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Unit 19 lesson1 language learning

First reading
The whole structure of the passage.
1st para. : 2nd para. and 3rd para. :
4th papa. to the last:
How can we lea

rn it well in terms of theory?
Why do we need to learn English? Some practical suggestions

Second reading
True or False
minutes 1. Experts recommend doing 105 2 hours of

extra work once a week. F

2. Listening to an English song several
times can help you revise new vocabulary. T

’s helpful 3.It There is no to point reading the news in

English if you have already watched it
in your own language. F 4. Watching your favorite DVD in English will improve your listening

skills. T

Third reading
1. What has made more and more
people decide to learn English in recent years ? The growth of international companies and the great advances in communications have started the trend for learning English.

2. According to some theories, what is
the best way to learn a foreign

language?
English learners must be surrounded

by the language environment.

3. How can teachers try to create a rich language environment in the classroom? Teachers must make sure that there is an adequate amount of input in the foreign language conveyed to students through various mediums, which means quality language output.

4. What extra work can you do outside of the classroom? Setting achievable targets; listening to English songs; watching the news in your own language and then reading an English newspaper; watching DVD; studying with friends; rewarding yourself.

Language Learning
Grammar Noun Clauses

Lead in
宾语从句

She believes what the teacher says.
及物动词

She believes the teacher’s words.
主语 及物动词 宾语

Lead in
主语从句

What he said hurt me.
谓语

His words hurt me.
主 语
及 物 动 词 宾 语

Lead in
表语从句

His idea is that I should take the job.
联系 动词

His idea is acceptable.
主 语
联 系 动 词 表 语

Lead in
同位语从句

His idea that I should take the job is acceptable.

His idea is acceptable.
主 语
联 系 动 词 表 语

Summary 1
名词性从句在句子中起 名 词作用,

在句中可以作 主 语、 宾 语、 表 语 或 同位 语。

Summary 2
名词性从句的引导词

不可 省

宾语
陈述 是否

主语

表语

同位语

(that)
if whether

that
whether

that
whether

that
whether

疑问

wh-

wh-

wh-

wh-

主语从句
主语从句指在句子中充当主语的句子, 句子 的谓语动词用第三人称单数。 What he wants to tell us is not clear.

Where the party will be held has not yet
been announced. Who will win the match is still unknown.

主语从句前的that不能省略, 仅起连
接作用, 有时为了保持句子平衡, that从

句后置, 而由it作形式主语。

That he became a lawyer may have been due to his mother’s influence. It is not true that he has moved to New York.

其他类似句型还有: It + be +important/ necessary/ obvious… + that从句 It + be +reported/believed/thought/has been decided + that从句 It + be +a pity/a shame/a fact/a surprise/ common knowledge+ that从句 It + happens/occurs/appears/matters + that 从句

It’s obvious that he enjoys his family life very much, It’s a pity that she can not go camping with us next Sunday. It matters much whether your parents understand and support you.

宾语从句
宾语从句指在句子中充当宾语的句子, 从句用陈述句语序,一般放在及物动词或 介词之后。 I don’t know where the sound came from. Don't be satisfied with what you have achieved. He has told me (that) he will go to Shanghai tomorrow.

It 形式宾语

※当宾语从句过长时,有时可用it做形式 宾语,真正的宾语从句放在后面,这时的 引导词that通常不省略。
He found it necessary that he should help those in trouble. ※固定结构 I hate it when people speak with their mouths full. I’ll see to (保证) it that everything is ready in time.

表语从句
当从句放在系动词be, look, remain, seem等 后即构成表语从句。 其基本结构为: 主语 + 系动词 + 从句。 His suggestion is that we should hire more people. It looks as if it is going to rain. That’s what we should do.

同位语从句
同位语从句是对与之同位的名词中心词作 进一步解释, 能接同位语从句的常见名词有 : idea, fact, news, belief, hope, evidence, opinion, problem, truth, answer, proposal,

theory, decision, discovery, problem,
thought, understanding 等。

The news that we won the game is exciting. Word came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy.

The fact that we talked about is very

important. (定语从句)
The fact that he succeeded in the

experiment pleased everybody.
同位语从句)

(

whether与 if的用法区别 1.if 一般只用于引导宾语从句,而 whether可引导所有名词性从句。
The question is whether he will come

2.宾语从句中, whether常与 or not搭配,
可以说whether or not, 而if 不行.

I don' t care whether or not she will
attend the meeting.

. 3. whether可用在介词后, 或带to不定 式前, if则不可。 She doesn’t know whether to get married now or wait. I haven’t settled the question of

whether I’11 go back home.



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