GRE 写作 Issue 问题题库分析与提纲 第一类 社会 2. "Competition is ultimately more beneficial than detrimental to society." 归根结底，竞争对于社会是利多弊少。 Generally speaking, competition contributes to progress i
n society. 1. Generally speaking, competition contributes to progress in society. 2. In democratic countries, when parties and candidates compete for power, the public benefits. 3. Admittedly, when competition gets out of the control of mores and laws, society will suffer. 竞争对于社会的优点和缺点 -----------------------------3. "It is more important to allocate money for immediate, existing social problems than to spend it on long-term research that might help future generations."与其花钱进行可能有助于后代的长期 性研究，还不如把钱花在迫在眉睫，已经存在的社会问题上。 Humanity should take into account both long-term interests and short-term interests when making budgets. 1. Naturally, each generation is most concerned about solving problems that immediately confront them. 2. However, what differentiates human beings from other animals is that humans have a sense of future and are morally responsible for the well-being of their descendents. 3. Therefore, as beneficiaries of previous generations, each generation should make its own contribution for the well-being of future generations. 当务之急和百年大计的关系 -----------------------------9. "Academic disciplines have become so specialized in recent years that scholars' ideas reach only a narrow audience. Until scholars can reach a wider audience, their ideas will have little use." 近些年来，学科已经细化到了相当的程度以至于学者们的理念 只影响小范围的人群。除非学者们能拥有影响到大范围的人 群，否则他们的理念将几乎毫无用处。 The speaker oversimplifies the issue of academic influence on society. 1. It is true that academic disciplines have become so specialized nowadays that some scholar’s seemingly idiosyncratic ideas only reach a narrow audience. 2. It is also true that social scientists’ failing to reach the large public makes it impossible for their ideas to contribute to society. 3. Nevertheless, scholars in certain realms are doomed to live in an isolated and purely academic world, which does not necessarily mean that their ideas will have little use. 过分专业化问题 overspecialization -----------------------------15. "The stability of a society depends on how it responds to the extremes of human behavior." 一个社会的稳定取决于该社会对人们极端行为所作出的反应。 It is true that how a society copes with the extremes of human behavior largely determines the society’s stability. 1. The extremes of human behavior--such as violence or strikes--usually dictate grave social troubles. 2. One solution to these social problems is suppressing, which proves effective in the short run and counterproductive in the long run. 3. The most effective way of responding to such problems is constructive communication and sometimes compromise. 抽象型题目 ------------------------------
16. "Although many people think that the luxuries and conveniences of contemporary life are entirely harmless, in fact, they actually prevent people from developing into truly strong and independent individuals." 尽管许多人认为现代生活的奢华和便利是丝毫没有坏处的，但 是这实际上让人们无法成为真正强大和独立的个体。 Agree 1. Consider first the effect of the automobile on our independence as individuals. In some respects the automobile serves to enhance such independence. 2. However, we have become slaves to the automobile. 3. Consider next the overall impact of the automobile on our strength as individuals, by which I mean strength of character, or mettle. 4. In contrast, there is a certain strength of character that comes with eschewing modern conveniences such as cars, and with the knowledge that one is contributing to a cleaner and quieter environment, a safer neighborhood, and arguably a more genteel society. 社会和个人之发展问题 -----------------------------17. "There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even more importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws." 有两种法律：公正的和不公正的。每个社会成员都有责任遵守 公正的法律，但是更重要的是，更应该不遵守和反抗不公正的 法律。 Disagree: 1. First, whether a law is just or unjust is rarely a straightforward issue. The fairness of any law depends on one’s personal value system. 2. The fairness of a law also depends on one’s personal interest, or stake, in the legal issue at hand. 3. Disobeying unjust laws often has the opposite effect of what was intended or hoped for. 4. By justifying a violation of one sort of law we find ourselves on a slippery slope toward sanctioning all types of illegal behavior, including egregious criminal conduct. 社会和个人之法律公正么？ ------------------------------
19. "If a society is to thrive, it must put its own overall success before the well-being of its individual citizens." 如果一个社会要繁荣就必须将社会整体的成败置于单个社会 成员的幸福之上。 Disagree 1. The society is made up of individual citizens; therefore, the development of individual citizens is crucial for the development of the whole society. 2. A society that ignores the well being of individual citizens is bound to end up in social turmoil or revolution. 少数和多数之成功 -----------------------------20. "National governments should devote more of their social programs and services to children than to adults." 任何一个国家的政府都应该为孩子而不是为成人建设更多的 社会项目和服务。 1. 2. No one would deny the fact that it is in the young generation that lies the future of our society. Therefore, we should attach enough importance to the development of children. 1
However, this does not mean that we can ignore the interests of adults, who make up the major work force of our society. 孩子和成人之社会建设 -----------------------------22. "Many people believe that a few individuals or small groups (family, friends, teachers, celebrities, for example) have caused them to think and behave in the way they do. Yet it is always society as a whole that defines us and our attitudes, not a few individuals." 很多人认为只是一些个人或者小团体 （比如家庭、 朋友、 老师、 名人）促成了他们的思维和行动。其实一直以来不是一些个人 而是社会作为一个整体在定义我们和我们的态度。 1. Individuals and small groups also change our attitudes and minds to a large extent. 2. Everyone influencing us is also influenced the society. 3. Internet is playing an ever more significant role in influencing people’s attitude and values. 少数和多数之定义人生 -----------------------------23. "Contemporary technology makes available many small pieces of factual information. As a result, people have become so preoccupied with bits of fragmented information that they pay too little attention to the larger issues and overall perspectives." 现代技术使获得大量细节信息成为可能。其结果是人们全神贯 注于七零八碎的信息而很少去注意更大的问题和全局。 1. Access to great deal of information help people get a wider view of an issue, thus help them prevent being limited in thoughts. 2. Technology helps us pay more attention to the larger issues and overall perspectives. 3. To prevent preoccupation by fragmented information, people should hold right view on information, not to assimilate all, but to percolate relevant ones from those needing only a glance. 少数和多数之细节信息 -----------------------------29. "Public figures such as actors, politicians, and athletes should expect people to be interested in their private lives. When they seek a public role, they should expect that they will lose at least some of their privacy." 像演员、政治家和运动员这样的公众人物应该预料到大众会对 他们的私生活感兴趣。当他们希望受人瞩目的时候就应该至少 预期到会失去一些隐私（被大众得知一些隐私）。 Agree: 1. Intense media attention to the lives of public figures raises a presumption in the collective mind of the viewing or reading public that our public figures’ lives are far more interesting than our own. 2. The media consist of large corporations whose chief objective is to maximize shareholder profit. In pursuit of that objective, the media are simply giving the public what they demand—a voyeuristic look into the private lives of public figures. 3. Nevertheless, the statement should be qualified in that a political figure has reason to expect privacy than other public figures. 少数和多数之公众人物的隐私 -----------------------------33. "Creating an appealing image has become more important in contemporary society than is the reality or truth behind that image." 在当代社会，打造一个引人入胜的外表已经变得比外表下的内 容更加重要了。
I agree that image has become a more central concern, at least where short-term business or political success is at stake. Nevertheless, I think that in the longer term image ultimately yields to substance and fact. 1. The important role of image is particularly evident in the business world. 2. The growing significance of image is also evident in the political realm, particularly when it comes to presidential politics. 3. In the long terms, however, the significance of image wanes considerably. 外表和内容 -----------------------------36. "The greatness of individuals can be decided only by those who live after them, not by their contemporaries." 一个人是否伟大是由后人评定的而非他同时代的人。 1. We do not require a rear-view mirror to recognize artistic greatness— whether in music, visual arts, or literature. The reason for this is simple: art can be judged at face value. 2. In contrast, in the sciences it is difficult to identify greatness without the benefit of historical perspective. 3. In the realm of business, in some cases great achievement is recognizable immediately, while in other cases it is not. 时间先后 -----------------------------40. "Scholars and researchers should not be concerned with whether their work makes a contribution to the larger society. It is more important that they pursue their individual interests, however unusual or idiosyncratic those interests may seem." 我们不应该仅仅关注学者和研究者的著作能否对社会做出贡 献。更重要的是关注他们如何追求实现自己的兴趣，无论那些 兴趣显得是多么的非同寻常。 Agree: 1. Who is to decide which areas of academic inquiry are worthwhile? Scholars cannot be left to decide; nor can regulators and legislators. 2. Secondly, by human nature we are motivated to pursue those activities in which we excel. 3. Thirdly, it is “idiosyncratic” and ”unusual” avenues of inquiry that lead to greatest contributions to society. 少数和多数之科学家 -----------------------------41. "Such non-mainstream areas of inquiry as astrology, fortune-telling, and psychic and paranormal pursuits play a vital role in society by satisfying human needs that are not addressed by mainstream science." 研究界的一些非主流领域，比如星象学、占卜术和意念及超自 然探索，在社会中起到了很重要的作用，因为它们满足了人们 无法从主流科学获得的需求。 1. Admittedly, these non-mainstream areas of inquiry address certain human needs, which mainstream science and other areas of intellectual inquiry inherently cannot. 2. However, because these pursuits are not rooted in reason, they are favorite pastimes of charlatans and others who seek to prey on dupes. 3. Furthermore, without any sure way to evaluate the legitimacy of these avenues of inquiry, participants become vulnerable to self-deception, false hopes, fantastic ideas and even delusions. 少数和多数之非主流学科 -----------------------------46. "While some leaders in government, sports, industry, and other areas attribute their success to a well-developed sense of 2
competition, a society can better prepare its young people for leadership by instilling in them a sense of cooperation." 政府、体育界、工业界和其他领域中的一些领导者将他们的成 功归因于一种高度的竞争意识，然而一个社会还是应该更好的 为那些即将成为领导者的年轻人灌输一种合作的意识。
To make sure that high-profile awards serve the right purpose of society, it is imperative that the rules of the awards be fair and strictly adhered to.
Agree 1. The chief reason why we should stress cooperation in nurturing young people today is that, as tomorrow’s leaders, they will face pressing societal problems that simply cannot be solved apart from cooperative international efforts. 2. The second compelling reason for instilling in young people a sense of cooperation over competition is that effective leadership depends less on the latter than the former. 3. A third reason why instilling a sense of cooperation is to be preferred over instilling a sense of competition is that the latter serves to narrow a leader’s focus on thwarting the efforts of competitors. -----------------------------47. "Society does not place enough emphasis on the intellect--that is, on reasoning and other cognitive skills." 社会对于理性还是重视不够，比如推理和认知的能力。 While the speaker might overlook the benefits of nurturing certain emotions and feelings, on balance I agree that it is by way of our heads rather than our hearts that we can best ensure the well-being of our society. 1. I concede that undue emphasis on cultivating the intellect at the expense of healthy emotions can harm and individual psychologically. 2. In many other respects, however, emphasizing emotions and de-emphasizing intellect can carry negative, even dangerous, consequences for any society. 3. The dangers of a de-emphasis on intellect are all too evident in contemporary America. 独立题目 -----------------------------58. "The increasingly rapid pace of life today causes more problems than it solves." 现代生活越来越快的节奏弊多利少。 Agree 1. The rapid pace of life has resulted in health problems in unprecedented large numbers. 2. Although people today have more leisure time, they are not in a better position than their ancestors to enjoy themselves. 3. More unfortunately, people seem to have become addicted to the rapid pace of modern life. 利多弊少题型 -----------------------------61. "High-profile awards such as the Nobel Prize are actually damaging to society because they suggest that only a few people deserve such recognition." 最高荣誉比如诺贝尔奖实际上是在损害社会，因为这种奖项在 暗示只有少数人才配得上这样的荣誉。 The fact that only a few people deserve high-profile awards is insufficient evidence to suggest that such awards are damaging to society. 1. Undoubtedly, high-profile awards suggest that only a few people deserve such recognition. 2. What is significant is that high-profile awards point out the right directions in which all individuals in particular fields should make efforts.
少数和多数，精英和大众 ----------------------------65. "People have been so encouraged by society to focus on apparent differences that they fail to see meaningful similarities among ideas, individuals, and groups." 人们被社会鼓励而将注意力集中于显而易见的差异上，以至于 人们已经无法看到各种理念、个人和群体之间的有意义的相 似。 People in different cultural environments would respond differently to this statement. 1. On the one hand, western cultures tend to focus on differences among ideas, individuals and groups. 2. The danger of traditional societies, on the other hand, is to ignore differences forcing individuals and groups to conform to one authority. 3. A healthy attitude is to be sensitive to both differences and similarities. 统一和差异 -----------------------------70. "In any profession--business, politics, education, government--those in power should step down after five years. The surest path to success for any enterprise is revitalization through new leadership." 在任何领域中----商业、政治、教育、政府----掌权者应该在五 年后就让位。这是任何机构获得成功的最好的方式：通过更新 领导者而保持活力。 Limiting the term of leadership is an effective way to prevent corruption and lack of initiatives. 1. When leaders have no fear of losing their power, they tend to abuse their power. 2. A new leadership usually has greater initiative and would bring in new ideas. 3. However, in certain realms such as business it might not be so necessary to limit the term of leadership. 4. Furthermore, new leaders often lack the necessary skill and experience to cope with existing problems; therefore, they need a period of time for adaptation. 新手和老手 -----------------------------72. "One can best understand the most important characteristics of a society by studying its major cities." 人们可以通过研究一个社会的主要城市来了解它最重要的特 点。 It is no longer true the major cities are characteristic of a society. 1. Major cities used to be the cultural centers of a society. 2. Nowadays, however, due to the influence of globalization, major cities throughout the world look more or less the same. 3. By contrast, the rural areas of a society maintain more of its cultural tradition. 少数和多数之以小见大 -----------------------------76. "Truly profound thinkers and highly creative artists are always out of step with their time and their society." 真正深刻的思想家和充满创造力的艺术家总是超前于他们所 在的时代和社会的。 To be more exact, great thinkers and artists are generally out of step with their time and society. 1. Many great artists remained obscure all their lives.
There are countless examples of original thinkers who were either ignored or misunderstood by their time and their society. 3. However, there are cases of greater thinkers or artists who were recognized and rocketed to instant fame in their own time and their own society. 另类天才 -----------------------------77. "People today are too individualistic. Instead of pursuing self-centered, separate goals, people need to understand that satisfaction comes from working for the greater good of the family, the community, or society as a whole." 现在的人们太个人主义了。与其追求以个人为中心和孤立的目 标，人们更需要明白满足是源于为家庭、社区或者整个社会的 更大利益的服务。 Extreme individualism has become a serious threat to the social fabric and the welfare of all members of society. 1. Some people may claim that the greater good of the family, the community or society lies in the good of the individual, which justifies the pursuit of self-interests. 2. The problem daunting contemporary society is that egoism as run wild. 3. Today there is every need for the society to encourage individuals to work for the interests of others. 少数和多数 -----------------------------89. "Leaders are created primarily by the demands that are placed upon them." 领导者主要是由身负的责任所造就的。 Generally speaking, leaders are the results of a combination of internal qualities and external conditions. 1. The demands place upon a person could challenge him or her to become a leader. 2. However, the statement seems to suggest that anybody can become a leader if demands are placed on him or her, which is unwarranted. 3. Besides opportunities, one also need to have certain qualities to make a leader. 时势造英雄 -----------------------------93. "The concept of 'individual responsibility' is a necessary fiction. Although societies must hold individuals accountable for their own actions, people's behavior is largely determined by forces not of their own making." 个人责任的概念是一种很必要的虚构。尽管社会必须让个人对 他们自己的行为负责，但是人们的行为很大程度上不是自己能 够左右的。 1. The claim that individual responsibility is a necessary fictions has some merit in that a society where individuals are not held accountable for their actions and choices is a lawless one, devoid of any order whatsoever. 2. A correlative argument for individual responsibility involves the fact that lawless, or anarchist, states give way to despotic rule by strong individuals who seize power. 3. As for the speaker’s second claim, it flies in the face of our everyday experiences in making choices and decisions. 少数和多数之个人责任 -----------------------------113. "It is primarily through our identification with social groups that we define ourselves." 如果我们要定位自己最重要是要定位自己所处的社会团体。
I strongly agree that we define ourselves primarily through our identification with social groups, as the speaker asserts. 1. Any developmental psychologist would agree that socialization with other children plays a critical role in any child’s understanding and psychological development of self. 2. As children progress to the social world of the playground and other after-school venues, their earlier recognition that they relate more closely to some people than to others evolves into a desire to form well-defined social groups, and to set these groups apart from others. 3. However, as young adults take on the responsibilities of partnering, parenting, and working, they appear to define themselves less by their social affiliations and more by their marital status, parental status, and occupation. -----------------------------120. "So much is new and complex today that looking back for an understanding of the past provides little guidance for living in the present." 现代社会是如此的崭新和复杂以至于回首了解过去对于当代 生活已经没有太大帮助了。 Even though history offers few foolproof panaceas for living today, the author’s claim that today’s world is so unique that the past is irrelevant is too radical. 1. Admittedly, history has helped us learn the appropriateness of addressing certain social issues, particularly moral ones, on a societal level. However, the only firm lesson from history about social ills is that they are here to stay.
现在和过去 -----------------------------126. "Society's external rewards are no measure of true success. True success can be measured only in relation to the goals one sets for oneself." 社会给予的客观奖励并不能衡量真正的成功。真正的成功只能 是取决于一个人为他自己设定的目标。 Success should be gauged on a personal base. 1. Society’s external rewards can only be regarded as society’s recognition of one’s contribution to society. 2. For an individual person, a correct attitude is to gauge success in relation to the goals one sets for oneself. 3. Overemphasizing the social criterion of success tends to belittle the worth of an individual. 客观和主观 ------------------------------
133. "The problems of modern society have led many people to complain: 'We live in terrible times.' Yet, given the choice, no one today would prefer to live in any other time." 现代社会的问题是很多人都在抱怨：“我们生活在一个可怕的 时代。”但是假设让他们选择的话，现在的人们仍然会选择现 在而不是其他的时代。
We live in the best time of history. 1. Firstly, our living conditions today are superior to those of any past generations. 2. Secondly, technologies have made it possible for men to work under much more comfortable working conditions today than before. 3. Most of the problems troubling us today have been troubling human beings for a long time. 时间 -----------------------------4
140. "What society has thought to be its greatest social, political, and individual achievements have often resulted in the greatest discontent." 被社会自诩为是它最伟大的社会、政治和个人成就的东西结果 往往带来最大的非议。 Agree with concession: 1. With respect to individual achievements, great achievers are by nature ambitious people and therefore tend to be dissatisfied and discontent with their accomplishments—no matter how great. 2. Individual achievements can often result in discontent on a societal level. 3. Turning from individual achievements to societal, including political, achievements, the extent to which great achievement have caused discontent often depends on one’s perspective. 社会和人民大众 ------------------------------
businesses additional duties to society in which they operate can, paradoxically, harm that society. 2. Secondly, by affirming that profit maximization within legal bounds is the most ethical behavior possible for business, more private enterprises and individuals will be encouraged enter the marketplace in the quest of profits. 3. On the other hand are compelling arguments for holding business executives to certain responsibilities in addition to profit maximization and to compliance with the letter of law. ------------------------------160. "The most essential quality of an effective leader is the ability to remain consistently committed to particular principles and objectives. Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little." 对于一位强有力的领导者来说，最关键的能力就是要对一些原 则和目标坚定不移。任何领导如果很频繁的、很轻易的为大众 意志而转移的话，他将会一事无成。 In addressing the issue it is helpful to consider, in turn, three distinct forms of leadership: business, political and social-spiritual. 1. In the business realm, effective leadership is generally defined, at least in our corporate culture, as that which achieves the goal of profit maximization for a firm’s shareholders or other owners. 2. In the political realm, stubborn adherence to one’s objective in the short term might serve a political leader’s interest in preserving his or her power, yet in the long term such behavior invariably results in that leader’s downfall. 3. Socio-spiritual leadership, in order to be effective, inherently requires that the leader remain steadfastly committed to principle. 少数和多数之领导与大众 -----------------------------170. "The surest indicator of a great nation is not the achievements of its rulers, artists, or scientists, but the general welfare of all its people." 一个伟大国家最真实的体现不是它的统治者、艺术家或者科学 家的成就，而是他所有老百姓的普通福利（幸福）。 1. Admittedly, the overriding imperative of any democratic state is to enhance the general welfare of its citizenry. Yet the speaker fails to provide a clear litmus test for measuring that welfare. 2. Many scientific achievements serve to enhance a nation’s general welfare. 3. Artistic achievement is also needed to make a nation a better place for humans overall. 4. We should also be careful not to hastily assume that a nation is necessarily great merely by virtue of the achievements of individual citizens. 社会精英和人民大众 the general welfare -----------------------------171. "People who pursue their own intellectual interests for purely personal reasons are more likely to benefit the rest of the world than are people who try to act for the public good." 能够造福社会的是那些纯粹出于个人原因而追求自己兴趣知 识的人，而不是那些打算为大众谋福利的人。 Agree 1. By human nature we are motivated to pursue activities in which we excel. 2. Secondly, it is unusual avenues of personal interest that most often lead to the greatest contributions to society. 3. Thirdly, to adopt a view that runs contrary to the speaker’s position would be to sanction certain intellectual pursuits 5
142. "The well-being of a society is enhanced when many of its people question authority." 当很多人都质疑权威的时候社会就会繁荣昌盛。 Agree with concession: 1. Admittedly, when many people question authority, some societal harm might result, even if a social cause is worthy. 2. While violence is rarely justifiable as a means of questioning authority, peaceful challenges to political and legal authority, by many people, are not only justifiable but actually necessary when it comes to enhancing and even preserving society’s well-being. 3. Questioning authority is also essential for advances in the sciences. 4. Similarly, in the arts, people must challenge established styles and forms rather than imitate them; otherwise, no genuinely new art would ever emerge, and society would be worse off. ------------------------------
149. "The most practical and effective way to protect wilderness areas is to attract more tourists to these areas through environmentally sensitive projects." 保护野生环境最实际和最有效的途径就是通过环保的（旅游） 项目吸引更多的旅游者来这些地区（旅游）。
Disagree 1. Tourists swarming to visit the environmentally sensitive projects may pose a serious threat to the wildness areas. 2. The most practical and effective way to protect wilderness areas is to leave those places to take care of themselves. 环保和旅游的关系 -----------------------------152. "The only responsibility of corporate executives, provided they stay within the law, is to make as much money as possible for their companies." 公司的经营者们唯一的责任就是在法律规定范围之内为他们 的公司赚尽可能多的钱。 In several respects this position has considerable merit; yet it ignores certain compelling arguments for imposing on businesses additional obligations to the society in which they operate. 1. On the one hand are convincing arguments that profit maximization within the bounds of the law should be a business executive’s sole responsibility. First, imposing on
while proscribing others—which smacks of thought control and political oppression. 个人和整体之动机 -----------------------------174. "Laws should not be rigid or fixed. Instead, they should be flexible enough to take account of various circumstances, times, and places." 法律不应该是僵化或固定的，而应该根据不同的环境、时期和 地点而足够灵活。 1. On the one hand, a certain measure of consistency, stability and predictability in our laws is required in order for us to understand our legal obligations and rights as we go about our day-to-day business as a society. 2. On the other hand, rigid laws can result in unfairness if applied inflexibly in all places at all times. 法律的灵活性 -----------------------------178. "It is possible to pass laws that control or place limits on people's behavior, but legislation cannot reform human nature. Laws cannot change what is in people's hearts and minds." 通过法律可以控制或者限制人们的行为，但是立法是无法改变 人类本性的。法律无法改变人们的感情和思想。 It is necessary to realize the limits of law when we hail “rule by law”. 1. Common tells us that without laws, society would fall into a state of chaos. 2. However, legislation cannot reform human nature. 3. Society should depend on education to cultivate people’s hearts and minds. -----------------------------180. "Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated." 现代社会的很多问题是法律和立法系统无法解决的，因为道德 行为是无法用法律约束的。 I agree with this assertion insofar as it relates to constraints on certain personal freedoms. However, when it comes to the conduct of business, I think that moral behavior not only can but must be legislated for the purpose of alleviating societal problems. 1. Morality laws that impinge upon freedom of choice about our personal lives—to control what we do with and to ourselves—simply do not work in a democratic society. 2. Morality laws impinging on personal freedoms are not made any more useful or effective by purporting to serve the greater good of society, because on balance their costs far outweigh their benefits. 3. In sharp contrast to personal behavior, the behavior of businesses can and must be controlled through legislation. 道德和法律 -----------------------------185. "Scandals--whether in politics, academia, or other areas--can be useful. They focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could." 丑闻----无论是政治、学术还是其他领域----可能会是有用的。 丑闻可以用演说家或者改革家无法使用的手段让我们注意到 某些问题。 1. On the one hand, scandals can sometimes serve to call our attention to pervasive social or political problems that we would otherwise neglect. 2. On the other hand, scandals can sometimes serve chiefly to distract us from more pressing community or societal problems.
-----------------------------193. "It is not the headline-making political events but the seldom-reported social transformations that have the most lasting significance." Transformation: change 真正具有长远意义的，不是那些被炒作的政治事件，而是那些 鲜有报道的社会变化。 Agree 1. The headline-making “sensational” political events are often superficial and short-lived. 2. The commercial interests of the mass media determine their preoccupation with the news value of events rather than the social value of events. 3. Social transformations usually take place slowly, and are hard to notice at their beginning.
-----------------------------198. "Instead of encouraging conformity, society should show greater appreciation of individual differences." Conformity: agreement 社会应该多一些鼓励个人间的差异而不是统一。 There is no doubt that society should encourage individuals to stand out to show their unique character and qualities. 1. Conformity leads to the death of creativity. 2. A society that encourages individual differences will benefit from the creations and vitality of its people. 3. “Whatever crushes individuality is despotism, by whatever name it may be called.” (John Stuart Mill) -----------------------------203. "The best way to understand the character of a society is to examine the character of the men and women that the society chooses as its heroes or its heroines." 了解一个社会特点最好的方法是去考察被这个社会视为英雄 的人们的特点。 1. 2. First consider the sports hero, whom in my observation society chooses not merely by virtue of athletic prowess. Next consider the military hero, who gains heroic stature by way of courage in battle, or by otherwise facing certain defeat and emerging victorious. On the other hand, consider a third type of hero: the champion of social causes who inspires and incites society to meaningful political and social change.
-----------------------------220. "The increase in knowledge is forcing people to specialize. As a result, the distance between fields of specialization has become so vast that specialists in different areas are rarely able to influence each other." 知识的增加促使了人们的专业化。其结果是不同的专业化领域 之间的差异变得越来越大以至于各个领域中的专业人员很少 能够互相影响了。 Overspecialization in the academic world is liable to exert negative impacts on academic research in various fields, which makes it necessary for education to encourage interdisciplinary studies. 1. The dramatic increase in knowledge today has made it impossible for any one to keep pace with the latest developments in all academic fields. 2. As a result, specialists in different areas tend to focus only on their own area of study. 3. However, this overspecialization is harmful not only academically but also socially. 6
Schools should aim at cultivating not only specialists but also generalists. 少数和多数的关系之专业化 -----------------------------242. "Societies should try to save every plant and animal species, regardless of the expense to humans in effort, time, and financial well-being." 社会应该以不计人类的努力、时间和金钱为代价，尝试挽救每 一个动植物物种。 There is no need to save every plant and animal species regardless of the human costs. 1. The history of natural evolution has witnessed the extinction of some plants and animals species, which did not result in any harm to the environment. 2. Of course, if scientists can more or less prove that the extinction of a certain plant or species will cause some disastrous chain effects, we should make every effort to save it. 3. The primary responsibility of humans is to try to maintain the environment at its natural state, and then let nature do the rest job. 人类和物种 ------------------------------
1. 2. 3.
Different viewpoints interconnect with each other. Only after careful comparison can we reach the soul of the idea. Doubts and contrasting views can provide valuable use for reverences to our learning. History is replete with illustrative cases in which doubts and contrasting views contribute to the consummation of our knowledge.
-----------------------------21. "Reform is seldom brought about by people who are concerned with their own reputation and social standing. Those who are really in earnest about reforming a government, an educational system, or any other institution must be willing to be viewed with disdain by the rest of the world." 改革几乎从来都不是由那些关心自己声誉和社会地位的人发 起的。那些真正热衷于政府改革、教育改革和其他机构改革的 人们一定都是甘于被他人轻视的。 1. 2. Reform means the redistribution of benefits of various levels; therefore, resist and dissatisfaction is inevitable. Those who are not really in earnest about reform will retreat when facing difficulties in a reform.
244. "Most societies do not take their greatest thinkers seriously, even when they claim to admire them." 大多数社会都没把最伟大的思想家当回事，虽然有时候这些社 会自称是求才若渴的。 Great thinkers are often wronged or ignored in many societies. 1. Confucius is regarded as a great thinker in China, but today few people pay much attention to what he actually said. 2. John Dewey was one of the greatest thinkers in American history, but few Americans including scholars know much about him. 3. In ancient Greece, the great thinker Socrates was sentenced to death. 社会和思想家
25. "Anyone can make things bigger and more complex. What requires real effort and courage is to move in the opposite direction--in other words, to make things as simple as possible." 任何人都可以把事情简单复杂化，但是需要真正努力和勇气的 恰恰相反，也就是说应该把事情变得尽可能的简单。 1. 2. 3. The statement brings immediately to mind the ever-growing and increasingly complex digital world. Lending even more credence to the statement is the so-called “big government” phenomenon. Adding further credibility to the statement is the tendency of most people to complicate their personal lives.
第二类 行为类 12. "People's attitudes are determined more by their immediate situation or surroundings than by any internal characteristic." 人们的态度更多的是由临时的情况或者环境所决定，而非人们 自身的特点。 Social environment does plays a more important role in forming a person’s attitudes. 1. Admittedly, people’s inborn temperament does play an important role in their attitudes. 2. However, more often than not, people’s attitudes are largely influenced by their immediate situation or surroundings. 3. It should also be noted that external factors not only influence people’s attitudes, but also shape their characters. -----------------------------18. "Only by being forced to defend an idea against the doubts and contrasting views of others does one really discover the value of that idea." 只有通过排除异议和对照其他的观点来捍卫一个理念，人们才 能真正的发现该理念的价值所在。 Agree
27. "No one can possibly achieve success in the world by conforming to conventional practices and conventional ways of thinking." 这个世界上没有人能够靠墨守陈规（行动或者思维上的）而获 得成功。 1. 2. Traditional ways of thinking are treasures which will prevent us from wasting time and energy on trial things. However, we can create nothing if we are only confined to the conventional experience.
新手和老手之墨守成规和成功 -----------------------------31. "Money spent on research is almost always a good investment, even when the results of that research are controversial." 花在研究上的资金基本上都是不错的投资，即使研究的结果是 有争议的。 Disagree with concession: 1. I concede that the speaker is on the correct philosophical side of this issue. After all, research is the exploration of the 7
unknown for answers to our questions, and for lasting solutions to our endure problems. While we must invest in research irrespective of whether the results might be controversial, at the same time we should be circumspect about research whose objectives are too vague and whose potential benefits are too speculative. No amount of research can completely solve the enduring problems of war, poverty and violence, for the reason that they stem from the certain aspects of human nature—such as aggression and greed.
2. 3. 4.
A common characteristic of contemporary society is that people everywhere are concerned about how to attain success. Success is commonly understood as material gains. However, success does not ensure happiness. “Successful” people often ignore the interests and needs of other people, which renders their “success” meaningless.
Attain and sustain 打江山容易，保江山难 -----------------------------68. "People make the mistake of treating experts with suspicion and mistrust, no matter how valuable their contributions might be." 人们经常错误的猜疑和不信任专家，无论专家们的贡献是多么 的有价值。 Expert’s opinions should be evaluated objectively. 1. Generally speaking, experts’ opinions are comparatively more trustworthy than ordinary people’s when it comes to solving problems that require special expertise. 2. The reality of our society is that people tend to take for granted whatever experts say. 3. It is possible that sometimes experts do make mistakes which ordinary people can correct. 怀疑权威 -----------------------------71. "Spending time alone makes one a better companion to others." 学会独自消磨时光会使你更好地成为别人的伙伴。
现实和理想 -----------------------------35. "No matter what the situation, it is more harmful to compromise one's beliefs than to adhere to them." 无论在什么样的情况下，折衷自己的信仰要比坚持有害。 1. Having a belief is a good thing for an individual in a certain degree in the form of spiritual support. However, if the belief goes too extreme and even influences people’s life and family negatively, it is best to reconsider whether the belief worth so much persistence. Choosing to compromise does not mean that we have to give up our original belief. On the contrary, we are finding a better way to perfect our belief.
37. "In most societies, competition generally has more of a negative than a positive effect." 在大多数社会中，竞争一般是弊多利少。 Disagree 1. Competition benefits the general public by providing people with cheaper products and better service. 2. Competition spurs innovation and invention, bringing new products and technology to multitudes. 3. Admittedly, we should notice the side effect of competition, which are shrinking profit, dishonesty, etc. 利多弊少之竞争 -----------------------------62. "The widespread idea that people should make self-improvement a primary goal in their lives is problematic because it assumes that people are intrinsically deficient." 认为人们应该把自我进步当做是人生头等大事的流行观点是 有问题的，因为这样的观点在假设人们是天生就有缺陷的。 Disagree 1. On the one hand, admitting that we are deficient is the first step towards progress. 2. On the other hand, smugness only leads to stagnancy. 3. A serious problem with modern society is that too many people fail to realize the need for self-improvement. 独立题目 -----------------------------64. "Many people know how to attain success, but few know how to make the best use of it." 很多人懂得如何去获得成功，但是很少有人知道如何最好的去 利用成功。
Agree 1. Admittedly, habitually isolating oneself from others does not automatically make one a better companion. 2. However, people who think and work independently will be able to bring new ideas and new perspectives to others. 3. One’s loneliness makes one crave for and cherish the opportunity to stay with others. 人际关系之个人时间和公众时间 -----------------------------74. "The most effective way to communicate an idea or value to large groups of people is through the use of images, not language." 和一大群人交流想法或者价值观的最有效方式是图像而非语 言。 The use of images is not always more effective than that of language. 1. On the one hand, images are more vivid and easier for the largest audience to comprehend. 2. On the other hand, images tend to cause ambiguities. 3. The most effective way of communication is combing the use of images and that of language. 独立题目 -----------------------------75. "The people who make important contributions to society are generally not those who develop their own new ideas, but those who are most gifted at perceiving and coordinating the talents and skills of others." 对社会做出重要贡献的人往往不是那些发展自己新想法的人， 而是那些最善于察觉和调控他人天赋和技术的人。 Generally speaking, the progress of society depends more on the contributions of leaders rather than the ordinary masses.
It should be admitted that individual thinkers and scientist make important contributions to society. However, history is filled with examples that indicate the dramatic contributions to society made by the people who are capable of leading others toward a common goal. Today, progress in every field is impossible without the joined efforts of individuals—through the coordination of leaders.
Beginners have intense curiosity about the unknown and great courage to try new things, while experienced experts tend to be more conservative. 2. Furthermore, beginners are highly motivated and enthusiastic people who are eager to establish their career and fame. 新手和老手 -----------------------------91. "Most people think that their deeply held values are the result of rational choice, but reason often has little to do with the way people form values." 大多数人认为他们深信不疑的价值观是理性选择的结果，但是 理智往往对于人们形成价值观几乎根本不起作用。 Individual’s deeply held values are usually not the result of rational choice, but the result of socialization. 1. It is the culture in which we live that provides us with the values. 2. Most people simply adopt the values instilled by their culture. 3. It is necessary to question the established values within a certain society. 理性和感性之价值观 -----------------------------95. "People work more productively in teams than individually. Teamwork requires cooperation, which motivates people much more than individual competition does." 人们在团队中工作比独立工作要更加有效率。团队协作需要的 合作能够比个人间的竞争更加激励人们。 1. In some jobs productivity clearly depends on the ability of coworkers to cooperate as members of a team. 2. In other types of jobs individual competition, tenacity and ambition are key to productivity. 3. On balance, however, my view is that cooperation is more crucial for an organization’s long-term productivity than individual competition. 竞争和合作之效率 -----------------------------99. "In any realm of life--whether academic, social, business, or political—the only way to succeed is to take a practical, rather than an idealistic, point of view. Pragmatic behavior guarantees survival, whereas idealistic views tend to be superceded by simpler, more immediate options." 在任何生活领域中----无论是学术、社会、商业还是政治----获 得成功的唯一道路就是采取现实的而不是理想化的观点。实用 的行为确保了生存，反之理想化的观点正在趋于被更简化的和 更直接的选择所取代。 Idealism is just as crucial—if not more so—for long-term success in any endeavor, whether it be in academics, business, or political and social reform. 1. When it comes to academics, although the idealist-student might sacrifice a high overall grade average, the depth of knowledge, academic discipline, and sense of purpose the students gains will serve that student well later in life. 2. Considering the business world, without a dream or vision—that is, without strong idealist leadership—a firm can easily be cast about in the sea of commerce without clear direction, threatening not only the firm’s bottom line but also its very survival. 3. Finally, when it comes to the political arena, it is idealists—not pragmatists—who sway the masses, incite revolutions, and make political ideology reality. 理想和现实 -----------------------------9
-----------------------------81. "Patriotic reverence for the history of a nation often does more to impede than to encourage progress." 出于爱国对于一个国家的尊崇往往不是促进进步而是阻碍进 步。 Agree 1. It should be admitted that patriotic reverence for the history of a nation is a precondition of national cohesion. 2. However, irrational reverence for national history would result in social conservatism that rejects the introduction of any social reforms. 3. Blind reverence for national history would also cause fanatic nationalism, making impossible the communication between nations and cultures. 沙文主义 -----------------------------84. "In any field of endeavor, it is impossible to make a significant contribution without first being strongly influenced by past achievements within that field." 在任何物质领域中，如果不首先接受该领域中过去成就的影响 就不可能会有意义重大的成功。 Progress in any field is based on past achievements within that field. 1. In social sciences, the past achievements of a field are the rich sources of inspirations for formulating new theories in that field. 2. In natural sciences, scientists use the existing methods and equipments—the achievements of the past—to make new discoveries or inventions. 3. Even in creative fields such as arts and literature, mastering the achievements of the past is a precondition of creating new works. 现在和过去 -----------------------------86. "Young people should be encouraged to pursue long-term, realistic goals rather than seek immediate fame and recognition." 年轻人应该被鼓励去寻求长期的现实目标而不是追求眼前的 名声。 1. Seeking immediate fame and recognition would turn out to be counterproductive. 2. Unfortunately, today’s education and society seem to attach more importance to immediate success. 3. In the long run, pursuing long-term goals not only benefit young people themselves but also the whole society. 现实和将来 -----------------------------87. "In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the expert to make important discoveries." 在所有的研究领域中，新手要比专家更有可能获得重要的发 现。 Agree
118. "In any field of endeavor-the sciences, the humanities, the social sciences, industry, etc.-it is not the attainment of a goal that matters, but rather the ideas and discoveries that are encountered on the way to the goal." 在所有的物质领域中--科学、人文科学、社会科学、工业等等 --能否达到目的并不重要，而在争取达到目的的过程中获得的 想法和发现才更重要。 In some cases, the statement makes sense; in other cases, it does not. 1. In academic studies, the goal of a project is but a general direction; what matters are the unexpected concrete findings on the way to the goal. 2. However, in industry and business, what is crucial is the attainment of a specific goal rather than the process toward that goal. 3. In politics, failing to achieve a promised goal might mean a calamity for a politician. 过程和结果 -----------------------------121. "At various times in the geological past, many species have become extinct as a result of natural, rather than human, processes. Thus, there is no justification for society to make extraordinary efforts, especially at a great cost in money and jobs, to save endangered species." 在过去不同的地质时期，许多的物种因为自然作用而非人类行 为而灭绝。因此，人类社会为了挽救濒危物种而付出的巨大努 力，尤其是以大量的资金和工作机会为代价，这样做是毫无道 理的。
they are because they are inconsistent with our wishes or personal interests. 2. Nor can we alter facts by virtue of our inclinations or passions when it comes to history. Historical event is not rendered any less factual by either our ignorance or characterization of it. 3. Similarly, when it comes to science, our wishes and desires ultimately yield to the stubbornness of facts—by which I mean empirical scientific evidence and the laws and principles of the physical world. 客观和主观 -----------------------------136. "The absence of choice is a circumstance that is very, very rare." 没有选择的情况少之又少。 Agree 1. Our collective life experience is that we make choices and decisions every day—on a continual basis. Common sense dictates that humans have free will, and therefore the true absence of choice is very rare. 2. People often claim that life’s circumstances leave them with “no choice”. The fundamental problem with these sorts of claim is that the claimants are only considering those choice that are not viable or attractive. 3. Besides, the contention that we are almost invariably free to choose is far more appealing from a socio-political standpoint than the opposite claim. 独立题目 -----------------------------137. "What we call progress is a matter of exchanging one problem for another." 我们所称之为进步的过程就是从一个问题变化到另一个问题。 Agree 1. Industrialization, a great historical progress which has dramatically saved the limited labor force, has brought about environmental problems. 2. Urbanization, another breakthrough in human history, has witnessed a rise in crime rates and disintegration of communities. 3. However, there is no need to be pessimistic about progress. 独立 -----------------------------139. "Every new generation needs to redefine 'right' and 'wrong' in its own terms and according to the conditions of its own time." 每一代人都要根据自己时代的情况和自己的说法来重新定义 对与错。 1. We should define some new items for better understanding of the development of techniques and enhancing the quality of our life. However, rashness of redefining the terms may cause detrimental effects to our society. Such as the sex liberty in the U.S., which led to dramatic rise in juvenile delinquency. Meanwhile, we should give no doubt to axioms.
The statement raises a variety of issues about morality, conscience, self-preservation, and economics. On balance, however, I fundamentally agree with the notion that humans need not make “extraordinary” efforts—at the expense of money and jobs—to ensure the preservation of any endangered species. 1. There are three fundamental arguments for imposing on ourselves at least some responsibility to preserve endangered species, which are culpability, capability, and self-preservation. 2. On the other hand are two compelling arguments against placing a duty on humans to protect endangered species. The first is essentially the Darwinian argument that extinction results from the inexorable process of so-called “natural selection” in which stronger species survive while weaker ones do not. 3. Secondly, many animal extinctions are due to natural forces which are far beyond our ability. The more money and jobs it would cost to save a certain species, the lower priority we should place on doing so. 人类和自然--当务之急（资金、工作）和长远考虑（物种） -----------------------------127. "Facts are stubborn things. They cannot be altered by our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passions." 事实都是固执的。它不可能随着我们的愿望、喜好或者情绪而 改变。 When it comes to certain aspect of our personal lives, and to historical events and scientific truths, no measure of desire or even passion can change external reality. 1. On an individual level, we all engage in futile attempts to alter facts—by pretending that certain things are not the way
3. 时间 ------------------------------
141. "Most people recognize the benefits of individuality, but the fact is that personal economic success requires conformity." 虽然大多数人都承认个人的利益，但是事实上个人的经济成功 需要的是一致。 10
Agree with concession 1. Regarding the sort of economic success that results from investing one’s wealth, the principles of investing dictate that those who seek risky investments in areas that are out of favor with the majority of investors ultimately reap higher returns than those who follow the crowd. 2. Turning to the sort of economic success that one achieves by way of one’s work, neither conformists nor non-conformists necessarily achieve greater success than the other group. 3. However, in traditional service industries—such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal services, and health care—personal economic success comes not to non-conformist but rather to those who can work most effectively within the constraints of established practices, policies and regulations. 个人和整体 -----------------------------145. "A crucial test of character is whether one is able to adapt to changing social conventions without sacrificing one's principles." 对于个性的最大考验在于一个人是否能够适应不断变化的社 会规范而不牺牲自己的原则。 How to confront changing social conventions is a crucial challenge to one’s character. 1. Those who can adapt to the changing social conventions such as economic climate without sacrificing their principles are more likely to succeed. 2. However, an even more praiseworthy character is one who is willing to change his principles to adapt to the changing situations when those principles are out of date. 个体和整体 -----------------------------146. "People who are the most deeply committed to an idea or policy are the most critical of it." 对于一种想法或者政策最忠实的人往往是那些对其最严厉的 人。 Critical: Inclined to judge severely and find fault. 爱挑剔的倾向于进行严厉批判和找岔的 While I find this claim paradoxical on its face, the paradox is explainable, and the explanation is well supported empirically. Nevertheless, the claim is an unfair generalization in that it fails to account for other empirical evidence serving to discredit it. A. Are commitment and criticism mutually exclusive? One possible explanation is that individuals most firmly committed to an idea or policy are often the same people who are most knowledgeable on the subject, and therefore are in the best position to understand and appreciate the problems with the idea or policy. B. Lending credence to this explanation for the paradoxical nature of the speaker’s claim are the many historical cases of uneasy marriage between commitment to and criticism of the same idea or policy. C. In the face of historical examples supporting the speaker’s claim are innumerable influential individuals who were zealously committed to certain ideas and policies but who were not critical of them, at least not outwardly.
Idealism does more harm than good to society as well as individuals. 1. An idealist is one who, on noticing that a rose smells better a cabbage, concludes that it will also make better soup. 2. Political idealism such as communism brought catastrophes to former socialist countries. 3. Individually, idealism, if it were not balanced by pragmatism, would lead to personal failure. 4. Guided by practical plans, however, idealism can lead to hope and enthusiasm. 理想和现实 idealism: The act or practice of envisioning things in an ideal form. 理想主义用理想的观点看待事物的行为或实践行为 -----------------------------156. "Choice is an illusion. In reality, our lives are controlled by the society in which we live." 选择只是一种假象。实际上，我们的生活是被我们生活其中的 社会所控制的。 1. Choice is a highly practical thing that everyone is confronted with all the time. 2. However, not every one can tackle choice properly with much easiness. 3. Society is also influenced and controlled by our way of living. 类似于现有环境后有意识 -----------------------------157. "There is no such thing as purely objective observation. All observation is subjective; it is always guided by the observer's expectations or desires." 纯粹客观的观察是不存在的。所有的观察都是主观的；观察总 是被观察者的预期或者喜好所左右的。 A. It would be tempting to afford the speaker’s claim greater merit than it deserves. After all, our everyday experience as humans informs us that we often disagree about what we observe around us. B. However, these sorts of subjective “observations” are actually subjective “interpretations” of what we observe. 主观和客观之观察 ------------------------------
162. "One often hears about the need for individuals to take responsibility for their own lives. However, the conditions in which people find themselves have been largely established long before people become aware of them. Thus, the concept of personal responsibility is much more complicated and unrealistic than is often assumed." 人们经常听说个人需要为他们自己的生活负责任。然而，人们 发现自己所处环境的存在要远远早于人们对其的认识。因此， 个人责任的概念要比通常人们想象的要复杂和不切实际。
-----------------------------148. "Many people admire idealism, but it usually leads to disappointment or trouble." 很多人向往理想主义，但是它实际上总是带来失望或者麻烦。
The statement can help us understand better the concept of personal responsibility. 1. We all live in conditions that have been largely established by others. 2. The environment in which we act, often uncontrollable, exerts unforeseeable influence on our behavior. 3. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the objective conditions when we require a person to assume responsibility. -----------------------------11
2. 163. "Most people live, whether physically or morally, in a very restricted circle. They make use of a very limited portion of the resources available to them until they face a great problem or crisis." 大多数人在物质上和精神上都生活在一个非常有限的圈子里 面。除非要面对严重的问题或者危机，否则他们仅仅会利用有 效资源的极有限的一小部分。 Agree 1. Many people are confined by the physical deficiencies or moral regulations in their way of living. They have to obey them to procure their reputation, fame, success, and so on. 2. However, when confronted with crisis and the like, people will use resources of others or of the community or even the whole society. -----------------------------165. "In any given field, the leading voices come from people who are motivated not by conviction but by the desire to present opinions and ideas that differ from those held by the majority." 在任何领域当中，领导作用总是来自于这些人，他们并不为传 统的观念所动，而是极力渴望表达那些和主流思想不同的观点 和想法。 1． When it comes to political power, I would admit that a deep-seated psychological need to be noticed or to be different sometimes lies at the heart of a person’s drive to political power and fame. Nevertheless, for every leading political voice driven to new ideas by a desire to be noticed or to be different, on can cite many other political leaders clearly driven instead by the courage of their convictions. Turning to the arts, creative urges are born not of ego but rather of some intensely personal commitment to an aesthetic ideal. As for the physical sciences, innovation and progress can only result from challenging conventional theories—that is, the status quo.
Nevertheless, teamwork and individual enterprise are not necessarily inconsistent, as the speaker would have us believe.
-----------------------------182. "It is dangerous to trust only intelligence." 只相信聪明才智是危险的。 Intelligence is sufficient in some cases but not in any case. 1. In scientific studies regarding the physical world, we should depend only on intelligence for discovering and testing truths. 2. However, in the realm of human affairs, we have to use both our intelligence and our hearts to solve problems. -----------------------------184. "It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data." 在掌握足够资料之前建立理论会导致严重的错误。 1. A theory conjured up without the benefit of data amounts to little more than the theorist’s hopes and desires—what he or she wants to be true and not be true. 2. By theorizing before collecting data the theorist also runs that risk of interpreting that data in a manner which makes it appear to lend more credence to the theory than it actually does. -----------------------------186. "Practicality is now our great idol, which all powers and talents must serve. Anything that is not obviously practical has little value in today's world." 实用主义是我们现在主要的追求，一切的力量和才智都必须为 其服务。任何并非显著实用的东西在当今世界几乎是没有价值 的。 1. Practicality seems clearly to be the litmus test for education today. 2. Practicality also dictates what sort of art is produced today. 3. Practicality is also the overriding concern in contemporary politics. 4. On the other hand, the claim amounts to an overstatement when it comes to today’s scientific endeavors. 当务之急和长远大计的关系 -----------------------------187. "It is easy to welcome innovation and accept new ideas. What most people find difficult, however, is accepting the way these new ideas are put into practice." 拥护革新和接受新想法很简单。但是在大多数人们看来，最困 难的是接受把这些新想法付诸实现的方式。 1. In areas of politics and law, new ideas are not often easily accepted. 2. Yet once society grows to accept these new ideas, it seems that it has an easier time accepting how they are put into practice. 3. In contrast, consider innovations in the natural sciences. It seems that we universally embrace any new technology in the name of progress. Of course there are always informed dissenters with legitimate concerns. 4. Yet the reasons why these dissenters oppose certain innovations have to do with their potential applications and uses, not with the innovations themselves. ------------------------------
-----------------------------168. "Critical judgment of work in any given field has little value unless it comes from someone who is an expert in that field." 批判性的判断在任何领域当中都是没什么用处的，除非它是来 自于该领域中的专家。 1. With respect to the social sciences, the social world presents a seamless web of not only anthropogenic but also physical forces, which interact in ways that can be understood only in the context of a variety of disciplines. 2. In contrast, the work of researchers in the purely physical sciences can be judged only by their peers. 统一和分歧之专家 -----------------------------175. "It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation; the details may be worked out by a team, but true innovation results from the enterprise and unique perception of an individual." 革新的动力往往来自于个人；革新的细节可能来自于团队，但 是实质的革新都是个人努力和独特思维的结果。 1. With respect to business innovation, I agree that it is the vision and commitment of key individuals—such as a firm’s founder or chief executive—from which business burgeon and innovative products, services, and marketing and management strategies emerge.
188. "Success, whether academic or professional, involves an ability to survive in a new environment and, eventually, to change it." 成功，无论是学术上的还是职业上的，都涉及了适应新环境并 最终改变新环境的能力。 1. Regarding academic success, the speaker overstates the significance of environment. 2. Turning next to professional success, and considering the two traditional professions of law and medicine, the speaker’s claim unfairly overrates the ability to change one’s professional environment as a key ingredient of professional success. 3. In contrast, when it comes to certain other professions, such as business and scientific research, the speaker’s claim is far more compelling. -----------------------------192. "Success in any realm of life comes more often from taking chances or risks than from careful and cautious planning." 在生活的所有领域中，成功往往更多的来自于把握机会或者冒 险而不是通过仔细谨慎的计划。 Careful and cautious planning is just as important as taking chances or risks. 1. Whatever goal we intend to accomplish, the first thing to do is planning. 2. Chance favors only the prepared minds. 3. Taking risks without any planning is nothing but rashness. 冒险和计划 -----------------------------194. "The best preparation for life or a career is not learning to be competitive, but learning to be cooperative." 对于生活或者事业最好的准备不是学会竞争而是学会合作。 Agree 1. Cooperation benefits every member of the team. 2. Every field of life requires people who are ready to cooperate with others. 3. Only through cooperation can we accomplish great tasks. 4. What is most needed today might be learning to compete in the spirit of cooperation. 竞争和合作 -----------------------------199. "Truly innovative ideas do not arise from groups of people, but from individuals. When groups try to be creative, the members force each other to compromise and, as a result, creative ideas tend to be weakened and made more conventional. Most original ideas arise from individuals working alone." 真正有创意的想法并非来自于群体而是来自于个人。当群体试 图创新的时候，它的成员之间会被迫相互妥协，结果就是新想 法趋于弱化而更接近于传统。大部分新想法都是来自于独立工 作的个人。 少数和多数之新创意 Original ideas may arise from individuals working alone as well as from groups of people working together. 1. It is true that individual thinkers or scientists working alone formulated many original ideas in history. 2. However, one should see that those great individuals actually benefited a lot from the work either of his contemporaries or of the people before their time. 3. While members of a group might force each other to compromise, it is also true that they may inspire and enlighten each other. ------------------------------
206. "People are too quick to take action; instead they should stop to think of the possible consequences of what they might do." 人们现在太急于采取行动，实际上人们应该先停下来考虑一下 他们这么做可能导致的结果。 It is always wise to think twice before you act. 1. More haste, less speed. 2. It might not be too difficult to persuade people to consider the possible impacts of their actions on themselves. 3. People should also think of the impacts of their actions on other people. 现在和将来之思维和行动 -----------------------------208. "The way people look, dress, and act reveals their attitudes and interests. You can tell much about a society's ideas and values by observing the appearance and behavior of its people." 人们的眼神、穿着和动作都揭示了他们的态度和兴趣。你可以 透过观察一个社会中人们的外貌和举止来认识该社会的理念 和价值观。 1. Turning first to the way people look and dress, certain aspects of the outward appearance of a culture’s people do inform us of their ideas, attitudes and values. 2. The habits, rituals and lifestyles of a culture often do provide accurate signals about its values. 3. Finally, the statement overlooks a crucial distinction between free societies and oppressed ones. 以小见大 -----------------------------209. "Progress is best made through discussion among people who have contrasting points of view." 进步最好是在人们各抒己见的讨论中达成的。 In all realms of human endeavor, including the behavior and natural sciences as well as government and law, debate and disagreement form the foundation for progress. 1. Regarding the physical sciences, our scientific method is essentially a call for progress through opposition. 2. The nature-nurture debate will continue to serve as a catalyst for progress across the entire social spectrum. 3. History informs us of the chilling effect suppression of free discourse and debate can have on progress. 统一和分歧之进步 -----------------------------210. "Most people choose a career on the basis of such pragmatic considerations as the needs of the economy, the relative ease of finding a job, and the salary they can expect to make. Hardly anyone is free to choose a career based on his or her natural talents or interest in a particular kind of work." 大多数人选择职业是基于很实际的考虑：经济需求、找工作简 单、高薪水。很难得有人能从自己的潜质和兴趣出发去自由的 寻找一份特定的工作。 Although practical considerations often play a significant role in occupational trends, ultimately the driving forces behind people’s career decisions are individual interest and ability. 1. 2. At first glance the balance of empirical evidence would seem to lend considerable credence to the speaker’s claim However, upon further reflection it becomes clear that the relationship between career seekers and the supply of careers is an interdependent one, and therefore it is unfair to generalize about which one drives the other. Another compelling argument against the speaker’s claim has to do with the myriad of ways in which people earn their living. 13
3. -----------------------------211. "Any decision-whether made by government, by a corporation, or by an individual person-must take into account future conditions more than present conditions." 任何一个决定，无论它来自政府、公司还是个人，都必须更多 地考虑将来的情况而不是现在的情况。 We should take into account both future and present conditions when we make a decision. 1. Any decision that does not take into account future conditions will become obsolete as time goes by. 2. We should know that fact that nobody can foretell exactly what will happen in the future. 3. Meanwhile, if we ignore the present conditions, our decision will not work at all. 当务之急和百年大计之决定 -----------------------------212. "If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it is justifiable." 只要值得，不择手段达到目的是合理的。 Although the idealist way is to achieve the noblest goal through the noblest means, in reality we sometimes have to resort to low means in order to attain high goals. 1. Theoretically, the means taken should be consistent with the ends in view. 2. However, in order to restore peace and social order, individuals states or the international community has repeatedly used force in history. 3. We should be alert to the possibility that individuals, organizations or government tend to plead a worthy goal in excuse of their contemptible means and private interests. -----------------------------216. "Most important discoveries or creations are accidental: it is usually while seeking the answer to one question that we come across the answer to another." 最重要的发现或是创造都是偶然的：在我们为一个问题寻求答 案的时候，通常通过这个答案获得另外的收获。 1. Turning first to discoveries, I agree that discovery often occurs when we unexpectedly happen upon something in our quest for something else—such as an answer to unrelated question or a solution to an unrelated problem. Many important discoveries are anticipated and sought out purposefully. In marked contrast to discoveries, creations are by nature products of their creator’s purposeful designs.
The speaker goes too far—by overlooking a fundamental, even philosophical, reason why we should always look for similarities between things. 分歧和统一 -----------------------------226. "People are mistaken when they assume that the problems they confront are more complex and challenging than the problems faced by their predecessors. This illusion is eventually dispelled with increased knowledge and experience." 人们总是错误地认为自己面临的问题要比前人来得更复杂和 更具有挑战性。不断增加的知识和经验最终消除这种假象。 现在和过去 1. The speaker overlooks certain societal problems unique to today’s world, which are complex and challenging in ways unlike any problems that earlier societies ever faced. However, humans face certain universal and timeless problems, which are neither more nor less complex and challenging for any generation than for preceding ones.
-----------------------------231. " 'Moderation in all things' is ill-considered advice. Rather, one should say, 'Moderation in most things,' since many areas of human concern require or at least profit from intense focus." “做任何事都要适度”这句话是欠考虑的。更确切的说，我们 应该“对大多数事情都要适度”，因为人类在很多领域中遇到 的问题都需要全力以赴（解决），或者至少会从中获益。 1. The virtues of moderation are undeniable. Moderation in all things affords us the time and energy to sample more of what life and world have to offer. In contrast, lack of moderation leads to a life out of balance. 2. Having acknowledged the wisdom of the old adage, I nevertheless agree that under some circumstances, and for some people, abandoning moderation might be well justified. 度的问题 -----------------------------234. "Most people prefer restrictions and regulations to absolute freedom of choice, although they would probably deny such a preference." 大多数人更喜欢约束和规则，而不是绝对自由的选择权，尽管 他们可能会否认这样的倾向。 1. History informs us that attempts to quell basic individuals freedoms—of expression, of opinion and belief, and to come and go as we please—invariably fail; however, reasonable constraints on freedom are needed to protect freedom—and to prevent a society from devolving into a state of anarchy where life is short and brutish. Our preference for constraining our own freedom of choice is evident on societal level as well as on individual level.
-----------------------------225. "People often look for similarities, even between very different things, and even when it is unhelpful or harmful to do so. Instead, a thing should be considered on its own terms; we should avoid the tendency to compare it to something else." 人们总是在寻找相同点，即使是在非常不同的事物间也不例 外，甚至有时候这样做是无用乃至有害的。实际上，我们应该 具体问题具体分析；我们应该尽量避免比较的倾向。 1. I agree with the speaker insofar as insisting on find similarities between things can often result in unfair, and sometimes harmful, comparison. We should be especially careful when looking for similarities between people.
自由和约束 -----------------------------235. "Most people are taught that loyalty is a virtue. But loyalty--whether to one's friends, to one's school or place of employment, or to any institution--is all too often a destructive rather than a positive force." 大多数人被告知忠诚是一种美德。 但是无论是对朋友、 对学校、 对单位还是对任何机构，忠诚时常都是弊大于利的。 1. First consider the ways in which loyalty, if exercised in proper measure and direction, can be a positive force. 14
On the other hand, if misguided or overextended loyalty can amount to divisive and destructive force. 统一和分歧之忠诚 all too often 时常 -----------------------------236. "Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish great things if they try hard enough is both misleading and potentially harmful." 鼓励年轻人们相信只要他们努力就能够完成伟大的事情，这样 做不仅仅是在误导而且存在着潜在的危害性。 Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish great things does more good than harm to them. 1. No one knows much he or she can achieve before trying. 2. Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish great things gives them confidence, which helps to bring out their potential. 3. Some of them may finally get frustrated because not every one can accomplish great things; however, every one will make progress through doing their best. 理想和现实之努力篇 ------------------------------
Encouragement proves more valuable than negative feedback. 1. People may not be as good as we tell them they are, but they will try harder thereafter. 2. Encouragement can make people happy and confident. 3. Admittedly, honest negative feedback may help people see their weakness. 良药苦口利于病。 -----------------------------第三类 教育 5. "A nation should require all its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college rather than allow schools in different parts of the nation to determine which academic courses to offer." 一个国家应该要求所有的学生在进入大学之前都学习由国家 统一制定的课程，而不是允许由国家不同地区的学校去决定课 程的安排。 反对 1. On the one hand, a national curriculum contributes to preserving a unified national culture and national cohesion. 2. Furthermore, a general curriculum decided by authority rather than by local schools avoids limiting students to a narrow scope of knowledge too early. 3. On the other hand, in a multi-cultural society, different ethnic communities should be given the opportunity to preserve and promote their traditional cultures. 4. It’s beneficial to grant local schools the freedom to offer students some elective courses, which can help the school to build its unique culture charisma. ----------------32. "A school or college should pay its teachers at the same rate in all disciplines, regardless of differences in salaries for related fields in the world outside of school. For example, entry-level teachers in mathematics and in the arts should receive the same pay, even if outside of school, math specialists earn a much higher salary on average than do specialists in the arts." 不管在校园外不同领域之间薪水的差异有多大，学校对于所有 学科老师的待遇应该是一视同仁的。比如，低年级的数学和美 术老师应该享有同样的收入，即便在校外，数学专家的收入一 般是要比艺术家高得多。 1. The salary rate a teacher receives should be related not to his/ her discipline but his/her effort and contribution to the educational course. Absolutely identical rate is unfair. Teachers of some disciplines have to assume more harsh work under worse circumstances. If the differences in salaries for related fields in the world outside of school or college are dismissed, schools and colleges may have to face the loss of its staff.
238. "Conformity almost always leads to a deadening of individual creativity and energy." 一致几乎总是阻隔个人的创造力和活力。 1. Whether conformity stifles individual energy depends on the individual person involved. 2. Conformists find enhanced energy in certain corner of the business world as well, particularly in traditional service industries such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal services, and health care. 3. In sharp contrast, other people are nonconformists by nature. For these people a highly structured, bureaucratic environment only serves to quell motivation and energy. 4. As for whether conformity stifles individual creativity, one need only look around at the individuals whom we consider highly creative to conclude that this is indeed the case. 统一和分歧 -----------------------------239. "Much of the information that people assume is 'factual' actually turns out to be inaccurate. Thus, any piece of information referred to as a 'fact' should be mistrusted since it may well be proven false in the future." 大多数人们认为是事实的信息结果实际上都是不准确的。因 此，任何据称是事实的信息都应该被质疑，因为它在将来很可 能会被证明为是错误的。 1. On the one hand, we should not passively accept whatever is passed off as fact; otherwise, human knowledge would never advance. On the other hand, in certain cases undue skepticism can be counterproductive and even harmful.
权威问题 -----------------------------240. "Although it is easy to respond positively to the work of another person or group, it is far more worthwhile to give negative feedback." 尽管对其他的个人或者群体的成就作积极的反应很容易，但是 给与负面的回应往往更有价值。
孤立的校园 --------------------34. "Instead of requiring students to take courses in a variety of disciplines--that is, courses ranging from the arts and the humanities to the physical and biological sciences--colleges and universities should allow students to enroll only in those courses that will help prepare them for jobs in their chosen fields. Such concentration is necessary in today's increasingly work-oriented society." 与其要求学生们选修各种各样的学科----从艺术和人文科学到 物理和生物科学----大学还不如允许学生们仅仅去选择那些有 15
助于他们今后工作的学科。这种集中在当今这个工作至上的社 会是必要的。 1. To begin with, schools should attach enough importance to courses that can help students prepare for jobs in their chosen fields. However, work-oriented courses is never incompatible with other courses such as arts, humanities and the like, which also play an important role in one career success. Inter-disciplinary study is crucial for the improvement of either discipline. Though courses of a wide range of disciplines should be made compulsory, sufficient freedom should be granted to students.
Student-oriented education is the most effective way to help students learn. 1. The traditional teacher-oriented education often neglects the individual needs and interests of each student, which proves counterproductive. 2. Student-oriented education can most effectively involve individual students in the learning process. 3. Nonetheless, winking at students’ unreasonable desires would only result in chaos in education. 少数和多数 ------------------52. "Education encourages students to question and criticize, and therefore does little to promote social harmony." 教育鼓励学生们提出问题和进行批判，这样做的结果无助于促 进社会的和谐。 Encouraging students to question and criticize does not necessarily harm social harmony. 1. Social harmony hinges on mutual understanding among members of the society, which is achieved through active communication rather than passive conformity. 2. The ability to challenge existing authorities and paradigms requires intensive training through education. 3. Encouraging students to question and criticize helps students not only to learn more productively but also become qualified citizens that will be able to actively participate in social affairs. 教育问题 -------------53. "College and university education should be free for all students, fully financed by the government." 大学教育应该对所有学生免费，由政府来全额资助。 Agree 1. Investment in education is always a wise choice for a nation. 2. The amount of money needed by universities is only a small percent of a nation’s Gross Domestic Product, and will surely be compensated by the graduates in the future through the way of income taxation. 3. Proving all students with higher education puts them on equal footing with each other when they enter society—a precondition of equal opportunity for all members of society. 奖学金 ---------------------55. "Competition for high grades seriously limits the quality of learning at all levels of education." 追求高分严重的限制了教育各阶段的学习质量。 Competition among students for higher grades does not necessarily have a negative impact on the quality of learning. 1. Admittedly, if education aims solely at cramming students for exams, the quality of learning will undoubtedly deteriorate. 2. However, examinations do help students review their lessons and master what they have learned. 3. Furthermore, the psychological pressure that competition exerts on students is not always harmful. 分数 -------------------------67. "Colleges should require students to engage in public-service activities in order to assure that each student receives a balanced, well-rounded education." 大学应该要求学生们参加公益活动，这也是为了保证每一个学 生都能获得平衡而全面的教育。 16
学科 --------------------39. "The intellectual benefits of attending a university or college are vastly overrated: most people could learn more by studying and reading on their own for four years than by pursuing a university or college degree." 大学学习的好处被过分的高估了：大多数人如果通过研究和阅 读的方式自学四年的话，会比追求一个大学学位学到的更多。
Disagree 1. Schools offer systematical curriculum, qualified staff, libraries, facilities and so on, which are not available to individuals who study on their own. 2. Studying with peers arouses competition and cooperation. Compulsory studies avoids laziness. 3. Qualified degrees help get a job offer more easily. 4. However, degree does not mean everything. It is just a symbol. Even if you have a college degree, you still have to work hard in order achieve career success. 大学和自学 -------------50. "In order to improve the quality of instruction at the college and university level, all faculty should be required to spend time working outside the academic world in professions relevant to the courses they teach." 为了改善大学的教学质量，所有的教员都应该被要求花一定时 间到学术领域以外去参加和他们所教科目相关的工作。 Position: Working experience in relevant professions enables college and university faculty to offer practical instruction to students. 1. First, faculty who are actively engaged in their fields come to class with fresh insights and contagious excitement about the issue at hand. 2. Secondly, by keeping abreast with the changing demands of work as a professional, professors can help students who are serious about pursuing a career in that field to make more informed career decisions. 3. Thirdly, experience in the field can help a professor ferret out cutting-edge and controversial issues—which might be appropriate subjects for research and publication. 4. However, the teachers in some disciplines such as mathematics, literature, history, philosophy, etc., may find it difficult to combine their teaching with relevant professional fields. ---------------51. "Education will be truly effective only when it is specifically designed to meet the individual needs and interests of each student." 教育只有被专门设计来满足每一个学生个人需求和兴趣的时 候才是真正有效率的。
Agree 1. Colleges today tend to isolate students from society. 2. However, we should realize that participating in some social activities may actually contribute to their academic work. 3. To train qualified citizens for society, colleges should arrange for public-service activities to increase student’s sense of social responsibility. 少数和多数之社会实践和全面教育 ------------------------78. "Schools should be required to teach the essential interconnectedness of all human beings and thus help eliminate wars, cultural clashes, and other forms of conflict." 学校应该被要求去教授存在于所有人之间的重要联系，这样做 可以消灭战争、文化冲突和其他形式的纷争。 1. Human beings share many common interests and values, the awareness of which would contribute to intercultural understanding and cooperation. Realizing the differences between different cultures would help different peoples of the world communicate with each other more effectively. Considering the growing threat of cultural imperialism in this information age, it might be more urgent for schools to give more emphasis on cultural differences.
Agree 1. True education amounts to far more than gaining the knowledge and ability to excel in one’s major course of study and in one’s professional career. 2. Becoming truly educated also requires sufficient mastery of one academic area to permit a student to contribute meaningfully to society later in life. 3. Nevertheless, the call for a broad educational experience as the path to becoming truly educated comes with one important caveat—in the pursuit of true education students must be careful not to become a dilettante. 必修课和选修课 ----------------------98. "Colleges and universities should offer more courses on popular music, film, advertising, and television because contemporary culture has much greater relevance for students than do arts and literature of the past." 大学应该开设更多关于流行音乐、电影、广告和电视的课程， 因为当代文化比起过去的文学和艺术与学生们更加息息相关。 Agree with concession 1. Popular culture is a mirror of society’s impulses and values. 2. Knowledge of popular films, music, and art enables a person to find common ground to relate to other people, which leads to better communication between different subcultures. 3. Nevertheless, emphasizing the study of popular culture at the expense of studying classical art and literature can carry harmful consequences for students, as well as for society. 过去和现在之流行课程 -----------------------------100. "The pressure to achieve high grades in school seriously limits the quality of learning. An educational environment without grades would promote more genuine intellectual development." 在学校获得高分的压力严重得限制了学习的质量。一个没有分 数的教育环境将会促进真正的智力发展。
分歧和统一 ------------------------80. "All students should be required to take courses in the sciences, even if they have no interest in science." 所有的学生都应该被要求去学习科学课程，即使他们对科学毫 无兴趣。
Taking courses in the sciences benefits not only students in the sciences but also students in humanities. 1. The research methods in the sciences can be applied to the studies of humanities. 2. Students of humanities and social sciences may bring fresh and constructive perspectives and viewpoints to natural science classes. 3. Some knowledge of the sciences is a must for everyone living in an age in which science and technology play a dominant role. 现实和理想之学习与兴趣 ------------------------90. "College students should be encouraged to pursue subjects that interest them rather than seek programs that promise entry into the job market." 大学学生应该被鼓励去学习他们感兴趣的学科而不是那些容 易找工作的学科。 Agree 1. Today’s parents attach too much importance to the job prospects of their children’s education. 2. However, empirical evidence suggests that young people are more likely to succeed in a career that interests them. 现实和理想之兴趣 ----------------------94. "Universities should require every student to take a variety of courses outside the student's field of study because acquiring knowledge of various academic disciplines is the best way to become truly educated." 大学应该要求每一个学生在自己专业课外选修各种学科，因为 获得各种学科的知识才是获得真正教育的最好途径。
Grade 连续 2 次出现，这里不是学历、学位的意思，学历、学 位应该是 degree。 教育之分数 The speaker fails to see the positive effects of the pressure exerted by exams. 1. Admittedly, exams might exert some negative impact on students. 2. However, competition for high grades among students could motivate students to work hard. Well-prepared exam questions could also help students review their lessons. -------------------------------102. "For better or worse, education is a process that involves revising the ideas, beliefs, and values people held in the past." 不论好坏，教育是一个修正人们过去所持有的理念、信仰和价 值观的过程。 Education is far more involved than just revising people’s old ideas, beliefs and values. 1. Education often inputs, rather than revise, ideas and values to people’s mind. 2. The ultimate purpose of education is to teach the young generation how to confront the challenges of the present. 除旧取新的过程 ----------------------------104. "It is primarily through formal education that a culture tries to perpetuate the ideas it favors and discredit the ideas it fears."
如果一个文化想要它认为好的理念永世长存而摈弃它厌恶的 理念，主要是通过正规的教育。 1. I agree with the speaker with respect to formal grade-school and even high-school education, yet the degree to which our grade schools and high schools emphasize indoctrination should not be overstated. 2. Although the speaker’s assertion has some merit when it comes to the education of young people, I find it erroneous when it comes to higher education. 3. The speaker also ignores other means by which our culture perpetuates ideas it favors and discredits ideas it fears. 教育问题
解放思想 -----------------------------130. "How children are socialized today determines the destiny of society. Unfortunately, we have not yet learned how to raise children who can help bring about a better society." 现在孩子的社会化程度决定了社会的命运。可惜的是，我们还 没有学会教孩子怎么样去建设一个更好的社会。 The claim that society’s destiny hinges on how children are socialized, while appealing in some respects, is an over-statement at best. And the claim that we have not yet learned how to raise children who can better society is poorly supported by empirical evidence. 1. Unless a child is allowed sufficient opportunities for healthy interaction with peers, that child is likely to grow into an ineffectual, perhaps even an anti-social, adult. 2. However, socialization is only one factor influencing the extent to which an individual will ultimately contribute to a better society. 3. Turning to the second claim, if we define a “better” society as one characterized by greater tolerance of differing viewpoints and people who are different from ourselves, greater respect for individual rights, and greater cooperation across cultural and national boundaries, then the children of the most recent half-century are creating a better society. 下一代 ---------------------------132. "The university community consists of three different worlds----the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences. Because each world operates on its own assumptions and has its own special habits of thinking, rarely is there meaningful interaction among the sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences." 大学包括了三个不同的领域----科学、人文学科以及社会学科。 因为每一个领域都根据自己的前提运转，每一个领域都有自己 独特的思维习惯，所以在自然科学、人文科学和社会科学之间 几乎是不存在有意义的交互的。 Disagree 1. Admittedly, the university community regards the three different academic endeavors as separate realms. 2. Actually, the three fields are intrinsically interrelated to each other. 3. Combining the relevant methods used respectively in the three fields will be of great help to our study and learning. 学科之间的关系 -----------------------------134. "Students should be encouraged to realize that mental agility and rhetorical skill must be accompanied by sincerity and the true conviction of their own beliefs." 学生们应该被鼓励而意识到思维的敏捷和口齿的伶俐必须和 真诚与坚持自己的信仰相伴随存在。 1. Our belief about what we are and what can be precisely determine what we will be. 2. However, today’s education gives too much stress to mental agility and rhetorical skills, which are skin-deep compared to sincerity and true conviction of beliefs. 现实与道德 153. "Students should bring a certain skepticism to whatever they study. They should question what they are taught instead of accepting it passively."
106. "All students should be required to take at least one course in ethics, even if taking the course means a decreased emphasis on academic subjects." 所有的学生都应该被要求至少选修一门道德课，即使学这门课 意味着会影响学术课程的学习。 1. Nowadays, people tend to attach less and less importance to the inculcation of morality. 2. Knowledge of ethics provides students with a correct view of life and career. 3. The goal of education is to help students grow not only intellectually, but also ethically. 现实和道德 -----------------------------112. "Some educational systems emphasize the development of students' capacity for reasoning and logical thinking, but students would benefit more from an education that also taught them to explore their own emotions." 一些教育体系强调学生逻辑推理思维能力的发展，但是那些教 学生们探究自身情绪的教育对学生们才更有好处。
While I concede that in certain fields students are well served by nurturing their emotions and feelings, in most academic disciplines it is by cultivating intellect rather than emotions that students master their discipline and, in turn, gain a capacity to contribute to the well-being of society. 1. I agree with the speaker insofar as undue emphasis on reason and logical thinking can have a chilling effect on the arts. 2. Aside from its utility in the arts, however, the exploration of emotions has little place in educational systems. Indeed, on a systemic scale undue emphasis on the exploration of our emotions can have deleterious societal consequences. Emotions invite irrationality in thought and action, the danger of which are all too evident in contemporary world history. -----------------------------128. "It is often asserted that the purpose of education is to free the mind and the spirit. In reality, however, formal education tends to restrain our minds and spirits rather than set them free." 教育的目的据称是要解放思想和精神。然而实际上，正规的教 育是要遏制我们的思维和精神而不是解放他们。 1. Some people might argue that the overwhelming curriculum of schools would restrain our mind and spirit. However, if deficient in knowledge, absolute free mind will lead to total simplicity and naivety. Formal education plays a very important role in the process of freeing the mind and spirit. Basic knowledge, which can only be attained through formal education, is the prerequisite for freeing people’s mind and spirit.
无论学生们学习什么都应该带着一定的疑问。学生们应该质疑 老师教授的东西而不只是被动的接受。 1. Skepticism is perhaps most important in the physical science. Passive acceptance of prevailing principles quells innovation, invention and discovery. 2. The value of skepticism is not limited to the physical sciences, of course. (sociology, political science, law) 3. Even in the arts, students must challenge established styles and forms rather than learn to imitate them; otherwise, no genuinely new art would ever emerge. 4. Admittedly, undue skepticism might be counterproductive in educating young children. 教育问题之学而好问 -----------------------------154. "Both parents and communities must be involved in the local schools. Education is too important to leave solely to a group of professional educators." 父母和社会都必须参与到地方的学校中。教育太重要了以至于 不能把教育完全交给一群职业教育者。 Educators, parents and communities can and should join efforts to create a healthy learning environment for children. A. First of all, we should never look down upon the key role that professional educators play in fostering the younger generation. B. Meanwhile, both parents and communities can make significant contribution to school education. C. Without a constructive family and community environment, it would be almost impossible for school education to fulfill its noble mission. 教育之合作
Another reason for my viewpoint lies in the fact that technology-driven industries account for an ever-increasing portion of our jobs. Besides helping students develop their own thoughtful value systems, educators should instill in students certain basic values upon which any democratic society depends; otherwise, our freedom to choose our own jobs and careers might not survive in the long term. Admittedly, values and behavioral standards specific to certain religions are best left to parents and churches.
213. "Too much emphasis has been placed on the need for students to challenge the assertions of others. In fact, the ability to compromise and work with others--that is, the ability to achieve social harmony--should be a major goal in every school." 人们过于重视了学生们挑战他人主张的要求。实际上，达成社 会和谐的能力，比如容让和协作能力，应该成为每一所学校的 主要目标。 Encouraging students to think critically does not necessarily conflict with our pursuit of social harmony. 1. Critical thinking is key to students both academically and politically. 2. It is necessary for students to criticize the views of each other in their studies, which does not necessarily lead to conflicts among them. 3. Compromising is harmful in academic pursuits.
--------------------------214. "Society should identify those children who have special talents and abilities and begin training them at an early age so that they can eventually excel in their areas of ability. Otherwise, these talents are likely to remain undeveloped." 社会应该发现那些具有特殊天赋和能力的孩子，并且在年幼的 时候就开始训练他们以便于这些孩子最终可以在他们擅长的 领域中出类拔萃。否则这些天才就可能会止步不前。 1. At first blush the statement appears compelling. I agree with the statement insofar as any society that values its own future well-being must be attentive to its children’s talents. Beyond this concession, however, I disagree with the statement because it seems to recommend that certain children receive special attention at the expense of other children—a recommendation that I find troubling.
191. "Education should be equally devoted to enriching the personal lives of students and to training students to be productive workers." 教育应该平衡的一方面丰富学生的个人生活，一方面把学生培 养成训练有素的工作者。 In my view, preparing students for the mundane aspects of work should be secondary to providing a broader education that equips students with historical and cultural perspective, as well as thoughtful and principled personal value systems and priorities. 1. One reason why educators should emphasize personal enrichment over job preparation is that rote technical knowledge and skill do not help a student determine which goals in life are worthwhile and whether the means of attaining those goals are ethically or morally acceptable. 2. Another reason why educators should emphasize personal enrichment over job preparation is that specific knowledge and skills needed for jobs are changing more and more quickly. 3. A third reason why educators should emphasized personally enriching course work—particularly anthropology, sociology, history, and political philosophy—is that these courses help students understand, appreciate and respect other people and their viewpoints. 现实和理想 ----------------------------201. "The purpose of education should be to provide students with a value system, a standard, a set of ideas--not to prepare them for a specific job." 教育的目的应该是给予学生一个价值体系，一个标准，一整套 想法----而不是为一个具体工作培养他们。 1. By helping students develop a thoughtful, principled value system educators actually help prepare students for jobs.
--------------------------222. "Learning for learning's sake is an outdated concept. Today, education must serve an ulterior purpose and be directed toward clear goals." 孤立的教育已经是过时的想法了。现在的教育应该作用于更高 的目的并且由清晰的目标来指引。 While education must serve clear purpose, “learning for learning’s sake” is not necessarily out-dated. 1. The primary purpose of education is to cultivate qualified citizens and builders of a democratic society. 2. Another purpose of education is to train creative workers who can fill in all the occupations of society. 3. The idea of “learning for learning’s sake” does not necessarily conflict with education’s pursuit of the above purposes. 反理想与现实之教育 ------------------------223. "Education is primarily a personal matter; it has little to do with school or college." 教育主要是个人的私事，和中小学或者大学基本上没什么关 系。 19
Education is not a personal matter in a large sense, and it certainly has a lot to do with school or college. 1. It is not difficult to understand that education directly benefits the individual receiver of education. 2. Furthermore, the education of an individual concerns the interests of the whole society. 3. With the dramatic increase in knowledge today, it is impossible to educate oneself without the involvement of school or college. 少数和多数 ------------------------228. "The best way to teach--whether as an educator, employer, or parent--is to praise positive actions and ignore negative ones." 无论是作为教育者、雇主或者是父母，教育最好的方法就是赞 扬积极的行为而无视消极的行为。 The statement overlooks circumstances under which praise might be inappropriate, as well as ignoring the beneficial value of constructive criticism, and sometimes even punishment. 1. The recommendation that parents, teachers and employers praise positive actions is generally good advice. 2. While recommending praise for positive actions is fundamentally sound advice, this advice should carry with it certain caveats. 3. As for ignoring negative actions, I agree that minor peccadilloes can, and in many cases should, be overlooked. 4. At the same time, some measure of constructive criticism and critique, and sometimes even punishment, is appropriate. 赞扬和批评 -----------------------230. "College students--and people in general--prefer to follow directions rather than make their own decisions. Therefore, colleges should eliminate as many choices as possible in order to offer students clear direction." 大学学生和普通大众宁愿听从指示而不愿意自己做决定。因 此，大学应该尽可能为学生减少选择以便于为学生们提供一个 明确的方向。 1. As for the speaker’s threshold claim, I concede that under certain circumstances people prefer to take direction from others. 2. When it comes to particular tasks in which college professors are more experienced and knowledgeable, following their directions is to be preferred, for failing to do so can result in costly mistakes. 3. However, when it comes to decisions about major and minor fields of study, curriculum choices, and other broad decisions, for the most part students themselves—and not college administrators—should be the final decision-makers. 精英和大众之选择权 --------------------------232. "The purpose of education should be to create an academic environment that is separate from the outside world. This kind of environment is ideal because it allows students to focus on important ideas without being held back by practical concerns." 教育的目的应该是要创造出一个隔离于外界的学术环境。这样 的环境最理想因为这样可以使学生们不受功利的干扰而专注 于重要的理念。 It is near-sighted to isolate students from the outside world. 1. A common misconception about education is that the so-called “important ideas” students learn at schools have nothing to do with the practical world. 2. Actually, students’ knowledge of the outside world contributions to their academic studies. 3. Furthermore, the ultimate purpose of education is to train workers and citizens who can adapt themselves to and make contributions to the society outside the campus. 理想和现实
第四类 科技 7. "The video camera provides such an accurate and convincing record of contemporary life that it has become a more important form of documentation than written records." 摄像机可以通过如此精确而有力的记录手段来再现当代生活， 因此它已经代替书面记录成为了一种更重要的记录手段。 Although I agree that a video provides a more objective and accurate record of an event’s spatial aspects, there is far more to document in life than what we see and hear. Thus the speaker overstates the comparative significance of video as a documentary tool. 1. For the purpose of documenting temporal, spatial events and experiences, I agree that a video record is usually more accurate and more convincing than a written record. 2. Nonetheless, for certain other purposes written records are more advantageous and more appropriate than video records. 3. Finally, a video record is of not use in documenting statistical or quantitative information. 记录手段：现代摄像机和印刷术 -----------------------------30. "The primary goal of technological advancement should be to increase people's efficiency so that everyone has more leisure time." 技术进步的首要目标应该是提高人们的效率以便于每个人都 享有更多的闲暇时光。 Disagree: 1. The chief reason for my disagreement lies in the empirical proof: with technological advancement comes diminished leisure time. 2. Meanwhile, the suggestion that technology’s chief goal should be to facilitate leisure is simply wrongheaded. There are far more vital concerns that technology can and should address. 技术进步之空闲时刻 -----------------------------66. "As people rely more and more on technology to solve problems, the ability of humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate." 当人们变得越来越依赖技术解决问题的时候，人类独立思考的 能力将肯定会有所衰退。 Technology is a double-edged sword that may either serve or harm human interests. 1. On the one hand, it is possible that people may become the slaves of technology. 2. On the other hand, technology may save people’s time and energy so that they could devote themselves to more creative and meaningful work. 3. Moreover, technology provides people with effective instruments for intellectual work. 技术进步之人和技术 -----------------------------69. "Government should place few, if any, restrictions on scientific research and development" 政府应该少限制科学研究和发展。 Disagree 1. Without government funding, scientists would find it difficult to carry out large-scale projects. 2. Government can also organize scientists to solve the most urgent problems that concern society. 3. However, government should refrain from interfering with the freedom of scientific enquiry. 20
技术之政府限制 -----------------------------88. "Technologies not only influence but actually determine social customs and ethics." 技术不仅仅影响而且实际上是决定了社会传统和道德规范。 1. Technologies have radically changed the way we spend holidays. 2. The new ways of communication brought about by electronic technology have transformed the way we associate with each other in our daily lives. 3. However, we should not let technologies determine our ethics. 技术进步之社会影响 -----------------------------107. "Instant communication systems encourage people to form hasty opinions and give quick replies rather than take the time to develop thoughtful, well-reasoned points of view." 即时通讯系统促使人们匆忙的做出判断并很快的给出回答，而 不是花时间去形成深思熟虑和理由充分的观点。
通过逻辑和精确仔细的衡量，我们得以明白自己的进步。如果 没有这些手段，我们就没有参考来了解我们进步了多少或者退 步了多少。 In certain endeavors, quantitative measurements and logical analysis of data are essential for us to determine whether and to what extent we are progressing or regressing. However, in other realms, objective data provides little guidance for determining progress. 1. As for monitoring individual progress, the extent to which careful measurement and logical analysis of data are required depends on the specific endeavor. In the area of personal finance, objective measurements are critical. In the area of one’s physical well-being, however, quantitative measurement might be useful yet insufficient. On a societal level, as on a personal level, the extent to which careful measurement and logic are needed to determine progress also depends on the endeavor. In macroeconomics, as in personal finance, objective measurements are critical. In contrast, socio-political progress is less susceptible to objective measurement.
Instant communication systems tend to discourage thoughtful and well-reasoned points of view. 1. Instant communication systems usually require quick replies. 2. The pressure of time and space—a key feature of instant communication—forces people to form hasty opinions rather than thoughtful and well-reasoned points of view. 3. On the contrary, traditional ways of communication such as hand-written letters or face-to-face discussion are more likely to induce in-depth thinking. 技术进步之即时判断 -----------------------------114. "Humanity has made little real progress over the past century or so. Technological innovations have taken place, but the overall condition of humanity is no better. War, violence, and poverty are still with us. Technology cannot change the condition of humanity." 人文学科在过去的一百年左右止步不前。技术在不断进步而人 文学科的整体条件却没有改善。战争、暴力和贫困仍然困扰着 我们。技术无法改变人文学科的处境。 Although I agree that technology cannot ultimately prevent us from harming one another, the statement fails to account for the significant positive impact that the modern industrial and computer revolutions have had on the quality life—at least in the developed world. 1. I agree with the statement insofar as there is no technological solution to the enduring problems of war, poverty, and violence, for the reason that they stem from certain aspects of human nature—such as aggression and greed. 2. For every technological innovation helping to reduce human suffering is another that has served primarily to add it. 3. Notwithstanding technology’s limitations in preventing war, poverty, and violence, 20th Century technological innovation has enhanced the overall standard of living and comfort level of developed nations. 4. Of course, such progress has not come without costs. 技术进步之人文学科 -----------------------------115. "It is through the use of logic and of precise, careful measurement that we become aware of our progress. Without such tools, we have no reference points to indicate how far we have advanced or retreated."
技术进步之人类进步 -----------------------------119. "When research priorities are being set for science, education, or any other area, the most important question to consider is: How many people's lives will be improved if the results are successful?" 当研究的重点被置于科学、教育或者其他领域中时，最重要的 问题就是要考虑如果研究获得成功会有多少人的生活得以改 善。 I agree insofar as areas of research certain to result in immediate and significant benefits for society should continue to be a priority. Yet, strictly followed, the speaker’s recommendation would have a harmful chilling effect on research and new knowledge. 1. Admittedly, scientific research whose societal benefits are immediate, predictable, and profound should continue to be a high priority. 2. However, this is not to say that research whose benefits are less immediate or clear should be given lower priority. First of all, if we strictly follow the speaker’s suggestion, who would decide which areas of research are more worthwhile than others? Researchers cannot be left to decide. 3. Secondly, to compel all researchers to focus only on certain areas would be to force many to waste their true talents. 4. Thirdly, it is difficult to predict which research avenues will ultimately lead to the greatest contributions to society. 技术进步之改善人民生活 -----------------------------124. "Instant foods, instant communication, faster transportation-all of these recent developments are designed to save time. Ironically, though, instead of making more leisure time available, these developments have contributed to a pace of human affairs that is more rushed and more frantic than ever before." 方便食品、 即时通讯、 更快捷的交通----所有这些最新的发展都 是为了节省时间。具有讽刺意味的是，这样的发展并没有带来 更过的休闲时间，反而使人们的生活节奏前所未有的匆忙和混 乱。 While I agree that leisure time is declining as a result of efficiencies which technology has brought about, whether the irony to which the speaker refers is real or imagined depends on what one considers to be the chief aim of technology.
Few would disagree that technology has enhanced the speed and efficiency with which we travel, prepare our food, plan and coordinate projects, and communicate with one another. 2. What explains the irony—this decline in leisure despite increase in efficiency that new technologies have brought about? I agree that technology itself is the culprit. We use the additional free time that technology affords us not for leisure but rather for work. 3. Yet there are far more vital concerns which technology seeks to address; therefore, the above-mentioned irony does not seem so ironic after all. 技术进步之生活节奏 -----------------------------129. "Technology is a necessary but not always a positive force in modern life." 技术对于现代生活是不可或缺的，但并不总是发挥积极的作 用。 Agree 1. Undoubtedly, technology is the prerequisite for modern society. 2. Admittedly, some people use technology for negative or even evil purposes. 3. In that case, it is humanity rather than technology itself that should be the culprit. -----------------------------135. "While most of the environmental problems we face result from the use of technology, society must depend upon technology to find solutions to these problems." 虽然我们面临的大多数环境问题都是因为技术的使用，但是社 会必须依靠技术来寻求解决的办法。 Depending upon technology to tackle environmental problems is an important but not sufficient solution. 1. The use of technology should be largely responsible for the environmental problems. 2. It is true that technology will help us solve many environmental problems. 3. However, if human beings do not change their attitude toward nature, technology alone will not be able to save us. 技术对人类的影响之环保 -----------------------------150. "Because of television and worldwide computer connections, people can now become familiar with a great many places that they have never visited. As a result, tourism will soon become obsolete." 由于电视和全球范围内的计算机网络，人们现在可以熟悉很多 以前从未涉足过的地方。其结果就是使得旅游变得过时了。 (旅游将会被淘汰) I agree that these technologies might eventually serve to reduce travel for certain purposes other than tourism. However, I strongly disagree that tourism will become obsolete, or that it will even decline, as a result. 1. As for the claim that television will render tourism obsolete, we already have sufficient empirical evidence that this will simply not happen. It is somewhat more tempting to accept the speaker’s further claim that computer connectivity will render tourism obsolete. Moreover, in my view tourism will continue to thrive for the same reason that people still go out for dinner or to the movies: we all need to “get away” from our familiar routines and surroundings from time to time. In fact, computer connectivity might actually provide a boon for tourism. Admittedly, travel for purposes other than tourism might eventually decline, as the business world becomes increasingly dependent on Internet.
技术进步对人类社会的影响之旅游 obsolete: 过时的，废弃的 -----------------------------151. "High-speed electronic communications media, such as electronic mail and television, tend to prevent meaningful and thoughtful communication." 高速电子通讯媒体，例如电子邮件和电视，在逐渐地抑制有意 义的和有思想性的交流。 Agree with concession Although ample empirical evidence suggests so with respect to television, the answer is far less clear when it comes to communication via computers. 1. Few would argue that since its inception broadcast television has greatly enhanced communication to the masses. 2. Media such as email and the Web are interactive by design, yet email is often used to avoid face-to-face encounters, and in practice is used as a means of distributing quick memos. 3. With respect to Web-based communication, the myriad of educational sites, interactive and otherwise, is strong evidence that the Web tends to enhance, rather than prevent, meaningful communication. 技术进步对人类社会的影响之交流 -----------------------------155. "Contemporary society offers so many ways of learning that reading books is no longer very important." 当代社会提供了如此之多的学习手段以至于读书已经变得不 再那么重要了。 1. 2. Books provide us knowledge, especially theoretical one. Admittedly, we can learn a lot from others via the advanced means of communication, but this method has its limitations. 3. Some might argue that they can acquire the correspondent knowledge through Internet. The complete knowledge of one area is indeed available on the Internet; however, such publication of knowledge is called “e-book”—another form of book. 技术进步对人类社会的影响之阅读 -----------------------------159. "The human mind will always be superior to machines because machines are only tools of human minds." 人类的智慧将总是高于机器，因为机器只是人类智慧的工具。 1. The statement is clearly accurate insofar as machines are tools of human minds. 2. As for the statement’s second claim, in certain respects machines are superior. 3. Up till now, the notion of human-made machine that develop the ability to think on their own, and to develop so-called “emotional intelligence”, has been pure fiction. 技术进步对人类社会的影响（类似于影响和决定人类传统） -----------------------------166. "Over the past century, the most significant contribution of technology has been to make people's lives more comfortable." 在上个世纪，技术最有意义的贡献就是使得人们的生活越来越 舒适了。 1. 2. Everybody benefits from the contribution of the technology to facilitate his or her private lives and works. Many preeminent innovations of technology over the past century have greatly improved the development of society and industry. 22
Admittedly, with the development of technology, some problems arises---- green house effect, nuclear threats, environmental pollutions, etc. However, such drawbacks of technology do not surpass the benefit it brings about. 技术进步对人类的影响 -----------------------------196. "Technology creates more problems than it solves, and may threaten or damage the quality of life." 技术解决了问题，但是带来了更多的问题，并且可能会威胁或 损害生活质量。 While mechanical automation may have diminished our quality of life on balance, digital automation is doing more to improve life than to undermine its quality. 1. Admittedly, mechanical automation spawned entire industries, creating jobs, stimulating economic growth, and supplying a plethora of innovative conveniences. Nevertheless, the sociological and environmental price of such progress may have outweighed its benefits. 2. In certain aspects, digital technology tends to diminish our quality of life and create its own legion of human slaves. 3. On the other hand, by relegating repetitive tasks to computers, digital technology has spawned great advances in medicine and physics, helping us to better understand the world, to enhance our health, and to prolong our lives. 技术对人类社会的影响 -----------------------------219. "Now that computer technology has made possible the rapid accessing of large amounts of factual information, people are less likely than ever to think deeply or originally. They feel unable to compete with--much less contribute to--the quantity of information that is now available electronically." 既然电脑技术已经使人们及时接触大量真实信息成为可能，那 么人们就不太可能像以前那样去深刻地或者创造性地思考了。 对于通过电子手段获得的信息量，人们已经感觉跟不上了，并 且个人的作用已经减弱了。 The availability of large amounts of factual information through the Internet does not necessarily hinder people from thinking deeply or originally. 1. No one would doubt that computer technology has led us into an age of information, putting us on an unprecedented advantageous position to access and use the boundless sea of information. 2. And there is no denying the possibility that we suffer from a new problem—information overload. 3. However, we should be clear that the task of human beings today is not to compete with computer technology in terms of the quantity of information we can produce 4. We should and we can make full use of the large amounts of information available electronically for research purposes and make original contributions. 全球化之信息 -----------------------------233. "Although innovations such as video, computers, and the Internet seem to offer schools improved methods for instructing students, these technologies all too often distract from real learning." 尽管诸如电视、电脑和互联网这样的发明似乎给学校教育提供 了进步的手段，但是所有这些技术往往也是在偏离真正的学 习。 Computer Assisted Instruction has several advantages over traditional ways of teaching. 1. First of all, the computer has the ability to accommodate individual differences in learning speed. 2. In addition, the computer provides students with a stress-free learning environment.
A third advantage of CAI is that the computer can give a student immediate feedback. The possibility of students being distracted from learning by new teaching equipment should not be used as an excuse to prevent teachers and students from benefiting from technological progress.
技术对人类的影响之多媒体教育 -----------------------------237. "Computers and video technology can make facsimiles of original works such as paintings and historical documents available to everyone. The great advantage of this new technology is that it will enable anyone--not just scholars--to conduct in-depth research without having access to the original works." 电脑和影像技术可以让普通人接触到像绘画和历史文献这样 的原始资料的复制品。这项新技术最大的好处就是可以让任何 人，不仅仅是学者们，即使无法接触到这些原始资料也一样可 以进行深入的研究。 The speaker exaggerates the power of computers and video technology in academic research. 1. Undoubtedly, the new technology can make paintings and historical documents available to more people, thus contributing to academic research. 2. However, not anyone can conduct in-depth research once research sources are available. 3. Besides, the facsimiles made by the new technology—no matter how accurate they are—can never replace the original works. 精英和大众之复制技术与原始资料 -----------------------------第五类 学习 1. "We can usually learn much more from people whose views we share than from people whose views contradict our own; disagreement can cause stress and inhibit learning." 通常，我们从与我们意见相同的人身上学到的要比从那些与我 们意见相悖的人身上学的东西要多得多；（因为）意见不统一 会带来压力并且阻碍学习。 1. Admittedly, under some circumstances disagreement with others can be counterproductive to learning. 2. Disagreement can also inhibit learning when two opponents disagree on fundamental assumptions needed for meaningful discourse and debate. 3. However, it is through debate that human knowledge advances whether at the personal, community or global level. --------------4. "No field of study can advance significantly unless outsiders bring their knowledge and experience to that field of study." 在任何一个研究领域当中，除非有该领域之外的人引进他们的 知识和经验，否则该领域就很难获得巨大的发展。 Outsider: a person does not belong to a particular group There is no doubt that different disciplines are interrelated and that the knowledge of one field can shed light on the studies of other fields. 1. Knowledge of statistics was introduced into the fields of sociology and history, contributing to the researchers in those fields. Literary critics borrow new ideas formulated by philosophers to further their studies. When biology and chemistry met, biochemistry came into being. 23
闭门造车，旁观者清 -----------------------------14. "It is necessary for everyone to read poetry, novels, mythology and other types of imaginative literature." 每个人都应该阅读诗歌、 小说、 神话以及各种各样的想象文学。 Reading imaginative literature is beneficial for everyone. 1. Imagination is a precondition of any creative work. 2. Reading imaginative literature enriches one’s imagination. 3. Reading imaginative literature is also a pleasant way of relaxation. 想象文学与人 -----------------------------28. "Students should memorize facts only after they have studied the ideas, trends, and concepts that help explain those facts. Students who have learned only facts have learned very little." 学生们在记忆知识的时候应该先学习有助于解释那些知识的 理念、 潮流和概念。 仅仅死学知识的学生是学不到什么东西的。 1. 2. If we learn only facts, we learn very little. Postponing the memorization of facts until after one learns ideas and concepts holds certain advantages. 3. Conceding that students must learn ideas and concepts, as well as facts relating to them, in order to learning anything meaningful, I nevertheless disagree that the former should always precede the latter. 4. The speaker misunderstands the process by which we learn ideas and concepts, and by which we develop new ones. 5. Strict adherence to the speaker’s advice would surely lead to ill-conceived ideas, concepts and theories. 局部和整体之触类旁通 -----------------------------42. "Because learning is not a solitary activity but one that requires collaboration among people, students of all ages will benefit academically if they work frequently in groups." 由于学习不是一种孤立的行为而是需要人们之间合作的，所以 各种年龄的学生如果经常小组学习的话就会在学术上受益匪 浅。 Agree 1. Younger students may learn patience, tact, experience and deliberation from elder ones. 2. Senior students may absorb inspiration, vigor, ambition, and enthusiasm from junior ones. 3. Teamwork spirit is crucial for student’s career success. 少数和多数之学习小组 -----------------------------57. "The depth of knowledge to be gained from books is much richer and broader than what can be learned from direct experience." 通过书本获得的知识要比通过直接体验获得的知识要更加丰 富和广泛。 The statement oversimplifies the issue of learning. 1. The knowledge to be gained from books is important in that it transcends the limitation of personal experience both in time and in space. 2. However, there is high likelihood that book knowledge may not apply to the particular situation one faces here and now. 3. Therefore, it is always necessary to test the knowledge gained from books through practice. 直接经验和间接经验 -----------------------------59. "Too much emphasis is placed on role models. Instead of copying others, people should learn to think and act independently and thus make the choices that are best for them."
人们在榜样上投入了太多的注意力。与其模仿别人，还不如学 习独立思考和做出最适合自己的选择。 Disagree 1. Children need role models to help them develop their personality and character. 2. In addition, role models in the workplace contribute to the forming and maintaining of corporate culture. 3. Finally, independent thinking and action does not necessarily ensure the best choices. 模式化和独立思考 -----------------------------73. "In most professions and academic fields, imagination is more important than knowledge." 在大多数职业和学术领域中，想象力要比知识更加重要。 Without imagination, one can hardly succeed in any field. 1. Imagination in business is the ability to perceive opportunity. 2. In science, imagination leads to invention and discoveries. 3. Without imagination, there would be no art. 想象力和知识 -----------------------------92. "In any academic area or professional field, it is just as important to recognize the limits of our knowledge and understanding as it is to acquire new facts and information." 在任何学术或者职业领域中，承认我们知识和理解的不足同获 取新的知识同等重要。 1. 2. On the one hand, the speaker’s assertion accords with the everyday experience of working professionals. Moreover, additional knowledge we gain by collecting more information often diminishes—sometimes to the point where marginal gains turn to marginal losses. On the other hand, the speaker’s assertion seems self-contradictory, for how can we know the limits of our knowledge until we’ve thoroughly tested those limits through exhaustive empirical observation—that is, by acquiring facts and information.
自我批评 -----------------------------117. "The depth of knowledge to be gained from books is richer and broader than what can be learned from direct experience." 从书本中获得的知识要比通过直接经验获得的知识内容更加 丰富，范围更加广阔。 Knowledge gained from books is broader but not necessarily richer than what can be learned from direct experience. 1. Systematically arranged, knowledge gained from books, the results of countless other people’s direct experiences, is broader than what one can learn from his or her direct experience. 2. However, direct experience, though limited by time and space, provides on with an opportunity to gain a more accurate and vivid understanding of a matter. 3. The best way to learn is to put what we gain from books into practice. 直接经验和间接经验 -----------------------------122. "We owe almost all our knowledge not to people who have agreed, but to people who have disagreed." 我们所掌握的知识差不多都是源于持不同意见者而非意见相 同者。
统一和分歧之知识 -----------------------------138. "Only through mistakes can there be discovery or progress." 失败是成功之母 Agree 1. To begin with, the contention accords with our everyday experience as humans from early childhood through adulthood. 2. This same principle also applies on a societal level. Consider, however, how we progress in our scientific knowledge. 3. The value of trial-and-error is not limited to the sciences. In government and politics, progress usually comes about through dissension and challenge—that is, when people point out the mistake of those in power. -----------------------------164. "Sometimes imagination is a more valuable asset than experience. People who lack experience are free to imagine what is possible and thus can approach a task without constraints of established habits and attitudes." 有时候想象力是比经验更有价值的财富。缺少经验的人得以自 由的想象任何可能性，并且由此可以达成一个目标而不受既定 习惯和态度的限制。 I fundamentally agree with the speaker’s assertion; however, as the speaker implies, it is impossible not to overstate the comparative value of imagination. 1. One need only observe young children as they go about their daily lives to appreciate the role that pure imagination can play as an aid to accomplishing tasks. 2. The speaker’s contention also finds ample empirical support in certain forms of artistic accomplishment and scientific invention. 3. Of course, there are many notable exceptions to the rule that imagination unfettered by experience breeds remarkable insights and accomplishments. 4. On the other hand, it is important not to take this assertion about artistic and scientific accomplishment too far. 想象力和经验 -----------------------------177. "The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different eyes." 对于一门学科的研究会改变我们对世界的看法。在学习这门学 科之后，我们看到的世界一如既往，但是我们本身的角度和眼 光已然不同。 1. Through the earnest pursuit of knowledge—particularly in history and literature—we reveal to ourselves the flaws and foibles of other humans whose lives we study and read about. Through education we begin to see flaws not only in people but also in ideologies that we had previously embraced on pure faith. While education helps us see the flawed nature of our previously cherished ideas, paradoxically it also helps us see ideas we previously rejected out of hand in a different light—as having some merit after all. Education in the arts alters forever the way we perceive the aesthetic world around us.
大多人真正想要得到的不是知识而是结论。获得真正的知识需 要冒险和不停歇的思考----但是大多数人更愿意获得确定的答 案而不是去学习复杂而不确定的真理。 1. Only after we have gained real knowledge can we be competent for a better comprehension of the world. 2. People’s unremitting pursuit of knowledge is not for the sake of knowledge, but largely for the sake of their settled life goals and acquiring a degree of certainty about their goals. 独立思考 ------------------------------
180. "Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated." 现代社会的很多问题是法律和立法系统无法解决的，因为道德 行为是无法用法律约束的。 I agree with this assertion insofar as it relates to constraints on certain personal freedoms. However, when it comes to the conduct of business, I think that moral behavior not only can but must be legislated for the purpose of alleviating societal problems. 4. Morality laws that impinge upon freedom of choice about our personal lives—to control what we do with and to ourselves—simply do not work in a democratic society. 5. Morality laws impinging on personal freedoms are not made any more useful or effective by purporting to serve the greater good of society, because on balance their costs far outweigh their benefits. 6. In sharp contrast to personal behavior, the behavior of businesses can and must be controlled through legislation. 道德和法律 -----------------------------181. "The way students and scholars interpret the materials they work with in their academic fields is more a matter of personality than of training. Different interpretations come about when people with different personalities look at exactly the same objects, facts, data, or events and see different things." 学生和学者们在诠释学术研究对象时使用的方法更多的是一 种个性化（因人而异）而非一种培训（模式化）。不同的诠释 来自于具有不同个性的人在看待相同的目标、事实、数据或者 事件的时候以及他们在看待不同事情的时候。 Disagree: The key factor in their interpretation is a person’s training and educational background, rather than personality. 1. Assuming that by personality the speaker embraces such personal attributes as individual temperament, disposition and general mood, and outlook, it seems to me that personality has little bearing on how students and scholars interpret the materials with which they work. 2. In sharp contrast, one’s educational background and training can serve as a strong influence on how one interprets historical events involving human affairs, statistical data, and especially art. 3. Educational training and background also affects how students and scholars interpret seemingly objective statistical data. 4. Finally, when it comes to how students and scholars interpret art, training and educational background play an especially significant role. 个体和整体之学术方法论 -----------------------------183. "As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensible, but more complex and more mysterious." 随着我们获得越来越多的知识，事情并没有变的更加透彻，相 反是变的更复杂更神秘。
知识对于人类的影响 -----------------------------179. "What most human beings really want to attain is not knowledge, but certainty. Gaining real knowledge requires taking risks and keeping the mind open--but most people prefer to be reassured rather than to learn the complex and often unsettling truth about anything."
As our knowledge of the world accumulates, we arrive at a higher stage of civilization although the world may appear more complex and more mysterious. 1. The world in the eyes of primitive tribes was much simpler and thus more “comprehensible” in a sense and certainly more backward. 2. If we compare the known part of the world to the space within a circle, the unknown part of the world around the circle grows as the circle of our knowledge expands. 3. There is no need to feel frustrated about the increasingly more complex and more mysterious world that we confront because our knowledge in total keeps growing and correspondingly we are becoming better equipped to cope with the problems that emerge. -----------------------------200. "The most elusive knowledge is self-knowledge, and it is usually acquired through solitude, rather than through interaction with others." Elusive: Abstruse, hard to comprehend Self-knowledge: knowledge or understandings of one s own capabilities, character, feelings, or motivations Solitude: alone, seclusion 最艰深难懂的学问都是自知之明的，这些学问通常都是独立发 展起来的而不是通过和其他人的交流。 Both solitude and interaction with others contributes to self-knowledge. 1. To lead a happy life, the first thing is to know ourselves. “An unexamined life is not worth living.” 2. One way to know ourselves is to examine ourselves alone. 3. However, interaction with others can also help us see more clearly who we are. 少数和多数之自知之明的学问
学习一门新学科或者新技术的最好方法是深入的学习某一个 小的部分或者细节，而不是一开始就试图去从整体来把握。 To learn a new subject, one should start by developing a sense of the whole rather than focusing on segments or details. 1. A sense of the whole subject enables us to identify the specific areas where we can make original contributions. 2. A sense of the whole subject provides necessary background knowledge for any in-depth exploration into particular areas of that subject. 3. Studying small segments or details in great depth would in turn contribute to our understanding of the whole subject. 整体和局部的关系 -----------------------------第六类 政治 8. "It is often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders to withhold information from the public." 对于政治领导者来说，向人民大众隐瞒信息通常是必要的，甚 至有益的。 Agree 1. In order to gain the opportunity for effective public leadership, a would-be leader must first gain and maintain political power. In the game of politics, complete forthrightness is a sign of vulnerability and naiveté neither of , which earn a politician respect among his or her opponents. 2. Fully disclosing to the public certain types of information would threaten public safety and perhaps even national security. 3. Nevertheless, legitimate political leadership indeed requires forthrightness with the citizenry as to the leader’s motives and agenda. 少数和多数的关系之 true lies, the truth is out there. ------------------------------
204. "We learn through direct experience; to accept a theory without experiencing it is to learn nothing at all." 我们通过直接经验来学习，如果没有通过体验来接受一个理论 就等于根本没学。 Disagree 1. Even though experience is a most lively and vivid way that we learn things, it is by no means the only way. 2. Admittedly, by putting a theory into practice, we can either improve it or prove its truth. 3. However, there is no need for us to experience every theory before accepting and benefiting from it. 直接经验和间接经验 -----------------------------217. "In order to produce successful original work, scholars and scientists must first study the successful work of others to learn what contributions remain to be made." 为了创作出成功的原创著作，学者和科学家们必须研究别人的 著作以了解这些著作仍然保持着哪些贡献。 Naturally, to make new contributions in any field of study, scholars and scientists should first master the existing work done by their fellow scholars and scientists. 1. No one can produce any original work without first assimilating the contributions of former generations in his or her field. 2. The defects of the work of other scholars and scientists are where we can possibly make our contributions. 3. In a large sense, what is called “original” work is usually but an improvement on the work done by previous scholars and scientist. 他山之石可以攻玉，科学是承前继后的过程 ----------------------------229. "The best way to learn a new subject or skill is to study small segments or details in great depth rather than to start by trying to develop a sense of the whole."
24. "People in positions of power are most effective when they exercise caution and restraint in the use of that power." 当掌握权力的人们试图小心而节制的使用权力时，他们是最有 效率的。
People without caution and restraint tend to abuse the power granted to them. 2. Caution and restraint help people have better understanding and make better use of the power. 3. Leaders should not be tied up by too much caution and restraint. 过犹不及 -----------------------------43. "To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards." 一个公仆如果想成为一位杰出的领导者就必须保持最高的伦 理和道德标准。 1. In the business realm, successful leadership is generally defined as that which achieves the goal of profit maximization for a firm’s shareholders or other owners. 2. In the political realm the issue is no less complex. Definition of successful political leadership and of ethical or moral leadership are tied up in the means a leader uses to wield his or her power and to obtain that power in the first place. 3. Personal morality is unrelated to effective political leadership. However, public morality and successful leadership are more closely connected. 政治家题目 26
-----------------------------44. "Government should not fund any scientific research whose consequences, either medical or ethical, are unclear." 政府不应该资助任何后果不明的科学研究，无论是医学方面还 是伦理方面的。 Disagree 1. Financial support is to the uncertain scientific research what steam is to locomotive. 2. The consequences of uncertain researches may turn out to be as substantial as those with clear perspectives. 3. Admittedly, there are some dangers or wastes when the result of a scientific research is unclear. 政府和科研 -----------------------------45. "Government officials should rely on their own judgment rather than unquestioningly carrying out the will of the people whom they serve." 政府官员应该依靠自己的判断而不是不管三七二十一的遵从 人民的意愿。 Disagree 1. Admittedly, it is hard to get a good rapport of all the people. 2. However, in a democratic society, government is elected by the people, and therefore should take the responsibility to serve for the people and realize their will. 3. Without the support of the people, government is bound to perish. 少数和多数，政府 -----------------------------56. "Governments should focus more on solving the immediate problems of today rather than trying to solve the anticipated problems of the future." 政府应该把更多的注意力放在解决当务之急，而不是试图解决 将来预期的问题上。 Whether solving the immediate problems of today is more important than solving the anticipated problems of the future depends on the nature of the problems to be solved. 1. To win the favor of the general public, governments throughout the world tend to focus on solving the immediate problems of today. 2. However, a government’s failing to prepare for future challenges will cause disasters to its country in the long run. 3. Furthermore, a government should always take into consideration the possible future effects of the actions it takes today. 时间之当务之急和百年大计 -----------------------------79. "Major policy decisions should always be left to politicians and other government experts, who are more informed and thus have better judgment and perspective than do members of the general public." 主要的决策权应该全部交给政治家和其他的政府专家，他们更 加见多识广并且比一般的老百姓具有更好的判断能力和洞察 力。 The title statement goes against the basic tenets of modern democracy. 1. In some cases, politicians and other government experts might be more informed and have better judgment and perspective than do members of the general public. 2. However, there is no guarantee that the politicians and experts would always put the interest of the public before their own selfish interests. 3. Furthermore, empirical evidence also indicates that politicians and government experts do make grave mistakes that harm the interests of the public.
少数和多数之决策权 -----------------------------83. "Government should preserve publicly owned wilderness areas in their natural state, even though these areas are often extremely remote and thus accessible to only a few people." 政府应该保留国家领土中公共拥有的荒凉地区，即使这些地区 往往人迹罕至。 When our environment is under growing threat from human civilization, government should take action to preserve publicly owned wilderness areas in their natural state. 1. Even a few people could cause serious damage to a remote wilderness area. 2. The destruction of even a remote wildness area could result in unforeseeable effects on the larger environment. 3. Without government’s protection, even the remotest wildness area will finally disappear. 政府之领土 -----------------------------85. "Government funding of the arts threatens the integrity of the arts." 政府资助艺术会威胁到艺术的完整性。 In spite of the harm that government funding might do to the integrity of the arts, government support is still necessary for the flourishing of the arts. 1. Admittedly, government funding might directly or indirectly influence artists’ decisions and choices. 2. However, history has demonstrated that government support could also contribute to the prosperity of arts. 3. Furthermore, when money has come to dominate contemporary society, it is all the more imperative for government to fund arts. 政府之艺术 -----------------------------97. "It is unfortunate but true that political decisions and activities affect all aspects of people's lives." 尽管很不幸，但是这却是真实存在的事实，政治决策和活动影 响着人们生活的方方面面。
Throughout the civilization history of humanity, politicians have long been in control of the affairs of society. 2. Actually, as the society becomes more and more commercialized, politics is playing a more important role in influencing various aspects of people’s lives. 3. The influence from politicians are not necessarily an unfortunate thing. 政治和生活 ------------------------------
105. "The true strength of a country is best demonstrated by the willingness of its government to tolerate challenges from it's own citizens." 一个国家真正的力量可以最好体现在他的政府愿意容忍来自 于自己国民的挑战。 In the long run, political tolerance adds to the strength of a country. 1. Democratic governments tend to be more tolerant than authoritarian ones. 2. A government that tolerates challenges from its citizens has more opportunity to improve its performance.
The real strength of a country lies in the dynamic and interactive relationship between the government and its people. 精英和大众之开明政府 -----------------------------108. "In many countries it is now possible to turn on the television and view government at work. Watching these proceedings can help people understand the issues that affect their lives. The more kinds of government proceedings-trials, debates, meetings, etc that are televised, the more society will benefit." 在很多国家中，现在通过电视来观看政府的运作已经成为可 能。观察这些过程有助于人们了解那些影响他们生活的决策。 可以供转播的政府运作(审判、辩论、会议等等)越多，对社会 的好处就越多。
that politics is a game played among politicians—and that to succeed in the game one must use the tools that are part and parcel of it. Secondly, it is crucial to distinguish between misrepresentations of fact—in other words, lies—and mere political rhetoric. Thirdly, politics is a business born not only of idealism but also of pragmatism; after all, in order to be effective a politician must gain and hold onto political power, which means winning election. On the other hand, although in the short term being less-than-truthful with the public might serve a political leader’s interest in preserving power, would-be political leaders who lack requisite integrity ultimately forfeit their leadership.
领导者问题 -------------169. "Those who treat politics and morality as though they were separate realms fail to understand either the one or the other." Agree: 1. It is wrong-headed to equate moral behavior in politics with the simple notions of honesty and putting the other fellow’s needs ahead of one’s own—or other ways which we typically measure the morality of an individual’s private behavior. 2. In order to gain the opportunity for moral leadership politicians must engage in certain compromises along the way. 3. Successful political leadership, if it is to endure, ultimately requires a certain measure of public morality—that is serving the society with its best interests as the leader’s overriding concern. 那些把政治和道德看成是两码事的人是既不懂政治也不懂道 德的。 政治和道德的关系 -----------------------------195. "The goal of politics should not be the pursuit of an ideal, but rather the search for common ground and reasonable consensus." 政治的目的不应该是追求一种理想，而是寻求共同点和合理的 一致。 Disagree: 1. Reasonable consensus and a political idea need not be mutually exclusive. 2. The speaker’s position flies in the face of human nature and the nature of politics. 3. A third problem with the speaker’s position is that it begs the question: What are the proper ideals for politicians? They have little to do with consensus, and everything to do with justice and fairness. 4. Finally, lacking idealism a political leader will tend to seek compromise and reasonable consensus for its own sake. 统一和分歧之政治 -----------------------------202. "Unlike great thinkers and great artists, the most effective political leaders must often yield to public opinion and abandon principle for the sake of compromise." 不同于伟大的思想家和艺术家，最杰出的政治领袖通常都必须 为了妥协而屈从于大众的意见并且放弃原则。 For political leaders, practicality should take precedence over principles. 1. Great thinkers and great artists do not have to appeal to the opinions of the public. 2. However, for political leaders, winning the favor of the public is key to effective leadership. 28
On the one hand, access to government proceedings via television carries several significant benefits. First, videotapes are valuable supplements to conventional means of record keeping. Secondly, this sort of exposure provides the viewer a valuable sense of perspective, an appreciation for other forms of government, and so forth. Thirdly, in high schools and universities, television proceedings can be useful curriculum supplements for students of government, public policy, and even public speaking. 2. On the other hand, people cannot ignore the risks imposed by more and more televised government proceedings. Watching televised proceedings as a substitute for active participation in the political process can, on a mass scale, undermine the democratic process by way of its chilling effect on participation. 政府和大众之电子政府 -----------------------------123. "It is possible to identify a person's politics within a very short time of meeting him or her. Everything about people-their clothes, their friends, the way they talk, what they eat-reflects their political beliefs." 通过和一个人短时间的接触来了解它的政治信仰是有可能的。 和人们有关的一切--人们穿什么样的衣服、 结交什么样的朋友、 如何说话、吃什么东西--都能够反映出他们的政治信仰。 A person’s words and behavior could directly reflect his or her political beliefs. 1. What one wears and eats indicates the way of life he or she advocates. 2. We can also identify a person’s ideals, qualities and values from the type of friends he or she associates with. “Birds of a feather flock together.” 3. Of course, it is also necessary to watch a person’s deeds if we want to know for sure what he or she truly believes in. 政治是无处不在的 ------------------------------
167. "It is impossible for an effective political leader to tell the truth all the time. Complete honesty is not a useful virtue for a politician." 对于一个英明的政治领导者来说，总是坦白是不可能的。彻底 的诚实对于一个政治家来说是无用的美德。 In order to evaluate this contention it is necessary to examine the nature of politics, and to distinguish between short-term and long-term effectiveness. 1. On the one hand are three compelling arguments that political leader must sometimes be less than truthful in order to be effective in that leadership. The first argument lies in the fact
In addition, political policies are often made based on the compromise of different interest groups and the dictates of the situation. 少数和多数之政治领袖 -----------------------------224. "Censorship is rarely, if ever, justified." 审查很少能够做到公正。 Censorship can contribute to the interests of the public. 1. It is true that government officials often use censorship to protect their vested interests. 2. What is also true is that the mass media tend to abuse their freedom of expression in order to maximize their commercial interests. 3. Government is responsible for preventing its people from potential harmful effects of the mass media. 抽象题目 -----------------------------第七类 文化 6. "The most effective way to understand contemporary culture is to analyze the trends of its youth." 了解当代文明最有效的途径就是去分析当代年轻人的潮流。 It is more or less true to say that contemporary culture is to analyze the trends of its youth. 1. We live in an age when old people are marginalized in society. 2. What we call mass culture produced by the mass media is, as a matter of fact, a reflection of the trends among the youth. 3. There is urgent need for the younger generation and the older generation to fill the gap between them and to build a more balanced contemporary culture. 文明潮流和年轻人潮流的关系。 -----------------------------10. "Governments must ensure that their major cities receive the financial support they need in order to thrive, because it is primarily in cities that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved and generated." 政府必须要确保主要城市发展所需的财政支持，因为一个国家 的文化传统主要是在城市中得以保存和发展。 Disagree 1. Subsidizing cultural traditions is not a proper role of government. 2. Secondly, subsidizing cultural traditions is not a necessary role of government. Philanthropy is alive and well today, and so government need not intervene to ensure that our cultural traditions are preserved and promoted. 3. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the speaker unfairly suggests that large cities serve as the primary breeding ground and sanctuaries for a nation’s cultural traditions. 城市和国家的关系之文化传统 -----------------49. "Imaginative works such as novels, plays, films, fairy tales, and legends present a more accurate and meaningful picture of human experience than do factual accounts. Because the creators of fiction shape and focus reality rather than report on it literally, their creations have a more lasting significance." 想象作品，比如小说、戏剧、电影、神话和传奇要比真实的叙 事作品更能精确而有意义的展现人类的经历。因为虚构作品的 作者们重点刻画现实而不是通过文学手段报道现实，所以他们 的创作具有更加深远的意义。
Admittedly, most fictional works rely on historical settings for plot, thematic, and character development. Only imaginative works can bring an historical period alive—by way of creative tools such as imaginary point of view. Only imaginative works can provide meaning to historical events—through the use of devices such as symbolism and metaphor. Examples of important films underscore the point that creative accounts of the human experience hold more lasting significance than bare factual accounts.
想象作品 -----------------------------63. "To truly understand your own culture--no matter how you define it--requires personal knowledge of at least one other culture, one that is distinctly different from your own." 为了真正理解你自己的文化----无论你如何地定义它----都至少 需要了解另外一种文化，并且该文化与你自己的文化是截然不 同的。 Agree 1. Staying within one culture makes one take for granted everything that the culture provides. 2. Knowledge of another different culture provides one with an opportunity to compare alternative ways of life and make choices. 3. In an age of globalization, one should learn to tolerate cultural differences. 旁观者清 -----------------------------147. "Tradition and modernization are incompatible. One must choose between them." 传统和现代化是水火不容的。人们必须二者选一。 I agree that in certain cases the two are mutually exclusive. For the most part, however, modernization does not reject tradition; in fact, in many cases the former can and does embrace the latter. A. In the first place, oftentimes so-called “modernization” is actually an extension or new iteration of tradition, or a variation on it. This is especially true in language and in law. B. In other areas modernization departs from tradition in some respects, while embracing it in others. C. Admittedly, in certain instances, tradition must yield entirely to the utilitarian needs of modern life. This is true especially when it comes to architectural artifacts. -----------------------------172. "Important truths begin as outrageous, or at least uncomfortable, attacks upon the accepted wisdom of the time." 重要的真理一开始都是令人难以容忍的，或者至少是令人不快 的，而且都是在反对当时的权威思想。
It is customary fate of new truth to begin as heresies. 1. Copernicus’ heliocentric theory in the 16th century was a direct attack upon the accepted wisdom of the time, a geocentric view of the universe postulated by Aristotle and Ptolemy. 2. When Darwin first declared that the wide variety of animal species was due to a process of development over many millennia, he challenged the traditional Christian belief and outraged the religious fundamentalists. 3. In former socialist countries, it took a long and painful time for people to give up the old idea of state-owned economy and to accept the idea of market economy. -----------------------------29
173. "Originality does not mean thinking something that was never thought before; it means putting old ideas together in new ways." The notion that so-called “originality” is actually variation or synthesis of existing ideas finds its greatest support in linguistics and in law. 2. Even in the arts—where one might think that true originality must surely reside—so called “new” ideas almost always embrace, apply, or synthesize what came earlier. 3. When it comes to the natural sciences, however, some new ideas are truly original while others put established ideas together in new ways. 4. However, in other instances great advances in science are made by putting together current theories or other ideas in new ways. 创新并不意味着一定要想一些人们从未想过的东西；它意味着 用新方法来重组老观点。 1. 新旧问题 -----------------------------176. "The function of science is to reassure; the purpose of art is to upset. Therein lies the value of each." 科学的作用是解惑；艺术的目的是创新。只有这样他们才各得 其所。 Disagree: 1. In many cases artists set about to reassure, not to upset. 2. In other cases, artists set about to upset. 3. The final objective of science, in my view, is to discover truths about our world, our universe and ourselves. Sometimes these discoveries serve to reassure, and other times they serve to upset. Reassure upset -----------------------------207. "Rituals and ceremonies help define a culture. Without them, societies or groups of people have a diminished sense of who they are." 礼节和典礼有助于定义一个文化。如果没有这些，社会或者团 体就会逐渐地迷失自我。 1. 2. 3. I agree with the speaker insofar as one purpose of ritual and ceremony in today’s world is to preserve cultural identity. Nevertheless, preserving cultural identity cannot be the only purpose of ritual and ceremony. Nor are ritual and ceremony the only means of preserving cultural identity.
241. "An individual's greatness cannot be judged objectively by his or her contemporaries; the most objective evaluators of a person's greatness are people who belong to a later time." 一个人的伟大是无法为他的同代人所客观判定的，而是应该由 后人来评判。 Agree with concession 1. An individual’s contemporaries may be emotionally connected with him or her. 2. It takes time for the significance of an individual’s deeds to be recognized. 3. Admittedly, there are still plenty of cases in which people’s greatness were instantaneously recognized and judged objectively by their contemporaries. 时间问题之个人的伟大 -----------------------------第八类 艺术 82. "Government should never censor the artistic works or historical displays that a museum wishes to exhibit." 政府根本就不应该审查一家博物馆计划展出的艺术作品或者 历史陈列。 Disagree: 1. Museum exhibitions are an influential way of public education. 2. If the artistic works or historical displays of a museum cause destructive social conflicts, then government should step in to prohibit such exhibitions. 3. Admittedly, government should always take care not to abuse its authority. 政府之艺术 -----------------------------96. "Although, critics who write about the arts tend to deny the existence of any objective standards for evaluating works of art, they have a responsibility to establish standards by which works of art can be judged." 尽管评论艺术的批评家们倾向于否认存在任何评价艺术作品 的客观标准，但他们还是有责任建立用于评判艺术作品的标 准。 Disagree 1. Works of art are created for people to appreciate rather than for critics to judge. 2. Setting standards for works of art tends to hinder artists’ creations. 3. Unfortunately, the reality is that too often critics have turned the public into passive audience of arts. 独立题目 -----------------------------101. "Governments should provide funding for artists so that the arts can flourish and be available to all people." 政府应该为艺术家提供资助以便于艺术能够繁荣发展并且是 所有人都能够享受艺术。 Government’s funding for artists is a double-edged sword. 1. On the one hand, without government’s funding, many artists could hardly survive in real life. 2. On the other hand, government’s funding could create dependent artists who serve not the interests of the public but those of the government. 3. It is crucial that government does not interfere with the artists’ freedom of expression while granting them financial aids. 政府和艺术 -----------------------------131. "The arts (painting, music, literature, etc.) reveal the otherwise hidden ideas and impulses of a society." 30
-----------------------------227. "To remain vigorous, any academic field needs to be led by truly independent thinkers who are willing to ignore established boundaries and challenge long-standing assumptions." 为了保持活力，所有的学术领域都需要真正的独立思想家的领 导，他们可以无视既定的限制而挑战经久不衰的理论。 It seems self-contradictory to require academic leaders to ignore established boundaries and challenge long-standing assumptions. 1. There is no doubt that academic leaders should be independent thinkers. 2. However, an academic leader in any field is supposed to represent an established paradigm in that field. 3. What might also be important is the academic leader’s ability to organize the scholars of his field to promote academic development. 挑战权威之创新和离经叛道 ------------------------------
3. 艺术（绘画、音乐、文学等等）揭示了那些隐藏的理念和社会 的脉动。 While this assertion has merit, I think it unfairly generalizes about art. Consider two particular art forms: architecture and painting. 1. In more important architecture, one consistently sees a reflection of society’s ideas and urges. 2. However, in more important paintings of the most recent century one sees instead the artists’ personal and idiosyncratic vision of an aesthetic ideal. 艺术 -----------------------------143. "Artists should pay little attention to their critics.* Criticism tends to undermine and constrain the artist's creativity." *those who evaluate works of art, such as novels, films, music, paintings, etc. 艺术家不必太在乎他们的批评者。批评总是在破坏和压制艺术 家的创造力。 4. Although the critic can help us understand and appreciate art, more often than not, critique is either counterproductive to achieving the objective of art or altogether irrelevant to that objective. 1. To support the statement the speaker might point out the ostensible functions of the art critic. 2. The values of these functions are in especially suspect. 艺术家和批评者（类似题目为压力对学生的影响） -----------------------------144. "It is the artist, not the critic,* who gives society something of lasting value." *a person who evaluates works of art, such as novels, films, music, paintings, etc. 艺术家而不是评论家带给了社会一些具有持久价值的东西。 *评论家指的是评价艺术作品的人，例如小说、电影、绘画等。 Artists and critics are supplement to each other. 1. It is the creative minds of artists that add hue to our quotidian life. 2. However, a constructive criticism could help artists promote their working level and tell people how to be a good connoisseur. 3. All of the greatest feats in history, which gave society something of lasting value, are those created by artists and evaluated by critics. Appropriate critical evaluation might entice the people’s attention towards those works. -----------------------------158. The arts (music, dance, visual arts, etc.) are vitally important to students' education and should therefore receive as much emphasis as mathematics, science, reading and other mainstream subjects." 艺术（音乐、舞蹈、视觉艺术等等）对与学生们的教育至关重 要，因此应该和数学、自然科学等主流学科一样受到重视。 3. 2.
It is an effective way to improve the learning efficiency by introducing the arts to the science and engineering students. -----------------------------190. "As long as people in a society are hungry or out of work or lack the basic skills needed to survive, the use of public resources to support the arts is inappropriate--and, perhaps, even cruel--when one considers all the potential uses of such money." 一旦人们陷于饥饿、失业或者缺乏谋生的基本技能，运用公共 资源去扶持艺术是很不恰当的----并且甚至是残忍的----尤其明 知这些资金所有可能的用途。 1. The implicit rationale behind the speaker’s statement seems to be that cultural enrichment pales in importance compared to food, clothing, and shelter. It might also be tempting to agree with the speaker on the basis that arts patronage is neither an appropriate nor a necessary function of government. On the other hand are compelling arguments that public support for the art is desirable, whether or not unemployment and hunger have been eliminated. One such argument is that by allocating public resources to the arts, we actually help A second argument against the speaker’s position has to do with the function and ultimate objectives of art.
-----------------------------218. "In order for any work of art--whether film, literature, sculpture, or a song--to have merit, it must be understandable to most people." 任何的艺术作品为了有价值， 例如电影、 文学、 雕塑或者歌曲， 都必须让大多数人易于理解。 1. First consider musical art form. It would be absurd to assert that the objective of music is to challenge the listener’s knowledge of music theory. In fact, listening to music is simply an encounter—an experience to be accepted at face value for its aural impact on our spirit and our emotions. Next consider the art forms of painting and sculpture. If the test for meritorious art were its ability to be clearly understood by every observer, then our most valuable art would simply imitate the mundane physical world around us. Finally, consider art forms such as poetry, song, and prose, in certain cases stanzas and verses need not be “understood” to have merit, as much as they need be experienced for the images and emotions they evoke.
少数和多数之艺术价值 -----------------------------243. "The true value of a civilization is reflected in its artistic creations rather than in its scientific accomplishments." 一个文明的真正价值是反映在艺术创造中的而不是它的科学 成就。 We praise a civilization both for its artistic creations and for its scientific accomplishments. 1. Western civilization serves as a typical example of a balanced development of arts and science. 2. By contrast, the Chinese civilization has bequeathed the world a rich legacy of artistic creations, but its scientific accomplishments are insignificant. 3. A dynamic civilization should aim at promoting the prosperity of both the arts and science. 艺术和科学 -----------------------------第九类 历史 26. "Most people would agree that buildings represent a valuable record of any society's past, but controversy arises when old 31
Arts will ignite the sparks of human minds, and will spur us to quarry the beauty of the nature. On the other hand, mainstream subjects can help students to form critical logical mind that is crucial for making a disinterest decision.
buildings stand on ground that modern planners feel could be better used for modern purposes. In such situations, modern development should be given precedence over the preservation of historic buildings so that contemporary needs can be served." 大多数人都同意一个社会的建筑物代表了它有价值的历史纪 录，但是当现代规划者们觉得这些以前的建筑物所占据的土地 可以被更有价值的使用于新目的时，就产生了争议，现代发展 应该比保留历史建筑物更受重视以便于满足眼下的需求。 Which interest should take precedence should be determined on a case-by-case basis--and should account not only for practical and historic considerations but also aesthetic ones. 1. In determining whether to raze an older building, planners should of course consider the community’s current and anticipated utilitarian needs. 2. Competing with a community’s utilitarian needs is an interest preserving the historical record, the weight of which should also be determined on a case-by-case basic. 3. Also competing with a community’s utilitarian needs is the aesthetic and architectural value of the building itself—apart from historical events with which it might be associated. 过去和现在之建筑物 -----------------------------48. "The study of history places too much emphasis on individuals. The most significant events and trends in history were made possible not by the famous few, but by groups of people whose identities have long been forgotten." 历史研究过于关注个人。历史上最有意义的事件和潮流能够成 为可能不是因为几个少数的名人而是一些身份早就被淡忘的 人群。 1. Admittedly, at times distinctive groups of people have played a more pivotal role than key individuals in important historical developments. However, undue attention to the efforts and contributions of various groups tends to obscure the cause-and-effect relationship with which the study of history is chiefly concerned. Profound scientific inventions and discoveries of the past are nearly all attributable not to forgettable groups of people but to certain key individuals.
To begin with, learning about great human achievements of the past provides inspiration. 2. In addition, mistakes of the past can teach us as a society how to avoid repeating those mistakes. 3. Studying human history can also help us understand and appreciate the mores, values, and ideals of past cultures. 4. Appreciating history can serve to elevate our everyday chores to richer, more interesting, and more enjoyable experience. 历史研究 -----------------------------110. "When we concern ourselves with the study of history, we become storytellers. Because we can never know the past directly but must construct it by interpreting evidence, exploring history is more of a creative enterprise than it is an objective pursuit. All historians are storytellers." 当我们通过研究历史来考虑自身问题的时候，我们就会变成说 故事的人。因为我们不可能直接了解过去，只有通过解释一些 史料来构造历史，所以探索历史更多是一件创造性的事业而不 是客观的追寻。所有的历史学家都是讲故事的人。 I agree that it is the proper and necessary role of historians to “construct” history by interpreting evidence. Nevertheless, the speaker’s characterization of this role as “storytelling” carries certain unfair implications, which should be addressed. Unless we grant to the historian a license to “construct” history by interpreting evidence, we relegate the historian to the role of mere archivist or journalist. 2. The inexorable result of disagreement, debate, and divergent interpretations among historians is a fuller and more incisive understanding of history. 3. However, we should be careful not to confuse this license to interpret history, which is needed for any historian to contribute meaningfully to our understanding of it, with artistic license, which should be reserved for dramatists, novelists and poets. -----------------------------125. "The past is no predictor of the future." 1. 过去是无法预测未来的。 1. 2. Nobody can foretell the future exactly. However, knowledge of the past can provide us a rough idea about what might happen in the future. 3. Wisdom of the past provides necessary resources to help us confront the old or new problems of the future. 过去和未来 -----------------------------189. "If people disregard the great works of the past, it is because these works no longer answer the needs of the present." 如果人们忽视了过去的伟大成就，那只能是因为这些成就已经 不再满足现今的需要了。 1. In general, it would appear that art is more likely motivated by an interest in keeping pace with science and technology than by a desire to break from it. Admittedly, some works of art would appear to reject, or at least provide a respite from, science and technology. Moreover, the speaker’s concern for whether art’s function is to embrace or oppose science and technology begs the question, for the final objective of art lies instead in its ability to convey a society’s values, ideals, and concerns.
少数和多数，精英和大众 -----------------------------54. "History teaches us only one thing: knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today." 历史只教会了我们一件事：了解过去无助于人们今天做出重要 的决定。 Disagree 1. I