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卓越补习八年级下册英语广州牛津版课文笔记U1



Unit

1

Success stories (Ⅰ) Ⅰ 一周强化

一、一周知识概述 1.重难点单词与短语:award,success,strict encourage,support,interest,develop, development,overcome,admire,accident,pride,on television,at the age of,at a price, be strict with sb,fall ill,in place of,be grateful to sb for sth,… 2.句型 ① He was watching a Tom and Jerry cartoon on television when he first heard western classical music. 当他首次听到西方古典音乐时,他正看 Tom and Jerry 卡通电视。 ② LangLang began taking(begin doing sth) piano lessons at the age of three. LangLang 在他三岁时开始上钢琴课。 ③ I think he is successful. 我认为他是成功的。 ④ I admire her because(原因状语从句) she plays the violin for love, not just to win competitions. 我钦佩她,她是出于热爱而拉小提琴,而不仅为赢得比赛。 3.语法:过去进行时。 二、单元重难点知识讲解 1.Ben was responsible for writing stories about successful people for the school newspaper. [译文]Ben 负责为校报写关于成功人士经历的稿子。 be responsible for sth 意为“负责某事”。 e.g.The pilot of the plane is responsible for the passengers’ safety. 飞机驾驶员应对旅客的安全负责。

如果主语不是人,则表示造成事实的“原因”。 e.g.The weather is responsible for the delay. 由于天气关系才耽搁了。 2.LangLang began taking piano lessons at the age of three. [译文]LangLang 三岁时开始上钢琴课。

这句话相当于:LangLang began taking piano lessons when he was 3./When he was three years old. begin doing sth.意为“开始做某事”, 相当于 start doing sth.。 另外 begin 和 start 均可接 to do 或 doing. e.g.When did you begin to learn/learning German? 你何时开始学德语的? 3.He won first prize in the Shengyang Piano competition only two years later. From then on, he won many awards. [译文]仅在两年后他在沈阳钢琴比赛中获得一等奖,从那以后,他获得了许多奖。 prize n. 奖赏(品),奖金;奖品 e.g.win a prize 得奖

My sister won first prize for her singing. 我姐姐唱歌获得了第一名。 His poem won the first prize of ten dollars.

他的诗得了 10 元的头奖。 He received the Nobel Prize for peace. 他获得了诺贝尔和平奖。

award 作名词,意为“奖品,奖,奖励”,无“奖金”之义。 e.g.the first award/prize 一等奖 另外 award 还可作动词,意为“授予;判给,颁发”经常构成短语 award sb sth/award sth to sb.意为“奖赏某人某物”。 e.g.The university awarded her a scholarship. 大学给她颁发奖学金。

Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for his great achievement in physics. 爱因斯坦因在物理学上的成就而被授予诺贝尔奖。

4.However, LangLang’s success came at a price. [译文]但是,LangLang 的成功来之不易。

success 是名词,意为“成功”,它的形容词为 successful,动词为 succeed,另外 success 作“成功”讲,是不可数名词,作“成功的人或事”讲时,是可数名词。 e.g.Both plans have been tried without success. 两个计划都已试过但未获成功。 I wished him success in his new shop. 我祝愿他经营新商店成功。 He is a great success as a teacher. 作为一名教师,他非常出色。 The operation was quite successful. 手术很成功。 succeed 是动词,作“成功”讲,经常构成短语“succeed in+名词/动名词”,注意:通常不译 出“成功”二字。 e.g.LangLang succeeded on his own. LangLang 全凭自己获得成功。 He succeeded in solving the problem. 他终于解决了这个问题。 He succeeded in the examination. 他考试及格了。 它的反义句即:He failed in the examination. 他考试不及格。 at a price 是个固定词组,意为“付出代价”,“以很高的代价”。 5.His father was very strict with him. [译文]他的父亲对他要求严格。 be strict with someone 意为“对(某人)要求严格”。 e.g.Father is strict with us children. 父亲对我们这些孩子很严格。

6.He was practicing the piano while other children his age were playing games and having fun. [译文]在他练钢琴时,其他的同龄的孩子却在愉快地玩游戏。 这是 while 引导的一个时间状语从句,在过去大时间背景下表示两个同时进行的动作, 所以都用了过去进行时。 e.g.While Mary was having a bath, her husband was watching TV. 在 Mary 洗澡时,她丈夫却在看电视。 While I was doing my homework last night, my mum was doing some reading. 昨天晚上当我做作业时,妈妈在看书。 7.He was watching a Tom and Jerry cartoon on television when he first heard western classical music. [译文]当他第一次听到西方古典乐时,他在欣赏一部名为《猫和老鼠》的卡通片。 这是 when 连接的时间状语从句,在过去的大时间背景下常可表达当过去一动作发生时 另一动作正在进行,此时主句要用过去进行时表达。 e.g.We were talking about you when you came in. 当你进来时,我们正说到你。 另外,注意 when 和 while 都表示“当……的时候”,但当动作是短暂性的时候,则只能 用 when。 e.g.I saw him when he came in. 他进来时我看见他了。 He met many problems while he was going over his lessons. 在复习功课时他遇到许多问题。 The bell rang when/while he was doing his homework. 当他正在做作业时,铃响了。 8.His father gave up his work. [译文]他的爸爸放弃了工作。

give up 意为“放弃”,常构成:give up sth/doing sth. e.g.At last, they gave up the plan. 最后,他们放弃了那个计划。 Believe yourself. Don’t give it up. 相信自己,不要放弃。 10.He is grateful to his parents since they have always encouraged and supported him. [译文]他非常感激他的父母,因为他们总是一直鼓励他,支持他。 在此句中,since 表原因,连接原因状语从句,而不是“自从”的含义,在此我们一起学习 四个表示“原因”的连词,because,since,as 及 for。 这四个词都是可以表示“原因”的连词,语气由强至弱依次为 because→since→as→for; 其中 because,since,as 为从属连词,引导原因状语从句;for 为并列连词。 because“因为”:表直接原因,回答 why 的提问;一般放主句之后,也可单独存在。 e.g.We stayed at home because it rained. 因为下雨我们呆在家里。

since“因为,既然”,侧重主句,从句表示显然的或已知的理由。 e.g.Since everyone is here, let’s start. 既然大家都到了,我们开始吧! as“由于,鉴于”,主从并重,从句说明原因,主句说明结果;为常用词。 e.g.As it was late, I should start at once. 由于晚了,我应马上动身。

for“因为,由于”,表明附加或推断的理由,引导的分句前常有逗号,for 分句不放句首。 e.g.He must be ill, for he is absent today. 他一定病了,因为他今天缺席了。 11.Why did your father take you to Beijing? [译文]为什么你爸爸带你到北京。 Because I could study at the finest… [译文]因为我可以在最好的……学习。 注意: 注意:why 和 because 是固定的搭配,即以 why 引导的疑问句用 because 来回答 e.g.—Why didn’t he go to school yesterday? 他昨天为什么没上学? —Because he was ill. 12.He was naturally curious about... [译文]他很自然地就对……感到好奇了。 be curious about…表示“对……感到好奇”。 curious adj. 好奇的,想知道的 e.g.Children are always curious about the new places. 孩子们通常对陌生地方感到好奇。 13.These experiments led to a number of very important findings, but… [译文]尽管这些实验诱发了许多很重要的发现,但是…… (1)although“尽管,虽然”,与 though 同义,引导让步状语从句。而 but 表强调,引导 并列句。 though 较通俗,although 更正规些,两者可以互换使用。它们引导让步状语从句时,主 句可用 yet 或 still 引出,但不可用 but。同样,用了 but 不可出现 although。 如:虽然他身体不好,但是他工作努力。 误:Although he is in poor health, but he works hard.

正:Although/though he is in poor health, (yet/still) he works hard. 正:He is in poor health, but he works hard. (2)a number of 意为“许多”,与 a lot of 是同义词组,后接复数名词,谓语通常用复数。 e.g.A number of visitors came to the city from all over the country. 来自全国各地的许多游客来到这座城市。 注意与“the number of”的区别,“the number of”意为“……的数量”。谓语动词要用单数。 e.g.The number of mistakes in his composition has dropped. 他作文中的错误少了。 14.Benjamin had poor sight and needed to wear glasses. [译文]本杰明弱视,需要戴眼镜。 need to do sth.“需要干某事”,句中 need 是行为动词。大家要注意 need 的用法: ① 作为行为动词,有时态、人称和数的变化,后面跟名词、代词、不定式等。 e.g.Do you need some help? 你需要一些帮助吗? He needs/wants to see you. 他要见你。 ② 作情态动词时,没有人称和数的变化。 e.g.You need not write down your translation. 你们不必写下译文。 He need not come at once. 他用不着马上来。 ③ 作名词,是不可数名词。 e.g.A friend in need is a friend indeed. 患难见真情。

There is no need to come so early. 早来是无用的。 15.…, so he invented a new pair of glasses. [译文]……因此他发明了一副新的眼镜。 invent 为动词,意为“发明,创造”,注意与动词 discover 的区别。 discover 为“发现”之义。 e.g.Edison invented the electric light lamp. 爱迪生发明了电灯泡。

invent 还有“编造,虚构”之义。 e.g.He invented an excuse for being late. 他为迟到编了个借口。 Columbus discovered America in 1492. 哥伦布在 1492 年发现了美洲。 16.It protects buildings and ships from damage caused by lightning. [译文]它保护了建筑物和船以免由闪电导致的破坏。 protect…from…意为“保护……以免……”,from 后面通用接名词、v.+ing、以及代词, 在本句中 damage 为名词。 e.g.Farmers protect plants from the cold in winter. 在冬天,农民们保护植物不受冻。 You should protect your sister from harm.

你应保护妹妹免受伤害。 Try to protect your skin from the sun. 尽量保护皮肤不受太阳晒。 17.He was tired of always taking them on and off. [译文]他厌烦了总是把眼镜戴上、摘下。 be tired of 意为“厌倦;厌烦(做某事)”。 e.g.I’m tired of watching television. Let’s go for a walk. 我看电视都看腻了,咱们出去走走吧。 I was getting tired of all her boring remarks. 我对她那套枯燥的言论越来越厌烦了。 18.Nowadays, these glasses are known as bifocals. [译文]如今,这些眼镜被称作双光眼镜。 be known as 意为“被称作,被叫作,作为……而著名”。 e.g.He is known as King of Invention. 他被称为“发明大王”。 Mr. Luxun is known as a writer. 鲁迅先生作为一名作家是很出名的。 三、语法点拨——过去进行时 语法点拨 过去进行时 1.表示在过去某一时间正在进行的动作。 e.g.When he called me, I was having dinner. 他给我打电话时,我在吃饭。 I was washing the dishes while Mother was cleaning away the table. 我在洗盘子,妈妈在收拾桌子。 What were you doing last year besides interviewing people?

除了采访之外,去年你还做什么? At that moment, I wasn’t doing anything. 那会儿我什么也没干。 2.常与过去进行时连用的时间状语有: then 那时 at that time 当时 the whole morning 整个上午 last night 昨晚 at five yesterday 昨天五点 this time yesterday 昨天这个时候

3.表示在过去某一段时间内进行的动作。 e.g.They were expecting you yesterday, but you didn’t turn up. 他们昨天一直在等你,可你没来。 We were working from two to four yesterday afternoon. 昨天下午我们从两点一直工作到四点。 I was tidying my sitting room the whole morning. 整个早上我都在收拾我的起居室。 4.表示一个动作发生时,另一个动作正在进行。 e.g.When you phoned yesterday, I was playing computer chess. 你昨天打电话时,我正在电脑上下棋。 5.用于描写故事情景或提供故事发生的时间背景。 e.g.It was a dark night and it was snowing heavily. 那是一个漆黑的夜晚,当时雪下得很大。 6.表示从过去某一时间的角度看将要发生的动作,限于用 come, go, start, leave, stay, arrive 等短暂性动词。 e.g.He told me he was leaving for Shanghai tomorrow. 他告诉我他明天将要去上海。

7.表示礼貌。这种状态又叫礼貌过去进行时,它并不表示过去的时间,而表达客气或 礼貌。 e.g.I was wondering if you could help me look up the work“erg”. 不知你能否帮我查一下“erg”这个单词。 I was thinking if you could write an essay about George Gordon Byron. 我在想你能否写一篇有关乔治·戈登·拜伦的论文。



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