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非谓语动词用法对比讲解


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高中英语非谓语动词用法对比讲篇
知识要点: 一、不定式与动名词做主语: 1、动名词做主语往往表示普通的、一般的行为,不定式做主语常表示某次具体的行为。例如: Collecting information about children’s health is his job. 收集有关儿童健康的信息是他的 工作。 It’s necessary to discuss the problem with an experienced teacher. 与一位有经验的老师 讨论这个 问题是有必要的。 2、常用不定式做主 语的句型有: (1)It’s difficult (important, necessary) for sb. to do (2)It’s kind (good, friendly, polite, careless, rude, cruel, clever, foolish, brave)of sb. to do. 3、常用动名词做主语的句型有: It’s no good (use, fun) doing. It’s (a) waste of time one’s doing. It’s worth while doing. 二、不定式、动名词、分词做表语: 1、不定式做表语常表示谓语动词所表示动作之后发生的动作。 His teaching aim of this class is to train the students’ speaking ability. 他这节课的教学 目的是 要训练学生说的能力。 2、动名词做表语是对主语内容的解释,这时主语与表语位置可以互换,动名词常用于口语中。 Its full-time job is laying eggs. 它的(指蚁后)的专职工作是产卵。 3、现在分词做表语表示主语的性质与特征;进行时表示正在进行的动作。 The task of this class is practising the idioms. (现在分词做表语) With the help of the teacher, the students are practising the idioms. (现在进行时) 4、常用作表语的现在分词有:interesting, amusing, disappointing, missing, puzzling, exciting, inspirin g, following 等。现在分词表示进行与主动。 The joke is amusing .这笑话很逗人。 The problem is puzzling. 这个问题令人不解。 5、过去分词作表语表示主语所处的被动状态或完成某动作的状态。而被动语态表示主语所承 受的动 作。 The village is surrounded by high mountains.(过去分词做表语) The enemy was surrounded by the Red Army.(被动语态) He is well educated.(过去分词做表语) He has been educated in this college for three years.(被动语态) 常用在句中做表语的过去分词有: used, closed, covered, interested, followed, satisfied, surrounded, done, lost, decided, prepared, saved, shut, won, completed, crowded, dressed, wasted, broken, married, unexpected 等。 6、注意如下动词的现在分词与过去分词用法不同: interest(使…感兴趣),surprise(使…吃惊),frighten(使…害怕),excite(使…兴奋),tire(使… 疲劳),please(使…满意),puzzle(使…迷惑不解),satisfy(使…满意), amuse(使…娱乐),disappoint(使…失望),inspire(使…欢欣鼓舞),worry(使…忧虑) 它们的现在分词常修饰物(有时修饰人),表示主动,过去分词常修饰人,表示被动(包括某人的 look、 voice 等)。例如: Climbing is tiring. 爬山很累人。
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They are very tired. 他们很疲劳 After hearing the exciting news, he gave a speech in an excited voice. 三、不定式与动名词做宾语: 1、下列动词跟不定式做宾语: want, wish, hope, expect, ask, pretend, care, decide, happen, long, offer, refuse, fail, plan, prepare, or der, cause, afford, beg, manage, agree, promise 等。 2、在下列动词或动词短语后用动名词做宾语: enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid, excuse, delay, imagine, keep, miss, appreciate, be busy, be worth, fe el like, can’t stand, can’t help, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent…(from), keep…from, stop…(fr om), protect…from, set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, ob ject to, pay attention to, insist on 等。 3、在 forget, remember, stop, regret, try, mean 等动词后跟不定式与动名词意义不同,不定式 表示谓 语动词之后的动作,而动名词表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前,常用一般式 doing 代替完成式 havin g done. He forgot to tell me to post the letter.(他忘了叫我发信。) I shall never forget finding that rare stamp on an ordinary envelope. 我永远也忘不了在 一个普 通信封上发现了那枚珍贵的邮票。 Remember to write to us when you get there. 到那里,记得给我们写信。 I don’t remember meeting him. 我不记得见过他。 I regret to tell you that I can’t go to your birth-day party. 我很遗憾告诉你我不能去参加 你的生 日晚会了。 They regretted agreeing to the plan. 他们后悔同意这个计划。 He tried to pretend to share in the pleasure with his friend. 他尽力假装与朋友分享欢乐。 She tried reading a novel, but that couldn’t make her forget her sorrow. 她试着看看小 说,但 也不能使她忘记伤心事。 I didn’t mean to hurt you. 我没有企图伤害你。 A friend indeed means helping others for nothing in return. 真正的朋友意指不图回报地 帮助别 人。 4、动名词作 need, want, require, be worth 的宾语时,用主动式代替被动式。 The washing-machine needs repairing.(或用:needs to be repaired)这台洗衣机需要修理。 The point wants referring to. 这一点要提到。 This English novel is worth reading. 这本英文小说值得一读。 The situation in Russian required studying. 俄国形式需要研究。 四、不定式与分词在句中做宾语补足语: 1、以下动词后跟不定式做宾语补足语: ask, tell, beg, allow, want, like, hate, force, invite, persuade, advise, order, cause, encourage, wait for, call on, permit, forbid The doctor advised him to stay in bed for another few days. 医生嘱咐他再卧床休息几天。 We wish him to remain and accept the post. 我们希望他留下来接受这个职位。(注意 hope 后不跟不 定式做宾补。) 2、有些动词后的复合宾语用不带“to“的不定式,这些动词有:see, watch, notice, hear, feel, make, le t, have 等。例如: We noticed him enter the house. 我们留意到他进了那所房子。 The boss made them work twelve hours a day. 老板让他们一天干 12 小时工作。
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注意当 make、have 不做“迫使、让”讲,而做“制造、有”解时,跟带有 to 的不定式做状语。 Mother made a cake to celebrate his birthday. 妈妈做了一个蛋糕给他庆贺生日。 He had a meeting to attend. 他有个会要开。 3、下列动词后的复合宾语用分词做宾补:see, watch, notice, observe, hear, feel, make, set, have, leav e, keep, find 等。用现在分词还是用过去分词做宾补,要看分词与宾语的关系。例: We heard him singing the song when we came in. 当我们进来的时候,听见他正唱那首歌。 We have heard the song sung twice. 我们听过这首歌唱过两遍了。 五、非谓语动词做定语: 1、不定式做定语放在所修饰的名词后,表示在谓语动词之后发生的动作或过去的某一特定动 作。例 如: He had no house to live in but a lot of work to do. 他没有房子住却有好多活要干。 Our monitor is the first to arrive. 我们班长是第一个到的。 2、动名词与现在分词做定语的区别: 动名词做定语说明所修饰名词的用途;现在分词做定语,表示所修饰名词进行的动作。 a walking stick 拐杖(动名词做定语,意为 a stick for walking) a sleeping car 卧铺车厢(动名词做定语,意为 a car for sleeping) the rising sun 正在升起的太阳(现在分词做定语,意为 the sun which was rising) the changing world 变化中的世界(现在分词做定语,意为 the world which is changing) 3、现在分词与过去分词做定语的区别:过去分词做定语表示完成或被动的动作,现在分词做 定语表 示主动或进行的动作。如: a piece of disappointing news 使人失望的消息(意同 a piece of news which disappointed us) in the following years 在后来的几年中(意同 in the years that followed) a well dressed woman 衣着讲究的女士(意同 a woman who is dressed well) a car parked at the gate 停在门口的小汽车(意同 a car which was parked at the gate) 六、不定式与分词做状语: 1、不定式做状语,只表示目的、结果或原因: He hurried home only to find his money stolen. 他匆忙赶到家中,发现钱被盗了。(结果状语) To make himself heard, he raised his voice. 为了被听清楚,他提高了嗓门。(目的状语) All of us are surprised to see his rapid progress. 看到他的进步,我们都很吃惊。(原因状语) 2、分词做状语可表示时间、条件、原因、伴随、让步、方式: Seen from the top of the hill, the town is beautiful. 从山上看, 这座城市很美。 (条件状语) Coming into the room, he found his father angry. 当走进房间时,他发现父亲生气了。(时间状语) Being tired, they went on working. 虽然累了,但他们继续工作。(让步状语) Having been hit by the big boy on the nose, the little boy began to cry. 由于被大孩子打了鼻 子, 那个小 男孩哭了。(原因状语) He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased. 他把一个手指放进嘴里,尝了尝, 笑了,看起来挺高兴。(伴随状语)

领胜教育赠读

非谓语动词题型讲解
非谓语动词是高中语法的重点,也是难点,学生常常对此感到头疼。其实只要理解并掌握非谓语动词各 种形式的特点,做起题来会很轻松。我们先来看看非谓语动词的各种变化形式。熟悉知道了非谓语动词 形式后,做题时可分四步分析。
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一、分析句子结构 1. ________many times , but he still couldn't understand it . 2. ________many times , he still couldn't understand it . A. Having been told . B. Told C. He was told D. Though he had been told 3. ________to the left , you'll find the post office . 4. If you ________to the left , you'll find the post office . 5. ________to the left , and you'll find the post office . A. Turning B. To turn C. Turn D. Turned 分析:句 1. 用连词 but 引导并列句子,因此,前面也是个独立句子成分,故选 C。 句 2. 句中用逗号隔开,且无连词引导,因此,前面不是句子结构,只是句子的一个成分,故选 A,用 非谓语动词作状语。 句 3. 同句 2,选 A 。 句 4. 前面用 if 引导从句,故选 C ,构成从句谓语。 句 5. 同句 1,选 C。 二、分析逻辑主语 确定要选非谓语动词之后,第二步要分析其逻辑主语。非谓语动词虽不能作谓语,但仍具有动词特点, 其逻辑上的动作执行者就叫做逻辑主语。非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语须和句子的真正主语一致。 若不一致,则须加上自己的逻辑主语。 1. ________no buses , we have to walk home . A. There being B. It were C. There were D. It being 2. ______Sunday I shall have a quiet day at home . 分析:句 1. 表示"没有公共汽车",应用"there be"结构,即逻辑主语是"there",故选 A 。 句 2. 同理选 D。 三、分析语态 分析语态就是在确定逻辑主语之后,分析非谓语动词和逻辑主语在搭配使用时是主动还是被动关系。 1. ______from space , the earth looks blue . 2.______from space , we can see the earth is blue . A. Seen B. Seeing C. To see D.See 这两个题选项中的非谓语动词都没有加自己的逻辑主语, 因此其逻辑主语就是句子的主语。 分析:句 1. "地球"被"看起来",表被动,故选 A,用过去分词表被动。 句 2. 我们"主动看......"即表主动,故选 B。 3. The dirty clothes ______ , the girl hung them up outside . 4. ______ the dirty clothes ,the girl hung them up outside . A. was washed B. washed C.were washed D.having washed 分析:句 3. 前面应用非谓语动词作句子的状语,逻辑主语是"the dirty clothes",和动词搭配表示"衣服被 洗",故选 B。 句 4. 逻辑主语为句子的主语"the girl",表示"女孩洗衣服",为主动关系,故选 D。 四、分析时态,在选定了主动或被动后,还要考虑动作发生的时间问题,即时态。 1. The building ______now will be a restaurant . 2. The building ______next year will be a restaurant . 3. The building ______last year is a restaurant. A. having been built B.to be built C.being built D. built 句 1 中 now 说明大楼正在被修,故用进行式,选 C。 句 2 中 next year 说明大楼将在明年被修,故用表将来的不定式,选 B。
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句 3 中 last year 说明大楼已被修, 但不能选, 因为现在分词的完成式不能作定语, 故用过去分词, D。 选 又如: 1. He stood there______for his mother . 2. ______for two hours , he went away . A. waiting B. to wait C. waited D.Having waited 句 1 表示"站在那等",两个动词同时发生,故选 A 作伴随状语。 句 2 表示已经等了两个小时,发生在谓语动词"went away "之前,故用完成式,选 D 。 需要注意的是,非谓语动词的否定也是常考的项目,要认清否定形式,非谓语动词的否定都应将 not 放 在前面。如: What is the reason for ______there ? A. not your going B. not your go C. your not going D. you not to go 巩固练习: 1. ______won't be of much help .(A) A .Tom's going B. Tom going C. Tom to go D. Tom goes 2. They managed _____the meeting room before the guests arrived. (C) A. finishing to clean B. finishing cleaning C. to finish cleaning D. to finish to clean 3. We must find a room big enough _____.(B) A. for all of us to live B. for all of us to live in C. to live in all of us D. of all of us to live 4. _____a teacher , I should set a good example to students . (A) A. Being B. Having been C. To be D. As I being 5. _____a teacher ,one must first be their pupil . (C) A. Being B. Having been C. To be D. To have been 6. It was stupid _____ your advice. (C) A. for me not to take B. for me not takingC. of me not to take D. of me not taking 7. The teacher told him to speak louder _____by , everybody. (A) A. so as to be heard B. so as to hearC. in order that heard D. in order to hear 8. They suggested _____ the sports meet till next Tuesday. (B) A. us to put off B. our putting offC. us of putting off D. our put off 9. The doctor gave me some medicine , _____ three times a day before meals. (C) A. to take B. to be taking C. to be taken D. I took it 10. Thanking them for their kindness , he said that the old lady really appreciated _____by them. (D) A. visiting B. visited C. to be visited D. being visited 11. _____made her parents very angry . (B) A. Jane's engaging Black B. Jane's being engaged to Black C. Jane having engaged to Black D. Jane has engaged to Black 12. Don't you think it any good_____in public places? (B) A. forbidding smoking B. to forbid smokingC. to forbid to smoke D. forbidding to smoke 13. China is a _____ country and we should introduce _____ science and technology from the _____ countries. (B) A. developed; advanced; developed B. developing;advanced;developed C. developing;advancing;developing D. developed; advancing ; developing 14. _____, the work can be done much better . (C) A. Given more time B.We had been given more timeC. More time given D. If more time had given
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15. _____from space , the earth , with water _____seventy percent of its surface , looks like a "blue ball". (D) A. Seen ; covered B. Seeing ; coveringC. Seeing; covered D. Seen; covering 16. People always shake hands with each other when _____. (C) A. to introduce B. introduce C. introduced D. introducing 17. _____, tears ran down her pale face. (A) A. No word said B. Say no word C. Not saying a word D. Without saying a word 18. Tigers _____ meat -eating animals , _____meat . (A) A. belonged to ;fed on B. belonging to ; feed on C. were belonged to ; feed on D. belonging to ; feeding on 19. We must take measures to prevent our earth _____. (C) A. to be polluted B. from pollutingC. from being polluted D. from polluted 20. As the stone was too heavy to move , I left it _____ on the ground . (C) A. laying B. lay C. lying D. lain.

MBA 联考英语必备语法全突破之非谓语动词篇 非谓语动词的其他考点 1.接不定式或动名词做宾语都可以,但在意思上有区别的动词的用法 mean to do 想要(做某事) propose to do 打算(做某事) mean doing 意味(做某事) propose doing 建议(做某事) forget to do 忘记(要做的事) remember to do 记得(要做某事) forget doing 忘记(已做的事) remember doing 记得(已做过的事) go on to do 继而(做另一件事) stop to do 停下来去做另一件事 go on doing 继续(做原来的事) stop doing 停止正在做的事 regret to do(对将要做的事)遗憾 regret doing(对已做过的事)后悔 如: Mr. Jankin regretted having blamed his secretary for the mistake, for he later discovered it was his own fault. The boy is constantly being told not to scratch the paint off the wall, but he goes on doing it all the same. 2.不定式的习惯用法 句型:cannot help but do cannot but do

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cannot choose but do can do nothing but do have no choice/alternative but to do 上述句型的意思接近,即“不得不做”、“不禁做”、“不由自主地做”、“不能不做”、“只能做”。其共 同的特点是都有一个否定词和 but。如: Nobody can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by the science fiction.When I consider how talented he is as a painter, I cannot help but believe that the public will appreciate his gift. 3.动名词的习惯用法 句型:be busy/active doing sth. have difficulty/trouble/problem doing sth. It’s no good/use/picnic doing sth. have a good/great/wonderful time doing sth. spend/waste time doing sth. There is no point/sense/harm/ use doing sth. cannot help doing sth. There is no doing sth. I know it isn’t important but I can’t help thinking about it. Alice was having trouble controlling the children because there were so many of them. There is no use crying over spilt milk. 4.there be 非谓语动词的用法 (1)做宾语时取决于谓语动词的持续要求。如: The students expected there to be more reviewing classes before the final exams. (expect 要求接不定式做宾语) (2)做目的状语或程度状语时用 for there to be,做其他状语用 there being。如: For there to be successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present. (for there to be…在句中做目的状语) It isn’t cold enough for there to be a frost tonight, so I can leave Jim’s car out quite safely. (for there to be…在句中做程度状语) There being no further questions, we’ll stop here today. (there being…做原因状语)
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(3)引导主语用 for there to be。如: It is unusual for there to be no late comers today. (4)做除 for 外的介词宾语,用 there being。如: He would always ignore the fact of there being such a contradiction in his inner thought

英语语法归纳与精练
根据以往英语取得高分同学的经验和海文英语辅导名师的建议,他们都一致认为英语语法和词汇是学 好、考好英语的重要基础,其实完形填空是对语法、词汇的综合考查,但更关键的是学好此部分有助于 对英语句子结构的分析和理解,有助于学生掌握灵活多变的句式,这样不仅有助于学生做好阅读理解, 而且有助于学生做好英译汉,写好作文。因此,我们在此编写了有关重点语法的知识点,并将陆续登出, 同时将刊登一些试题。希望同学们认真掌握,切不可因不靠它们而忽视了对英语基础知识的掌握。 (一)情态动词 一.情态动词的现在完成式的用法 情态动词现在完成式主要有两个功能:表示已经发生的情况和表示虚拟语气。在这两个方面 must/ mustn’t,;can/cann’t;need/needn’t;may/mayn’t;might/mightn’t;should/shouldn’t; ougtht 等情态动词+完成式表示的意思是有一定区别的 1.表示已经发生的情况。 1)must have+过去分词,表示对已发生情况的肯定推测,译为“(昨天)一定??”。如: My pain apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I me t asked sympathetically:” Are you feeling all right?” [A] must be [B] had been [C] must have been [D] had to be (答案为 C) 2)can’t / couldn’t have+过去分词,表示对已发生情况的否定推测,译为“(昨天)一定没??”。 如: Mary my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now. [A] couldn’t have received [B] ought to have received [C] has received [D] shouldn’t have received (答案为 A) 3)may / might have +过去分词,表示对已发生的事情做不肯定、可能性很小的推测,或事实上根本 没发生,译为“也许??”。如: At Florida Power’s Crystal River plant, a potentially serious leakage of radioactive wate r may have been unknowingly caused by an electrician. 2.表示虚拟语气。 1) needn’t have + 过去分词,表示做了不必做的事,相当于”didn’t need to do”,译为“其实没 必要??”。如: You needn’t have come over yourself. As it turned out to be a small house party, we so formally. [A] needn’t dress up [B]did not need have dressed up [C] did not need dress up [D] needn’t have dressed up (没有必要穿的那么正式,体现是说话者的建议,实际结果是否真的穿的很正式没有确定,答案为 D) 2)should have +过去分词,表示应该做某事但实际上未做,译为“本应该??”should not + have 过去分词表示本不应该做某事但实际上做了,译为“本不应该??”。如:
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I regret having left the work unfinished; I should have planned everything ahead carefull y. 我本来应该事先认真地把每件事情规划的很好,但实际上作者还是没有规划好,以至工作没有完成。 3) ought to have +过去分词,表示动作按理该发生了,但实际上未发生,译为“该??”,与 shoul d 的完成式含义类似。如: The porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke . 4) could have +过去分词,表示过去本来可以做但却未做,译为“完全可以??”。这点与 ought/sh ould/ have +过去分词用法相似。如: What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully. 5) may/ might have +过去分词,表示过去可以做但实际未做,译为“(那样)也许会??”。如: It might have been better to include more punchy statistics and photos of equipment in th e introduction to further assist first-time office automation managers. 二.几个情态动词常考的句型: 1).may/might (just) as well “不妨,最好”,与 had better 相近; Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train. 既然航班已经取消了,你不妨乘火车吧。相当于 you had better go by train。 2) .cannot / can’t?too ?“越??越好,怎么也不过分”。注意这个句型的变体 cannot?over?. 如: You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.驾车时候,越小心越好。 The final chapter covers organizational change and development. This subject cannot be ov er emphasized . 3) .usedn’t 或 did’t use to 为 used to (do) 的否定式。 4).should 除了“应该”一层意思外,考研大纲还规定要掌握其“竟然”的意思。如:I didn’t ex pect that he should have behaved like that. 我无法想象他竟然这样做。 三.情态动词被动关系的主动表达法 1. want, require, worth(形容词)后面接 doing 也可以表示被动意义。 Your hair wants cutting The book is worth reading The floor requires washing. 2.need 既可以用 need to be done 也可以使用 need doing ,两种形式都表达被动的意义 The house needs painting= the house needs to be painted. The watch needed repairing= the watch needed to be repaired. (二) 形容词、副词及比较级最高级 一.形容词的 修饰与位置 一般来说,从构词法角度来看,后缀”ly”往往是副词,但有的以“ly’结尾的词是形容词而不是 副词,这点要注意;形容词一般可以在句子中做定语,表语等成份,但有些形容词在句子中只能做表语 和只能做前置定语;这些形容词在修饰时候有一定的特殊性要引起大家的注意,下面做了一下归纳: 1 以-ly 结尾的是形容词而不是副词: costly 昂贵的 lonely 孤独的 deadly 死一般的 lively 活泼的 friendly 友好的 silly 傻气的 kindly 热心肠的 likely 可能的 leisurely 悠闲的 ugly 长得丑的 brotherly 兄弟般的 monthly 每月的
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earthly 尘世的 2 只作以“a”开头的很多形容词只能做表语: afraid 害怕的 alike 相象的 awake 醒着的 alone 单独的,惟一的 alive 活着的 ashamed 羞愧的 asleep 睡着的 aware 意识到的、察觉到的 well 健康的 content 满意的 unable 无能的 3 只作前置定语的形容词 earthen 泥土做的,大地的 daily 每日的 latter 后面的 golden 金子般的 weekly 每周的 inner 里面的 silken 丝一般的 monthly 每月的 outer 外面的 wooden 木制的 yearly 每年的 elder 年长的 woolen 毛织的 former 前任的 mere 仅,只不过 only 惟一的 sheer 纯粹的 very 恰好的 little 小的 live 活的 4.下列动词既是实义动词又是系动词,注意用做系动词时,要求形容词做表语: remain keep become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, l ook。 如:All those left undone may sound great in theory, but even the truest believer h as great difficulty when it comes to specifics. 二.形容词与副词的比较级与最高级 1. 考比较级时,考生应把握: 1)形容词和副词比较级的形式是否和比较连词对应出现,即是否符合原级比较及比较级的结构。如: Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often , or better than an a ctual performance. [A]as good as [B]as good [C]good [D]good as 在这里 as good as 比较连词与 better than 比较连词同时出现时候,不能省略任何一个介词。答案为 A On the whole, ambitious students are more likely to succeed in their studies than are tho se with little ambition. 2)比较的成分是否属于同类事物或同类概念,既是说比较要具有可比性。如: The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half . [A] of last year’s [B]those of last year’s [C]of those of last year [D] that of last year’s (前后相比的应该是今年和去年注册参加的人数“the number of”故代替它的应该是单数指示代词“t hat”,而不能选择 B,those 是指代 participants,不是同类对比,答案为 D。 Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of dickens far more exciting than Tha ckeray’s. 3)比较级与倍数词关系及其位置 原级结构中可插入表达倍数的词,表示为“为?.若干倍”,当与有表示倍数比较的词在一起时候等,他 们的位置是,倍数词+as?as?,或倍数词+more?than?,但 again 一般放在原级词之后,即 “as+原 级+again+as”.如: Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills people each year tha n automobile accidents.
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[A] seven more times [B] seven times more [C] over seven times [D] seven times (答案为 B) “Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting?”“No, I would gladly have p aid for it.” [A] twice so much [B] twice as much [C] as much twice [D] so much twice (答案为 B) My uncle is as old again as I am 4)下列词和短语不用比较级形式却表示比较概念: inferior, minor, senior, prior, prefer to, superior, major, junior, preferable, differ fr om, compared with, in comparison with, different from, rather than. 如: Their watch is to all the other watches on the market. [A] superior [B] advantageous [C] super [D] beneficial (答案为 A) Prior to his departure, he addressed a letter to his daughter. (1986 年考研题) 5)“比较级+and +比较级”或“more and more/less and less +原级”以及“ever, steadily, dai ly 等副词+比较级”结构表示“越来越??”的意思,与这类结构搭配的常用动词有 grow, get ,beco me 等。前面两种情况更多地出现在进行时态中,注意的是这三种情况引导的比较级后面都不需要用 tha n.如: Things are getting worse and worse. As I spoke to him he became less and less angry. Her health was becoming daily worse The road got ever worse until there was no road at all = the road got worse and worse. 6)比较级前面可以用 even, still, yet ,all the (more)等修饰语用以加强语气, “更加” 表示 的意思。 如 Today it is even colder than yesterday I have yet more exciting news for you 7) 有关比较级的特殊句型: A): not so much?as?与其说??不如说?? The chief reason for the population growth isn’t so much a rise in birth rates a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care. [A] and [B] as [C]but [D] or 人口增长的主要原因与其说是因为出生率的提高,还不如说是因为医疗的进步带来的死亡率下降的结 果。答案为 B B) no/not any more?than?两者一样都不?? The heart is intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the b rain. [A] not so [B]not much [C]much more [D] no more (心脏和胃两者都不具有智力,他们都受大脑控制。答案为 D) There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, they can limit how much water you drink. [A] much more than [B] no more than [C] no less than [D] any more than (答案为 D) C)no/not any less?than?两者一样,都?注意基本上与 no/not any more?than 意思相反
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She is no less beautiful than her sister.她和她姐姐一样漂亮 D)just as? so? 正如??, ??也??(用倒装结构) Just as the soil is a part of the earth, the atmosphere. [A] as it is [B] the same is [C] so is [D] and so is (答案为 C) 2.最高级形式应注意的问题: 1)最高级比较范围用介词 in, over, of, among。 in,(all) over 用于在某一范围内的比较,如:in China, all over the world. of,among 用于在同一群体内同类事物的比较,如 among the teachers,of the four dresses. 注意:among?相当于 one of ?,不说 among all?。这一点考生应与汉语表达区别开来 如: all visible lights, red light has the longest and violet the shortest waveleng th. [A] Among [B] Of [C]For [D]To 答案为[B] 2)比较级形式表示最高级意义时,比较对象的范围应用: any other +单数名词 the other +复数名词 the others anyone/anything else 上述词是用业将比较级结构转变成最高级意义的关键词语,切不可遗漏,尤其是 other,否则会造成逻 辑混乱的错误。如不能说:John runs faster than anyone.注意与汉语表达的不同。 3)most 可以用来修饰形容词或副词,意思相当于 very,用法区分单复数,但不能用定冠词 the,如:a most interesting book, most expensive restaurants, 要注意与 “the +形容词最高级+of + 名 词”的结构表示的最高级的区别,如: He spoke in the warmest of voices They have been most kind to me Basketball is the most popular of sports in this country. Chinese is the most difficult of language Chinese is a most difficult language 三.不用比较级 和最高级的形容词: 1)表示颜色的有:white, black 2)表示形态的有:round, square, oval, circular, triangular(三角形),level 3)表示性质和特征的有:atomic, economic,scientific,sonic, golden, silvery, woolen, earthen, silent, full, empty, sure, dead, deaf, blind, lame, rainy 4)表示状态作表语的有:afraid, asleep, alive, ashamed, alone, aware, alike 5)表示时间、空间和方位的有:daily, weekly, monthly, annual, present, front, back, forward, backward, east, west, south, north, left, right, final 6)表示极限、主次、等级的有:maximum, minimum, utmost, main, major, chief minor, superior, inferior, senior, junior, super, favorite 7)含有绝对概念的有:absolute, entire, whole, total, perfect, excellent, thorough, complete. 四.平行结构与比较级 平行结构很多情况下是由形容词或副词的比较级或者暗含比较意味的连词引导的。如: The ideal listener stays both inside and outside the music at the moment it is played and enjoys it almost as much as the composer at the moment he composes. 大多数情况下平行结构都是具有一定的比较含义的, 有的是递进对比 not only?but (also) ;prefer? to?;rather than 有的是同类对比:and ;but;or;both? and?;either?or?; neither?nor?..
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平行结构测试时候注意以下几点: 1.注意比较结构中相比较的内容在语法形式上是否相同。如: It is better to die one’s feet than . [A]living on one’s knees [B]live on one’s knees [C]on one’s knees [D]to live on one’s knees (答案为 D) Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasi ng it. 2.其他具有并列或比较意义的短语也可引导平行结构。 1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。 如: We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style in a personal style. [A]rather than [B]other than [C]better than [D]less than 答案为 A For the new country to survive, for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic po licies will be required. [A] to name a few [B]let alone [C]not to speak [D]let’s say (答案为 B) 2)如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不要省略。 如: At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements th an into the writing of the features and editorials. (三)代词及其指代一致 一.代词的指代 1.that 的指代作用 that 指代不可数名词和单数可数名词(如是复数,用 those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如出现在比较结 构中的 that of。如 Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listen er, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.这里 that 指代前面的 the role。 No bread eaten by men is so sweet as that earned by his own labor. 2.one 的指代作用 one 指代带不定冠词的单数可数名词,复数为 ones。the one 指代带定冠词的单数可数名词。 如: A good writer is who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way. [A] that [B]he [C]one [D]this 答案为[C] 3.do 的替代作用。 do 代替动词,注意数和时态的变化。如: For him to be re-elected, what is essential is not that his policy works , but that the p ublic believe that it does. 二.代词指代一致问题 代词指代一致是指指代的名词在性、数、格上是否一致,或者所照应的名词词组在某些方面保持一致。 Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious diseas e form its effect. 这里 he 指代前面的 person。 It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway a nd Fitzgerald reached its highest point. 这里 its 指代前面的两人的 friendship。
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Our department was monitored by two supervisors, Bill and me. 这里 me 必须用宾格形式。 代词指代一致必须注意以下几个原则和规律: 1.邻近和靠近原则 由 either ? or, neither?nor, not only?but (also)连接先行词时候, 如果两个先行词在数和性上 保持一致,就用其相应的一直的人称代词;如果两个先行词在数或性上不一致,人称代词一般与邻近的 先行词在数和性上保持一致。 Neither Mary nor Alice has her key with her. Neither the package nor the letters have reached their destination If either David or Janet comes , he or she will want a drink 2.当 each, everyone, everybody, no one ,none ,anybody, someone, somebody 用作主语或主语的 限定词时候,或者 anything, nothing, something everything 等不定代词作主语时候,其相应的代词 一般按照语法一致原则,采取单数形式。如: Everybody talked at the top of his voice. None of the boys can do it , can he? Everything is ready, isn’t it” 3.当主语为复数形式,后跟 each 作同位语时,如果 each 位于动词之前,其后的代词或相应的限定词 用复数形式;如果 each 位于动词之后,其后的代词或相应的限定词用单数形式。如: They each have two coats we are each responsible for his own family 4.由 and 连接两个先行词,代词用复数 如:the tourist and businessmen lost their luggage in the accident (三) 主谓一致问题 主谓一致是指主语与谓语在数上要一致。把握主谓一致问题,考生主要解决的是对不同结构的主语单复 数的认定,进而选择适当的谓语。解决主谓一致主要遵循三个原则: 语法一致原则 意义一致原则 就近一致原则 很多情况下应该综合利用这三个原则来处理主谓一致,在不同情况下可能应用三个原则中的不同原则, 具体应用哪种原则应该视具体情况而定。总结如下: 一.谓语动词用单数的情况 1.动名词短语、不定式短语、名词性从句做主语,谓语用单数。如: Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes ar e rarely the cones that fit him or her. (1987 年考研题) To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far. 2.表示时间、距离、金额、重量、面积、体积、容积等度量的名词短语做主语时,谓语用单数。 Two weeks was too long Five times five makes twenty five 3.一般用 and 连接的两个单词或短语做主语时候,谓语用复数,但是下面用 and 连接的主语表示一 个概念,谓语用单数: law and order 法制 soap and water 肥皂水 a cup and saucer 茶杯碟子 fork and knife 刀叉 the needle and thread 针线 trial and error 反复尝试,不断摸索 horse and carriage 马车 time and tide 岁月
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bread and butter 奶油面包 the ebb and flow 盛衰,潮涨潮落 如: If law and order not preserved, neither the citizen nor his property is safe. A. is B. are C. was d. were 答案:A。 4.表示学科和某些疾病名称的名词是复数形式,作主语时候谓语动词用单数形式 Linguistics is a branch of study on human language. 5.有些名词形式上是复数,意义上是单数,根据意义一致原则动词用单数 The chaos was stopped by the police The news is a great encouragement to us A series of debates between the lectures was scheduled for the next weekend. 6.用 and 连接的成份表示一个单一概念时候,动词谓语用单数形式 Bread and butter is our daily food Time and tide waits for no man 二. 谓语用复 数情况 1. 由 and, both ?and, 连接的并列主语,和 both ,a few, many ,several 等修饰语后面谓语动词 通常用复数形式。 Few people know he and I were classmates when we were at college. 2.集体名词 police, public, militia, cattle ,class ,youth 后常用复数形式的动词 The Chinese people are brave and hardworking The cattle are grazing in the sunshine 3.当表示民族的词与冠词合用当主语,谓语动词用复数形式 The Japanese were once very aggressive 4.某些形容词前面加定冠词表示一类人,做主语时候,谓语动词用复数 The rich are not always selfish 5.不可数名词作主语,其前有表示数量的复数名词修饰时,谓语动词用复数 Three million tons of coal were exported that year 三.谓语动词可用单数,也可以用复数的情况 1. 就近一致原则 这种情况下,谓语动词使用单数还是复数取决于最靠近该动词的主语的单复数,存在这种情况的主要由 以下几种可能: 1) 由连词 either?or?; neither?nor?; whether? or?;not only?but (also) ;or 等连接的 并列主语 Neither money nor fame has influence on me Not only you but also he is wrong 2) 在倒装结构中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主语一致 Blocking the open-sided porch, framed by the enveloping fog, stands a tall grave-faced po liceman. Just outside the ruins is a magnificent building surrounded by tall trees. Although a great number of houses in that area are still in need of repair, there has been improvement in the facili 2. 主语带有(together/along)with, such as, accompanied by, as well as, no less than, except, besides, with, combined with, in addition to , including, together with 等等附 加成分,谓语的数不受附加成分的影响仍然与主语保持一致 Professor Taylor , with six of his students ,is attending a conference in Boston organize d to compare current practice in the United States with those of other nations. The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the p
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urpose of laying down certain regulations. (1981 年考研题) 3.关系代词做主语的定语从句中,谓语的数要与先行词一致。如: Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect t hat are not fully understood. (1996 年考研题) There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do no t bring a return in money to the community. (1990 年考研题) 4.一些表示数量的短语与名词连用时候,谓语动词的数取决于名词的数,名词是复数,谓语动词用复 数,反之就用单数。这些短语包括:a lot of /lots of; plenty of/heaps of; half of; two-third (three-fourth?) of; eighty(ten, twenty?) percent; part of; rest of ; none of 等等 Two-thirds of people present are women Lots of damage was caused by the fire 5.集体名词作主语时,谓语动词的数取决于主语表示的意思和数,当表示整体时候,谓语动词就用单 数,当强调集体中的个体时候,谓语动词就用复数。这些集体名词如:army, audience, band ,govern ment ,group ,flock, police, public ,staff ,team ,troop. Crowd, firm, family 等等 The family is the basic unit of our society The family were watching the TV The audience was enormous The audience were greatly moved at the words 6.某些固定结构中主语与谓语的数: 第一组: a great many + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 a number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 the majority of + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 第二组; the number of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 each/every + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 neither/either of + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 one and a half + 可数名词复数 谓语用单数 第三组; more than one + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数 many a + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数 第四组; the greater part of a large proportion of 50% of one third of plenty of the rest of 谓语的数与 of 后面的名词一致 第五组; (n)either?(n)or?. not only?.. but also ?? not ?..but ?? 谓语的数与主语的第二部分(即(n)or/ but also/ but 引导的后面部分)一致.
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注意比较: More students than one have been referred to More than one student is going to buy this book (四)倒装结 构 倒装是指句子成分不是按主语在前、谓语在后的正常语序排列,而是将谓语或谓语的一部分移到主语之 前。倒装是一种修辞手段,目的是为了强调。倒装分为部分倒装和全部倒装,考试多为部分倒装。考生 应掌握什么情况下需要倒装,并对倒装后的句子能够认出来,避免做题时候的盲目和迷茫。 一. 用全部倒装的情况 全部倒装一般是存在以下列副词开头的句子中,全部倒装的方法是把句子的主谓语序颠倒过来,把谓语 移到主语前面: 1)出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词:out, down, in ,up, away, on。如: Downjumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him. Up went the plane 2)出于习惯用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then.如: Now is your turn. There goes the bell. Here is a ticket for you There existed a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of work 注意:here,there 用于倒装结构时主语一般为名词,如果是人称代词则不需要倒装 “ where is the cup?” “Here it is!” Here you are. There he comes. 3)有时主语较长,为了使句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,主谓要全部倒装。这种情况多出现在主系表结构中。 如: Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life. In between these two extremes are those people who agree with the jury system as a whole, but feel that some changes need to be implemented to improve its effectiveness. 二. 采用部分倒装情况 部分倒装一般是把句子谓语的一部分(主要是助动词或系动词)放到句子主语前,构成部分倒装,而全 部倒装则把句子的谓语(包括实义动词)都放在主语前 1.下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装,: never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowher e, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in vain, still les s。如: Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociol ogists focus on. Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the int erests of the state. (1985 年考研题) 注:1)如果谓语动词是单个实义动词,倒装时需根据人称和时态加助动词 do。如: Little did we expect that he would fulfill his task so rapidly. (1983 年考研题) 2)考生要广义理解“句首”的概念,注意从句的句首和并列分句的句首均为句首。如: Suddenly, Gallup’s name was on everyone’s lips; not only was he the prophet of the momen t, but it was generally believed that he had founded a new and most important method of p rediction. 2.以 only 修饰状语(副词,介词短语,状语从句)开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装:
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only then, only at that time, only once, only in this way, only with, only through, only by, only when, only after, only because。如: Only when you have obtained sufficient data come to a sound conclusion. [A]can you [B]would you [C]you will [D]you can 3.以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装: often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point, many a time。如: So involved with their computers that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games. [A]became the children [B]become the children [C]had the children become [D]do the children become (2001 年考研题,答案为 D) 4.比较从句的倒装: as, than 引导的比较从句中,如果主语是名词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装也可以)。注意: 这种结构主语一般为名词,如果是代词则不倒装。如: Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce. Today’s electuic cars cannot go as fast as gasoline-driven vehicles because the battery d oes not offer the same amount of energy as does gasoline combustion. Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body. 5.用于前面所说的情况也适用于另一人(物)的肯定句或否定句中的倒装 1) 肯定重复倒装用:so They have got up, and so has jack 2) 否定重复倒装用:nor, neither, no more If you don’t agree to our plan, neither will they 6.“not only..but also”结构时,如果 not only 放在句首,则前半句 but (also)句子后面不倒装 Not only did we lose all our money, but we also came close to being broke. 三. 特殊的倒装结构 特殊形式的倒装结构是指句子虽然是倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而往往是出于强调的需要,把强调 部分移到句首,而其它部分顺序不需要改变,句子主谓不需要倒装。出现这样的情况有以下几种可能: 1.让步从句的倒装。 1)as 引导让步状语从句,必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。如: Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job. Brave as they are, they are afraid of fight 2).出现在句型 be+主语+其他,come what may 中。如: While it’s true that we all need a career, preferably a profitable one, it is equally tru e that our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientif ic or artistic. The business of each day selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly. [A] it being [B] be it [C] was it [D] it was (答案为 B) 3) no matter how(who?);however 引导的让步状语从句必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将 被强调的内容置于句首。如: No matter how busy he is , he has to attend the meeting However cold it is , he always goes swimming. 语法测试 1. She said that she __ much progress since she came here.
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A. makes B. made C. have made D had made 2. “What’s the matter, Ali? You look sad." “Oh, nothing much. As a matter of fact, I my friends back home." A. just thought B. have just been thinking C. was just thinking D. have just thought 3. She on this essay for twenty minutes but she has written only about a hun dred words. A. will be working B. worked C. has been working D. will have worked 4. The committee will not make the decision until it the matter. A. has investigated B.investigates C. will have investigated D. investigated 5. Carey didn't go to the party last night because she the baby for her sister until 9:30. A.must have looked after B. would have to look after C. had to look after D. should have looked after 6. four years since John left school. A. They have been B. It is C. It was D. Those are 7.The car at the present speed until it reaches the foot of the mountain at abo ut 4 o' clock this afternoon. A. has gone B. has not gone C will be going D. has been going 8. By the time you arrive in London, we __ in Europe for two weeks. A. shall stay B. have stayed C. will have stayed D. have been staying 9. Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were port rayed . A. had produced B. have been produced C. would have produced D. had been produced 10. The president __ the delegation at the airport but he was taken ill last night, so th e vice-president is going to instead. A. is to meet B. was to meet C. has been to meet D. was to have met 语法测题答案与详解 1.(D) 根据时态一致的原则,间接引语(或宾语从句)的时态应与主句的时态一致。该句中 said 是 过去时所以 that 引导的宾语从句中也要用过去的某一种时态,而从句中 since 引导的时间状语从句表 明其应为完 成时态,故应用过去完成时态。 2.(C) 通过上下文可以判定 Ali 看起来很难受很伤心,是因为刚才在进行的事情所导致的,所以 用过去进行时较好,故(C)是正确答案。 3,(C) 根据句意和时间状语 for twenty minutes,可以判断这里应填入现在完成时态,现在完成 进行时是现在完成时态的强调形式,并且选项中没有现在完成时态,所以(C)是正确答案。 4.(A) 句意表明委员会是在调查事件之后才会做出决定,调查应发生在决定之前,所以应用将来 完成时态,但是在英语中,时间条件状语从句中的将来完成时态是由现在完成时来表示的,所以正确答 案是(A)。 5.(C) 从上下文的逻辑意义看,(C)项是唯一的正确答案。Carey 没有参加晚会,原因是给她姐姐 照看小孩子。而(A)和(D)表示对过去发生的事情根据客观情况作出主观推断:(A)作“准是看孩子了”
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讲;(D)作 “本应该看孩子”讲,都不对,而(B)表示动作发生在过去的将来,也不对,所以只有(C)正 确。 6.(B) 这是一个固定结构(或句型)。本句也可说在"Four years have passed since John left school.”或“has been four years sinceJohn left schoo1.’’ 7,(C) until 引导的时间状语从句用了一般现在时表示将来的意思,主句因此必须用一般将来时与 之呼应,口语中常用将来进行时代替一般将来时表示预料即将发生或肯定发生的事,也可表示某件事已 经决定了。本句完全可以用 will go 因此,正确答案是(C)。 ? 8.(C) by the time 引导的时间状语从句中若谓语动词用现在时,则主句要用将来完成时;若谓语 动词用过去时,则主句要用过去完成时,有时也可以用过去将来完成时。这样,本道题目的正确答案是 (C)。 9.(D) 有具体表示过去某一时间段内业已发生的事件的时间状语,句子应该用过去完成时。 10.(B) 由第一个句子中的 but 引导的转折句中所用的过去时,可以判断总统本要在机场接见代表 团,表示计划要做某事在英语中可以用 be+动词不定式来表达,故正确答案是 B)。

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