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Reports Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness Editors



Thirteenth in a Series of Technical Reports

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness
Editors: Joe Parks, MD Dale Svendsen, MD Patricia Singer, MD Mary Ellen Foti, MD Technical Writer: Barbara Mauer, MSW, CMC
National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD) Medical Directors Council 66 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 302, Alexandria VA 22314 703-739-9333 FAX: 703-548-9517 www.nasmhpd.org

October 2006

Table of Contents
I. Foreword...................................................................................................................................... 4 II. Executive Summary ................................................................................................................... 5 III. Overview—The Problem ........................................................................................................ 11 A. Findings from Studies at the State Level ............................................................................. 11 1. Sixteen State Study ........................................................................................................... 11 2. Massachusetts Study ......................................................................................................... 13 3. Ohio Study ........................................................................................................................ 13 4. Maine Study ...................................................................................................................... 14 B. Increased Mortality and Morbidity are Largely Due to Preventable Conditions................. 15 1. Overview........................................................................................................................... 15 2. Smoking ............................................................................................................................ 17 3. The Obesity and Diabetes Epidemics and Related Risk Factors and Conditions............. 18 4. Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders.............................................................................. 21 5. Infectious Diseases............................................................................................................ 21 6. Suicide............................................................................................................................... 22 C. The Impact of Medications .................................................................................................. 22 D. Access to Health Care .......................................................................................................... 23 1. System Issues .................................................................................................................... 23 2. Monitoring and Treatment Guidelines are Underutilized with SMI Populations............. 25 IV. National Policy Background................................................................................................... 27 A. The President’s New Freedom Commission........................................................................ 27 B. Institute of Medicine ............................................................................................................ 27 C. Bazelon Center ..................................................................................................................... 29 D. NASMHPD .......................................................................................................................... 29 V. Recovery and Wellness............................................................................................................ 30 V. What Should Be Done? – Recommendations and Solutions ................................................... 32 A. Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 32 B. National Level ...................................................................................................................... 32 1. Designate the Population with SMI as a Health Disparities Population........................... 33 2. Adopt Ongoing Surveillance Methods.............................................................................. 33 3. Support Education and Advocacy..................................................................................... 35 C. State Level............................................................................................................................ 36 1. Prioritize the Public Health Problem of Morbidity And Mortality and Designate the Population with SMI as a Priority Health Disparities Population. ....................................... 36 2. Improve Access to Physical Health Care.......................................................................... 39 3. Promote Coordinated and Integrated Mental Health and Physical Health Care for Persons with SMI ............................................................................................................................... 40 4. Support Education and Advocacy..................................................................................... 42 5. Address Funding ............................................................................................................... 42 6. Develop a Quality Improvement (QI) Process that Supports Increased Access to Physical Health Care and Ensures Appropriate Prevention, Screening and Treatment Services. ...... 42 D. Provider Agencies / Clinicians............................................................................................. 43

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1. Adopt as Policy that Mental Health and Physical Healthcare Should Be Integrated. ...... 44 2. Help Individuals to Understand the Hopeful Message of Recovery, Enabling their Engagement as Equal Partners in Care and Treatment......................................................... 44 3. Support Wellness and Empowerment of Persons Served, to Improve Mental and Physical Well-Being............................................................................................................................ 45 4. Ensure the Provision of Quality, Evidence-Based Physical and Mental Health Care by Provider Agencies and Clinicians......................................................................................... 45 5. Implement Care Coordination Models.............................................................................. 49 E. Persons Served/Families/Communities ................................................................................ 49 1. Encourage the Persons We Serve, Families and Communities to Develop a Vision of Integrated Care...................................................................................................................... 50 2. Encourage Advocacy, Education and Successful Partnerships to Achieve Integrated Physical and Behavioral Health Care. .................................................................................. 50 3. Pursue Individualized Person Centered Care that is Recovery and Wellness Focused.... 50 Endnotes........................................................................................................................................ 52 References..................................................................................................................................... 54 Appendices.................................................................................................................................... 58 A. List of Meeting Participants........................................................................................... 59 B. New Freedom Commission: Excerpts Related to Morbidity and Mortality .................. 61 C. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) National Consensus Statement on Recovery ................................................................................ 62 D. Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care Services: Opportunities and Challenges for State Mental Health Authorities ........................................................... 64 E. The Quality Chasm’s Ten Rules to Guide the Redesign of Health Care...................... 71 F. Institute of Medicine, Recommendations for Stakeholders........................................... 72 G. Relationship Centered Interviewing .............................................................................. 74 H. Metabolic Screening and Monitoring Form................................................................... 75 I. Measuring Quality of Care for Co-Occurring Conditions ............................................. 76 J. Seven Steps To Building The Comprehensive Healthcare Evaluation Standard ......... 82 K. Web Sites ....................................................................................................................... 87

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I. Foreword
It has been known for several years that persons with serious mental illness die younger than the general population. However, recent evidence reveals that the rate of serious morbidity (illness) and mortality (death) in this population has accelerated. In fact, persons with serious mental illness (SMI) are now dying 25 years earlier than the general population. Their increased morbidity and mortality are largely due to treatable medical conditions that are caused by modifiable risk factors such as smoking, obesity, substance abuse, and inadequate access to medical care. This report reviews the causes of excess morbidity and mortality in this population and makes recommendations to improve their care. It presents a roadmap for strategic approaches to reduce excess illness and premature death among the persons served by State Mental Health Authorities. State Mental Health Authority (SMHA) stakeholders need to embrace two guiding principles: 1. Overall health is essential to mental health. 2. Recovery includes wellness. This is the thirteenth technical report developed by the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD) Medical Directors Council. It is based on a relevant literature review, a series of work-group conference calls, and a two-day meeting of medical directors, commissioners, researchers, and other technical experts. This report provides the overarching context for two previous reports, Polypharmacy and Integrating Primary Care with Behavioral Health and our forthcoming report on Smoking Policies and Practices. We must all work together to fight this epidemic of premature death and its contributing causes.

Joe Parks, MD Chair, Medical Directors Council

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II. Executive Summary
A. Overview—The Problem
People with serious mental illness (SMI) die, on average, 25 years earlier than the general population. State studies document recent increases in death rates over those previously reported. This is a serious public health problem for the people served by our state mental health systems. While suicide and injury account for about 30-40% of excess mortality, 60% of premature deaths in persons with schizophrenia are due to medical conditions such as cardiovascular, pulmonary and infectious diseases. People with serious mental illness also suffer from a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors, in particular obesity and tobacco use. Compounding this problem, people with serious mental illness have poorer access to established monitoring and treatment guidelines for physical health conditions.

B. Increased Mortality and Morbidity are Largely Due to Preventable Conditions
Among persons with SMI, the “natural causes” of death include: ? Cardiovascular disease ? Diabetes (including related conditions such as kidney failure) ? Respiratory disease (including pneumonia, influenza) ? Infectious disease (including HIV/AIDS) The rates of mortality from these diseases for the SMI population are several times those of the general population.
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Factors
Modifiable Risk Factors Estimated Prevalence and Relative Risk (RR)

Schizophrenia
45–55%, 1.5-2X RR1 50–80%, 2-3X RR2 10–14%, 2X RR3 ≥18%4 Up to 5X RR8

Bipolar Disorder
26%5 55%6 10%7 15%5

Obesity Smoking Diabetes Hypertension Dyslipidemia

There are a number of other factors that place people with SMI at higher risk of morbidity and mortality i , including: ? Higher rates of modifiable risk factors Smoking Alcohol consumption Poor nutrition / obesity Lack of exercise “Unsafe” sexual behavior IV drug use Residence in group care facilities and homeless shelters (exposure to tuberculosis and other infectious diseases as well as less opportunity to modify individual nutritional practices) ? Vulnerability due to higher rates of

1. Davidson S, et al. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2001;35:196-202. 2. Allison DB, et al. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999; 60:215-220. 3. Dixon L, et al. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1999;187:496-502. 4. Herran A, et al. Schizophr Res. 2000;41:373-381. 5. MeElroy SL, et al. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63:207-213. 6. Ucok A, et al. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;58:434-437. 7. Cassidy F, et al. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:1417-1420. 8. Allebeck. Schizophr Bull. 1999;15(1)81-89.

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? ? ? ? ?

Homelessness Victimization / trauma Unemployment Poverty Incarceration Social isolation Impact of symptoms associated with SMI Example: paranoid ideation causing fear of accessing care Example: disorganized thinking causing difficulty in following medical recommendations Symptoms can mask symptoms of medical/somatic illnesses Psychotropic medications may mask symptoms of medical illness and contribute to symptoms of medical illness and cause metabolic syndrome Polypharmacy Lack of access to appropriate health care and lack of coordination between mental health and general health care providers

C. The Impact of Medications
Modifiable Risk Factors Beginning with the introduction of clozapine in 1991, and Affected by Psychotropics the subsequent introduction of five newer generation antipsychotics over the next decade or so, antipsychotic ? Overweight/ obesity ? Insulin resistance prescribing in the US has moved to the use of these second ? Diabetes/hyperglycemia generation antipsychotics. This has occurred despite their ? Dyslipidemia significantly greater cost, largely due to a decrease in neurologic side effects and the perception that people using them may experience better outcomes, especially improvement in negative symptoms. However, with time and experience the second generation antipsychotic medications have become more highly associated with weight gain, diabetes, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome and the superiority of clinical response (except for clozapine) has been questioned. Other psychotropic medications that are associated with weight gain may also be of concern.

D. Access to Health Care
Druss ii suggests that having SMI may be a risk factor and lead to problems in access to health care because of: ? Patient factors: Amotivation, fearfulness, social instability ? Provider factors: Competing demands, stigma ? System factors: Fragmentation He also provides us with examples from his research and that of colleagues regarding Overuse, Underuse, and Misuse (Three Types of Poor Quality, Chassin 1998) of services related to the population with SMI: Overuse: ? Persons with SMI have high use of somatic emergency services (Salisberry et al 2005, Hackman et al 2006)
Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness 6

Underuse: ? Fewer routine preventive services (Druss 2002) ? Lower rates of cardiovascular procedures (Druss 2000) ? Worse diabetes care (Desai 2002, Frayne 2006) Misuse: ? During medical hospitalization, persons with Schizophrenia are about twice as likely to have infections due to medical care postoperative deep venous thrombosis and postoperative sepsis (Daumit 2006)

E. What Should Be Done? – Recommendations and Solutions
These proposed recommendations and solutions are organized at four levels of action: national; state; provider agencies and clinicians; and, persons served, families and their communities. We have identified several major actions necessary to address the issues described in this report. 1. 2. 3. 4. Prioritization of the public health problem of morbidity and mortality and designation of the population with SMI as a priority health disparities population. Tracking and monitoring of morbidity and mortality in populations served by our public mental health systems (surveillance). Implementation of established standards of care for prevention, screening, assessment, and treatment. Improved access and integration with physical health care services.

National Level
1. Designate the Population with SMI as a Health Disparities Population
a. Federal designation of people with SMI as a distinct at-risk health disparities population is a key first step, followed by development and adaptation of materials and methods for prevention in this population as well as inclusion in morbidity and mortality surveillance demographics.

2. Adopt Ongoing Surveillance Methods
a. Establish a committee at the federal level to recommend changes to national surveillance activities that will incorporate information about health status in the population with SMI. b. Engage at the national and state levels, per the IOM report, in developing the National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) to assure that EHR and PHR templates include the data elements needed to manage and coordinate general health care and mental health care.

3. Support Education and Advocacy
a. Share information widely about physical health risks in persons with SMI to encourage awareness and advocacy. Educate the health care community. Encourage persons served and family members to advocate for wellness approaches as part of recovery.

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b. Build on the development of SAMHSA evidence-based practices by creating a toolkit that is focused on health status and healthy lifestyles. c. Promote adoption of recommendations in the NASMHPD Technical Reports on Polypharmacy and Smoking to implement policies and programs addressing these risk factors.

State Level
1. Prioritize the Public Health Problem of Morbidity And Mortality and

Designate the Population with SMI as a Priority Health Disparities Population.
a. Collect surveillance data on morbidity and mortality in the population with SMI. b. Apply a public health approach and population based interventions.

2. Improve Access to Physical Health Care
a. Require, regulate, and lead the public behavioral health care system to ensure prevention, screening, and treatment of general health care issues. b. Build adequate capacity to serve the physical health care needs of the SMI population.

3. Promote Coordinated and Integrated Mental Health and Physical Health Care for Persons with SMI
a. Utilize the system transformation recommendations from the New Freedom Commission, Institute of Medicine and SAMHSA to achieve a more person-centered mental health system. Specifically, implement the following selected recommendations, as identified in the IOM report, and modified to address the morbidity and mortality issues. ? Create high-level mechanisms to improve collaboration and coordination across agencies ? Promote integration of general healthcare and mental health records ? Revise laws and other policies to support communication between providers b. Implement the recommendations found in the 11th NASMHPD Technical Paper: Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care Services.

4. Support Education and Advocacy
a. Develop and implement toolkits and guidelines to help providers, self-help/peer support groups and families understand how to facilitate healthy choices while promoting personal responsibility. b. Establish training capacity. A key component of this plan will be training and technical assistance for the mental health workforce on the importance of the issues. c. Involve academic and association partners in planning and conducting training.

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d. Address stigma / discrimination.

5. Address Funding
a. Assure financing methods for service improvements. Include reimbursement for coordination activities, case management, transportation and other supports to ensure access to physical health care services. b. As a health care purchaser, Medicaid should: ? Provide coverage for health education and prevention services (primary prevention) that will reduce or slow the impact of disease for people with SMI. ? Establish rates adequate to assure access to primary care by persons with SMI. ? Cover smoking cessation and weight reduction treatments. ? Use community case management to improve engagement with and access to preventive and primary care.

6. Develop a Quality Improvement (QI) Process that Supports Increased Access to Physical Health care and Ensures Appropriate Prevention, Screening and Treatment Services.
a. Establish a system goal for quality health care with the same priority as employment, housing or keeping people out of the criminal justice system. b. Join with the Medicaid and Public Health agencies at the state level to develop a quality improvement (QI) plan to support appropriate screening, treatment and access to health care for people being served by the public mental health system, whether Medicaid or uninsured. c. Assure that all initiatives to address morbidity and mortality have concrete goals, timeframes and specific steps. Gather performance measurement data and use to manage overall system performance. d. Use regulatory, policy and other programming opportunities to promote personal responsibility for making healthy choices by changing the locus of control from external (program rules, regulations, staff) to the individuals we serve (self-control and management). e. Continue to promote adoption of recommendations in the NASMHPD Technical Reports on Polypharmacy and Smoking to implement policies and programs addressing these risk factors.

Provider Agencies / Clinicians
1. Adopt as Policy that Mental Health and Physical Healthcare Should Be Integrated. 2. Help Individuals to Understand the Hopeful Message of Recovery, Enabling their Engagement as Equal Partners in Care and Treatment.

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3. Support Wellness and Empowerment of Persons Served, to Improve Mental and Physical Well-Being
a. Support personal empowerment and individual responsibility, enabling individuals to make healthy choices for recovery to promote their individual recovery efforts; this means engaging people with SMI in their health care in new ways.

4. Ensure the Provision of Quality, Evidence-Based Physical and Mental Health Care by Provider Agencies and Clinicians.
a. Utilize the system transformation recommendations from the New Freedom Commission, Institute of Medicine and SAMHSA to achieve a more person-centered mental health system. b. Implement standards of care for prevention, screening and treatment in the context of better access to health care. c. Improve comprehensive health care evaluations. d. Assure that all initiatives to address morbidity and mortality have concrete goals, timeframes and specific steps. Gather performance measurement data and use to manage overall system performance.

5. Implement Care Coordination Models.
a. Assure that there is a specific practitioner in the MH system who is identified as the responsible party for each person’s medical health care needs being addressed and who assures coordination all services.

Persons Served / Families / Communities
1. Encourage the Persons We Serve, Families and Communities to Develop a Vision of Integrated Care.
a. Share information so that the mental health community and others become more aware of the co-morbid physical health risks and integrated care approaches.

2. Encourage Advocacy, Education and Successful Partnerships to Achieve Integrated Physical and Behavioral Health Care.
a. Encourage integrated physical and behavioral health care as a high priority similar to employment, housing and staying out of the criminal justice system.

3. Pursue Individualized Person Centered Care that is Recovery and Wellness Focused.
a. Support individualized partnerships, between the person served and the care provider, for integrated behavioral and physical health care.

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III. Overview—The Problem
People with serious mental illness served by our public mental health systems die, on average, 25 years earlier than the general population. This has been demonstrated in a number of recent studies. While suicide accounts for about 30% of excess mortality, about 60% of premature deaths are due to “natural causes”, such as cardiovascular and pulmonary disease. Cardiovascular mortality in Schizophrenia increased from 1976 to 1995, with the greatest increase in Standardized Mortality Ratios in men from 1991 to 1995. Many of the risk factors for these “natural causes” of death, such as smoking, obesity, and inadequate medical care, are modifiable. Increased attention from policy makers as well as persons served, family members, and the mental health and general health care system is needed. Since about 5,865,000 people iii are served by the public mental health system each year, this is a serious public health problem that is poorly recognized and rarely addressed.

A. Findings from Studies at the State Level
1. Sixteen State Study Mortality data were submitted by public mental health 16 State Study Results: Years of agencies in eight states as part of the Sixteen-State Study Potential Life Lost on Mental Health Performance Measures. Seven of the eight states (Arizona, Missouri, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Year AZ MO OK RI TX UT VA Texas, Utah, and Vermont) submitted data on persons (IP only) served in both inpatient and outpatient services during the 1997 26.3 25.1 28.5 period 1997 through 2000. These data were analyzed 1998 27.3 25.1 28.8 29.3 15.5 1999 32.2 26.8 26.3 29.3 26.9 14.0 using age-adjusted death rates, standardized mortality 2000 31.8 27.9 24.9 13.5 ratios, and years of potential life lost. The Age-Adjusted ? Previous research suggested that people with Death Rate (AADR) is the crude death rate adjusted to schizophrenia died 10 years earlier than age-matched US standard population—the age-specific death rate contemporaries ? This data suggests that people with SMI are dying at population percentage for that age group. The least 25 years earlier Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) is the actual number of deaths divided by the expected number of deaths. The Mean Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) is the sum of (life expectancy - age of death) divided by the number of deceased individuals. iv In all eight states it was found that people served by the public mental health system had a higher relative risk of death, with the SMR ranging from 4.9 to 1.2, higher than the general populations of their states. Deceased public mental health clients had died at much younger ages and lost decades of potential life when compared with their living cohorts nationwide. For the six states that could provide detailed data, individuals with a major mental illness diagnosis died at an even younger age, on average 1 to 10 years earlier, than those with a non major mental illness diagnosis. Most of these individuals died of natural causes. The leading causes of death were similar to those found in the general population nationwide and statewide. The causes include heart disease, cancer and cerebrovascular, respiratory and lung diseases. Heart disease was the leading

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cause of death among people served by the public mental health system as well as in general state populations and the United States. Cancer was second in the general populations of the states and the United States. Percentages of those served by the mental health system who died of cancer were lower than for the general population. The percentages of those who died from suicide and accidents were higher than the general population and contribute significantly to the years of life lost.

16 State Study Results: Age Adjusted Death Rate

State-AADR

MH-AADR

AADR of 8 states

4000

3500

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

AZ

AZ

MO

MO

MO

MO

OK

OK

OK

RI

TX

TX

TX

UT

UT

VA

VA

VA

VT

1998-200 2000 1999 1998 1999 1998 1999 1998 1997 2000 1999 1998 1997 2000 1999 1998 1997 2000 1999

AADR

12

R a te s p e r 1 0 0 ,0 0 0

2. Massachusetts Study The Massachusetts Department of Mental Health (DMH) first conducted and presented the results of a study that led to the Sixteen State Mortality Study as well as other states’ surveillance studies. Of note are the increased rates of death from heart disease, particularly in DMH populations under 55. In 1998 – 2000, among persons 25 to 44, cardiovascular mortality was 6.6 times higher among DMH clients than the general population. Age and selected disease specific rate comparisons are illustrated in the accompanying graphs. The DMH deceased population was younger, less educated, and had a higher proportion of African Americans than the general population. v
Massachusetts Study: Mortality from Pneumonia/Influenza DMH clients, ages 25-64

Massachusetts Study: Deaths from Heart Disease by age group/DMH Enrollees with SMI compared to Massachusetts 1998-2000
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
3.5 RR

DMH MA
4.9RR

2.2RR 1.5RR

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

1998-99 Age Specific Death Rates
DMH compared to Massachusetts
900

25
21.2

20
R a te p e r 1 0 0 ,0 0 0

DMH Mass

800 700 600 500

15 10 5 0
4.2

13.9 9.2

400 300
3.1

DMH Mass

3.5

200 100 0 15-24 25-44 45-64

1998

1999

2000

3. Ohio Study Persons discharged from Ohio public psychiatric hospitals were matched against Ohio Department of Health death records. This resulted in identifying 608 deaths among 20,018 unique individuals over the five year period 1998 – 2002. Major mental illness diagnoses of Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Disorder and Major Depression were present on 70% of discharge diagnoses. Alcohol and substance use disorders were frequent co-occurring Axis I disorders. The

Table 1: Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) Cause M F Total All causes of death 31.8 32.5 32.0 Intentional self-harm (Suicide) 41.4 42.7 41.7 Assault (homicide) 42.3 35.8 41.6 Accidents (unintentional injuries) 39.5 43.1 40.4 Symptoms, signs, and abnormal 32.8 35.0 33.4 clinical and laboratory findings NEC Diabetes mellitus 25.8 37.2 30.2 Pneumonia and influenza 29.4 25.0 28.3 Diseases of the heart 27.7 26.6 27.3 Cerebrovascular disease 20.7 32.8 25.5 Malignant neoplasms (cancers) 24.3 26.9 25.3 Chronic lower respiratory diseases 18.6 24.1 21.1

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mean age at death for all decedents was 47.7 corresponding to an average of 32 years of potential life lost per patient.
Table 2: Standardized Mortality Ratios Cause N Ratio All causes of death 608 3.2* Intentional self-harm (Suicide) 108 12.6* Symptoms, signs, and 32 9.7* abnormal clinical and laboratory findings NEC Pneumonia and influenza 16 6.6* Chronic lower respiratory 31 5.5* diseases Accidents (unintentional 83 3.8* injuries) Diseases of the heart 126 3.4* Diabetes mellitus 18 3.4* Assault (homicide) 10 1.7 Cerebrovascular disease 10 1.5 Malignant neoplasms (cancers) 44 0.9

Standardized mortality rates for all causes were 3.2 times greater than expected when compared to the U.S. general population. Suicide, symptoms, signs and abnormal laboratory findings, pneumonia and influenza, chronic lower respiratory diseases, accidents, heart disease and diabetes mellitus were all significantly increased (3 times or greater) causes of death than expected. Death from cancer, which is the second leading cause of death in the total population and most frequently arises in persons 55 years and older, was not increased in this sample, perhaps because people tended to die before reaching the age of greatest risk for death from cancer.
Table 3: Axis III Diagnosis Among 126 Deaths Due to Heart Disease Cause % Hypertension 35 Obesity 34 Diabetes mellitus 19 Lipid Disorders 8 Heart failure 5 Myocardial Infarction 5 Atherosclerosis 3

The leading cause of death was heart disease representing 126 (21%) decedents with a mean age at death of 51, and 27 years of potential life lost. The study found that the Axis III diagnosed medical co-morbidities for persons dying from heart disease were consistent with known risk factors. Smoking, as a risk factor, was typically not included in the discharge diagnoses. vi

4. Maine Study Using an age-matched sample of Medicaid enrollees with SMI Note: The percentage of patients adds to greater than 100% since some patients and Medicaid enrollees without SMI, Maine has added to the had more than one Axis III diagnosis knowledge base in regard to morbidity in the population with SMI. Rates of disease for the population with SMI exceed those of the non-SMI population in every Maine Study: Burden of Medical Illness disease category. Not surprisingly, the populations with SMI or SMI and Substance Use diagnoses also exceed the non-SMI/SU population in the percent of individuals with multiple medical conditions. Individuals with both SMI and Substance Use Diagnoses, while almost equivalent to the population with SMI in percent of population with multiple medical conditions, have average health care expenses that exceed the SMI and non-SMI/SU populations. vii
80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 69% 69% SMI SMI/SA P e rc e n t M e m b e rs 51% Non-SMI/SA 46% 45% 27% 28% 27% 15% 0%
1P lus 2P Hea lt lus 3P hC on d Hea lth lus itio ns Co nd Hea lt itio ns hC o nd itio ns

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Maine Study Results: Comparison of Health Disorders Between SMI & Non-SMI Groups
80 70 P rc n M m e e e t e b rs 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Ob Sk Ga CO el es st PD et ro ity al -In /D -C te ys on st lip in ne id a ct iv De In Hy Di Ca fe ab nt pe nc ct al et er rte io es Di us ns so io Di rd n se er as s e Pn He Li ve eu ar rD tD m on is is ea ea ia /In se se flu en z

59.4

SMI (N=9224) Non-SMI (N=7352)

33.9

30

28.6

28.4 22.8 21.7 16.5 11.5 11.1 6.3 5.9

B. Increased Mortality and Morbidity are Largely Due to Preventable Conditions
1. Overview Increased death rates in the population with SMI are often associated with modifiable medical risk factors. As previously described, people with serious mental disorders are dying from similar causes as found in the general population and their standardized mortality rates are higher than those of the general public. Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder have all been associated with medical causes of death which are often 2 to 3 times that of the general population.
Schizophrenia: Natural Causes of Death
? Higher standardized mortality rates than the general population from: – Diabetes 2.7x – Cardiovascular disease 2.3x – Respiratory disease 3.2x – Infectious diseases 3.4x ? Cardiovascular disease associated with the largest number of deaths – 2.3 times the largest cause of death in the general population

a. Medical Risk Factors In The General Population Medical risk factors are often modifiable. Heart disease is the leading cause of death for persons in the United States. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease are well studied. The Framingham study described major risk factors and the cumulative sum of their individual risks. Smoking, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus and hypertension are described in the attached graphic. As suggested by the Framingham study, they are often interrelated and one may influence the other. For example, obesity may influence insulin needs and eventual insulin resistance and the development of

Cardiovascular Risk Factors – Overview
14 12

The Framingham Study
Multiple Risk Factors
4

5

O d d s ra tio s

10 8 6 4 2 0
BMI >27 Smoking TC >220 DM HTN

Single Risk Factors
2

3

Smoking Smoking Smoking Smoking + BMI + BMI + BMI + BMI + TC >220 + TC >220 + TC >220 + DM + DM + HTN

BMI = body mass index; TC = total cholesterol; DM = diabetes mellitus; HTN = hypertension.
Wilson PWF et al. Circulation. 1998;97:1837–1847.

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diabetes. Diabetes may influence not only blood sugar but lipid metabolism and all together they may accumulate to increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome and coronary heart disease and stroke. b. Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Persons With SMI The cardiovascular relative risks associated with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder are identified in the graphic on the right. Many of these are clearly modifiable risk factors.

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Factors
Modifiable Risk Factors Estimated Prevalence and Relative Risk (RR)

Schizophrenia
45–55%, 1.5-2X RR1 50–80%, 2-3X RR2 10–14%, 2X ≥18%4 RR3

Bipolar Disorder
26%5 55%6 10%7 15%5

Obesity Smoking Diabetes Hypertension

c. Patient, Provider And System Factors Contributing Up to 5X RR Dyslipidemia To Morbidity And Mortality In Persons With SMI There are a number of factors that place people with SMI at higher risk of morbidity and mortality..viii Druss ix suggests that having SMI may be a risk factor because of: ? Patient factors: amotivation, fearfulness, social instability, unemployment, incarceraton ? Provider factors: attitude and comfort level with SMI population, coordination of care, and stigma ? System factors: fragmentation between mental health and general health care; funding Other factors that place people with SMI at higher risk of morbidity and mortality x include: ? Higher rates of modifiable risk factors Smoking Alcohol consumption Poor nutrition / obesity Lack of exercise “Unsafe” sexual behavior IV drug use Residence in group care facilities and homeless shelters (Exposure to TB and other infectious diseases as well as less opportunity to modify individual nutritional practices) ? Vulnerability due to higher rates of Homelessness Victimization / trauma Unemployment Poverty Incarceration Social isolation ? Impact of symptoms associated with SMI Impaired reality testing Disorganized thought processes Impaired communication skills Impulsivity Paranoia Mood instability Decreased motivation
8
1. Davidson S, et al. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2001;35:196-202. 2. Allison DB, et al. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999; 60:215-220. 3. Dixon L, et al. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1999;187:496-502. 4. Herran A, et al. Schizophr Res. 2000;41:373-381. 5. MeElroy SL, et al. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63:207-213. 6. Ucok A, et al. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;58:434-437. 7. Cassidy F, et al. Am J Psychiatry. 1999;156:1417-1420. 8. Allebeck. Schizophr Bull. 1999;15(1)81-89.

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? ?

? ? ?

Feelings of hopelessness and powerlessness Learned helplessness Symptoms can mask symptoms of medical/somatic illnesses Psychotropic medications may mask symptoms of medical illness and contribute to symptoms of medical illness and cause metabolic syndrome Reduction in pain sensitivity associated with the use of some antipsychotic drugs Medication side effects Weight gain Metabolic syndrome Hypertriglyceridemia Diabetes Polypharmacy Identified as risk factor for sudden death Affects adherence to treatment regimen Lack of access to health care and lack of coordination between mental health and general health care providers Lack of financing for coordination of care across mental health and general health care providers

2. Smoking Smoking as a natural risk factor for increased Mental Disorders and Smoking mortality is very common among the US population. The World Health Association states ? Higher prevalence (56-88% for patients with schizophrenia) of cigarette smoking (overall U.S. that half of long-term smokers will die from their xi prevalence 25%) tobacco use . The Centers for Disease Control ? More toxic exposure for patients who smoke (more and Prevention found that fourteen percent of all cigarettes, larger portion consumed) state Medicaid expenditures are related to xii ? Smoking is associated with increased insulin resistance smoking . Adult men and women smokers lost ? Similar prevalence in bipolar disorder 13.2 and 14.5 years of life respectively due to xiii their smoking. Smoking prevalence is among the highest for people with mental illness. Seventy-five percent of individuals with either addictions or mental illness smoke cigarettes as compared with 23% of the general population. Rates of smoking among treatment staff in mental health and addictions treatment facilities are also higher than the general population. On average, in mental health settings, approximately 30-35% of staff smoke. xiv
George TP et al. Nicotine and tobacco use in schizophrenia. In: Meyer JM, Nasrallah HA, eds. Medical Illness and Schizophrenia. American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. 2003; Ziedonis D, Williams JM, Smelson D. Am J Med Sci. 2003(Oct);326(4):223-330

Smoking cessation may be the modifiable risk factor intervention that is likely to have the greatest impact on decreasing mortality. NASMHPD is currently finalizing a Medical Directors’ Technical Report on Smoking that will serve as a resource for State Mental Health Authorities (SMHAs) in developing initiatives targeted at reduction in smoking. Key thoughts on smoking cessation from the Morbidity and Mortality work group include: xv ? Combat discriminatory beliefs: One of the few pleasures Hopeless to try to quit
Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness 17

? ? ?

Cessation will aggravate mental state A combination of behavioral and pharmacological approaches to smoking cessation are safe Support for cessation needs to be tailored to the population There is a strong correlation between contact time with a provider and rates of success and abstinence Assessment of readiness of change Motivational Interviewing

3. The Obesity and Diabetes Epidemics and Related Risk Factors and Conditions a. The General Population We begin by looking first at what has happened with the general population in regard to diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. There is an epidemic of obesity and diabetes. There is a relationship between obesity and increasing risk of multiple medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease.
The obesity and diabetes epidemic since 1990 is depicted by the following graphics. By 2010 it is estimated that 10 % of the US population will have diabetes mellitus.

Obesity Trends* Among US Adults BRFSS, 1991, 1996, 2003
(*BMI ≥30, or about 30 lbs overweight for 5’4” person)
1991 1996

2003

No Data

<10%

10%-14%

15%-19%

20%-24%

≥ 25%

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

18

Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes Trends: US Adults, BRFSS 1990

Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes Trends: US Adults, BRFSS 2000

No Data

Less than 4%

4% to 6%

Above 6%

No Data Mokdad et al. JAMA. 2001;286(10).

Less than 4%

4% to 6%

Above 6%

Mokdad et al. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1278-1283.

Diabetes and Gestational Diabetes Trends: US Adults, Estimate for 2010

BMI Distributions for General Population and Those With Schizophrenia (1989)
30 Underweight Acceptable Overweight Obese

20

Percent
10 0
< 18.5
No Data Less than 4% 4% to 6% Above 6% Above 10%

18.5-20

20-22

22-24

24-26

26-28

28-30

30-32

32-34

> 34

BMI Range
No schizophrenia
Allison DB et al. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60:215-220.

www.diabetes.org.

Schizophrenia

b. Increased risk of diabetes in people with Schizophrenia Obesity among persons with serious mental disorders is far greater than among the general population. See Prevalence of Diagnosed Diabetes in graphic above. Increased Body Mass Index (BMI) is one General Population Versus of the strongest predictors for insulin resistance and Schizophrenic Population diabetes, thus there is a significantly increased risk of Diagnosed Diabetes, General Population Diagnosed Diabetes, Schizophrenic Patients Type II diabetes (onset in adult years) in the SMI population. 30
Percent of population
25 20 15 10 5 0 Schizophrenic: 50-59 y General: 50-59 y

People with Schizophrenia are at increased risk for developing diabetes. Several hypotheses have been proposed for this link. There may be a genetic link between Schizophrenia and diabetes. The medications taken for treating Schizophrenia may increase insulin

60-69 y 60-74 y

70-74 y 75+ y

Harris et al. Diabetes Care. 1998; 21:518. Mukherjee et al. Compr Psychiatry. 1996; 37(1):68-73.

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

19

resistance. The medication or the illness may increase the caloric intake or reduce the activity level. xvi

Diabetes also strikes some ethnic groups with greater Men and Women, Age 45-74 Years prevalence. The increased prevalence is thought to be 50 due to poorer control of blood sugar levels, lower access 40 and quality of diabetes care, cultural, social and perhaps, 30 biological factors. There is also higher prevalence of 20 chronic complications in minorities than in whites: xvii 10 0 ? Lower leg amputations, 2-4 times European Cuban Japanese African Mexican Puerto Pima American American American American Rican ? Retinopathy and blindness, 2-4 times ? Stroke, 2 times ? Kidney failure, 4-6 times The Health Resources And Services Administration (HRSA)/Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Health Disparities Collaboratives and the CHCs serving at-risk ethnic populations have focused on these ethnic disparities by initiating quality improvement projects specifically targeted at diabetes as well as cardiovascular conditions.
Harris et al. Diabetes. 1987;36:523. Flegal et al. Diabetes Care. 1991;14(suppl 3):628. Knowler et al. Diabetes Care. 1993;16(suppl 1):216. Fujimoto et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1991;13:119. Fujimoto et al. Diabetes. 1987;36:721.

US Diabetes Prevalence by Ethnic Group

If populations with SMI are at higher risk than the general population, we can postulate that ethnic populations with SMI are at even higher risk, and this should be a consideration as we plan strategies as a public mental health system. c. Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes: Interrelationships, Morbidity and Mortality Risks Insulin resistance, in which the normal actions of insulin are impaired, develops as early as 10 years prior to meeting the diagnostic threshold for diabetes. xviii Insulin resistance requires the pancreas to increase the production of insulin in order to maintain a normal blood sugar. Many are able to maintain this increased insulin production. However, over time for some people the insulin production begins to fail and ensuing blood sugar rises resulting in the onset of Type II diabetes. Insulin resistance can develop due to inherited and/or acquired influences. xix Inherited insulin resistance is rare. Acquired insulin resistance can be due to obesity, inactivity, smoking, aging, medications, illness, and high blood sugar. Insulin resistance is associated with early risk factors for cardiovascular and other diseases. Type II Diabetes damage may begin even before the diagnosis. Hypertension, abnormal blood lipids and changes in blood clotting may also occur.

Natural History of Type 2 Diabetes
Obesity Plasma Glucose 126 (mg/dL) Relative β-Cell Function 100 (%) -20 -10
IGT = impaired glucose tolerance.
Adapted from: International Diabetes Center (IDC). Available at: www.parknicollet.com/diabetes/disease/diagnosing.cfm. Accessed March 26, 2006.

% w ith d ia b e te s

IGT

Uncontrolled Diabetes Hyperglycemia
PostMeal Glucose Fasting Glucose Insulin Resistance Insulin Level

0

10

20

30

Years of Diabetes

Manifestations of Insulin Resistance: The Deadly Quartet
Type 2 diabetes Hypercoagulability Dyslipidemia

Insulin resistance
Hypertension

Early cardiovascular disease
Macrovascular
Amputations Stroke

Microvascular
Renal failure

Coronary artery disease Blindness

Adapted from Opara JU, Levine JH. South Med J. 1997;90:1162-1168.

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

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Prolonged insulin resistance can eventually result in Type II Diabetes, which is more common in persons with SMI. Diabetes is associated with tissue damage in many organs. Diabetes is xx ? A major cause of vascular disease ? #1 cause of adult blindness ? #1 cause of end-stage kidney disease ? #1 cause of non-traumatic amputations Insulin resistance is linked to developing metabolic syndrome. d. Identification of The Metabolic Syndrome The cumulative effect of multiple risk factors can lead to metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of heart attack and stroke. xxi Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed when 3 or more of the following risk factors are present: obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance (as demonstrated by an elevated blood glucose level), and abnormal blood lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) levels. These are important factors to consider because obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and Type II diabetes may be modifiable risk factors for the causes of increased death among persons with serious mental illnesses.
Identification of the Metabolic Syndrome
≥3 Risk Factors Required for Diagnosis Risk Factor Defining Level

Abdominal obesity Men Women Triglycerides HDL cholesterol Men Women Blood pressure

Waist circumference >40 in (>102 cm) >35 in (>88 cm) ≥150 mg/dL (1.69mmol/L) <40 mg/dL (1.03mmol/L) <50 mg/dL (1.29mmol/L) ≥130/85 mm Hg

e. Increased Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Fasting blood glucose ≥110 mg/dL (6.1mmol/L) Population with SMI In regard to metabolic syndrome, we return to our focus on the population with SMI. Research examined the frequency of metabolic syndrome criteria (levels of hypertension, high cholesterol, increased blood clotting and insulin dependent diabetes) in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) subjects as compared with a sample of the general population. CATIE male and female subjects exceeded general population criterion prevalence for metabolic syndrome on every measure, except for males on one criterion. xxii The New York Times recently featured a front page story on the connection between these chronic medical conditions and use of antipsychotic medications. xxiii
HDL = high-density lipoprotein.
NCEP III. Circulation. 2002;106:3143-3421.

4. Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders Studies report that alcohol and other substance use disorders co-occur in 40-70% of the population with SMI. Accidents, suicide and aggressive actions are known to be increased among persons with co-occurring disorders. Although not a focus of this review, substance use disorders are a known health risk for many health conditions and also associated with early death. 5. Infectious Diseases The prevalence of hepatitis and HIV are reported to be increased in persons with SMI, (Rosenberg, 2004). The risk of tuberculosis associated with group living and poverty may also be increased among persons with SMI.

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

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6. Suicide
The New Freedom Commission noted that, “Suicide is a serious public health challenge that has not received the attention and degree of national priority it deserves. Many Americans are unaware of suicide’s toll and its global impact. It is the leading cause of violent deaths worldwide.” Many states have initiated Suicide Prevention campaigns targeted at the broader community, with educational materials that focus on age and gender cohorts. Suicide has traditionally been a focus of concern for mental health professionals. Broadening our view to the other causes of death should not reduce our vigilance regarding the risk of suicide in the people we serve.

C. The Impact of Medications
Modifiable Risk Factors Beginning with the introduction of clozapine in 1991, and Affected by Psychotropics the subsequent introduction of five newer generation antipsychotics over the next decade or so, antipsychotic ? Overweight/ obesity ? Insulin resistance prescribing in the US has moved to the use of these second ? Diabetes/hyperglycemia generation antipsychotics. This has occurred despite their ? Dyslipidemia significantly greater cost, largely due to a decrease in neurologic side effects and the perception that people using them may experience better outcomes, especially improvement in negative symptoms. However, with time and experience the second generation antipsychotic medications have become more highly associated with weight gain, diabetes, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome and the superiority of clinical response (except for clozapine) has been questioned. Other psychotropic medications that are associated with weight gain may also be of concern. One example is mood stabilizing agents such as valproic acid and lithium. The concern may be heightened especially when these agents are used in combination with second generation antipsychotics.

1-Year Weight Gain: Mean Change From Baseline Weight
C h a n g e F ro m B a s e lin e W e ig h t (k g )
14 12 10 8 15 6 4 2 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 10 5 0

Change in Weight From Baseline 58 Weeks After Switch to Low Weight Gain Agent
6 10 14 19 23 27 32 36 40 45 49 53 58 5 L S M e a n C h a n g e (lb ) 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25
*P<0.05 **P<0.01 ***P<0.0001

C h a n g e F ro m B a s e lin e W e ig h t (lb )

Olanzapine (12.5–17.5 mg) Olanzapine (all doses) Quetiapine Risperidone Ziprasidone Aripiprazole

30 25 20

* *** ** *** **

Weeks
Nemeroff CB. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58(suppl 10):45-49; Kinon BJ et al. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62:92-100; Brecher M et al. American College of Neuropsychopharmacology; 2004. Poster 114; Brecher M et al. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004;29(suppl 1):S109; Geodon? [package insert]. New York, NY:Pfizer Inc; 2005. Risperdal? [package insert]. Titusville, NJ: Janssen Pharmaceutica Products, LP; 2003; Abilify? [package insert]. Princeton NJ: Bristol-Myers Squibb Company and Rockville, Md: Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.; 2005.

***
Switched from Conventionals Risperidone Olanzapine

Weiden P et al. Presented APA 2004.

Much has been written about the issue, for example, in the report of the recently completed CATIE trials, an NIMH study comparing second generation antipsychotics with each other and

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

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with an older antipsychotic, perphenazine. Data in the CATIE study are far less likely to be influenced by drug company influences than many previously reported studies.

C o m p a ris o n o f M e ta b o lic S y n d ro m e a n d In d iv id u a l C rite r io n P r e v a le n c e in F a s tin g S M I S u b je c ts a n d M a tc h e d G e n e r a l P o p u la tio n S u b je c ts
M a le s SM I G e n .P o p . N =509 N = 509 F e m a le s SM I G e n .P o p . N =180 N =180 5 1 .6 % 7 6 .3 % 4 2 .3 % 6 3 .3 % 4 6 .9 % 2 1 .7 % 2 5 .1 % 5 7 .0 % 1 9 .6 % 3 6 .3 % 2 6 .8 % 1 1 .2 %

M e ta b o l ic S y n d r o m e P r e v a le n c e W a is t C ir c u m fe r e n c e C r ite r i o n T r ig ly c e r i d e C r ite r io n H D L C r ite r io n B P C r ite r io n G lu c o s e C r it e r io n

3 6 .0 % 3 5 .5 % 5 0 .7 % 4 8 .9 % 4 7 .2 % 1 4 .1 %

1 9 .7 % 2 4 .8 % 3 2 .1 % 3 1 .9 % 3 1 .1 % 1 4 .2 %

C A T IE s o u r c e fo r S M I d a ta N H A N E S III s o u r c e fo r g e n e r a l p o p u la tio n d a ta M e y e r e t a l., P r e s e n te d a t A P A a n n u a l m e e tin g , M a y 2 1 - 2 6 , 2 0 0 5 . M c E v o y J P e t a l. S c h iz o p h r R e s . 2 0 0 5 ;( A u g u s t 2 9 ) .

D. Access to Health Care
1. System Issues
a. Structure and Funding of Health Care Delivery System Affects Access to Care Access to physical health care for people with SMI is hindered by both the structure and the under-funding of the publicly supported physical health and behavioral health systems of care. Issues include: ? Lack of reimbursement for coordinated care across service systems ? Lack of reimbursement for health education, support and family services ? Inadequate and under-skilled case management services to support self management and linkage to services ? Poor coordination between health care and behavioral health care systems ? Lack of integrated treatment for co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders which lead to inadequate diagnosis and treatment of substance use disorders. xxiv b. Lack of Capacity Rural communities may not have any health care providers. In many states, safety net health care clinics are stretched to capacity. c. Stigma / Discrimination Research suggests that people with SMI frequently face discrimination in accessing and receiving appropriate health care. This may be due to:

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

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? ?

Unease of primary care providers with the needs of the SMI population Decreased expectations of clients as partners in care

The graphic below tells us that there is a difference (which could be labeled discrimination) in the care that people receive. The VA system offers better health care access and more support for recommended monitoring and disease management than is available to many people with SMI. Yet, in the VA system, the odds were greater that a diabetic with a psychosis or substance use disorder would not receive standard of care diabetic monitoring (e.g., HbA testing, LDL testing, eye examination), with predictable results of poor blood sugar and blood pressure control. This may be “the best case scenario” currently experienced by diabetic individuals with SMI—those without health care coverage and/or a medical home would likely receive less monitoring and disease management.

Disparities in Care: Impact of Mental Illness on Diabetes Management
Depression Anxiety Psychosis Mania Substance use disorder Personality disorder
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

Odds ratio for:

No HbA test done

No LDL test done

No Eye examination done

No Monitoring

Poor glycemic control

Poor lipemic control

313,586 Veteran Health Authority patients with diabetes 76,799 (25%) had mental health conditions (1999)
Frayne et al. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:2631-2638

d. Poor Quality / Poor Provision of Services Druss provides us with examples from his research and that of colleagues regarding Overuse, Underuse, and Misuse (Three Types of Poor Quality, Chassin 1998) of services related to the population with SMI: Overuse: ? Persons with SMI have high use of somatic emergency services (Salisberry et al 2005, Hackman et al 2006) Underuse: ? Fewer routine preventive services (Druss 2002) ? Lower rates of cardiovascular procedures (Druss 2000) ? Worse diabetes care (Desai 2002, Frayne 2006)

Survival Following Myocardial Infarction
? 88,241 Medicare patients, 65 years of age and older, hospitalized for MI ? Mortality increased by – 19%: any mental disorder – 34%: schizophrenia ? Increased mortality explained by measures of quality of care
Druss BG et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:565-572.

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

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Misuse: ? During medical hospitalization, persons with Schizophrenia are about twice as likely to have infections due to medical care postoperative deep venous thrombosis and postoperative sepsis (Daumit 2006) e. Lack of Adequate Health Care Coverage It is challenging for people with Medicaid or no insurance to find primary care and specialty physicians who will see them. Lack of health care coverage represents an enormous barrier to addressing the health care needs of the uninsured population with SMI. A large proportion of the people served by the public mental health system are insured for their health care needs by Medicaid and Medicare (many are dual eligibles). The morbidity and mortality described in this report suggests an enormous impact on the past and future costs of these programs. It is often difficult for Medicaid enrollees to find providers who will see them. One of the rationales for Medicaid managed care is to improve access to routine care and to reduce use of emergency room care. Yet in many states, the population with SMI, covered under the disability aid codes of Medicaid, is not included in Medicaid managed care contracts. Further, work on integrating mental health services into primary care settings has demonstrated that there is a number of barriers in how Medicaid reimbursement is structured (e.g., disallowance of more than one type on encounter on the same day). 2. Monitoring and Treatment Guidelines are Underutilized with SMI Populations Approaches to improve the detection of medical comorbidities in people with Schizophrenia and other serious mental disorders are available. They focus on the prevalence and causes of medical comorbidities, providing quality health care, improving lifestyle, and guidelines for integrated models of care for persons with SMI. xxv xxvi xxvii xxviii These approaches identify patient related elements, the nature of the illness, the medical system and available resources, and practitioners attitudes. Early detection, diet, physical activity, smoking, obesity, alcohol use, lipids, diabetes and the role of antipsychotics are some of the guidance provided (see tables in Lambert and guidelines in Goff). Interventions can have very meaningful effects, as demonstrated in the graphic at right or the following example: The National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute has outlined the health benefits of modest weight loss (5-10%): xxix ? Decreased blood glucose and insulin levels ? Decreased blood pressure ? Decreased bad cholesterol (LDLC/triglycerides) ? Increased good cholesterol (HDL-C)

Goals: Lower Risk for CVD
? Blood cholesterol – 10% ↓ = 30% ↓ in CHD (200-180) ? High blood pressure (> 140 SBP or 90 DBP) – 4-6 mm Hg ↓ = 16% ↓ in CHD; 42% ↓ in stroke ? Cigarette smoking cessation – 50%-70% ↓ in CHD ? Maintenance of ideal body weight (BMI = 25) – 35%-55% ↓ in CHD ? Maintenance of active lifestyle (20-min walk daily) – 35%-55% ↓ in CHD
Hennekens CH. Circulation. 1998;97:1095-1102.

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

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? ?

Decreased sleep apnea Reduced degenerative joint disease symptoms
ADA Consensus Conference on Antipsychotic Drugs and Obesity and Diabetes: Baseline Screening
? Personal / family history of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease ? Weight and height, to calculate BMI ? Waist circumference at umbilicus ? Blood pressure ? Fasting plasma glucose ? Fasting lipid profile
Diabetes Care. 2004;27:596-601.

We should begin our interventions in the mental health system, which we manage, versus recommending actions that cannot be accomplished without major modifications (e.g., cross system funding, staffing primary care within the CMHC, etc). Thus we should begin with psychiatric medical staff, add focus and requirements such as the APA/ADA guidelines, add time to do this, add staff (e.g., RN, APN) to support care and improve referral protocols (e.g., to primary care medical staff) within and without the mental health system. The American Diabetes Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the North American Association for the Study of Obesity held a Consensus Development Conference on Antipsychotic Drugs and Obesity and Diabetes in 2004. xxx Despite having been available for the past several years, these ADA/APA guidelines are often not followed. Patient, physician and system factors are not well aligned to promote this practice. For example, adequate time to explain the risk factors and to encourage adherence to medication use along with physical status and laboratory monitoring, requires change in practice. This must be supported by funding and availability of resources (e.g., measuring blood pressure, weight and abdominal circumference at regular intervals), blood drawing and laboratory testing, and funding and time to discuss these more recently recommended services.

ADA Consensus on Antipsychotic Drugs and Obesity and Diabetes: Monitoring Protocol*
Start 4 wks Personal/family Hx Weight (BMI) Waist circumference Blood pressure Fasting glucose Fasting lipid profile
Diabetes Care. 27:596-601, 2004

8 12 wks wks

3 12 mos. mos.

5 yrs.

X X X X X X X X X X X X X

X X X X X X

*More frequent assessments may be warranted based on clinical status

Health status should be a part of mental health assessment, goal setting, and service planning for every person with SMI. It is recommended that planning for physical activity and diet be integrated into activities that are/were pleasurable for the individual—handing a person educational material and telling them that they need to exercise and diet will not have the desired effect. Motivational interviewing techniques will be useful as a part of staging and framing the change process. The ADA has developed widely available patient education materials that are in multiple languages and currently being modified for people with SMI. These materials can be used by individuals, family members, peers, and care managers as well as by psychiatrists and nurses to initiate individual education and health planning. Preventive strategies for people with Schizophrenia at risk for diabetes include: xxxi

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

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? ?

? ? ? ? ?

Screen for diabetes: Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) or 75-g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), particularly before prescribing Minimize risk of weight gain: Lifestyle changes Appropriate medication selection Check weight/BMI/waist circumference regularly Baseline lipids and blood pressure Repeat baseline measures in 6 weeks and fasting blood sugar every 3 months on medication Be alert to possibility of diabetic coma Patient education

A single metabolic screening and monitoring form that is based on ADA and ATPIII guidelines xxxii summarizes the standard of care for the general population (see Appendix H). The standard of care for the general population should also be the standard of care for the population with SMI, as the data shows higher degrees of risk and disease for the population with SMI than that of the general population.

IV. National Policy Background
A. The President’s New Freedom Commission
This report is grounded in the Final Report of the President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, which asserted that there must be a relationship between mental health and general health and that Recovery is integral to the work of the public mental health system (Appendix B extracts key references). xxxiii These ideas are reflected in the excerpts below from the Final Report. For each, we have proposed a corollary statement.
New Freedom Commission Goal 1: Americans Understand that Mental Health is Essential to Overall Health Understanding that mental health is essential to overall health is fundamental for establishing a health system that treats mental illnesses with the same urgency as it treats physical illnesses. Goal 2: Mental Health Care is Consumer and Family Driven The plan of care will be at the core of the consumercentered, recovery-oriented mental health system. NASMHPD Proposed Corollary Understanding that overall health is essential to mental health is fundamental for establishing a mental health system that treats physical illnesses with the same urgency as it treats mental illnesses. The plan of care addresses the whole person, including health status and wellness, to ensure that recovery goals are not impeded by the individual’s early death or chronic medical illnesses.

B. Institute of Medicine
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on Crossing the Quality Chasm: Adaptation to Mental Health and Addictive Disorders in 2004. The committee was charged with adapting the quality improvement framework contained in the predecessor IOM report, Crossing
Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness 27

the Quality Chasm—A New Health System for the 21st Century. The scope of adaptation is across mental and substance-use (M/SU) conditions, the public and private sectors, and the comprehensive range of issues identified and addressed in the Quality Chasm report. The report of the Committee, Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance-Use Conditions, was published in late 2005. There are two overarching recommendations: ? IOM Overarching Recommendation 1: Health care for general, mental, and substance-use problems and illnesses must be delivered with an understanding of the inherent interactions between the mind/brain and the rest of the body. IOM Overarching Recommendation 2: The aims, rules and strategies for redesign set forth in Crossing the Quality Chasm should be applied throughout mental/substance use health care on a day-to-day operational basis but tailored to reflect the characteristics that distinguish care for these problems and illnesses from general health care. (See Appendix E for the Quality Chasm Ten Rules.)

?

Within the IOM report, Chapter 5: Coordinating Care for Better Mental, Substance-Use and General Health, provides definitions, summarizes the body of research and makes recommendations specific to the issues of integration of care. The definitions include: ? Communication exists when each clinician caring for the patient shares needed clinical information about the patient to other clinicians also treating the patient. ? Collaboration is multidimensional, requiring: A shared understanding of goals and roles, Effective communication, and Shared decision making. ? Care coordination is the outcome of effective collaboration and corresponds to clinical integration. ? Clinical integration is the extent to which patient care services are coordinated across people, functions, activities, and sites over time so as to maximize the value of services delivered to patients. The recommendations in Chapter 5 include: ? Recommendation 5-1: To make collaboration and coordination of patients’ M/SU health care services the norm, providers of the services should establish clinically effective linkages within their own organizations and between providers of mental health and substance use treatment. The necessary communications and interactions should take place with the patient’s knowledge and consent and be fostered by: Routine sharing of information on patient’s problems and pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments among and between providers of M/SU treatment Valid, age-appropriate screening of patients for comorbid mental, substance-use and general medical problems in these clinical settings and reliable monitoring of their progress. Recommendation 5-2: To facilitate the delivery of coordinated care by primary care, mental health, and substance-use treatment providers, government agencies, purchasers, health plans, and accreditation organizations should implement policies and incentives to

?

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

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continually increase collaboration among these providers to achieve evidence-based screening and care of their patients with general, mental, and/or substance-use health conditions. (Detailed specific measures follow this recommendation; please see full report.) ? Recommendation 5-3: To ensure the health of persons for whom they are responsible, M/SU providers should: Coordinate their services with those of other human-services and education agencies, such as schools, housing and vocational rehabilitation agencies and providers of services for older adults, and Establish referral arrangements for needed services. Providers of services to high-risk populations—such as child welfare agencies, criminal and juvenile justice agencies, and long-term care facilities for older adults—should use valid, age-appropriate and culturally appropriate techniques to screen all entrants into their systems to detect M/SU problems and illnesses. Recommendation 5-4: To provide leadership in coordination, DHHS should create a highlevel continuing entity reporting directly to the secretary to improve collaboration and coordination across its mental, substance-use and general health care agencies…DHHS also should implement performance measures to monitor its progress toward achieving internal interagency collaboration and publicly report its performance on these measures annually. State governments should create analogous linkages across state agencies.

?

Daniels and Adams have integrated the findings and recommendations of the original IOM Quality Chasm report, the President’s New Freedom Commission report, SAMHSA’s Federal Action Agenda and the 2005 IOM report specific to mental health and substance use, with the intent of creating a consensus framework and tools for system transformation. The 2005 IOM report provides a table of recommendations for a broad spectrum of stakeholder groups. These recommendations include specific steps that each group—alone and in collaboration—can take to promote meaningful transformative change and make the mental health system more personcentered. xxxiv

C. Bazelon Center
The Bazelon Center report, Get It Together: How to Integrate Physical and Mental Health Care for People with Serious Mental Disorders, was published in 2004. The report focuses primarily on integration and the problems stemming from a fragmented health care system. The report states “In a recovery-oriented mental health system, physical health care is as central to an individual’s service plan as housing, job training or education.” xxxv The report describes barriers to integrated care and highlights four service delivery models for integrating care. Additional models are described in the Recommendations section of this report.

D. NASMHPD
The NASMHPD Medical Directors Council 11th Technical Report, Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care Services: Opportunities and Challenges for State Mental Health Authorities, identifies three principles that continue to frame thinking about the relationship between behavioral health (mental and substance use conditions) and general health.

Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness

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?

?

?

Increased integration of behavioral health and health care services is a priority at the national, state, local and person levels. Good public policy will work to sustain, support and require integration of services between the two “safety net” systems of CHCs and SMHA providers with integration ranging from coordination of care to full integration of medical and behavioral services. Physical health care is a core component of basic services to persons with serious mental illness. Ensuring access to preventive health care and ongoing integration and management of medical care is a primary responsibility and mission of mental health authorities. Behavioral health care is a core component of essential services to persons seeking primary health care. Ensuring access to preventive, ongoing, and appropriate behavioral health service is a primary responsibility and mission of general health care providers. (Appendix D contains the Executive Summary of the full report.) xxxvi

This report on morbidity and mortality points the way to a new focus on assuring that the people served by the public mental health system have access to effective, high quality health care and that all care is coordinated. Quality health care should have the same priority as employment, housing or keeping people out of the criminal justice system.

V. Recovery and Wellness
Mental Health Recovery The American Heritage dictionary defines Wellness as …is a journey of healing and transformation “The condition of good physical and mental health, a especially when maintained by proper diet, exercise, and enabling to person with a mental health problem live a meaningful life in a habits.” We assert that: community of his or her choice while striving ? Wellness is one of the ultimate goals of, and an to achieve his or her full potential. integral part of, Recovery ? Recovery principles and approaches are necessary to achieve Wellness Holistic There are multiple aspects to Recovery, as described in the Recovery encompasses an individual’s whole Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) Consensus Statement on life, including mind, body, spirit, and Recovery xxxvii , the full text of which can be found in community. Recovery embraces all aspects of life, including housing, employment, Appendix C. education, mental health and healthcare ? Self-Direction treatment and services, complementary and naturalistic services (such as recreational ? Individualized and Person-Centered services, libraries, museums, etc.) addictions ? Empowerment treatment, spirituality, creativity, social ? Holistic networks, community participation and family supports as determined buy the person. ? Non-Linear Families, providers, organizations, systems, ? Strengths-Based communities and society play crucial roles in ? Peer Support creating and maintaining meaningful ? Respect opportunities for consumer access to these supports. ? Responsibility ? Hope Of these, the Holistic principle particularly speaks to the issues under consideration in this report. The holistic nature of Recovery includes “body…and healthcare treatment and services”.

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The essential role of Recovery principles in good health care is clear from the IOM definition of Patient-centered—“providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs and values and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions.” An inherent link between Recovery and Wellness is noted in the New Freedom Commission Report under Goal 2: Mental Health Care is Consumer and Family Driven: “Giving consumers the ability to participate fully in their communities will require a few essentials: ….Access to health care”. The Wellness model developed by Dr. Bill Hettler xxxviii is strikingly consistent with the SAMHSA Consensus Statement on Recovery: ? Wellness is an active process of becoming aware of and making choices toward a more successful existence. Wellness involves 'process' and 'awareness' - which means developing awareness that there is no end point and that we never arrive at a point where there is no further possibility of improving; health and happiness are definitely attainable. The key words in the previous sentence are process, aware, choices, and success ? Wellness is a way of life—a lifestyle we design to achieve an optimal level of well-being. ? Wellness involves choice—which means that we have considered a variety of options and select those Industrial Age Medicine that seem to be in our best interest—a decision we make toward optimal health. Tertiary ? Wellness is the positive acceptance of oneself. Professional ? Wellness is the interaction of the body, mind, and Secondary Care spirit—the appreciation that everything we do, think, feel, and believe has an impact on our state of health. Primary ? Success is determined by each individual to be their Self-Care off the Map personal collection of accomplishments for their life.
Adapted from Ferguson, T. 1995

Successful recovery, as well as the lifestyle changes necessary to address morbidity and mortality, necessitates empowering individuals with decision making skills acquired through practice. Choice of lifestyle changes among persons with SMI will be an important component—lifestyle changes require individual changes—and hope drives lifestyle and the assertive pursuit of health.

Information Age Health Care
Tertiary Secondary Professional Care Primary Professional Care Self-Help Networks Family / Friends

Recovery must incorporate a substantial focus on Individual Self-Care Wellness. Addressing the epidemic of chronic medical Wedge size based on available time for care illness and premature death is essential to realizing the promise of recovery. Poor physical health puts additional barriers on the path to recovery, stealing time, energy, and personal resources that could go towards recovery. Even more tragically, premature death
Adapted from Ferguson, T. 1995

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robs the recovering individual of the fruits of a long, hard effort—a meaningful life in the community. Most persons with SMI don’t reach recovery until their mid-40’s. Now that people with SMI are dying 25 years sooner than the general population, they are left with many fewer years of life to enjoy their recovery. We must engage people with SMI in their health care in new ways, empowering them to take personal responsibility for making health choices to promote their individual recovery and wellness efforts. As noted in the Recommendations, there are multiple strategies to pursue in addressing morbidity and mortality, most of them in partnership with other systems such as the general health care system, Medicaid or Public Health. But, for any of these strategies to be successful, our principal partnership must be with the people we serve.

V. What Should Be Done? – Recommendations and Solutions
A. Introduction
These proposed recommendations and solutions are organized at four levels of action: national; state; provider agencies and clinicians; and, persons served, families and their community. We have identified several major actions necessary to address the issues described in this report. 1. 2. 3. 4. Prioritization of the public health problem of morbidity and mortality and designation of the population with SMI as a priority health disparities population. Tracking and monitoring of morbidity and mortality in populations served by our public mental health systems (surveillance). Implementation of established standards of care for prevention, screening, assessment, and treatment. Improved access and integration with physical health care services.

B. National Level
The federal government and other national groups have resources that can support efforts to improve care to people with SMI served in our public mental health care systems. We recommend three major areas of focus: NATIONAL LEVEL RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. 2. 3. Designate the population with SMI as a health disparities population. Adopt ongoing surveillance methods. Support education and advocacy.

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1. Designate the Population with SMI as a Health Disparities Population
a. Federal designation of people with SMI as a distinct at-risk health disparities population is a key first step, followed by development and adaptation of materials and methods for prevention in this population as well as inclusion in morbidity and mortality surveillance demographics. HRSA has sponsored the Health Disparities Collaboratives in partnership with IHI, based on this vision: Reduce disparities in health outcomes for poor, minority, and other underserved people. Using the methodology of IHI's Breakthrough Series Model, The Model for Improvement and the Care Model (see the NASMHPD Report summarized in Appendix D for more on this model), health care providers are making a positive difference in the lives of hundreds of thousands of Americans. To date, these and other federal initiatives focused on Health Disparities have not identified people with SMI as an included target population. The research that is presented in this report documents the considerable health disparity experienced by the population with SMI and should be the basis for such a designation. Some of the populations served by the public mental health system are uninsured, or move in and out of eligibility for Medicaid. Inclusion of the population with SMI as a designated health disparity population may assist somewhat in their access to health care services for the uninsured; however, the lack of health care coverage represents an enormous barrier to addressing the mental health and medical care needs of the uninsured population with SMI. SAMHSA and CMS in conjunction with NASMHPD and the National Association of State Medicaid Directors (NASMD) should work together to assure that that funding and billing mechanisms are in place to support the recommendations for preventive care, integration of primary care and mental health services, and effective access to primary care and mental health services for persons with SMI.

2. Adopt Ongoing Surveillance Methods
a. Establish a committee at the federal level to recommend changes to national surveillance activities that will incorporate information about health status in the population with SMI. Existing national morbidity and mortality surveillance activities need to include mental health measures. In addition, this group should develop standard definitions for tracking of deaths and key data elements of morbidity in the SMI population across states. At present, there is little in national health surveillance activity that addresses the surveillance needs of the mental health system, but there are opportunities to work at adding key information components xxxix : ? National Comorbidity Survey Definitive survey on epidemiology of mental disorders, conducted 1990-2 and 2001-3 Relatively limited measures of medical comorbidity or medical service use Recommendations: ? Add more complete measures of medical comorbidity ? Add fuller measures of health behaviors (e.g. diet, exercise, BMI, smoking)

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?

?

?

?

?

?

Add more robust measures of health service use (e.g. preventive services; primary care and specialty services) National Health Interview Survey Largest annual survey of the health in the US Mental health questions in all years include self-reported mental health diagnoses and some brief Depression screens; 1989 was the only survey year that specifically subsampled persons with SMI Recommendations: ? New supplement for persons with SMI ? Include mental health screening questions regularly ? Analyze data with mental illness as both a dependent and an independent variable National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey Surveys office visits to physicians Psychiatrist sample very small Recommendations: ? NAMCS-like survey for CMHCs (HRSA has done both a NAMCS and NHIS for CHCs) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Best survey on the epidemiology of illness in the US; Physical examination, laboratory tests allow for definitive diagnosis Several NHANES surveys have included brief Depression measures, but there is no way of identifying individuals with other SMI Recommendations: ? NHANES to assess health status for a random sample of persons with SMI in the community ? Include questions such as the K-6 or PHQ 9 in all surveys, permitting analysis of cooccurrence of mental illness and medical comorbidity Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Identifies risk factors such as smoking, diet in a very large sample Both the BRFSS and NHIS will be adding the K6, a symptom measure, not for the SMI population, but for persons with self reported frequent mental distress Maine has utilized BRFSS as a surveillance tool for the SMI population Because the K-6 is only a nonspecific symptom measure, it may not capture the population with severe mental illness in the public sector who are at greatest risk and of highest policy relevance CMHS Client-Patient Sample Survey Done every 5 – 7 years Contains basic data on SMI and physical health problems Recommendations: ? Information on physical health problems and services needs to be enhanced Uniform Reporting System/National Outcome Measurement System Prior developmental work was done on mortality (Colton and Manderscheid, 2006) Recommendations: ? An indicator needs to be added on use physical health screening and services
?

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?

Medicaid, Medicare and Private Insurance Data CMHS has a large scale contract with RTI to analyze encounter data Contract needs to be supplemented to investigate patterns of physical health care Recommendations: ? System lacks an indicator of SMI

b. Engage at the national and state levels, per the IOM report, in developing the National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) to assure that EHR and PHR templates include the data elements needed to manage and coordinate general health care and mental health care. In the future, Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and Personal Health Records (PHRs) will provide a data set that can be mined for surveillance data, likely replacing the surveys and other reporting systems that we now use. Engage at the national and state levels in development of the National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) to assure that EHR and PHR templates include the data elements needed to manage and coordinate general health care and mental health care. These systems need careful design to ensure that critical health status and service information for the purposes of surveillance and performance measurement can be extracted. Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) are now being formed to develop electronic networks containing data elements essential to care coordination and accessible by diverse participating health care organizations in a defined geographic region. Chapter 6 of the IOM report, Ensuring the National Health Information Infrastructure Benefits Persons with Mental and Substance-Use Conditions, outlines the actions needed to ensure that the developing National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) serves consumers of health care for mental and/or substance use conditions as well as it does those with general health care needs and notes that our information technology systems lag behind those of general health care, as does our coding of services provided. Clearly, if we intend that mental health systems integrate services more directly with general health care, especially if we include the provision of general health care in mental health provider sites, these issues must be addressed.

3. Support Education and Advocacy
a. Share information widely about physical health risks in persons with SMI to encourage awareness and advocacy. Educate the health care community. Encourage persons served and family members to advocate for wellness approaches as part of recovery. b. Build on the development of SAMHSA evidence-based practices by creating a toolkit that is focused on health status and healthy lifestyles. c. Promote adoption of recommendations in the NASMHPD Technical Reports on Polypharmacy and Smoking to implement policies and programs addressing these risk factors.

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C. State Level
The state level is where partnerships among the SMHA, Public Health, Medicaid and the health care delivery system must be created, in order to address the health care needs of the populations with SMI. We recommend six major areas of focus: STATE LEVEL RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Prioritize the public health problem of morbidity and mortality and designate the population with SMI as a priority health disparities population. 2. Improve access to physical health care. 3. Promote coordinated and integrated mental health and physical health care for persons with SMI. 4. Support education and advocacy. 5. Address funding. 6. Develop a quality improvement (QI) process that supports increased access to physical health care and ensures appropriate prevention, screening and treatment services. 1. Prioritize the Public Health Problem of Morbidity And Mortality and

Designate the Population with SMI as a Priority Health Disparities Population.
a. Collect surveillance data on morbidity and mortality in the population with SMI. SMHAs must work with Medicaid and Public Health agencies to build state level surveillance data bases to provide surveillance data on both morbidity and mortality in the population with SMI. Our public mental health system must track morbidity and mortality in public mental health populations. Each SMHA should know who has died while an active client and why. Currently there are a range of policies regarding reportable deaths; the SMHAs do not have comparable data. The Sixteen State Mortality Study provided valuable new data, but also demonstrated the variability of data collection within the states. Two state-level surveillance methods have demonstrated use of data from other systems to match data from the MHSA system: ? For morbidity, match to the Medicaid encounter data to obtain information on the diagnoses and treatments being provided by the health care system for the population served by the MHSA. The data in the Maine study is an example. ? For mortality, match to the State Department of Health death records to obtain information on numbers and causes of death in the population served by the MHSA. The data from Ohio is an example, although only matched to inpatients. As noted in the National level recommendations, it is proposed that the standard for surveillance should be set at the national level, to assure comparability of data. Implementation must be carried out at the State level.

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b. Apply a public health approach and population based interventions. It is currently popular to talk about using a Public Health approach in mental health. What exactly does this mean? “Public Health includes the activities that society undertakes to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy. These include organized community efforts to prevent, identify and counter threats to the health of the public.” xl While the role of Public Health as a safety net health care provider varies considerably across the states, the Three Core Functions and Ten Essential Services of Public Health (identified by the IOM in 1988 and subsequently refined by the Public Health Functions Steering Committee) xli is a template used by Public Health systems nationally: Assessment 1. Monitor health status of the community 2. Diagnose and investigate health problems and hazards 3. Inform and educate people about health issues Policy Development 4. Mobilize partnerships to solve community problems 5. Support policies and plans to achieve health goals Assurance 6. Enforce laws and regulations to achieve health goals 7. Link people to needed personal health services 8. Ensure a skilled public health workforce 9. Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of health services 10. Research and apply innovative solutions The focal activity under the Assessment function is surveillance, “systematic monitoring of the health status of a population.” xlii Another Public Health concept is population based intervention with differential levels of prevention, using the tools of health promotion, health education and linking people to appropriate treatment. ? Primary Prevention consists of strategies that seek to prevent the occurrence of disease or injury, generally through reducing exposure or risk factor levels. These strategies can reduce or eliminate causative risk factors (risk reduction). ? Secondary Prevention consists of strategies that seek to identify and control disease processes in their early stages before signs and symptoms develop (screening and treatment). ? Tertiary Prevention consists of strategies that prevent disability by restoring individuals to their optimal level of functioning after a disease or injury is established and damage is done.
xliii

We need Public Health as a partner in implementing standard surveillance methodologies for morbidity and mortality in people with SMI and in utilizing Public Health’s primary, secondary and tertiary prevention and treatment strategies with the population we serve. A growing body of literature has reported on the epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the general population, and the Public Health system has developed strategies to address these issues, collaborating with public and private insurers and the health care delivery system to intervene

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with primary, secondary and tertiary prevention initiatives related to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which are intertwined issues. These approaches and materials need to be customized for use in the public mental health system (for example, the ADA is currently revising its educational materials for use with the population served by the public mental health system). Populations with SMI are at higher risk than the general population. Some ethnic populations with SMI are at even higher risk of morbidity and mortality from diabetes and other medical conditions, and this should be a consideration as we plan strategies as a public mental health system. Health Disparities refer to differences in populations’ health status that are avoidable and can be changed. These differences can result from environmental, social and/or economic conditions, as well as public policy. These and other factors adversely affect population health. xliv It could be argued that many of the causes of morbidity and mortality are related to the vulnerability of the population with SMI. Efforts to address these conditions should include: ? Safe housing ? Adequate income ? Skills-based prevention programs to reduce vulnerability to victimization ? Addressing substance use Impairment Environment associated with illegal drug use ? Case management services Research conducted in the VA system assessed treatment and quality of life for U.S. veterans with chronic and persistent mental illness and found that increased exposure to case management resulted in an improved quality of life across several domains, including both objective and subjective dimensions for health, general, leisure, and social, and the subjective dimension only for housing. xlv As an example of what a SMHA might do in partnership with other systems, Maine DHHS has directed senior Medical Expenses for MaineCare clinicians to participate in workgroups on behavioral service users, 2002 (Muskie) health/health integration with Medicaid, Public Health, MH/SA MH/SA General MaineCare provider and consumer groups, Federally Qualified Behavioral Medical Medical Services Services Services Health Centers and several other public and private groups. The bulk of the work of this collaboration has $359 PUPM $422 PUPM $163 PUPM been directed at early screening and treatment for Depression in general medical settings, and in the implementation of the chronic care model for Depression, as well as for diabetes and heart disease. Examples of collaborative projects have included a HRSA funded Public Health project on integrating behavioral health for women of child bearing age, examination of BRFSS data for the interaction between poor mental health and health risks, a Medicaid project involving implementation of the chronic care model and Depression care for members with complex

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conditions and inclusion of Depression as a priority condition to be addressed in the Maine State Health Plan. The SMHA is also on the steering committee for a multiyear integration effort funded by the Maine Health Maine: Coronary Artery Disease Care Access Foundation, Maine’s largest health care SMI Non-SMI Stat Sig foundation. In working with these partners the SMHA 514 335 Number has acquired a knowledge of quality programming for $11,825 $14,832 ns Med-Surg Costs chronic health conditions that can be leveraged to 44.2% 48.7% ns Cardiac Diagnostics implement a system of effective and accessible health 1.5 2.1 .08 Therapy Events Per person care for persons with serious mental illness. Next steps 2.3% 5.1% .03 Bypass/Stents for Maine’s SMHA include analysis of the utilization, Valve/Pacemaker quality and cost of care for diabetes, cardiovascular 3.3% 7.2% .01 Cardiac Rehab disease and other health conditions for persons with 42.8% 31.9% .001 Emergency serious mental illness, with the expectation that the 49.4% 64.2% .001 Outpatient results of this integrated data analysis will provide direction for future policy and program changes. The results of these analytic efforts are currently being shared with mental health providers and persons serveds in order to engage them at the outset in planning for collaborative projects that address health issues within mental health programs.

2. Improve Access to Physical Health Care
a. Require, regulate, and lead the public behavioral health care system to ensure prevention, screening, and treatment of general health care issues. Implement standards of care for prevention, screening and treatment utilizing practice guidelines. Since damage from diabetes begins before the diagnosis, there should be substantial investment in primary prevention activities as well as screening. There is much that is applicable from the quality improvement work in the health care delivery system, as led by IHI. For example, a current initiative is the 100,000 Lives Campaign. The campaign aimed to enlist thousands of hospitals across the country in a commitment to implement changes in care that have been proven to prevent avoidable deaths in hospitals, estimated by the IOM at 98,000 per year. Six changes (Deploy Rapid Response Teams, Deliver Reliable, Evidence-Based Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction, Prevent Adverse Drug Events, Prevent Central Line Infections, Prevent Surgical Site Infections, Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia), each supported by specific improvement tools and expertise, have been implemented voluntarily by hospitals that have joined the Campaign, with results routinely tracked and measured. xlvi The public mental health system could employ the IHI model in crafting an initiative to prevent avoidable early death and chronic medical illness in people with SMI. b. Build adequate capacity to serve the physical health care needs of the SMI population.

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This is challenging for a number of reasons: people with Medicaid or no insurance have difficulties finding primary care and specialty physicians who will see them; research suggests that people with SMI face additional barriers, including discrimination, in receiving appropriate health care; rural communities may not have any health care providers; and, safety net health care clinics (Federally Qualified Health Centers/Community Health Centers and Public Health clinics in states where Public Health also provides safety net health care) are stretched to capacity. These are issues that will need to be addressed state by state, in partnership with the health care delivery system, especially the safety net providers.

3. Promote Coordinated and Integrated Mental Health and Physical Health Care for Persons with SMI
a. Utilize the system transformation recommendations from the New Freedom Commission, Institute of Medicine and SAMHSA to achieve a more person-centered mental health system. Specifically, implement the following selected recommendations, as identified in the IOM report, and modified to address the morbidity and mortality issues. ? Create high-level mechanisms to improve collaboration and coordination across agencies ? Promote integration of general healthcare and mental health records ? Revise laws and other policies to support communication between providers In a systematic review of the literature, Druss and von Esenwein found that a range of models may help improve quality and outcomes of care in persons with mental and substance use disorders. xlvii An emerging practice is to bring health care services into the public mental health system. Some examples include: ? Cherokee Health System in east Tennessee has primary care physicians on the teams serving people with SMI. The Cherokee model was featured as one of several examples in the publication issued by the Bazelon Center. xlviii ? Research conducted in the VA system used a randomized trial to evaluate an integrated model of primary medical care for a cohort of patients with serious mental disorders. Veterans who received care in the integrated clinic received on-site primary care and case management that emphasized preventive medical care, patient education and close collaboration with mental health providers to improve access to and continuity of care. Analyses compared health process (use of medical services, quality of care, and satisfaction and outcomes (health and mental health status and costs) between the groups in the year after randomization. On-site, integrated primary care was associated with improved quality and outcomes of medical care. xlix ? Bartels reported on a pilot study using a community mental health nurse who is trained in psychiatric and medical care management. The nurse care manager role was to monitor, facilitate, and coordinate primary medical care in education and illness management, simultaneously addressing psychiatric and medical needs through rehabilitation, health care management, and skills training. This model, focused on older adults, links interventions to enhance independent functioning, health outcomes and quality of life, including rehabilitation/skills training and medical case management. l A similar model has been employed in the Vermont site participating in the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) program, Depression in Primary Care: Linking Clinical and System Strategies.

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?

?

?

NIMH is currently funding a large randomized trial of a nurse care manager intervention designed to improve primary medical care for individuals served by a community mental health center. This randomized, controlled trial is located in an inner-city community mental health center in Atlanta, Georgia. Subjects assigned to medical case management will be provided a manualized, stepped-care intervention that includes patient education and activation, communication and advocacy with medical providers and help in overcoming system-level barriers to primary care. The study is testing the impact of the intervention on quality of primary care, health outcomes, and costs. The Washtenaw Community Health Organization (WCHO) in Michigan, a collaboration between the University of Michigan, the county mental health center, and local private health clinics, used the NCCBH Four Quadrant Model to organize its integrated services. The services provided to people with SMI include nurse practitioners from the School of Nursing who operate side by side with psychiatrists and social workers at two mental health clinics. Persons served with urgent health needs and those without primary care providers can receive health care services at the time of their mental health appointment. Additionally, researchers from the University of Michigan and the WCHO have designed a health risk appraisal instrument that assists mental health staff in identifying specific health risk behaviors and potential health conditions. This electronic tool flags the data and notifies the person completing the form of needed health follow-up based on the answers in the tool. li In Massachusetts, the Northeast Health System (NHS), a large community-based health care delivery system (which includes a full continuum of acute inpatient, outpatient and long-term care services) and Health & Education Services (HES), a large behavioral health care network that is part of NHS, initiated a performance improvement projects which evolved into a controlled field study and then into a partially funded program. They chose to embed primary care for adults with SMI within the mental health setting, creating one-stop shopping in a familiar environment. Patients were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received routine primary health care from a nurse practitioner in the mental health setting. Those in the control group received treatment as usual with regard to their primary care. One goal was to reduce ER visits by 33%; ER visits were actually 42% lower in the experimental group compared with the control group. The most dramatic differences were found in the health care screens for hypertension and diabetes. For both indicators, the experimental group experienced a 44% rate of access compared with 0% in the control group. lii

b. Implement the recommendations found in the 11th NASMHPD Technical Paper: Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care Services. As the mental health system initiates preventive measures, monitoring and screening, it must address the barriers of access to treatment and ongoing medical care for people with SMI and other complex conditions. NASMHPD issued a Technical Report on this topic in 2005. See Appendix D for the Executive Summary, which includes all of the recommendations. Work with persons served and family groups to advocate for improved access and quality of physical health care services to the population with SMI.

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4. Support Education and Advocacy
a. Develop and implement toolkits and guidelines to help providers, self-help/peer support groups and families understand how to facilitate healthy choices while promoting personal responsibility. b. Establish training capacity. A key component of this plan will be training and technical assistance for the mental health workforce on the importance of the issues. c. Involve academic and association partners in planning and conducting training. d. Address stigma / discrimination.

5. Address Funding
a. Assure financing methods for service improvements. Include reimbursement for coordination activities, case management, transportation and other supports to ensure access to physical health care services. b. As a health care purchaser, Medicaid should: ? Provide coverage for health education and prevention services (primary prevention) that will reduce or slow the impact of disease for people with SMI. ? Establish rates adequate to assure access to primary care by persons with SMI. ? Cover smoking cessation and weight reduction treatments. ? Use community case management to improve engagement with and access to preventive and primary care. There are two aspects of Medicaid financial impact: the opportunity to provide health education and prevention services (primary prevention) that will reduce or slow the impact of disease for people with SMI, and the cost of providing appropriate health care services (secondary and tertiary prevention) to people with SMI.

6. Develop a Quality Improvement (QI) Process that Supports Increased Access to Physical Health Care and Ensures Appropriate Prevention, Screening and Treatment Services.
a. Establish a system goal for quality health care with the same priority as employment, housing or keeping people out of the criminal justice system. b. Join with the Medicaid and Public Health agencies at the state level to develop a quality improvement (QI) plan to support appropriate screening, treatment and access to health care for people being served by the public mental health system, whether Medicaid or uninsured. Common causes of increased mortality and chronic medical illness in the SMI population should be targeted for QI action planning and programmatic interventions.

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Assure integrated data analysis of utilization, cost and quality outcomes for both health care and mental health, including analysis of degree to which improvements in one system of care leads to changes in the other system of care. c. Assure that all initiatives to address morbidity and mortality have concrete goals, timeframes and specific steps. Gather performance measurement data and use to manage overall system performance. Integration projects, such as the state level work underway in Maine or projects initiated by individual organizations, need to plan from the beginning to gather and use data to learn from their work, determine if they are meeting their goals, and demonstrate to themselves and to policy makers the significance of the efforts. Some questions posed in the Morbidity and Mortality Work Group that would benefit from regular data collection are: ? How widespread is screening? ? How many cases are detected? ? How many cases are prevented? ? In how many case are outcomes improved? ? How much does it cost? ? Who has paid? Performance measurement must be a part of these new programs as they are designed and implemented. We are fortunate in not having to start anew to develop performance measures for this work on integrated care and co-occurring conditions. The Center for Quality Assessment & Improvement in Mental Health has presented three sets of quality measures for use: ? Quality measures for patients with co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions treated in primary care settings ? Quality measures for patients with co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions treated in the mental health specialty setting ? Quality measures for patients with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric conditions treated in the mental health specialty setting Each set includes structure, process, and outcome measures. (The full set of measures can be found in Appendix I.) d. Use regulatory, policy and other programming opportunities to promote personal responsibility for making healthy choices by changing the locus of control from external (program rules, regulations, staff) to the individuals we serve (self-control and management). e. Continue to promote adoption of recommendations in the NASMHPD Technical Reports on Polypharmacy and Smoking to implement policies and programs addressing these risk factors.

D. Provider Agencies / Clinicians
The direct service delivery system is where we must focus improvement activities. We recommend five major areas of focus:

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PROVIDER AGENCY / CLINICIAN LEVEL RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Adopt as policy that mental health and physical healthcare should be integrated. 2. Help individuals to understand the hopeful message of recovery, enabling their engagement as equal partners in care and treatment. 3. Support wellness and empowerment in persons served, to improve mental and physical well-being. 4. Ensure the provision of quality, evidence-based physical and mental health care by provider agencies and clinicians. 5. Implement care coordination models.

1. Adopt as Policy that Mental Health and Physical Healthcare Should Be Integrated.
The methods to achieve integration will vary from provider to provider, but the commitment of leadership to achieving integration will be critical to addressing the issues of morbidity and mortality in the population with SMI. See the discussion on models for integration, under the recommendation to States to Promote Coordinated and Integrated Mental Health and Physical Health Care for Persons with SMI. Depending on the model adopted, assure that the operational details, staffing, and financing are aligned to achieve the goal of integrated care.

2. Help Individuals to Understand the Hopeful Message of Recovery, Enabling their Engagement as Equal Partners in Care and Treatment.
Person-centered care is one of the six Quality Chasm aims. The pathway to recovery and health will be different for each individual. This requires that we develop strategies at many levels throughout the public mental health system to incorporate the full range of primary, secondary and tertiary interventions needed to reduce morbidity and mortality. These multiple strategies to address morbidity and mortality will best be accomplished through partnership with other systems, but for any of these strategies to be successful, our principle partnership must be with the people we serve.
Agree On A Treatment Plan “Adherence" is the goal because it implies sticking to a collaboratively developed plan, as opposed to the more directive term "compliance." Six specific actions can increase the likelihood of adherence: ? Keep the regimen simple ? ? ? ? Write out treatment details Give specifics about the expected benefits of treatment and the timetable Prepare the patient for side effects and optional courses of action Discuss obstacles to moving forward with the regimen,

To create change, recovery and wellness, individuals must have hope for a different tomorrow that is more ? Get patient feedback. aligned with their goals and dreams than exists today. John Allen Jr. Unless we can help the individuals that we serve find hope for a better tomorrow, then change, recovery and wellness will never be realized.

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3. Support Wellness and Empowerment of Persons Served, to Improve Mental and Physical Well-Being
a. Support personal empowerment and individual responsibility, enabling individuals to make healthy choices for recovery to promote their individual recovery efforts; this means engaging people with SMI in their health care in new ways. In engaging people with SMI in their health care, we should avoid the trap of mandating changes in lifestyle, instead focusing on true collaboration through engagement. The Bayer Institute and Health-Partners, based on data from studies, found that when clinicians use a relationship-centered interviewing style, patients become more responsible and active participants in their health care and more adherent to their treatment plan (See Appendix G). ? Engagement: skills that support development of rapport with patients ? Empathy: skills that help clinicians reflect concern for the patient's condition ? Education: skills needed for discovering and developing the patient's understanding of his condition ? Enlistment: skills that help in motivating and changing behavior Two important components of partnering for recovery and health are the development of natural supports and assuring cultural competence in treatment planning and implementation. Successful services engage and empower people with plans that are appropriate to their needs, maximize the benefits derived from use of culturally appropriate strategies and supports and thus reduce underutilization of services that puts the people at-risk of placement in more restrictive settings, including incarceration. ? Focusing on person-centered goals that are culturally relevant empowers individuals to engage in services and maintain that engagement, extending the time they can live in a community setting ? Culturally competent services are sensitive to the person’s cultural identity, available in the person’s primary language and use the natural supports provided by the person's culture and community ? Goal setting and planning processes are culturally sensitive and build on an individual’s context. Plans incorporate culturally relevant strategies, including alternative therapies and the use of families and extended families to provide natural supports for persons served. Service plans reflect and respect the spirituality, healing traditions and healers of each individual. The use of these culturally relevant strategies also builds commitment to treatment and individual service plans

4. Ensure the Provision of Quality, Evidence-Based Physical and Mental Health Care by Provider Agencies and Clinicians
a. Utilize the system transformation recommendations from the New Freedom Commission, Institute of Medicine and SAMHSA to achieve a more person-centered mental health system. Specifically, implement the following selected recommendations, as identified in the IOM report, and modified to address the morbidity and mortality issues. Direct care providers should:

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?

?

?

? ? ?

?

Support individual decision making and treatment preferences (regarding physical health as well as mental health, giving information to make healthy choices, such as weight implications of psychotropic drugs, education about the effects of smoking, obesity and lack of exercise) Use illness self-management practices (expand opportunities for individuals to practice and develop decision making skills in regard to physical as well as mental health) Have effective linkages with community resources (including access to health care and engage families and other collateral service providers in understanding how to support individuals in maintaining their healthy choices) Screen for co-morbid conditions (obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure) Routinely assess treatment outcomes (physical as well as mental health) Routinely share clinical information with other providers (primary and specialty health care providers as well as mental health providers) Practice evidence-based care coordination (coordinate care of the whole person). (See Appendix F for the full summary of IOM recommendations for all stakeholder groups.)

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Diet, Nutrition and Eating Right Barriers Not responsible for menu / meal planning / preparation Lack of knowledge and skills on cooking Time to prepare Cost Diet and Nutrition Interventions Communal meals at clubhouses and residential settings, where persons served design and prepare meals Other skill building methods Physical Activity Barriers Lack of interest Lack of role models Inability to overcome sedation effects of medications Lack of financing to cover participation Lack of support

John Allen Jr.

Physical Activity Interventions Create MOUs with Parks and Recreation agencies Point-of-decision prompts Family-based social support Social support interventions Individually-adapted health behavior change programs Creation of or enhanced access to places for physical activity
Adapted from Task Force on Community Preventive Services, National Library of Medicine

b. Implement standards of care for prevention, screening and treatment in the context of better access to health care.

First-line therapies for all lipid and nonlipid risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome are weight reduction and increased physical activity, which will effectively reduce all of these risk factors…Beyond the underlying risk factors, therapies directed against the lipid and nonlipid risk factors of the metabolic syndrome will reduce CHD risk. These include treatment of hypertension, use of aspirin in patients with CHD…and treatment of elevated triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol… liii Management of the metabolic syndrome in the general population has a two-fold objective: ? Reduce underlying causes (i.e., obesity and physical inactivity) ? Treat associated nonlipid and lipid risk factors Using the monitoring tools recommended here, assure consistent diabetes screening for all individuals actively being served by the public mental health system. Assure priority for those receiving second generation antipsychotic medications and/or high risk ethnic populations.

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Diagnosis of Diabetes, Who Should be The mental health system should adopt the U.S. Public Screened? Health Service guidelines for prevention and intervention ? All adults ≥45 y, and, if normal, at 3-year in regard to modifiable risk factors—assuring at least the intervals same standard of care as that available to the general population. Use guidelines for prevention and intervention ? Younger age or more frequently for those at higher risk: to assure there is consistent monitoring of individuals --Obese: ≥20% above ideal body weight receiving psychotropic medications as a part of medication --First-degree relative with diabetes evaluation and follow up services in outpatient mental --High-risk ethnic group --Delivered baby >9 lb, or history of health settings as well as inpatient settings. gestational diabetes ? Whenever possible, avoid use of medications that are more strongly associated with conditions such as ? Hypertensive: BP ≥140/90 mm Hg ? Dyslipidemia: HDL ≤35 mg/dL and/or obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidemia triglycerides ≥250 mg/dL ? Reduce polypharmacy ? Previous IFG or IGT ? Prescribers should be accountable for screening to ADA. Diabetes Care. 2004;27 assure adequate treatment of medical risk factors such (suppl 1):S11-S14 as metabolic syndrome and its consequences to the same extent that they are for Extra-Pyramidal Symptoms and Tardive Dyskinesia ? Adopt consistent use of a metabolic screening and monitoring tool (see Appendix H)

Numerous studies document that physician prescribing practices frequently deviate from clinical guidelines, with potentially significant implications for quality of care. At the same time, spending on prescriptions has soared. New York State has developed a health information tool designed to support decision making by clinicians and improve the quality of medication prescribing practices in their public mental health system. The Web-based clinical decision support system uses state administrative databases to provide information at the point of care. Use of this tool in the state hospitals has resulted in a 60% decrease in the number of persons prescribed three or more antipsychotics during 2005. liv For additional information on the topic, the NASMHPD Medical Directors Technical Report on Polypharmacy is available on the website. lv What are the basic standards of diabetes care? lvi ? A1C every 3-6 months: Target <7% (or 6.5%) ? Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) ? Regular weight and blood pressure monitoring ? Lipid profile yearly ? Urinary microalbumin screen yearly ? Dilated eye examination yearly ? Foot examination yearly ? Vascular prophylaxis ? Smoking cessation ? Regular medical follow-up Treating Type 2 Diabetes in people with Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorders: lvii ? Underlying pathophysiology is probably the same as in people without psychiatric illness ? Obesity worsens insulin resistance

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? ? ?

Significant impact of hyperglycemia and macrovascular risk Lifestyle components impact severity Uncomplicated Monitoring Changing lifestyle impact is usually more difficult than ? Fasting Plasma Glucose in general population ? Lipids ? Pharmacologic treatments are important ? Weight/ Body Mass Index Since damage from diabetes begins before the diagnosis ? Signs and symptoms of diabetes there should be substantial investment in primary ? Blood pressure prevention activities as well as screening. Insulin Indications and Methods for Intensifying resistance, in which the normal actions of insulin are Monitoring impaired, is closely linked to developing metabolic Glucose syndrome which includes hypertension, high cholesterol, ? Consult/consider referral increased blood clotting and eventually insulin dependent ? ?SGA (UK exception) diabetes. Weight/ Body Mass Index ? ?SGA For the general population, the Centers for Disease ? Weight management plan Glucose monitoring Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Disease Lipids Prevention and Health Promotion observed: ? ?SGA ? Effective interventions that address personal health ? Consult practices are likely to lead to substantial reductions in + Family History the incidence and severity of the leading causes of ? Intensify monitoring diseases and disability in the U.S. + Medical history (CV disease, smoking, ? Primary prevention as it relates to such risk factors as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet) ? Intensify monitoring smoking, physical inactivity, poor nutrition, alcohol and other drug abuse, and inadequate attention to safety precautions holds greater promise for improving overall health than many secondary preventive measures such as routine screening for early disease. ? Therefore, clinician counseling that leads to improved personal health practices may be more valuable to patients than conventional clinical activities, such as diagnostic testing. c. Improve comprehensive health care evaluations. Current approaches to “comprehensive evaluation” lack: important clinical details; important clinical assessment, diagnostic and treatment prompts and reminders; and standardized approaches. They are often multidisciplinary, but not interdisciplinary and therefore often redundant. The conceptual standards for truly comprehensive evaluations include: ? Has to be timely. ? Has to have uniform initiation and follow-up criteria regardless of time or setting. ? Has to cover all the important clinical areas: functional and behavioral declines, medical, psychiatric and iatrogenic conditions, and psychosocial and environmental stressors. ? Within each clinical area, has to rule out important clinical details and conditions. ? Has to structure and guide the clinical team through the assessment, formulation, diagnostic, and treatment stages of the evaluation so that no clinical details identified in any stage are forgotten.

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? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Has to be interdisciplinary and adaptable to all types of settings and clinical teams. Allows flexibility in narrative-based assessments at any level: network, facility, unit or service. Has to be user friendly to all types of health care disciplines. Has to be efficient and streamlined from start to finish (report generation). Has to be seamless from one point of care to the next with all the important historical clinical information from the most recent comprehensive evaluation being forwarded automatically. Network-connected and secure with only PCs and a Server (either site-based or hosted). All inputted or accessed clinical data is automatically linked to the specific assessor or reader for total compliance with medical-legal and HIPAA notification regulations. All inputted clinical data is setup to be reviewed and then either edited or approved via the clinical supervisor before it becomes medical record. Does not require any other form of electronic health record (HER) to completely function. Can exchange clinical information with other types of EHR to ensure the most accurate and up to date information being used during the comprehensive evaluation process. lviii

d. Assure that all initiatives to address morbidity and mortality have concrete goals, timeframes and specific steps. Gather performance measurement data and use to manage overall system performance.

5. Implement Care Coordination Models
a. Assure that there is a specific practitioner in the MH system who is identified as the responsible party for each person’s medical health care needs being addressed and who assures coordination all services. Assure health status assessment and planning are a part of treatment planning and goal setting for every person with SMI, throughout the system.

E. Persons Served / Families / Communities
The persons we serve, their families and communities are necessary partners in this change process. We recommend three major areas of focus: PERSONS SERVED / FAMILY / COMMUNITY RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Encourage the persons we serve, families and communities to develop a consumer-driven vision of integrated care. 2. Encourage advocacy, education and successful partnerships to achieve integrated physical and behavioral health care. 3. Pursue individualized person centered care that is recovery and wellness focused.

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1. Encourage the Persons We Serve, Families and Communities to Develop a Vision of Integrated Care.
a. Share information so that the mental health community and others become more aware of the co-morbid physical health risks and integrated care approaches. In the public mental health system the increased risks of excess mortality for persons with SMI are not often directly addressed. Although Recovery documents such as the SAMSHA National Consensus Statement on Recovery include wellness, holistic and healthcare treatment, the findings and recommendations in this report on morbidity and mortality regarding 25 years of potential life lost beg for a more directed approach. Care should be individual and family driven and we encourage the people we serve and their families to address the risks and integrated care approaches described in this report with a vision of integrated care.

2. Encourage Advocacy, Education and Successful Partnerships to Achieve Integrated Physical and Behavioral Health Care.
a. Encourage integrated physical and behavioral health care as a high priority similar to employment, housing and staying out of the criminal justice system. Grassroots advocacy will be necessary for successful national, state and community campaigns to achieve quality and overcome the barriers to fragmented and separated mental health and physical health care systems. The priority for integrated physical and behavioral health care should be articulated as strongly as other priorities such as employment, housing and staying out of the criminal justice system. Integrated care may help to reduce the stigma associated with a separated mental health care system. A clear and well articulated vision, education and advocacy approach can guide major change.

3. Pursue Individualized Person Centered Care that is Recovery and Wellness Focused.
a. Support individualized partnerships, between the person served and the care provider, for integrated behavioral and physical health care. Individualized and Person-centered care is one of the 10 Fundamental Components of Recovery in the SAMSHA National Consensus Statement on Recovery. Person Centered Care is one of the six Quality Chasm aims. It is defined as “care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions.” The core values include: ? Respect for patients’ values, preferences, and expressed needs ? Coordination and integration of care ? Information and communication ? Education ? Physical comfort ? Emotional support ? Involvement of family and friends

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It is the person who makes the important choices that affect his or her health and well being, and indeed it is the person who is in control and experiences the consequences of his or her choices. Implementation of the person centered care model for persons with diabetes is described in Better Diabetes Care http://www.betterdiabetescare.nih.gov/WHATpatientcenteredcare.htm. People with diabetes who are partners in their care are experiencing improved diabetes outcomes. People with SMI who partner with clinical teams and focus on wellness and recovery and integrated physical and behavioral healthcare are likely to experience recovery with longer lives and improved general health. Individuals are encouraged to: ? Take an active role in care and treatment in partnership with providers ? Create and take advantage of peer and family support networks ? Surround themselves with positive individuals who support change efforts. This may include helping family and friends receive education so that they may be more supportive of recovery and healthy lifestyle changes

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Endnotes
Singer, P.W., Miller, L.H. Modifiable Risk Factors: Environmental, Individual Behaviors and Lifestyle, Presentation, May 2006. ii Druss, B. Presentation, May 2006 iii National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Research Institute For 50 States plus Washington, DC, 2005. iv Colton, C., Mortality: Health Status of the Served Population, Sixteen State Pilot Study State Mental Health Agency Performance Measures, Utah Division of Mental Health v Freeman, E., Yoe, J.T. The Poor Health Status of Consumers of Mental Healthcare: Behavioral Disorders and Chronic Disease, Presentation, May 2006. vi Miller, B., Paschall, C.B., Svendsen, D. Mortality and Medical Co-Morbidity in Patients with Serious Mental Illness, Presentation, May 2006. vii Freeman, E., Yoe, J.T. The Poor Health Status of Consumers of Mental Healthcare: Behavioral Disorders and Chronic Disease, Presentation, May 2006. viii Singer, P.W., Miller, L.H. Modifiable Risk Factors: Environmental, Individual Behaviors and Lifestyle, Presentation, May 2006. ix Druss, B. Presentation, May 2006 x Singer, P.W., Miller, L.H. Modifiable Risk Factors: Environmental, Individual Behaviors and Lifestyle, Presentation, May 2006. xi World Health Association Smoking Statistics Fact sheet http://www.wprowho.int/media centre/fact sheets/fs 20020528.htm xii Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in its Tobacco Control State Highlights 2002 Impact and Opportunity, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/deaths.htm xiii Ibid. xiv National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Technical Report on Smoking in State Operated Psychiatric Facilities (in draft), 2006. xv Singer, P.W., Miller, L.H. Modifiable Risk Factors: Environmental, Individual Behaviors and Lifestyle, Presentation, May 2006. xvi Sernyak, M.J., Druss, B., Newcomer, J. Morbidity and Mortality in the SMI Population, Presentation, May 2006. xvii Caballero A.E. Diabetes in minority populations. In: Joslin’s Diabetes Mellitus. LW & W; 2005. 14th Ed. p 505-524. xviii Sernyak, M.J., Druss, B., Newcomer, J. Morbidity and Mortality in the SMI Population, Presentation, May 2006. xix Sernyak, M.J., Druss, B., Newcomer, J. Morbidity and Mortality in the SMI Population, Presentation, May 2006 xx Aubert R. In: Diabetes in America. 2nd ed. 1995. Chapter 1. Rubin RJ et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;78:809A809F. xxi National Cholesterol Education Program. Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III), National Institutes of Health. xxii McEvoy et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia: baseline results from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial and comparison with national estimates from NHANES III. Schizophr Res. 2005 Dec 1;80(1):19-32. Epub 2005 Aug 30. xxiii Kleinfield, N. R., In Diabetes, One More Burden for the Mentally Ill, The New York Times, June 12, 2006. xxiv Singer, P.W., Miller, L.H. Modifiable Risk Factors: Environmental, Individual Behaviors and Lifestyle, Presentation, May 2006. Bartels, S. J,, Caring for the whole Person” Integrated health Care for Older Adults with Severe Mental Illness, and Medical Comorbidity, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52”S249-S257, 2004. xxvi Goff, D. C. et al, Medical Morbidity and Mortality in Schizophrenia: Guidelines for Psychiatrists, J Clinical Psychiatry, 66:2, pages 183-194, February, 2005 xxvii Lalmbert, Timothy J R, Velakoulis, D., Pantells, C., Medical comorbidity in schizophrenia, MJA, vol 178, S 67-S70. xxviii Connolly, M., Ciara, K., Lifestyle and physical health in schizophrenia, Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 2005, vol. 11, 125-132 xxix National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute, 2001.
xxv
i

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Consensus Development Conference on Antipsychotic Drugs and Obesity and Diabetes, American Diabetes Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, 2004. xxxi Sernyak, M.J., Druss, B., Newcomer, J. Morbidity and Mortality in the SMI Population, Presentation, May 2006. xxxii The National Cholesterol Education Program of the National Institutes of Health, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (also referred to as Adult Treatment Panel III or ATPIII) xxxiii xxxiii President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health in America. July 2003. http://www.mentalhealthcommission.gov/reports/FinalReport/downloads/downloads.html xxxiv Daniels, A. S., Adams, N. From Study to Action: A Strategic Plan for Transformation of Mental Health Care. February 2006. www.healthcarechange.org xxxv Get It Together: How to Integrate Physical and Mental Health Care for People with Serious Mental Disorders; Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, June 2004. xxxvi National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care Services: Opportunities and Challenges for State Mental Health Authorities. January 2005. www.nasmhpd.org xxxvii National Consensus Statement on Mental Health Recovery. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services. February 2006 xxxviii Hettler B. Wellness: encouraging a lifetime pursuit of excellence. Health Values 1984 Jul-Aug;8(4):13-7 xxxix Druss, B. Manderscheid, R., Presentation, May 2006 xl Turnock, B. Public Health: What It Is and How It Works, Aspen Publishers, 2001. xli Institute of Medicine. The Future of Public Health, 1988. Public Health Functions Steering Committee, 1994. xlii Turnock, B. Public Health: What It Is and How It Works, Aspen Publishers, 2001. xliii ibid xliv Operational Definition of a Functional Local Health Department. NACCHO, November 2005. xlv Jinnett, K., Alexander, J., Ullman, E. Case Management and Quality of Life: Assessing Treatment and Outcomes for Clients with Chronic and Persistent Mental Illness, HSR Health Services Research 36:1 (April 2001) Part 1, pp 61 – 90. xlvi http://www.ihi.org/ihi/programs/campaign xlvii Druss BG and von Esenwein S. Improving general medical care for persons with mental and addictive disorders: systematic review. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2006 Mar-Apr; 28(2):145-53. xlviii Get It Together: How to Integrate Physical and Mental Health Care for People with Serious Mental Disorders; Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, June 2004. xlix Druss, B., Rohrbaugh, R., Levinson, C. Rosenheck, R. Integrated Medical Care for Patients With Serious Psychiatric Illness, Archives of General Psychiatry, (September 2001), vol 58, pp 861-868. l Bartels, Stephen. Caring for the Whole Person: Integrated Health Care for Older Adults with Severe Mental Illness and Medical Comorbidity, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, (2004), vol 52, pp 249-257. li Reynolds, K., Chesney, B., Capobianco, J. A Collaborative Model for Integrated Mental and Physical Health Care for the Individual Who Is Seriously and Persistently Mentally Ill: The Washtenaw Community Health Organization, Families, Systems, & Health. American Psychiatric Association, (Spring 2006), vol 24, no 1, pp 19-27. lii Boardman, Judith. Health Access and Integration for Adults with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness, Families, Systems, & Health. American Psychiatric Association, (Spring 2006), vol 24, no 1, pp 3-18. liii Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, Gordon DJ, Krauss RM, Savage PJ, Smith SC Jr, Spertus JA, Costa F; Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement.American Heart Association; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Circulation. 2005 Oct 25;112(17):2735-52. Epub 2005 Sep 12. liv PSYCKES, Psychiatric Services and Clinical Knowledge Enhancement System, New York State Office of Mental Health. lv http://www.nasmhpd.org/general_files/publications/med_directors_pubs/Polypharmacy.PDF lvi Summarized, American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(suppl 1):S15-S35; lvii Sernyak, M.J., Druss, B., Newcomer, J. Morbidity and Mortality in the SMI Population, Presentation, May 2006. lviii Eisenstein, S. Excess Morbidity and Mortality in People with SMI: The Role of Comprehensive Healthcare Evaluations. Presentation, May 2006.

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Jinnett, K., Alexander, J., Ullman, E. Case Management and Quality of Life: Assessing Treatment and Outcomes for Clients with Chronic and Persistent Mental Illness. HSR Health Services Research 36:1 (April 2001) Part 1, pp 61 – 90. Lambert, T., Valakoulis, D., Pantelis, C. Medical comorbidity in schizophrenia. MJA (May 5, 2003), vol. 178, pp S67-S70. Lando, Williams et al. A Logic Model for the Integration of Mental Health Into Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Preventing Chronic Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (April 2006). Lando, J., Williams, S. Uniting Mind and Body in Our Health Care and Public Health Systems, Preventing Chronic Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (April 2006). Miller, B., Paschall, C.B., Svendsen, D., Mortality and Medical Co-Morbidity in Patients with Serious Mental Illness, Psychiatric Services (October 2006), vol. 57, no. 10, pp 1482-1487. Nemeroff, C.B., Musselman, D.L. Are platelets the link between depression and ischemic heart disease? Am Heart J. 2000 Oct;140(4 Suppl):57-62. Osborn, David. The Poor Physical Health of People With Mental Illness, Western Journal of Medicine, (2001) vol 175(5). Reynolds, K., Chesney, B., Capobianco, J. A Collaborative Model for Integrated Mental and Physical Health Care for the Individual Who Is Seriously and Persistently Mentally Ill: The Washtenaw Community Health Organization. Families, Systems, & Health, American Psychiatric Association, (Spring 2006), vol 24, no 1, pp 19-27. Rosman, E., Perry, D., Hepburn, K. The Best Beginning: Partnerships Between Primary Healthcare and Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services for Young Children and Their Families Georgetown University National Technical Assistance Center for Children’s Mental Health, August 2005. Salsberry, P., Chipps, E., Kennedy, C. Use of General Medical Services Among Medicaid Patients With Severe and Persistent Mental Illness. Psychiatric Services, (April 2005) vol. 56, No.4, pp 458-462. Sederer, L., Silver, L., McVeigh, K., Levy, J. Integrating Care for Medical and Mental Illness, Preventing Chronic Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (April 2006). Sernyak, M., Newcomer, J., Druss, B., Morbidity and Mortality in the SMI Population, PowerPoint Presentation Simon, G.E., VonKorff, M., Barlow, W. Health care costs of primary care patients with recognized depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1995 Oct;52(10):850-6.

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Consensus Development Conference on Antipsychotic Drugs and Obesity and Diabetes, American Diabetes Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, and the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, 2004. Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III), National Cholesterol Education Program, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Get It Together: How to Integrate Physical and Mental Health Care for People with Serious Mental Disorders. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, June 2004. Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care Services: Opportunities and Challenges for State Mental Health Authorities. National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, January 2005. www.nasmhpd.org National Consensus Statement on Mental Health Recovery. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services. February 2006 www.mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/sma05-4129/

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Appendices

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A. List of Meeting Participants
MEDICAL DIRECTORS Mary Ellen Foti, M.D. Medical Director Department of Mental Health 25 Staniford Road Boston, MA 02114 Elsie Freeman, M.D. Medical Director Behavioral Health Services Department of Health and Human Services 40 State House Road Augusta, ME 04333 Laurence H. Miller, M.D. Medical Director Division of Behavioral Health Services Department of Health and Human Services 4313 West Markham Street Little Rock, AR 72205 Joe Parks, M.D. Medical Director Department of Mental Health 1706 East Elm Street, P.O. Box 687 Jefferson City, MO 65102 Patricia W. Singer, M.D. Psychiatric Consultant Division of Behavioral Health Services Department of Health Harold Runnels Building 1190 St. Francis, Suite 3300N Santa Fe, NM 87505 Dale Svendsen, M.D. (Technical Report Editor) Medical Director Department of Mental Health 30 East Broad Street, 8th Floor Columbus, OH 43215 COMMISSIONERS Michael Crutcher, M.D., M.P.H. Commissioner of Health and State Health Officer Department of Health 1000 N.E. 10th Street Oklahoma City, OK 73117 Mike F. Hogan, Ph.D. Director Department of Mental Health 30 East Broad Street, 8th Floor Columbus, OH 43215 James S. Reinhard, M.D. Commissioner Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation, and Substance Abuse Services 1220 Bank Street P.O. Box 1797 Richmond, VA 23218 NAC/SMHA REPRESENTATIVE John Allen Director Bureau of Recipient Affairs Office of Mental Health 44 Holland Avenue, 8th Floor Albany, NY 12229

NATIONAL ALLIANCE FOR THE MENATALLY ILL Majose Carrasco Director NAMI Multicultural Action Center 2107 Wilson Blvd., Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22201

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EXPERT FACULTY Benjamin Druss, M.D., M.P.H. Rosalynn Carter Chair in Mental Health Department of Health Policy and Management Rollins School of Public Health Emory University 1518 Clifton Road, N.E., Room 606 Atlanta, GA 30322 Steven Eisenstein, M.D. Geriatric Developmental Disabilities Specialist Central Virginia Training Center P.O. Box 1098 Lynchburg, VA 24505 Michael M. Faenza, MSSW Consultant, Mental Health Services and Organizational Development 7231 Old Lantern Way Springfield, VA 22152 Catherine Fullerton, M.D. Department of Mental Health 25 Staniford Rd Boston, MA 02114 Ronald W. Manderscheid, Ph.D. Chief, Survey and Analysis Branch Division of State and Community Systems Development Center for Mental Health Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 2-1089 Rockville, MD 20850 TECHNICAL WRITER / FACILITATOR Barbara J. Mauer, MSW CMC NCCBH Consulting Service MCPP Healthcare Consulting 414 Olive Way, Suite 207 Seattle, WA 98101 Betsy McDonel-Herr, Ph.D. Social Science Analyst Center for Mental Health Services 1 Choke Cherry Road Rockville, MD 20857 John Newcomer, M.D. Professor of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Medicine Department of Psychiatry Campus Box 8134 Washington University School 660 South Euclid Avenue St Louis, MO Bayard Paschall, PhD Chief, Office of Quality Improvement and Assurance Ohio Department of Mental Health 330 East Broad Street, 8th Floor Columbus, OH 43215 Michael J. Sernyak, M.D. Professor of Psychiatry Yale School of Medicine Chief of Psychiatry and Mental Health Service Line Manager Virginia Connecticut Healthcare System 950 Campbell Avenue West Haven, CT 06516

NASMHPD STAFF 66 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 302 Alexandria, VA 22314 Ph: (703) 739-9333 Fax: (703) 548-9517 Kevin Ann Huckshorn, R.N. x140 Director, Office of Technical Assistance Roy E. Praschil x120 Director of Operations

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B. New Freedom Commission: Excerpts Related to Morbidity and Mortality
Goal 1: Americans Understand that Mental Health Is Essential to Overall Health. Goal 1.2 Address mental health with the same urgency as physical health. Understanding that mental health is essential to overall health is fundamental for establishing a health system that treats mental illnesses with the same urgency as it treats physical illnesses. ? Mental disorders frequently co-exist with other medical disorders ? Depression increases the risk of dying from heart disease by as much as three-fold ? People with both diabetes and Depression have a greater likelihood of experiencing a greater number of diabetes complications ? Examine the impact of mental health and mental illnesses on physical illnesses and health ? New studies should focus on innovative and effective ways to enhance the balance between mental and physical health ? Better coordination is needed between Mental Health Care and Primary Health Care ? Improving services for individuals with mental illnesses requires paying close attention to how mental health care and general medical care interact ? While mental health and physical health are clearly connected, a chasm exists between the mental health care and general health care systems Goal 2: Mental Health Care Is Consumer and Family Driven Giving consumers the ability to participate fully in their communities will require a few essentials: ? Access to health care Goal 4: Screening, Assessment, and Referral Are Common Practice ? Specialty mental health providers often have difficulty providing adequate medical care to consumers with co-existing mental and physical illnesses ? Individuals with serious mental illnesses, … have high levels of non-psychiatric medical illnesses and excess medical mortality, this is also a troubling situation Goal 5: Excellent Mental Health Care Is Delivered and Research Is Accelerated ? All DSM-IV diagnostic criteria have an exclusion for “can be attributed to a general medical condition” ? Excellent mental health diagnosis is not possible without screening for physical illness ? The Commission recommends that Medicare, Medicaid, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other Federal and State-sponsored health insurance programs and private insurers identify and consider payment for core components of evidence-based collaborative care, including: Case management, Disease management, Supervision of case managers, and Consultations to primary care providers by qualified mental health specialists that do not involve face-to-face contact with clients. Goal 6: Goal 6.2 Develop and implement integrated electronic health record and personal health information systems.

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C.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s (SAMHSA) National Consensus Statement on Recovery
The 10 Fundamental Components of Recovery
Self-Direction: ? Consumers lead, control, exercise choice over, and determine their own path of recovery by optimizing autonomy, independence, and control of resources to achieve a self-determined life. By definition, the recovery process must be self-directed by the individual, who defines his or her own life goals and designs a unique path towards those goals. Individualized and Person-Centered: ? There are multiple pathways to recovery based on an individual’s unique strengths and resiliencies as well as his or her needs, preferences, experiences (including past trauma), and cultural background in all of its diverse representations. Individuals also identify recovery as being an ongoing journey and an end result as well as an overall paradigm for achieving wellness and optimal mental health. Empowerment: ? Consumers have the authority to choose from a range of options and to participate in all decisions—including the allocation of resources—that will affect their lives, and are educated and supported in so doing. They have the ability to join with other consumers to collectively and effectively speak for themselves about their needs, wants, desires, and aspirations. Through empowerment, an individual gains control of his or her own destiny and influences the organizational and societal structures in his or her life. Holistic: ? Recovery encompasses an individual’s whole life, including mind, body, spirit, and community. Recovery embraces all aspects of life, including housing, employment, education, mental health and healthcare treatment and services, complementary and naturalistic services (such as recreational services, libraries, museums, etc.), addictions treatment, spirituality, creativity, social networks, community participation, and family supports as determined by the person. Families, providers, organizations, systems, communities, and society play crucial roles in creating and maintaining meaningful opportunities for consumer access to these supports. Non-Linear: ? Recovery is not a step-by step process but one based on continual growth, occasional setbacks, and learning from experience. Recovery begins with an initial stage of awareness in which a person recognizes that positive change is possible. This awareness enables the consumer to move on to fully engage in the work of recovery.

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Strengths-Based: ? Recovery focuses on valuing and building on the multiple capacities, resiliencies, talents, coping abilities, and inherent worth of individuals. By building on these strengths, consumers leave stymied life roles behind and engage in new life roles (e.g., partner, caregiver, friend, student, employee). The process of recovery moves forward through interaction with others in supportive, trust-based relationships. Peer Support: ? Mutual support—including the sharing of experiential knowledge and skills and social learning—plays an invaluable role in recovery. Consumers encourage and engage other consumers in recovery and provide each other with a sense of belonging, supportive relationships, valued roles, and community. Respect: ? Community, systems, and societal acceptance and appreciation of consumers — including protecting their rights and eliminating discrimination and stigma—are crucial in achieving recovery. Self-acceptance and regaining belief in one’s self are particularly vital. Respect ensures the inclusion and full participation of consumers in all aspects of their lives. Responsibility: ? Consumers have a personal responsibility for their own self-care and journeys of recovery. Taking steps towards their goals may require great courage. Consumers must strive to understand and give meaning to their experiences and identify coping strategies and healing processes to promote their own wellness. Hope: ? Recovery provides the essential and motivating message of a better future— that people can and do overcome the barriers and obstacles that confront them. Hope is internalized; but can be fostered by peers, families, friends, providers, and others. Hope is the catalyst of the recovery process.

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D. Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care Services: Opportunities and Challenges for State Mental Health Authorities Executive Summary
The National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD) Medical Directors Council developed this eleventh technical paper through a series of pre-meeting conference calls, review of materials and a work group summit of medical directors and commissioners as well as researchers and other technical experts. The work group reviewed current literature, consulted with leading researchers and provider organizations that are successfully implementing integration models for “safety net” populations, and shared examples of efforts underway at state and local levels. There is ongoing research regarding the medical cost offsets that may accrue through provision of Behavioral Health (mental health and substance abuse) as well as Behavioral Medicine services to the primary care population, including early screening for and delivery of Substance Abuse (SA) services in Primary Care (PC)—thus, the report generally references Behavioral Health (BH) services rather than solely Mental Health (MH) services. The discussion considered both population-based and person-centered approaches to care. Recognizing that the emphasis and level of activity will vary from state to state, the report focuses separately on the need for overall system coordination, the needs of persons with serious mental illness, and needs of populations served in primary care. The report integrates two conceptual models that assist in thinking about population-based and systemic responses. The first, The Four Quadrant Clinical Integration Model, is a populationbased planning tool developed under the auspices of the National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare (NCCBH). Each quadrant considers the Behavioral Health (SA and MH) and physical health risk and complexity of the population subset and suggests the major system elements that would be utilized to meet the needs of the individuals within that subset of the population. The quadrants can be briefly described as: I. The population with low to moderate risk/complexity for both behavioral and physical health issues. II. The population with high behavioral health risk/complexity and low to moderate physical health risk/complexity. III. The population with low to moderate behavioral health risk/complexity and high physical health risk/complexity. IV. The population with high risk and complexity in regard to both behavioral and physical health. Additionally, the report references The Care Model, which summarizes the basic elements for improving care in health systems at the community, organization, practice and patient levels. The Care Model was developed by the Improving Chronic Illness Care Program to speed the

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transformation of health care, from a system that is essentially reactive — responding mainly when a person is sick — to one that is proactive and focused on keeping a person as healthy as possible. The Council commissioned this report with attention to: 1. The new role of Community Health Centers in providing behavioral health services and the need for collaborative planning due to this new role; 2. The needs of the people served by state mental health authorities; and, 3. The evidence for integrating behavioral health services into primary care. Each of these are briefly discussed below, along with selected recommendations from the full technical report, which is organized into segments on Overarching Focus: Overall System Coordination (Quadrants I, II, III and IV); Population Focus: Serious Mental Illness/Substance Abuse (Quadrants II and IV); and Population Focus: Primary Care (Quadrants I and III). Each segment includes an overview and discussion of related research as well as detailed action recommendations. Footnotes can be found at the end of the full report.

The New Role of Community Health Centers and The Need for Collaborative Planning
The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Primary Care Integration Initiative is currently being implemented across the country in Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs), more broadly referred to as Community Health Centers (CHCs). Existing sites may apply for expansion grant funding to add BH services. Additionally, all newly funded CHC sites must provide dental, mental health and substance abuse services. Grant applications must specify planned staffing, and if services are to be provided by contract, a copy of the contract. CHCs are making decisions about hiring their own BH staff or contracting for BH services as they prepare their grant applications. As “safety net” providers, CHCs serve a broader scope of patients than just the Medicaid population. Many states focus their public mental health systems on the SMI Medicaid population, with minimal levels of support for non-SMI or uninsured populations— consequently, there isn’t a good match of target populations between the two systems. The recent financing and development of behavioral health services in CHCs was intended to address this gap. Attachment B provides more extensive background information on CHCs. Currently, there is no role for the State Mental Health Authority (SMHA) or the local system in the planning, distribution or coordination of these additional CHC services. The implications for system-wide duplication and competition for the scarce resources of BH staff and funding, as well as the opportunity to improve consumer access to behavioral health and healthcare services, suggests that coordination is a priority at the national, state and local levels. The American Association of Community Psychiatrists has recommended that behavioral healthcare providers at the local level incorporate a systematic program for coordinating or integrating with primary care provider organizations in their communities. Such a program would include, at a minimum:

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? ? ?

Effective means of bi-directional communications with Primary Care Providers (PCPs); Determination of what information is most essential to share; and, Adoption of appropriate confidentiality and consent protocols.

The Overarching Focus: System Coordination (Quadrants I, II, III, and IV) segment of the report speaks to this set of issues and is grounded in the following principle: Increased integration of behavioral health and healthcare services is a priority at the national, state, local and person levels. Good public policy will work to sustain, support and require integration of services between the two “safety net” systems of CHCs and SMHA providers with integration ranging from coordination of care to full integration of medical and behavioral services. Communication is the key to coordinating care for all populations. Future policy should acknowledge the importance of BH/PC integration and support the expectation of communication and coordination at the federal, state, local and person level. The communication and coordination gap exists at all levels, but will require federal leadership to change the current “silo” environment and address cross-cutting issues. The New Freedom Commission recommends the development of a comprehensive state plan across all mental health activities. The guidelines for the comprehensive state plan and waiver submissions should include a requirement to address primary care integration issues: ? ? For persons with SMI, how will health issues be identified and addressed by providers of mental health services? For persons served in primary care, how is coordination achieved at both the system level and the person level, especially in regard to HRSA funded sites?

SMHA Directors, along with the Directors of Substance Abuse, Medicaid, and the Office of Primary Care/State Health Officer, should be convened into a State Integration Team that meets regularly to achieve the following (see the full report for a complete listing of detailed recommendations): ? ? ? ? ? Adopt and disseminate a model HIPAA-compliant release of information form to be used at entry into mental health, substance abuse or healthcare services funded by the state. Review the state Primary Care Strategic Plan prepared for HRSA regarding current and future distribution of CHCs. Review new CHC site and BH expansion applications to HRSA. Develop coordination of financing mechanisms and a shared interest in managing the pools of funding towards better outcomes. Assure that the state Medicaid Plan appropriately reflects all strategies developed.

Recommendations for federal entities include:

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? ?

SAMHSA should amend its matrix to add primary care integration to the areas of top focus for the organization. SAMHSA and HRSA should work together on a site planning tool that intersects with other planning efforts and would be used in the Primary Care Association state strategic plans. This would include consideration of SMHA providers as new FQHC site applicants and provision of technical assistance to them in areas where development of an applicant organization is needed. HRSA’s Bureau of Health Professions and Bureau of Primary Health Care need to spell out a coordinated agenda in regard to workforce issues. HRSA and SAMHSA, along with the Department of Labor (DOL) should develop a master agenda in regard to meeting BH workforce needs, including the focused skills needed in PC settings. SAMHSA, HRSA and CMS should collaborate in policy and financing approaches to establish shared goals for BH/PC Integration and develop financing methods that support implementation of the Care Model in BH and PC settings. The National Associations (NASMHPD, NASADAD, NASMD, NACHC, and NCCBH) should develop a model Memorandum of Understanding for communication and coordination at the state and local level.

?

?

?

The Needs of the People Served by State Mental Health Authorities
Through the evolution of public mental health services, people principally served by state mental hospitals were (and are) provided with health, dental and vision services as well as mental health services. In the community, however, persons with serious mental illness (SMI) frequently have difficulty accessing health, dental and vision services and often rely on emergency rooms (ERs) for their care, which burdens the ER system, results in discontinuous care for the individuals, and may contribute to polypharmacy issues. Many of these individuals also have co-occurring SA disorders. When persons with SMI are able to access healthcare, their medical conditions are often missed; also, their healthcare concerns may not be taken seriously or treated appropriately 1 Research has demonstrated that persons with SMI have high levels of medical co-morbidity. More recently, research has described a relationship between some second generation antipsychotic medications and increased risk for diabetes, obesity and high cholesterol. 2 In some states, as Medicaid or SMHA program eligibility has been restricted, individuals formerly served by the SMHA have moved into CHCs to receive ongoing management of their psychotropic medications, as well as brief counseling services in some sites. CHCs recognize their responsibilities in serving these individuals, but are concerned about being able to appropriately serve the needs of this population. The Population Focus: Serious Mental Illness/Substance Abuse (Quadrants II and IV) segment of the report speaks to this set of issues and is grounded in the following principle:
1

Druss, Rohrbaugh, Levinson, Rosenheck, Integrated medical care for patients with serious psychiatric illness; Archives of General Psychiatry, 58:9; September 2001; pp 861-868 2 Consensus Development Conference on Antipsychotic Drugs and Obesity and Diabetes; American Diabetes Association, American Psychiatric Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, North American Association for the Study of Obesity, Diabetes Care; 27:2, February 2004

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Physical healthcare is a core component of basic services to persons with serious mental illness. Ensuring access to preventive healthcare and ongoing integration and management of medical care is a primary responsibility and mission of mental health authorities. Recommendations for SMHAs include: ? Develop a partnership between the SMHA and the State Medicaid Agency (SMA) regarding opportunities to better manage resources and assure the best clinical outcomes for the populations in Quadrants II and IV. Develop a population-based plan for the healthcare needs of persons with SMI. This should include a set of preventive assessment standards and guidelines for healthcare monitoring. Assign the same SMHA priority to a stable primary care home as to stable housing and medication adherence. Sponsor training for PCPs in treating persons with SMI for medical conditions, including recognition and appropriate treatment of presenting healthcare concerns. Support the creation of parallel service integration models for persons with developmental disabilities and pilot/research these models.

? ? ? ?

There will always be a need for specialty BH services. The SAMHSA specialty BH EvidenceBased Practices (EBPs) are frequently not office-based, but community-based; to assure fidelity, the EBP should be delivered by an individual with specific training, skills and knowledge. Recommendations for delivery system improvements include: ? Adopt the Care Model for organizing and tracking BH services. Demonstrate the ability of the SMHA providers to deliver outcomes comparable to those being delivered by CHCs for healthcare concerns. Assure that assessment of healthcare status is an ongoing component of BH services and that there is a high level of communication between BH providers and PCPs. Recognize that, for the population in Quadrant IV, the BH/PCP/specialist team is the true “medical home” that needs to be developed, based on person-centered and individualized planning and specifically identified responsibilities for each member of the team. Clarify the role of local mental health authorities in provision of a crisis response system that is responsive to all components of the system, including the Quadrant IV population. Support the use of BH case managers to accompany consumers to primary care visits, with the consent of the consumer, to assist in medical advocacy and incorporation of self-care recommendations into ongoing wellness planning. Consider opportunities for SMHA provider and CHC co-location or merger.

? ?

? ?

?

The Evidence for Integrating Behavioral Health Services into Primary Care
Many integration initiatives and research reports have focused on depression because of the broad scope of the problem (more than 19 million Americans each year are diagnosed and treated for some type of depression) and the degree to which it is under-recognized and undertreated in primary care settings (30-40% not identified and about 10% only on

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benzodiazepines 3 ). The cost of depression in healthcare and the workforce has been well documented—among the five conditions (mood disorders, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and asthma) that account for 49% of total healthcare costs and 42% of illness-related lost wages, mood disorders rank third in healthcare costs, first in work loss costs and second in total costs.4 As discussed in detail in the full report, there is a robust body of research about the incidence of depression in the population seeking healthcare services and the interventions that result in improved healthcare outcomes. The Population Focus: Primary Care (Quadrants I and III) segment of the report speaks to this set of issues and is grounded in the following principle: Behavioral healthcare is a core component of essential services to persons seeking primary healthcare. Ensuring access to preventive, ongoing, and appropriate behavioral health service is a primary responsibility and mission of general healthcare providers. The Council recognizes that a focus on Quadrants I and III will be dependent on the context and system development in each state. While the recommendations in the other two focus segments (System Coordination, Serious Mental Illness) are intended for all SMHAs, this segment in intended for use by SMHAs that are additionally planning for the population served in primary care. Recommendations for SMHAs include: ? ? ? Use the State Team and State Plan recommended in System Coordination as the venue for creating a state level framework to provide guidance for local partnerships. Develop approaches in which some financing comes from the SMHA and some from the healthcare system. Develop a response to HRSA PIN 2004-05 (see Attachment B) that explores the funding options from both budget streams, assuming sufficient evidence of cost effectiveness is established. Work with the Medicaid agency to implement and utilize appropriate CPT codes for provision of services (e.g., adoption of the 96150-96155 CPT codes [see Attachment B] or use of E&M codes as appropriate) and describe the clinical professional status and skill sets required for billing. Assure that the models adopted for reimbursement are consistent with the research base (e.g., algorithms, registry tracking, collaborative, and stepped care).

?

?

Recommendations for SMHA providers and CHCs working together to meet the needs of the “safety net” populations include: ? ?
3

Clarify the mission and roles between the organizations and develop specific transfer of care protocols. Explore opportunities to “rent” or place SMHA provider staff in CHCs (see Attachment C).

Ford, D. M.D.,M.P.H., Decision Support/Depression. Power Point presentation to HRSA Health Disparities Collaboratives National Congress, September 2004. Based upon materials from Cole et al and Egener et al. 4 Bartels, S. M.D., M.S, Integrating Mental Health In Primary Care: An Overview of the Research Literature PowerPoint presentation to NASMHPD Technical Report: Behavioral Health/Primary Care Integration—Guidance for Public Sector Implementation Work Group, June 2004

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?

Consider shifting more psychiatry into CHCs, while case management and the SMI evidence-based BH services remain in SMHA provider agencies.

The Council is aware that considerable work is necessary to heal the long-standing “mind-body split”. We hope that this report and its recommendations provide support and direction for those working on the healing process.

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E. The Quality Chasm’s Ten Rules to Guide the Redesign of Health Care
1. Care based on continuous healing relationships. Patients should receive care whenever they need it and in many forms, not just face-to-face visits. This rule implies that the health care system should be responsive at all times (24 hours a day, every day) and that access to care should be provided over the Internet, by telephone, and by other means in addition to face-toface visits. 2. Customization based on patient needs and values. The system of care should be designed to meet the most common types of needs, but have the capability to respond to individual patient choices and preferences. 3. The patient as the source of control. Patients should be given the necessary information and the opportunity to exercise the degree of control they choose over health care decisions that affect them. The health system should be able to accommodate differences in patient preferences and encourage shared decision making. 4. Shared knowledge and the free flow of information. Patients should have unfettered access to their own medical information and to clinical knowledge. Clinicians and patients should communicate effectively and share information. 5. Evidence-based decision making. Patients should receive care based on the best available scientific knowledge. Care should not vary illogically from clinician to clinician or from place to place. 6. Safety as a system property. Patients should be safe from injury caused by the care system. Reducing risk and ensuring safety require greater attention to systems that help prevent and mitigate errors. 7. The need for transparency. The health care system should make information available to patients and their families that allows them to make informed decisions when selecting a health plan, hospital, or clinical practice, or choosing among alternative treatments. This should include information describing the system’s performance on safety, evidence-based practice, and patient satisfaction. 8. Anticipation of needs. The health system should anticipate patient needs, rather than simply reacting to events. 9. Continuous decrease in waste. The health system should not waste resources or patient time. 10. Cooperation among clinicians. Clinicians and institutions should actively collaborate and communicate to ensure an appropriate exchange of information and coordination of care.
Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century, Institute of Medicine, 2001, pp 61-62

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F. Institute of Medicine, Recommendations for Stakeholders
Improving the quality of health care for mental and substance-use conditions:
Direct care supporters should: ? Support consumer decision-making and treatment preferences ? Use illness self-management practices ? Have effective linkages with community resources ? When coercion unavoidable, make the process transparent ? Screen for co-morbid conditions ? Routinely assess treatment outcomes ? Routinely share clinical information with other providers ? Practice evidence-based care coordination ? Be involved in designing the National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) Provider organizations such as clinics, hospitals, and local mental health centers, should: ? Have policies to enable and support all actions required of clinicians ? Involve patients / families in design, administration and delivery of services ? If serving a high-risk population (e.g. child welfare, criminal and juvenile justice) screen all entrants for M/SU problems ? Involve leadership and staff in developing the National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) Health plans and purchasers should: ? Pay for peer support and illness self-management programs that meet standards for consumers with chronic M/SU illnesses ? Use and provide consumers with comparative info on the quality of M/SU services to select providers ? Remove payment, service exclusion, benefit limits and other coverage barriers to accessing effective screening, treatment and coordination ? Support development of a quality measurement and reporting infrastructure ? Require all contracting organizations to appropriately share patient information ? Provide incentives for the use of electronic health records and other information technology methods ? Use tools to reduce adverse risk selection of M/SU treatment consumers ? Use measures of quality and coordination of care in purchasing and oversight State and local policy-makers should: ? Make coercion policies transparent, use information on the comparative quality of providers and evidence-based treatment, and offer consumers choice ? Revise laws and other policies that obstruct communication between providers ? Create high-level mechanisms to improve collaboration and coordination across agencies ? Use purchasing practices that provide incentives for the use of electronic health records and other IT ? Enact parity for coverage of M/SU treatment
72

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Reorient state procurement processes toward quality and reduce the emphasis on grant-based financing mechanisms

Agencies of the Federal government (DHHS and SMHSA) should: ? Identify evidence-based practices ? Develop procedure codes for administrative data sets ? Use evidence-based approaches to dissemination and promote uptake of evidence-based practices ? Assure use of general health care opinion leaders (e.g. CDC, AHRQ) in dissemination ? Fulfill essential quality measurement and reporting functions ? Provide leadership in quality improvement activities ? Improve coordination among federal agencies ? Revise laws, rules, other policies that obstruct sharing of information across providers ? Fund demonstrations to transition to evidence-based care coordination ? Ensure the emerging NHII addresses M/SU health care ? Authorize and fund an ongoing Council on the Mental and Substance-Use Health Care Workforce similar to the Council on Graduate Medical Education (Congress) ? Support M/SU faculty leaders in health profession schools ? Provide leadership, development support and funding for R&D on QI in M/SU health care Accrediting organizations for M/SU providers should adopt and apply standards requiring: ? Patient-centered decision-making throughout care ? Involvement of consumers in design, administration, and delivery of services ? Effective formal linkages with community resources ? Use of evidence-based approaches to coordinating mental, substance-use and general health care Institutions of higher education and those involved in ongoing education and training the existing workforce should: ? Increase interdisciplinary teaching and learning to facilitate core competencies across disciplines ? Facilitate the work of the Council on the Mental and Substance-Use Health Care Workforce Funders of research should support: ? Development and refinement of screening, diagnostic, and monitoring instruments to assess response to treatment ? A set of M/SU “vital signs”: a brief set of indicators – for patient screening, early identification of problems and illnesses, and for repeated use to monitor symptoms and functional status ? Research approaches that address treatment effectiveness and quality improvement in usual settings of care ? Research designs, in addition to randomized controlled trials that involve partnerships between researchers and stakeholders, and create a “critical mass” of interdisciplinary research partnerships involving the usual settings of care
Daniels, Allen. Adams, Neal. From Study to Action: A Strategic Plan for Transformation of Mental Health Care. February 2006

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