号将它与句子分开。
However,he didn't make his mark in the end. 然而,他终未成功。

二、 but 可置于表示歉意的话(如 Excuse me 或 I'm sorry )之后,提出请求或说出可能触犯对方的话,它没 有实际意义,只起连接作用,可以省去。

I am sorry, but I don't think I know you.
很抱歉,我想我不认识你。 Excuse me, but can you tell me how to surf the net? 劳驾,你能告诉我怎么上网吗?

主要由but(但是), yet(可是), while(而,却)等连词连接。

考点2.选择并列句

Bring the flowers into a warm room ______ they'll soon open. (2011· 辽宁卷31)
A. or C. but 使句+and +陈述句。 B. and D. for

【解析】选B。and表并列关系。此句考查句型:祈

主要由or(或者,还是,否则), either…or…(不
是……就是……), neither…nor…(既不……也不……), otherwise(要不然)等连词连接。

考点3.联合并列句 ______, and I'll get the work finished.

A. Have one more hour
C. Given one more hour

B. One more hour
D. If I have one more hour

【解析】选B。从句子结构上看, and连接了两个分句,

两句间存在着一种顺承关系。其中前一分句为不完整句
子,即一个名词短语,表示一种条件或假设,相当于if 条件状语从句,该句相当于If I am given one more hour,

I'll get the work finished. 后一分句表示一种结果或推论。

一、祈使句

1. 祈使句主要用于请求,发出邀请,给予指示、忠告 或警告,也可用于发出命令等。
2. 祈使句的特点是:一般不出现主语(you), 但有时为了 指明向谁发出请求或命令,也可以说出主语;谓语动 词一律用原形;否定式一律在动词前面加don't。

二、句型中陈述句的时态或语气决定着祈使句表 示的条件性质。
1. 当陈述句是一般将来时或一般现在时的时候, 祈使 句是真实条件句。 Work hard, and you can make rapid progress in your study.

努力学习,你将很快取得进步。
2. 当陈述句的谓语动词是would / should / could / might + 动词原形或完成体时,祈使句表示非真实条件句。 Come tomorrow and I would tell you everything. 明天来,我就告诉你所有的事情。

三、“祈使句 + and + 陈述句”句型的3种变化形式 1. “祈使句 + 破折号 + 陈述句” Try some of this juice — perhaps you'll like it.

尝尝这种果汁,也许你会喜欢的。

2. “名词词组 + and + 陈述句” 名词词组中通常含有more, another, further, earlier等词。 It is really very dangerous. One more step, and the baby will fall into the well.

真危险。再多迈一步, 这个小孩儿就掉进井里了。
Another £500, and I could buy a car. 假如我再有500英镑, 就能买辆小汽车了。

One step further and you'll lost. 再多走一步, 你就会迷失方向了。 A few minutes earlier, and I could have seen the famous scientist. 要是我早来几分钟, 就能见到那位著名的科学家了。

3. “祈使句 + or + 陈述句”

or表示“否则”、“要不然的话”, or可用or else或 otherwise替换, 从反面来预测结果。
Take the chance, or you will regret it. 抓住机会吧, 否则你会遗憾的。 Watch your step, or else you might fall into the water.

留神脚下, 不然你会掉进水里的。
Do as you're told, otherwise you'll be in trouble.

叫你怎么做就怎么做, 否则你会有麻烦的。

主要由 and, not only…but also…( 不但 …… 而且 ……), when(= and just at this time就在这时)等连词连接。

考点4.因果并列句

It must have rained last night, ______ the ground is wet this morning.
A. because B. since

C. as

D. for

【解析】选D。表示对前一分句的内容加以推 断性的原因,用for。

主要由for(因为), so(因此)等连词连接。

名词性从句

? 【考向聚焦】 ? 名词性从句是高考常考的语法项目,主要考 查对连接词的正确把握。分析历年各地的高考 试题不难发现,连接代词what的用法是考查的 热点。另外,在同位语从句中,经常考查that的 用法。除此之外,其他连接词的用法以及从句 的语序也时有考查。

?考点? 主语从句 ?主语从句在复合句中作主句的主语,常用 it 作 形式主语。引导主语从句的词有:that,whether, who , what , which , whoever , whatever , whichever,when,where,why,how等。 ?It doesn't matter whether you turn right or left at the crossing—both roads lead to the park.

?在十字路口无论你向左转还是向右转都没关系, 两条路都通向公园。

?It suddenly occurred to him that he had left his keys in the office. ?他突然想起他把钥匙落在办公室里了。 ?—What made her so upset? ?—That she failed in her mid-term examination.(主 语从句,that不充当成分) ?——什么使她那么伤心? ?——她期中考试失败(使她那么伤心)。

? 考点? 宾语从句 ? 1.由关联词that引导的宾语从句。 ? 由关联词 that 引导宾语从句时, that 在句中 不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的文体中 常被省去,但如果从句是并列句时,第二个 分句前的that不可省。 ? He said (that) he liked rain very much and that he wouldn't use an umbrella when it was raining. ? 他说他非常喜欢下雨,下雨天他都不愿打 伞。

? 2 . 由 who , whom , which , whose , what , when , where , why , how , whoever , whichever 等关联词引导的宾语从句,应注意 句子语序要用陈述语序。 ? I want to know what he has told you. ? 我想知道他告诉了你什么。 ? She always thinks of how she can work well. ? 她总是在想怎样把工作做好。

? 3 .在宾语从句中,引导词 whether 和 if 基本一 样,但介词后的宾语从句多用whether。 ? In recent years , there has been a heated argument about whether it is necessary for children to learn English from an early age. ? 近几年来,关于儿童是否应该从早年学英 语有激烈的争论。

? 4.that,what引导宾语从句的区别。

?

在宾语从句中,that没有词义,在从句中不
作任何成分。当从句意义完整,不缺任何成 意为“什么”(有时候可以不译) ,在从句中用来

分时,往往选用 that ;而what引导宾语从句时, 作主语或宾语。
? The message you intend to convey through

words may be the exact opposite of what others
actually understand.(what在从句中作宾语)

? 5 . 有 些 动 词 或 动 词 短 语 , 如 like , hate , appreciate,hide,depend on,see to等, 一般 不直接跟宾语从句,需要在从句前加上it。 ? He took it that we were to stay here for the night. ? 他以为我们要在这里过夜。 ? I don't like it when you look at me like that! ? 我不喜欢你那样看我。

? 考点? 同位语从句 ? 1 . 同 位 语 从 句 常 放 在 fact , news , doubt , problem , promise , idea 等名词后面,常用的 引导词有 that,who ,whether ,why ,where, when等。 ? I made a promise to myself that this year, my first year in high school,would be different. ? 我向自己保证:今年——我高中的第一年—— 将会是不同寻常的一年。 ? I have no idea who will be in charge of the company when the manager is away. ? 我不知道经理不在时,谁会负责公司的业

? 2 . that 引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别。
? 同位语从句用于解释前面名词的内容,从

句本身是一个非常完整的句子,引导词that只
起引导作用,不在句中作任何成分,一般不

可省略。定语从句对其前的名词即先行词加
以限制和修饰,从句本身不够完整,因此关

系词在定语从句中通常作主语、宾语或表语
等成分。 ? When the news came that the war broke out,

? 考点? 表语从句 ? 引导表语从句的词有that,whether,who, what , which , whoever , whatever , whichever , when,where,why,how,because等。 ? —I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. ? —That's where I don't agree.You should have a more active life. ? ——在周日我喜欢把自己关在家里一整天听 音乐。 ? ——那就是我不赞同的地方,你应该拥有更

?As is known to us,China is no longer what she used to be.众所周知,中国再也不是从前的中国 了。 ?One reason for her preference for city life is that she can have easy access to places like shops and restaurants.(表语从句) ?她偏爱城市生活的一个原因就是她可以很容易 地进出像商场和饭店这样的地方。

?考点? “疑问词+-ever”引导的名词性从句 ?“疑问词+-ever”与“no matter+疑问词”的区别 ?“疑问词+-ever”与“no matter+疑问词”虽然都 有 “ 无论??”的意思,但是用法有区别: “ 疑 问词+ -ever”既可以引导名词性从句也可引导 状语从句,而“no matter+疑问词”只能用来引导 状语从句。

?There are various things on sale , so you can choose whatever interests you.
?有各种各样的物品在出售,所以你可以选择你 感兴趣的任何东西。 ?Everybody likes to work with whoever is reliable and easy to get on with. ?每个人都喜欢和值得信任并且容易相处的人一 起工作。 ?Whatever/No matter what you say , I will not believe you. ?无论你说什么,我都不相信。

? 1.(·北京,30)The best moment for the football star was ________ he scored the winning goal. ? A.where B.when ? C.how D.why ? 解析 考查表语从句。句意:这位足球明 星最好的时刻就是他射进了决胜的一球的那 一刻。因为前面有 moment ,所以根据表语从 句的含义选择when。 ? 答案 B

? 2.(·北京,33)Some people believe ________ has happened before or is happening now will repeat itself in the future. ? A.whatever B.whenever ? C.wherever D.however ? 解析 考查宾语从句。句意:有些人相信, 无论以前发生过什么,或者现在发生着什么, 都会在未来重现。宾语从句中缺少主语,四 个选项中只有whatever能够做主语。其他均为 状语。 ? 答案 A

? 3 . (· 大 纲 , 24)Exactly ________ the potato was introduced into Europe is uncertain,but it was probably around 1565. ? A.whether B.why ? C.when D.how ? 解析 考查名词性从句。句意:马铃薯被 引入欧洲的确切时间是不确定的,但是大约 是在 1565 年。根据句意 when 引导一个主语从 句,且在句中作时间状语。whether“是否”, 不作成分,只起连接作用;why作原因状语; how作方式状语。故答案为C。 ? 答案 C

? 4 . (· 福 建 , 34)Pick yourself up.Courage is doing ________ you're afraid to do. ? A.that B.what ? C.how D.whether ? 解析 考查名词性从句。句意:跌倒后再 站起来。勇气是做你不敢做的事情。这里含 有一个宾语从句,引导词在从句中作 do 的宾 语,所以用what,故选B项。 ? 答案 B

? 5.(·湖南,24)As John Lennon once said,life is ______ happens to you while you are busy making other plans. ? A.which B.that ? C.what D.where ? 解析 考查名词性从句。句意:正如 John Lennon 曾经说过的一样,生活就是当你忙着 制订其他计划而发生在你身上的一切。所填 词汇在句中引导表语从句,引导词在从句中 做主语,指物,用what,选C。 ? 答案 C

? 6.(·江苏,26)—What a mess!You are always so lazy! ? —I'm not to blame,mum.I am ________ you have made me. ? A.how B.what ? C.that D.who ? 解析 考查名词性从句。句意:——这么一团糟!
你总是那么懒惰! —— 妈妈,该受责备的不是我,是 你让我成了这个样子。根据结构分析,所填词汇在 句中引导表语从句,且在从句中担当宾语补足语, 此处指目前的这种状况,指事物,故用what,选B。 ? 答案 B

? 7.(·山东,7)It is difficult for us to imagine ________ life was like for slaves in the ancient world. ? A.where B.what ? C.which D.why ? 解析 考查宾语从句。句意:对我们来说 很难想象古代奴隶的生活像什么样子。what引 导的从句是宾语从句,在宾语从句中what作介 词like的宾语。故选B项。 ? 答案 B

? 8.(· 四川,2)Grandma pointed to the hospital and said,“That's ______ I was born.” ? A.when B.how ? C.why D.where ? 解析 考查表语从句。根据前面hospital一 词及从句结构可知,表语从句中缺少地点状 语。故选D项。 ? 答案 D

? 9.(·天津,14)I think ________ impresses me about his painting is the colours he uses. ? A.what B.that ? C.which D.who ? 解析 考查名词性从句。句意:我认为他 的绘画给我印象最深的就是他所使用的颜色。 根据结构该空所填词汇引导主语从句,引导 词是物,在其中做主语,故选A。 ? 答案 A

? 10.(·浙江,8)“Every time you eat a sweet, drink green tea.”This is ________ my mother used to tell me. ? A.what B.how ? C.that D.whether ? 解析 考查表语从句。句意:每次吃糖时, 喝点绿茶。这是妈妈过去常对我说的话。what 在表语从句中作 tell 的宾语; that 和 whether 在 名词性从句中不作成分,因此排除;how作状 语。 ? 答案 A

2016高考英语总复习课件专题:状语从句

? 【考向聚焦】 ? 状语从句有时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、 条件、方式、比较和让步状语从句,共9种,是 每年必考的语法项目,主要考查连词的判断选 用,主句与从句谓语动词的时态运用。其中, 以对时间状语从句、条件状语从句、让步状语 从句和结果状语从句的考查最为频繁。近几年, 重点考查的连词有:when,while,as,before, unless,however等。近三年,高考有考查状语 从句、宾语从句、名词性从句交叉运用的题型 出现。

? 1 . (· 陕 西 , 24)The young couple , who returned my lost wallet,left ________ I could ask of their names. ? A.while B.before ? C.after D.since ? 解析 考查连词词义辨析。句意:这对年 轻夫妇送还了我丢失的钱包,我还没来得及 问他们的名字,他们就离开了。before还没来 得及就 ?? ;符合题意。 while 当 ?? 时,然 而,虽然;after在??之后;since自从,既然。 ? 答案 B

? 2.(·天津,1)Give me a chance,________ I'll give you a wonderful surprise. ? A.if B.or ? C.and D.while ? 解析 考查连词词义辨析。句意:给我一 次机会,我会给你一个惊喜。if如果;or否则; and和,那么;while当??时。根据句意可知 是顺承关系,故选C。 ? 答案 C

? 3 .(·天津,4)________ you start eating in a healthier way,weight control will become much easier. ? A.Unless B.Although ? C.Before D.Once ? 解析 考查连词词义辨析。句意:一旦你 开始健康饮食,控制体重就容易多了。unless 除非; although 虽然,尽管; before 在 ?? 之 前;once一旦。 ? 答案 D

? 4.(·江苏,21)Lessons can be learned to face the future,________ history can not be changed. ? A.though B.as ? C.since D.unless ? 解析 考查状语从句。句意:尽管历史无 法改变,但是我们可以吸取教训来面对未来。 though表示转折。 ? 答案 A

? 5.(·北京, 21)Some animals carry seeds from one place to another , ________ plants can spread to new places. ? A.so B.or ? C.for D.but ? 解析 考查连词词义辨析。句意:有些动 物把植物种子从一个地方带到另一个地方, 这样植物就能传播到新地方。前后句之间是 因果关系,所以选择so,for后面接原因。 ? 答案 A

? 6.(·北京, 29)________ the forest park is far away,a lot of tourists visit it every year. ? A.As B.When ? C.Even though D.In case ? 解析 考查状语从句。句意:尽管那个森 林公园很远,每年仍然有很多人去参观。由 句意可知前半句是让步状语从句,C项符合题 意。 ? 答案 C

? 7.(· 安徽,25)The meaning of the word “nice” changed a few times ________ it finally came to include the sense “pleasant.” ? A.before B.after ? C.since D.while ? 解析 考查连词词义辨析。句意:单词“好” 的意义在最终含有意义“愉快的”之前改变了几 次。 before“ 在 …… 之前 ”,引导时间状语从句。 ? 答案 A

? 8.(·重庆,14)Half an hour later,Lucy still couldn't get a taxi ________ the bus had dropped her. ? A.until B.when ? C.although D.where ? 解析 考查连词和状语从句。句意:半个 小时后,在公共汽车丢下她的地方露西仍然 没有搭到出租车。根据句意可知,这里是 where引导的地点状语从句。 ? 答案 D

? 9 . (· 四 川 , 8)I'll be out for some time.________ anything important happens,call me up immediately. ? A.In case B.As if ? C.Even though D.Now that ? 解析 考查连词和状语从句。句意:我要 出去一段时间。万一有什么重要的事情发生, 立即给我打电话。根据句意可知,这里表示 “立即给我打电话”的条件,in case如果,万一, 引导条件状语从句。 ? 答案 A

? 10 . (· 湖南, 26)You will never gain success ________ you are fully devoted to your work. ? A.when B.because ? C.after D.unless ? 解析 考查状语从句。句意:除非你完全 投入到你的工作中,否则你就永远也不会取 得成功。unless相当于if not,除非,如果不; 在此引导让步状语从句,符合语境。 ? 答案 D

? 考点? 时间状语从句 ? 1.when 引导时间状语从句,意为“当??时”, 表示主句的动作和从句的动作同时或先后发 生。 ? When he knocked at the door,I was sleeping. ? 他敲门时我正在睡觉。

?[名师指津] when还可表原因,意为“既然”。
?It was foolish of you to take a taxi when you could easily walk there in five minutes.

?既然你五分钟就可以走到那儿,可你还打的去, 真的太傻了。

? 2 . while 引导时间状语从句,意为 “ 与??同 时,在??期间 ” ,从句常用延续性动词或状 态动词。 ? Father was cleaning the car while I was doing my homework. ? 我在做作业时,爸爸在洗车。 ? 3 . as 引 导 时 间 状 语 从 句 , 意 为 “ 正 当 ; 一 边??一边??;随着 ” 等意思,表示两个动 作同时发生。 ? As she sang,tears ran down her cheeks. ? 她一边唱歌,眼泪一边顺着脸颊流下。

? 4 . as soon as , immediately , directly , instantly,the moment,the minute,the instant, no sooner...than... , hardly/scarcely...when... 和 once这些从属连词引导的从句都表示从句的动 作一发生,主句的动作随即就发生,常译为 “ 一??就??”。从句中用一般时态代替将 来时态。 ? The moment I heard the voice,I knew father was coming. ? 我一听到那个声音,我就知道父亲来了。 ? The boy burst into tears immediately he saw

?[ 名 师 指 津 ] no sooner...than... , hardly/scarcely...when... 的 时 态 搭 配 : no sooner 与 hardly/scarcely后的句子谓语动词应用过去完成时, 而 than 与 when 引导的句子谓语动词应用一般过 去时。此外,当把no sooner和hardly/scarcely提 到句首时,应用倒装语序。 ? He had no sooner finished his speech than the students started cheering. ? = No sooner had he finished his speech than the students started cheering. ? 他刚完成演讲学生们就开始欢呼起来。

? 5.before/since ? (1) 表 示 “ 还 未 ?? 就 ?? ; 不 到 ?? 就 ?? ; ?? 才 ?? ; 还 没 来 得 及 ?? 就??”。 ? The girl had hardly rung the bell before the door was opened suddenly , and her friend rushed out to greet her. ? 小女孩还没来得及按门铃,门就突然开了, 并且她的朋友冲出来问候她。

?(2)It will be +一段时间+ before...“多久之后 才??”。 ?John thinks it won't be long before he is ready for his new job. ?约翰认为他不久就会为新工作做好准备了。 ?(3)since的常用句型:It is (has been) /was+一段 时间+since(从句用一般过去时/过去完成时)
?It's three years since the war broke out. ?自战争爆发以来有三年了。

? 6.until/till ? 主句为肯定句时,谓语用延续性动词;主 句为否定句时,谓语用非延续性动词。 ? We won't start our discussion until/till he comes. ? 我们要等到他来了再开始我们的讨论。

? 考点? 地点状语从句 ? 1.通常由连词where和wherever引导,从句可 位于主句之前,也可位于主句之后。 ? The little girl who got lost decided to remain where she was and wait for her mother. ? 这个迷路的小女孩决定待在原地等她妈妈。 ? 2.地点状语从句在句首时常兼有抽象条件意 味。 ? Where there's a will,there's a way. ? 有志者事竟成。

? 3.where引导的状语从句和定语从句的区别。 ? where引导地点状语从句直接修饰动词,而 在定语从句中 where 作为关系副词要跟在表示 地点的先行词后面。 ? When solving the problem a second time, you'd better be more careful where you made a mistake. ? = When solving the problem a second time, you'd better be more careful in the place where you made a mistake. ? 当你第二次解决这个问题的时候,你要在

? 考点? 条件状语从句 ? 1.通常由if“如果”, unless“如果不;除非”, as (so) long as“只要”,in case (that) “结果, 万一 ” , once“一旦 ” , when“既然 ” 等连词引 导。 ? You can borrow my car as long as you promise not to drive too fast. ? 只要你答应不要开得太快,我可以把车借 给你。

? 2 . 由 on condition (that) , provided (that) , providing (that) “倘若;假使 ” , supposing (that),in case“如果”等引导的条件状语从句。 ? You can go swimming on condition that you don't go too far from the river bank. ? 只有不离河岸太远你才能下去游泳。

? 考点? 让步状语从句 ? 1.让步状语从句可由 although,though,as, while,even if (though),whatever (wherever, whoever...) , whether...or... , no matter who (when,what...) 等引导。 ? However serious a problem you may have, you should gather your courage to face the challenge. ? 不论你的问题有多严重,你都应该鼓起勇 气,接受挑战。

? 2.while作“尽管”讲,引导让步状语从句时, 往往放在句首。 ? While the Internet is of great help,I don't think it's a good idea to spend too much time on it. ? 尽管因特网对我们有很大的帮助,但我认 为花太多的时间上网也不是一个好主意。

? 考点? 原因状语从句和方式状语从句 ? 1.原因状语从句通常由 because,since,as, now that,seeing (that),considering that等引导。 ? —Mum,could I go out to play now? ? —Let me see.Yes,since you have finished all your school assignments. ? ——妈妈,现在我可以出去玩吗? ? ——让我想想。是的,既然你已经把所有的 学习任务完成了。

?Now that you are familiar with the author's ideas, try reading all the sections as quickly as possible. ?既然你熟悉作者的思路,那就尝试着尽可能快 地阅读所有的章节。 ?Considering that I have told you three times,you must know it. ?鉴于我已经告诉你三次了,你肯定知道这件事 了。

? 2.方式状语从句用来表示主句谓语动作发生 的方式,常由as“像??一样”, as if (though) “似乎,好像”等引导。 ? The house was greatly damaged by the truck.We'd better leave things as they are until the police arrive. ? 卡车对这座房子造成了严重的损坏。我们 最好保持原样直到警察到来。 ? He acted as if nothing had happened. ? 他表现得好像什么也没发生一样。

?考点? 目的状语从句 ?引导目的状语从句的连词主要有in order that, so that,for fear that “害怕,担心发生某事”, in case “以防 ” 等。从句中常用 may , might , can,could,should等情态动词。 ?He had his camera ready in case he saw something that would make a good picture.
?他准备好了照相机,以便于能拍到他看到的好 画面。 ?I opened the window in order that fresh air might come in.我把窗户打开以便新鲜空气可以进来。

定语从句
The Attributive Clause

定语从句:是指在复合句中,修饰 名词或代词的从句.被定语从句所修 饰的名词或代词叫做“先行词”.引 导定语从句的词叫“关系词”
先行词 之后 1.从句的位置:
2.构成:

关系代词

关系词

关系副词

The Restrictive Attributive

定 语 从 句

Clause 限制性定语从句 The Non-Restrictive Attributive Clause 非限制性定语从句

关系词有两个作用:
一、引导定语从句
二、代替先行词在其引导的定语 从句中充当一定的句子成份。

引导定语从句的关系词
指代人 who,whom,that 指代事物 which,that 所属关系 whose,of which

指地点
指时间 指原因

where
when why

关系代词的用法
关系代词在从句中可以:

指人
that which who whom
√ × √ √

指物

主语

宾语

√ √ √ 何时可以省略? √ √ √ 做宾语时可以省略 × √ √ × × √

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences: A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences: A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.

A plane is a machine the machine can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences: A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.

A plane is a machine that /which can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

The girl we saw her yesterday is Mary.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

The girl her is Mary.

we saw

yesterday

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday.

The girl is Mary.

that/who/whom

we saw yesterday

Correct mistakes
1.Under the big tree are 34 students,
many of——— them come from class two.

whom

2. My mother has a good book,

which cover looks terrible. whose ——— 3. This is the very pen that you gave it to me before.

\

it \
who

4. There is an old woman, that is holding —— a stick.

关系词的用法

关系代词
done.

1.All ______ that can be done has been

2.Do you have anything ________
you don’t understand ? anything, 先行词是 all ,everything, nothing,
something, much, little, none等不定代词,引 导定语从句用that

that

关系代词
1.This is the best TV _______ that is made in China.

that 2.The first museum _______ he visited
in China was the History Museum.
先行词被形容词最高级 或序数词修饰时,引导 定语从句用that 。

关系代词
I’ve read all the books ________ that

you lent me.
先行词被any, some, no, much, few, little, every, all, very, only, last 修饰 时,引导定语从句用that 。

关系代词
1.The famous writer and his works _____ that the radio broadcast have aroused great interest among the students. 2.A victim is a person, animal or thing

that ______ suffers pain, death, harm, etc.
先行词中既有人又有事物时,

引导定语从句用that .

关系代词
1.Who _______ that you have ever seen
can do it better ? 2.Who _______ you are talking to is

that

the young fellow Who? 做先行词时,引
导定语从句用that

关系代词
1.Yesterday I bought a dictionary,_______ which cost me more than 100 Yuan . 2.Mr Smith,______ gave a talk several months ago, will come again.

who

3.My uncle has come back from abroad,______ I haven’t met for along time. 在非限制性定语句

Who/Whom

中,指物用which, 指人用who whom

As 引导的非限制性定语从句
as is known to all. The earth is round,_____ As _____ It is known to all, the earth is round ______ 主语从句 is known to all that the earth is

round.定语从句在句首时只能用as, as
具有正如之意,与之搭配的动 词一般是固定的

As 引导的限制性定语从句 This is the same book as I lost.
这本书和我丢的那本一模一样。

This is the same book that I lost.
这本书就是我丢的那本。

As 引导的限制性定语从句
This is such an interesting book ____ as we all 定语从句 like. as we all This is so interesting a book _____

like. 这是大家都喜欢的如此有趣的一本书。

结果状语从句 This is such an interesting book that ____we all 这本书如此有趣,大家都喜欢。 like it.

关系代词

1.Her bag ,in ________ which she put all her money, has been stolen. 2.This is the ring on ________ she spent 1000 dollars. whom 3.Xiao Wang ,with ________ I went to the concert, enjoy it very much. 在介词后面,指事物
用which,指人用whom

which

注意:如何判断介词 1、看定语从句中动词与介词的搭配

This is the book_____ for which you asked

注意:动词短语不能拆开
即介词不能提前

2、看定语从句中形容词与介词的搭配

He referred me to some reference
with which I am not very books ______

familiar.

3、根据先行词判断,所用的介词与先行词 搭配

This is our in the front of which classroom ,_______________ there is a teacher’s desk.

关系副词
After living in Paris for 50 years he B returned to the small town ______ he grew up as a child.
A. which B. where C. that D. when

先行词是表示地点的名词或含有 地点意义的抽象名词,用引导定 语从句,在从句做状语

关系副词
It was an exciting moment for these D people this year, ______ for the first time
their team won the World Cup. A. that B. while C. which D. when
先行词是表示时间的名词,用when 引导定语从句,在从句作状语。

关系副词
This is the reason _______ B I didn’t come here. A. what B. why C. which D. when

先行词是表示原因的词, 用why 引导定语从句,在 从句作状语。

whose 引导的定语从句

表示所属关系

The river _________ whose banks are covered with trees flows to the sea.
There are in this class 20 students, ______ are different. A.whose backgrounds B. The backgrounds of whom C.of whom the backgrounds D.the backgrounds of whose

注意 1 区分where引导的定语从句和状语从句:
Where前面有被修饰的地点名词时,是定语从句,否则 是状语从句。

When you read books ,you had better make a

定语从句

mark at the spot where you have any questions. When you read books , you had better make a mark where you have any questions.

状语从句

指时间或地点作主语或宾语, 注意2: 用which或that引导定语从句。
I’ll never forget the day _________ when we first met in the park.
which\that I’ll never forget the time _________ I spent with you. which\that I’ll never forget the time __________ was spent with you. which\that

注意3:

why引导的定语从句

This is the reason __ why ( = for which ) I didn’t come here. which/that The reason __________ she gave was not true.

注意4:

定语从句中的动词的数

He is the only one in his class who _______ has (have) got the teacher’s praise He is one of the students in his have class who _______ (have) got the teacher’s praise

1. She heard a terrible noise, ______

brought her heart into her mouth.
A. it B. which C. this D. that 2. He is the only one of the boys who ____

the piano well.
A. plays B. play C. playing D. are playing 3. In the dark street there wasn’t a single person ____she could turn for help. A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom 4.That scientist ____ work is successful has been made a model worker. A. which B. who C. who’s D. whose

Fill in the blanks

1.They have four children, the

youngest ofwhom _____is a boy .
2.That’ll be the last thing ______I’ll that do to you 3.He arrived Beijing in 1984 ______ when he was already in his fifties. 4. Is this the museum where ______ they stayed yesterday

Thank you
Goodbye



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