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15篇文章贯通四级词汇系列五



加籍华人阿寿 Yip Sang, a Chinese-Canadian

The British and Chinese signed the Treaty of Nanking in 1842, each providing their respective subjec ts with the right to benefit from full secu

rity and protection for their persons and property within each other's boundaries. Even though China did no openly allow emigration, in 1860 a law was passed w hich stated that Chinese seeking to work in the British Colonies or other places were at liberty to do so. They had only to ship themselves and their families on board any British vessel at any of the o pen ports in China. In 1868, another treaty, this one with the united States, gave the Chinese the rig ht to change their home and loyalty from one country to another for the purposes of curiosity, of trad e, or as permanent residents, thereby opening the gates for emigration from China. 1842 年,中英两国签订《南京条约》,双方为各自的国民提供在彼此的疆域内享有人员和财产受到完全保护 的权利.尽管中国没有公开允许移民出境,但 1860 年通过的一条法律规定寻求在英国殖民地或其他地方工作 的华人有这种移民自由.他们及其家人只要登上在中国任一个开放港口里的任一艘英国船只即可.1868 年, 另一个条约——一个与美国签订的条约——给予那些观光,贸易或永久定居为目的的华人将家庭及对国家的效 忠从一个国家转移到另一个国家的权利.从而打开了从中国移民出境的大门. The gold boom in British Columbia in the 1850's was the beginning of Chinese immigration from the U.S. into Canada. Many of these early immigrants from Fujian and Guangdong p rovinces to San Francisco. When they heard of the gold discoveries in British Columbia, ma ny crossed the border into Canada by moving overland through Oregon or arriving by sea i n Victoria. When the gold deposits were depleted, these early settler stayed, moving into o ccupations like gardening, farming, domestic service, road construction, and railway buildin g. By 1871, these were approximately 3,000 Chinese inhabitants in the province, only 53 o f whom being women. 1850 年不列颠哥伦比亚的淘金热开始了华人从美国移民到加拿大的历程.在这些早期移民中间,很多人是从 福建省,广东省乘船到达旧金山的.当听说在不列颠哥伦比亚发现了金矿,很多人从陆路穿越俄勒冈州,过边 境进入加拿大,或者乘船到达维多利亚港.当金矿被淘尽的时候,这些早期的定居者留了下来,转而从事园艺, 农业,家政服务,道路和铁路建设等行业.到 1871 年,这个省大约有 3,000 名华裔居民,其中只有 53 名妇 女.

Since Chinese workers were know to be conscientious and reliable, several companies activ ely recruited them. As a result, it was estimated that 10,000 workers arrived between 188 2 and 1884. In an effort to restrict they entry of Chinese immigrants, an act was passed i n the Canadian Parliament confining the proportion to one person for every 50 tons of ves sel tonnage. A head tax was also imposed. Records of those who paid the head tax are sti ll available for viewing in the National Archives of Canada. 因为华人劳工以勤劳守信闻名,多家公司争相雇佣他们.结果,在 1882 年至 1884 年期间,估计来了 10,00 0 名工人.为了有效地限制华人入境,加拿大国会通过了一项法令,限制每 50 吨排水吨位只能运载 1 人,还 征收人头税.那些交了人头税的人,其档案至今还可以在加拿大国家档案馆查阅到.

An article in the Illustrated London News in January 1875 gave some insight into the emig ration process of the Chinese by conveying the ideas of changes they might undergo. The author thought the modifications would be slight and principally external. He believed that, in an attempt to blend in, the Chinese would adopt American language, culture, and dress. However, because the Chinese brought with them a strong sense of their own identity, it wasn't necessary for them to cultivate a North American way of life, nor did they feel an o bligation to abandon their traditions. Much of the article would be considered insulting by t oday's standards. 1875 年元月刊登在《伦敦新闻画报》上的一篇文章,通过揭示华人一些观念的改变,对移民过程做了某些深 层的透视.其作者认为,他们的变化是很小的,而且基本上都是外在的.他相信在努力融入当地社会的过程中, 华人接受了美洲的语言,文化和服饰.然而,因为华人总是带有一种对他们自己身份的强烈认同感,要他们养 成北美的生活方式是没有必要的,他们也认为没有义务放弃自己的传统.以今天的标准来看,这篇文章的大部 分内容可以被认为是带有侮辱性的. In the United States, there were two opposing points of view. On one side of the coin, the Chinese were seen as an inexpensive means of providing the manual labor necessary to d evelop the assets of the country, most often in hazardous occupations. On the other side, there were those who branded them as the "curse" of the nation. Some Americans applaud ed the Chinese but others condemned them as evil. Some were disturbed by what might h appen if all the immigrants decided to stay. Their distress was unfounded however, as mos t Chinese had no intention of staying. Their greatest wish was to accumulate as much mon ey as possible and return to China. 在美国,存在两种对立的观点.一方面,华人被看成廉价的劳动力,为这个国家的财富积累提供了必要的人力 资源,大多数通常从事危险的职业.另一方面,又有人污蔑他们是这个国家的"祸根".有些美国人赞扬中国人, 另一些人则指责他们是恶棍.还有些人忧心忡忡于如果所有移民都决定留下来可能会发生的问题.然而,他们 的担心毫无道理,因为大多数华人并没打算留下来.他们最大的愿望就是尽可能地攒钱,然后回到中国. Guilds were set up to provide lodging and employment for the emigrants, for a fee of cour se. The fee ensured that the worker would be paid a decent wage and that his employer would not deceive him. The accumulated fees amounted to a large sum, allowing the Guild s to help those who were ill or out of work. They not only saw that the worker received w hatever was due to him, they also made him pay all his debts. The worker wasn't allowed to return to his own country without a certificate from his agent stating he owned nothing. 为移民提供食宿和就业的行会建立了起来.当然,这是要付钱的.所付费用可以保证工人得到合理的工资,不 受雇主欺骗.会费累积到很大一笔的时候,行会就能够帮助生病或失业的人.他们不仅要注意工人是否得到应 得的收入,还要使他还清所有的债务.没有其代理人出具的无欠债的证明,工人是不允许回到自己国家的. Many Chinese were able to save a portion of their earnings to take with them to their fami ly back home. Often, after workers returned to China, they would revisit North America to accumulate more money. Before being allowed to board a ship in China, however, they ha d to prove that they were going to their own free will and were under no labor contract. B efore the ships set sail. The authorities would visit to guarantee that all on board had their ticket stamped and were not leaving the country against their will.

很多华人能够存下一部分收入,回家时带回他们的祖国.工人们回到中国后,常常会再次到北美挣更多的钱. 然而,在中国,被允许上船之前,他们必须证明自己是自愿走的,并不是受劳动合同的约束.在开船之前,当 局会上来检查,保证船上所有的人都检过票,并且不是违反他们的意愿离开这个国家的. Yip Sang, born in Canton in 1845, left China at the age of nineteen to seek his fortune in America. After arriving in San Francisco in 1864, he earned a living by working first as a d ish-washer, then as a cook, and finally as a cigar roller. From the outset, he perceived tha t if he was patient and could represent the best of his race, his merits would be recognize d. 阿寿,1845 年出生于广东,19 岁时离开中国到美国谋生.1864 年到达旧金山后,靠打工过活,先是当洗碗 工,然后是厨师,最后是雪茄卷烟工.从一开始,他就认识到,只要他有耐心,能够表现出最佳的能力,就会 实现他的价值. Possibly the attraction of high wages rumored to be offered by Canadian railroad companie s roused Yip San to leave San Francisco. He arrived in Vancouver in 1881 and worked on t he western portion of the Canadian pacific Railroad from 1882 until 1884, first as a book-k eeper, then as a time-keeper, and finally as a paymaster, before being promoted to Chines e superintendent for the supply company. The promotion made him responsible for hiring o n contract and transporting thousands of men from China to work on the railway line in Br itish Columbia. He supervised some six to seven thousand Chinese workers during the pea k of the construction. 也许是受传闻中加拿大铁路公司所给的高工资的吸引,阿寿离开了旧金山.1881 年他到温哥华.1882 年至 1 884 年,他在加拿大太平洋铁路的西段工作.先是做簿记员,然后是记工员,出纳员,最后被提拔为供应公司 的华人主管.这次晋升使他负责雇佣合同的事务,他把几千人从中国运送到不列颠哥伦比亚的铁路线上工作. 在建设高峰期间,他管理的华工达六,七千人. In 1885, he returned to China using the money he had saved from his CPR job. He remain ed there from 1885 until 1888, while there he married four different wives, a regular occur rence at the time for wealthy young men. He and his first wife, Lee She, had a son and a daughter. Lee She became gravely ill after their marriage and urged Yip Sang to take ano ther wife, one who could be able to take good care of their children. Wong She, Yip Sang' s second wife, was very young with"sensitive" eyes, but did not meet with the approval of lee She. She insisted he should marry third time, and this time choose someone more suit able to care for the children. Dong She, wife number three, was more mature and had the capacity to supervise the household and the children. Dong She convinced Yip Sang to tak e a fourth wife, Chin She, whose primary role was to be Dong She's companion. With his f our wives, Yip Sang had 23 children, one of whom became the first Chinese Canadian doct or to be recognized in Canada. In 1888, Yip Sang returned to Canada with three wives—— Lee She died before they left. 1885 年,他用在加拿大太平洋铁路公司挣的钱回到中国,并从 1885 年住到 1888 年.在那里,他娶了四个

妻子.那时,对富有的年轻人来说这种情况很普遍.他和他的第一位妻子李氏有一个儿子和一个女儿.李氏在 婚后得了重病,力劝他再娶一位妻子,以便照顾他们的孩子.他的第二位妻子汪氏,很年轻,有一双"多情"的 眼睛,但却得不到李氏的认可.她坚持要他再结第三次婚,这次一定会选一个能够照顾孩子的.第三位妻子董 氏比较成熟,有能力管理家务和照顾孩子.董氏又说服他要了第四位妻子金氏,她的主要角色是董氏的帮手. 他与他的四个妻子有二十三个孩子,其中一个成为加拿大知名的第一位加籍华人医生.他和他的三个妻子于 1 888 年回到加拿大——李氏在他们走之前已经去世. On his return to Canada he undertook a new enterprise. He became a merchant, opening an import-export business in the heart of Vancouver's Chinatown. Wing Sang Company spe cialized in goods imported from China. The company provided Chinese Canadians with merc handise not readily available in Vancouver and exported Canadian foodstuffs to China. 这次回到加拿大,他创办了一家新企业.他成了一位商人,在温哥华唐人街的中心地段开了一家进出口公司. Wing Sang 公司的业务是从中国进口货物.该公司为华裔加拿大人供应在温哥华不容易买到的商品,并把加 拿大的食品出口到中国. His formula of pouring as much money as he could afford into building and expansion coul dn't help but succeed. In 1889, Yip Sang bought land on Pender Street in Chinatown and began construction of a complex, which still stands today. Initially being a two-story buildin g with a ground floor storefront and a second floor residence, it was probably the first in C hinatown to be built of durable brick. Customers of the store walked on wooden platforms covering the unpaved dirt streets to avoid tracking the dust and mud into the building. 他倾其所有投资房地产的方式和扩展经营的方法大获成功.1889 年,阿寿在唐人街的彭得街买地,开始建一 座综合大楼,这座大楼至今犹在.最初是一座两层大楼,一楼作店面,二楼住人,这也许是唐人街上用耐用砖 建造的第一座楼房.顾客进商店前,要走过铺在土路街上的木板平台,以免把灰尘和泥土带进屋里. With the tone of success, Yip Sang added to his building. In 1901, he widened the street t o accommodate three more shops, each with a second story above. He also added a third floor to the original building in the same year. In 1912, to house both his growing family a nd his business, he built a new six-story brick building behind the old one and connected t o it by a narrow corridor at ground level, and by an enclosed stairway extension on the thi rd floor that stretched above the alley between the two buildings. Most of the new building was used to warehouse goods for the import/export business. 伴随成功的步伐,阿寿扩建了他的房屋.1901 年,他加宽了街道以适应另外三个商店的需要,每个都是两层 的.同年,他在原来的房屋上加了第三层.1912 年,为满足不断增长的家庭和事业的用房需要,他在旧房子 的后面建了一座六层的砖房.两座房屋之间的地面有个狭小的走廊相连,在三楼上架设了一个跨过两座楼之间 小巷的楼梯.大多数房间用于储存进出口货物. Yip's Sang's involvement with shipping companies and his own business demonstrated his u nderstanding of the freight industry and his ability to work fluently in both Chinese and En glish languages. In 1889, the CPR rehired Yip Sang to act as their Chinese Passenger Agen

t for their Canadian Steamship Line, a position he held until his death in 1927 at the age of 82. 阿寿与船运公司的联系以及他自己的事业,展示了他对运输业的了解和熟练使用汉语和英语工作的能力.188 9 年, 加拿大太平洋铁路公司再次请他担任加拿大轮船公司的华人旅客代理. 他担任这个职务一直到 1927 年 8 2 岁去世时为止. The demand for salted herring in china, in conjunction with huge catches being brought in by the fishing fleet, spurred Yip Sang to build a fish packing plant in Nanaimo. The succes s of this plant led to the opening of a second plant on Vancouver Island soon afterward. B oth plants were staffed by large numbers of Chinese workers and helped establish sizeable Chinese community in Nanaimo's downtown core. 对中国咸鲱鱼的大量需求,再加上渔船船队带回来的巨大捕获量,促使阿寿在南奈莫建立了鱼片加工厂.这个 厂的成功又促使他不久就在温哥华岛开了第二家.两个厂雇佣了大量的华工,帮助在南奈莫城中心建立了一个 很大的华人社区. Consistent with Yip Sang's devotion to growth and improvement, he promoted and fostered education. Not only did he found the Ok Kuo Night School, he also served as its principal for over ten years. His children went to public school, but they also received schooling at h ome from tutors hired from Hong Kong to teach them Chinese. Yip Sang took great pleasu re in quizzing his offspring about their lessons. His philosophy was that by moderating the children's Canadian education with fundamental Chinese, the equation would result in well-r ounded, responsible citizens. 与对事业发展壮大的投入相一致的是,阿寿支持和鼓励教育.他不仅建了 Ok Kuo 夜校,还担任这所学校的校 长达十多年.他的孩子们进的是公立学校,但他们在家还要接受教育.他从香港雇来家庭教师教他们汉语.阿 寿以极大的兴致关心孩子们的学习.他的哲学是,把基础汉语加入到孩子们的加拿大教育中,综合起来将培养 出更全面,更负责的公民. As a keen advocate of education in Canada, Yip Sang also sponsored education abroad in China. The ling-nan University and Toi-shan Middle School in his hometown of Canton were established with his help. 作为一个加拿大教育的热心倡导者,身在国外的阿寿还赞助中国的教育.他家乡广东的 Ling-nan 大学和 Toishan 中学就是在他的帮助下建立的. Throughout his life, he maintained an active role in Vancouver's Chinatown. He was one of eleven men, his contemporaries, who founded the Chinese Benevolent Association, one co mponent of which looked after the ill, elderly or destitute Chinese in the absence of their f amilies. 纵观他的一生,他始终是温哥华唐人街里的活跃人物.他是当时一起建立华人慈善协会的十一个人之一,协会 有一个部门是照顾无家可归的生病,年迈或有困难的华人的.

When he died at the age of 82, Yip Sang was not only one of the wealthiest merchants in Vancouver; he was also considered a pillar of the community. Yip Sang's descendants conti nue to honor his values and remain active in the Vancouver Community. 在他 82 岁去世的时候,阿寿不仅是温哥华最富有的人之一,还被认为是社会的栋梁.阿寿的后代一直以他的 成熟为荣,继续在温哥华社会中发挥着积极的作用.

Yip Sang, a Chinese-Canadian
The British and Chinese signed the Treaty of Nanking in 1842, each providing their respective subjects with the right to benefit from full security and protection for their persons and property within each other's boundaries. Even though China did no openly allow emigration(移居), in 1860 a law was passed which stated that Chinese seeking to work in the British Colonies or other places were at liberty to do so. They had only to ship themselves and their families on board any British vessel at any of the open ports in China. In 1868, another treaty, this one with the United States, gave the Chinese the right to change their home and loyalty from one country to another for the purposes of curiosity, of trade, or as permanent residents, thereby opening the gates for emigration from China. The gold boom in British Columbia in the 1850's was the beginning of Chinese immigration from the U.S. into Canada. Many of these early immigrants from Fujian and Guangdong provinces to San Francisco. When they heard of the gold discoveries in British Columbia, many crossed the border into Canada by moving overland through Oregon or arriving by sea in Victoria. When the gold deposits were depleted(用尽,枯竭), these early settler stayed, moving into occupations like gardening, farming, domestic service, road construction, and railway building. By 1871, these were approximately 3,000 Chinese inhabitants in the province, only 53 of whom being women. Since Chinese workers were know to be conscientious and reliable, several companies actively recruited them. As a result, it was estimated that 10,000 workers arrived between 1882 and 1884. In an effort to restrict the entry of Chinese immigrants, an act was passed in the Canadian Parliament confining the proportion to one person for every 50 tons of vessel tonnage(船舶的吨数). A head tax was also imposed. Records of those who paid the head tax are still available for viewing in the National Archives of Canada. An article in the Illustrated London News in January 1875 gave some insight into the emigration process of the Chinese by conveying the ideas of changes they might undergo. The author thought the modifications(修改, 改造) would be slight and principally external. He believed that, in an attempt to blend in, the Chinese would adopt American language, culture, and dress. However, because the Chinese brought with them a strong sense of their own identity, it wasn't necessary for them to cultivate a North American way of life, nor did they feel an obligation to abandon their traditions. Much of the article would be considered insulting by today's standards. In the United States, there were two opposing points of view. On one side of the coin, the Chinese were seen as an inexpensive means of providing the manual labor necessary to develop the assets of the country, most often in hazardous occupations. On the other side, there were those who branded them as the "curse" of the nation. Some Americans applauded the Chinese but others condemned them as evil. Some were disturbed by what might happen if all the immigrants decided to stay. Their distress was unfounded however, as most Chinese had no intention of staying. Their greatest wish was to accumulate as much money as possible and return to China. Guilds(行会,协会) were set up to provide lodging and employment for the emigrants, for a fee of course. The fee ensured that the worker would be paid a decent wage and that his employer would not deceive him. The accumulated fees amounted to a large sum, allowing the Guilds to help those who were ill or out of work. They not only saw that the worker received whatever was due to him, they also made him pay all his debts. The worker wasn't allowed to return to his own country without a certificate from his agent stating he owned nothing. Many Chinese were able to save a portion of their earnings to take with them to their family back home.

Often, after workers returned to China, they would revisit North America to accumulate more money. Before being allowed to board a ship in China, however, they had to prove that they were going to their own free will and were under no labor contract. Before the ships set sail. The authorities would visit to guarantee that all on board had their ticket stamped and were not leaving the country against their will. Yip Sang, born in Canton(广州旧称) in 1845, left China at the age of nineteen to seek his fortune in America. After arriving in San Francisco in 1864, he earned a living by working first as a dish-washer, then as a cook, and finally as a cigar roller. From the outset, he perceived that if he was patient and could represent the best of his race, his merits would be recognized. Possibly the attraction of high wages rumored to be offered by Canadian railroad companies roused Yip San to leave San Francisco. He arrived in Vancouver in 1881 and worked on the western portion of the Canadian pacific Railroad from 1882 until 1884, first as a book-keeper, then as a time-keeper, and finally as a paymaster(出 纳员), before being promoted to Chinese superintendent(主管) for the supply company. The promotion made him responsible for hiring on contract and transporting thousands of men from China to work on the railway line in British Columbia. He supervised(监督,管理) some six to seven thousand Chinese workers during the peak of the construction. In 1885, he returned to China using the money he had saved from his CPR job. He remained there from 1885 until 1888, while there he married four different wives, a regular occurrence at the time for wealthy young men. He and his first wife, Lee She, had a son and a daughter. Lee She became gravely(严重的) ill after their marriage and urged Yip Sang to take another wife, one who could be able to take good care of their children. Wong She, Yip Sang's second wife, was very young with "sensitive" eyes, but did not meet with the approval of Lee Shee. She insisted he should marry third time, and this time choose someone more suitable to care for the children. Dong She, wife number three, was more mature and had the capacity to supervise the household and the children. Dong Shee convinced Yip Sang to take a fourth wife, Chin She, whose primary role was to be Dong She's companion. With his four wives, Yip Sang had 23 children, one of whom became the first Chinese Canadian doctor to be recognized in Canada. In 1888, Yip Sang returned to Canada with three wives——Lee She died before they left. On his return to Canada he undertook a new enterprise. He became a merchant, opening an import-export business in the heart of Vancouver's Chinatown. Wing Sang Company specialized in goods imported from China. The company provided Chinese Canadians with merchandise(商品) not readily available in Vancouver and exported Canadian foodstuffs(食品) to China. His formula of pouring as much money as he could afford into building and expansion couldn't help but succeed. In 1889, Yip Sang bought land on Pender Street in Chinatown and began construction of a complex, which still stands today. Initially(最初) being a two-story building with a ground floor storefront and a second floor residence, it was probably the first in Chinatown to be built of durable brick. Customers of the store walked on wooden platforms covering the unpaved dirt streets to avoid tracking the dust and mud into the building. With the tone of success, Yip Sang added to his building. In 1901, he widened the street to accommodate three more shops, each with a second story above. He also added a third floor to the original building in the same year. In 1912, to house both his growing family and his business, he built a new six-story brick building behind the old one and connected to it by a narrow corridor at ground level, and by an enclosed stairway extension on the third floor that stretched above the alley between the two buildings. Most of the new building was used to warehouse goods for the import/export business. Yip Sang's involvement( 卷 入 ) with shipping companies and his own business demonstrated his understanding of the freight industry and his ability to work fluently in both Chinese and English languages. In 1889, the CPR rehired Yip Sang to act as their Chinese Passenger Agent for their Canadian Steamship Line, a position he held until his death in 1927 at the age of 82. The demand for salted herring(鲱鱼) in china, in conjunction with huge catches being brought in by the fishing fleet, spurred Yip Sang to build a fish packing plant in Nanaimo. The success of this plant led to the opening of a second plant on Vancouver Island soon afterward. Both plants were staffed by large numbers of

Chinese workers and helped establish sizeable(相当大的) Chinese community in Nanaimo's downtown core. Consistent with Yip Sang's devotion to growth and improvement, he promoted and fostered(支持) education. Not only did he found the Ok Kuo Night School, he also served as its principal for over ten years. His children went to public school, but they also received schooling at home from tutors hired from Hong Kong to teach them Chinese. Yip Sang took great pleasure in quizzing his offspring(子女,后代) about their lessons. His philosophy was that by moderating the children's Canadian education with fundamental Chinese, the equation would result in well-rounded, responsible citizens. As a keen advocate of education in Canada, Yip Sang also sponsored education abroad in China. The ling-nan University and Toi-shan Middle School in his hometown of Canton were established with his help. Throughout his life, he maintained an active role in Vancouver's Chinatown. He was one of eleven men, his contemporaries, who founded the Chinese Benevolent(慈善的) Association, one component of which looked after the ill, elderly or destitute(贫困的) Chinese in the absence of their families. When he died at the age of 82, Yip Sang was not only one of the wealthiest merchants in Vancouver; he was also considered a pillar of the community. Yip Sang's descendants(后裔,后代) continue to honor his values and remain active in the Vancouver Community.

加籍华人阿寿 1842 年,中英两国签订《南京条约》 ,双方为各自的国民提供在彼此的疆域内享有人员和财产受到完全保护的权利. 尽管中国没有公开允许移民出境,但 1860 年通过的一条法律规定寻求在英国殖民地或其他地方工作的华人有这种移民自 由.他们及其家人只要登上在中国任一个开放港口里的任一艘英国船只即可.1868 年,另一个条约——一个与美国签订的 条约——给予那些观光,贸易或永久定居为目的的华人将家庭及对国家的效忠从一个国家转移到另一个国家的权利.从而 打开了从中国移民出境的大门. 1850 年不列颠哥伦比亚的淘金热开始了华人从美国移民到加拿大的历程.在这些早期移民中间,很多人是从福建省, 广东省乘船到达旧金山的.当听说在不列颠哥伦比亚发现了金矿,很多人从陆路穿越俄勒冈州,过边境进入加拿大,或者乘 船到达维多利亚港.当金矿被淘尽的时候,这些早期的定居者留了下来,转而从事园艺,农业,家政服务,道路和铁路建设 等行业.到 1871 年,这个省大约有 3,000 名华裔居民,其中只有 53 名妇女. 因为华人劳工以勤劳守信闻名,多家公司争相雇佣他们.结果,在 1882 年至 1884 年期间,估计来了 10,000 名工人. 为了有效地限制华人入境,加拿大国会通过了一项法令,限制每 50 吨排水吨位只能运载 1 人,还征收人头税.那些交了人 头税的人,其档案至今还可以在加拿大国家档案馆查阅到. 1875 年元月刊登在《伦敦新闻画报》上的一篇文章,通过揭示华人一些观念的改变,对移民过程做了某些深层的透视. 其作者认为, 他们的变化是很小的, 而且基本上都是外在的. 他相信在努力融入当地社会的过程中, 华人接受了美洲的语言, 文化和服饰.然而,因为华人总是带有一种对他们自己身份的强烈认同感,要他们养成北美的生活方式是没有必要的,他们 也认为没有义务放弃自己的传统.以今天的标准来看,这篇文章的大部分内容可以被认为是带有侮辱性的. 在美国,存在两种对立的观点.一方面,华人被看成廉价的劳动力,为这个国家的财富积累提供了必要的人力资源, 大多数通常从事危险的职业.另一方面,又有人污蔑他们是这个国家的"祸根" .有些美国人赞扬中国人,另一些人则指责 他们是恶棍.还有些人忧心忡忡于如果所有移民都决定留下来可能会发生的问题.然而,他们的担心毫无道理,因为大多数 华人并没打算留下来.他们最大的愿望就是尽可能地攒钱,然后回到中国. 为移民提供食宿和就业的行会建立了起来.当然,这是要付钱的.所付费用可以保证工人得到合理的工资,不受雇主 欺骗.会费累积到很大一笔的时候,行会就能够帮助生病或失业的人.他们不仅要注意工人是否得到应得的收入,还要使他 还清所有的债务.没有其代理人出具的无欠债的证明,工人是不允许回到自己国家的. 很多华人能够存下一部分收入,回家时带回他们的祖国.工人们回到中国后,常常会再次到北美挣更多的钱.然而, 在中国,被允许上船之前,他们必须证明自己是自愿走的,并不是受劳动合同的约束.在开船之前,当局会上来检查,保证 船上所有的人都检过票,并且不是违反他们的意愿离开这个国家的. 阿寿,1845 年出生于广东,19 岁时离开中国到美国谋生.1864 年到达旧金山后,靠打工过活,先是当洗碗工,然后 是厨师,最后是雪茄卷烟工.从一开始,他就认识到,只要他有耐心,能够表现出最佳的能力,就会实现他的价值. 也许是受传闻中加拿大铁路公司所给的高工资的吸引,阿寿离开了旧金山.1881 年他到温哥华.1882 年至 1884 年,

他在加拿大太平洋铁路的西段工作.先是做簿记员,然后是记工员,出纳员,最后被提拔为供应公司的华人主管.这次晋升 使他负责雇佣合同的事务, 他把几千人从中国运送到不列颠哥伦比亚的铁路线上工作. 在建设高峰期间, 他管理的华工达六, 七千人. 1885 年,他用在加拿大太平洋铁路公司挣的钱回到中国,并从 1885 年住到 1888 年.在那里,他娶了四个妻子.那 时,对富有的年轻人来说这种情况很普遍.他和他的第一位妻子李氏有一个儿子和一个女儿.李氏在婚后得了重病,力劝他 再娶一位妻子,以便照顾他们的孩子.他的第二位妻子汪氏,很年轻,有一双"多情"的眼睛,但却得不到李氏的认可.她 坚持要他再结第三次婚,这次一定会选一个能够照顾孩子的.第三位妻子董氏比较成熟,有能力管理家务和照顾孩子.董氏 又说服他要了第四位妻子金氏,她的主要角色是董氏的帮手.他与他的四个妻子有二十三个孩子,其中一个成为加拿大知名 的第一位加籍华人医生.他和他的三个妻子于 1888 年回到加拿大——李氏在他们走之前已经去世. 这次回到加拿大, 他创办了一家新企业. 他成了一位商人, 在温哥华唐人街的中心地段开了一家进出口公司. Wing Sang 公司的业务是从中国进口货物.该公司为华裔加拿大人供应在温哥华不容易买到的商品,并把加拿大的食品出口到中国. 他倾其所有投资房地产的方式和扩展经营的方法大获成功.1889 年,阿寿在唐人街的彭得街买地,开始建一座综合大 楼,这座大楼至今犹在.最初是一座两层大楼,一楼作店面,二楼住人,这也许是唐人街上用耐用砖建造的第一座楼房.顾 客进商店前,要走过铺在土路街上的木板平台,以免把灰尘和泥土带进屋里. 伴随成功的步伐,阿寿扩建了他的房屋.1901 年,他加宽了街道以适应另外三个商店的需要,每个都是两层的.同年, 他在原来的房屋上加了第三层.1912 年,为满足不断增长的家庭和事业的用房需要,他在旧房子的后面建了一座六层的砖 房.两座房屋之间的地面有个狭小的走廊相连,在三楼上架设了一个跨过两座楼之间小巷的楼梯.大多数房间用于储存进出 口货物. 阿寿与船运公司的联系以及他自己的事业,展示了他对运输业的了解和熟练使用汉语和英语工作的能力.1889 年,加 拿大太平洋铁路公司再次请他担任加拿大轮船公司的华人旅客代理.他担任这个职务一直到 1927 年 82 岁去世时为止. 对中国咸鲱鱼的大量需求,再加上渔船船队带回来的巨大捕获量,促使阿寿在南奈莫建立了鱼片加工厂.这个厂的成 功又促使他不久就在温哥华岛开了第二家.两个厂雇佣了大量的华工,帮助在南奈莫城中心建立了一个很大的华人社区. 与对事业发展壮大的投入相一致的是,阿寿支持和鼓励教育.他不仅建了 Ok Kuo 夜校,还担任这所学校的校长达十 多年.他的孩子们进的是公立学校,但他们在家还要接受教育.他从香港雇来家庭教师教他们汉语.阿寿以极大的兴致关心 孩子们的学习.他的哲学是,把基础汉语加入到孩子们的加拿大教育中,综合起来将培养出更全面,更负责的公民. 作为一个加拿大教育的热心倡导者,身在国外的阿寿还赞助中国的教育.他家乡广东的 Ling-nan 大学和 Toi-shan 中 学就是在他的帮助下建立的. 纵观他的一生,他始终是温哥华唐人街里的活跃人物.他是当时一起建立华人慈善协会的十一个人之一,协会有一个 部门是照顾无家可归的生病,年迈或有困难的华人的. 在他 82 岁去世的时候, 阿寿不仅是温哥华最富有的人之一, 还被认为是社会的栋梁. 阿寿的后代一直以他的成熟为荣, 继续在温哥华社会中发挥着积极的作用.


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