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英语四级读美文【10】


Unit 10 Attitudes Toward Life 生活态度
Text 1 Attention to Detail Attention to detail is something everyone can and should do especially in a tight job market. Bob Crossley, a human resources expert notices this in the job applications that come across his desk every day. “It’s amazing how many candidates eliminate themselves.” He says. “Resumes arrive with stains. Some candidates don’t bother to spell the company’s name correctly. Once I see a mistake, I eliminate the candidate,” Crossley concludes, “if they cannot take off these details, why should we trust them with a job?” Can we pay too much attention to detail? Absolutely. Perfectionists struggle over little things at the cost of something larger they work toward. “To keep from losing the forest for the trees”, says Charles Garfield, associate professor at the University of California, San Francisco, “we must constantly ask ourselves how the details we’re working on fit into the larger picture. If they don’t, we should drop them and move to something else.” Garfield compares this process to his work as a computer scientist at NASA. “The Apollo Ⅱ moon launch was slightly off course 90 percent of the time,” says Garfield. “But a successful landing was still likely because we knew the exact coordinates of our goal. This allowed us to make adjustments as necessary.” Knowing where we want to go helps us judge the importance of every task we undertake. Too often we believe what accounts for others’ success is some special secret or a lucky break. But rarely is success so mysterious. Again and again, we see that by doing little things within our grasp well, large rewards follow. [A] accounts [B] associate [C] bother [D] coordinates [E] drop [F] eliminate [G] especially [H] grasp [I] launch [J] mysterious [K] Resumes [L] undertake 注重细节 注意细节是每个人都能做到并且应该做到的事情,尤其在竞争激烈的就业市场中更应该这样。人力资源专家鲍勃·克罗斯 里从每天递交到他桌上的求职函中注意到了这一点。 “令人吃惊的是有许多人自己淘汰了自己。 ”他说, “送来的简历竟有污 迹。一些应聘者都懒得把公司的名称拼写正确。一旦看到错误,我就将这个应聘者除名, ”他总结说: “如果他们连这些细 节错误都不能避免,我们凭什么相信他们能做好一份工作呢?” 我们注意细节会过火吗?绝对会。完美主义者为一些小事而纠缠不休,其代价是牺牲了一些更重要的事情,而这些事情 正是他们工作的目标。 “为了避免只见树木不见森林 ,”加利福尼亚大学旧金山分校的副教授查尔斯·加菲尔德说: “我们必 须经常问自己我们所着手的细节如何符合一个更大的蓝图。如果他们不符合,我们应该放下他们转而做别的事情。 ” 加菲尔德将这个过程与他作为 NASA(美国国家航空航天局)的一名计算机科学家的工作进行了比较“。 阿波罗二号登月发 射在百分之九十的时间都会略微地偏离轨道” 加菲尔德说: 。 “但仍然可能成功着陆,因为我们知道目的地的准确坐标。这 就使我们能够做必要的调整。 ”知道我们想去哪里可以帮助我们判断所承担的每项任务的重要性。 我们常常会认为其他人成功的原因是某些特别的奥秘或幸运的机会。但成功并不是这样神秘。只要我们一次次地做好我 们力所能及的小事,就会得到大的回报。 难 句 解 析 1. Bob Crossley, a human resources expert notices this in the job applications that come across his desk every day. 【分析】复合句。其中 a human resources expert 作 Bob Crossley 的同位语,in the job...every day 作状语,在状语中 that 引导定语从句修饰 the job applications。 2. We must constantly ask ourselves how the details we’re working on fit into the larger picture. 【分析】复合句。ourselves 为 ask 的直接宾语,后边的句子为 ask 的间接宾语,在从句中 we’re working on 是省去引 导词的 定语从句,用来修饰 the details。 3. Knowing where we want to go helps us judge the importance of every task we undertake. 【分析】复合句。Knowing...to go 为现在分词短语作主语,置于句首,谓语动词用第三人称单数。其中 where 引导的句 子作 knowing 的宾语,help 后接双宾语,句末的 we undertake 为后置定语修饰 task。

下面我们学习文中标红的高频词#09#09 高频词汇

especially

/I9speS5lI,e9s-/ @@ ad. 特别;格外;尤其;主要

【词根】来自 especial ( a. 特别的,特殊的) + ly (副词后缀) 【阅读例句】 Large companies, especially, like a background of formal education coupled with work experience. 特别是大公司, 他们非常青睐接受过正规教育并且有工作经验的人。[03.9]

eliminate*

/I9lImIneIt/ @@ vt. 排除,消除;淘汰

【联想】e(出) + limin(看作 limit 界限) + ate(做)→画出界限之外→淘汰 【搭配】eliminate mistakes 消除错误;eliminate waste matter from the body 从体内排出废物 【活用例句】The former champion was eliminated in the semifinal this time. 上届冠军在这次的半决赛中被淘汰了。

resume /rI9z(j)u:m/ @@



n. 简历 v. 再继续,重新开始

【词根】re(再) + sume(拿,取)→再度取得→继续 【活用例句】His persistence was rewarded when they finally agreed to resume discussions.他们终于同意继续谈判,这是他坚 持不懈的结果。

bother

/9b((e7))D5(r)/ @@ v. 打扰,麻烦 n. 麻烦,不便

【联想】哥哥(brother)丢了儿(r 的谐音)很烦恼(bother) 【搭配】don’t bother to say 不必说;bother oneself (one’s head) about sth 为某事物焦虑或操心 【活用例句】He didn’t even bother to say thank you. 他甚至连说一声谢谢都不肯。

associate*

/59s5USIeIt,-sI-/ @@ a. 副的 vt. 把…联系一起 n. 伙伴;同事

【联想】as(表加强) + soci(看作 social 社会的) + ate →在社会上要学会交往 【搭配】associate professor 副教授;associate him with horror films 把他和恐怖电影联系在一起 【引申】 〈同根〉association n. 联系,伙伴关系;协会 【活用例句】 is not always able to choose one’s associates. We have to associate with different kinds of people. 一个人并非 One 总能够选择自己的同事。我们不得不和各种各样的人交往。

drop*

/dr((e7))p/ @@ v. 放弃;(使)降低;落下 n. 下降(或下落)的距离;滴剂

【联想】一滴(drop)水滴(drip)下来 【短语】drop by / in 顺便(或偶然)访问;drop off 睡着,入睡;(让…)下车;下降,减少;drop out 退出,退学 【引申】 〈同根〉dropout


n. 退学学生

【活用例句】They have planned to go abroad, but I think they dropped the idea now. 他们计划出国,但我想他们如今已经放 弃了这个主意。

launch* /lO:ntS/ @@ vt. 发起(运动);使开始从事;发射;推出(产品) n. 发射;(船)下水;(新产品)投产
【联想】吃完午饭(lunch)去发射(launch)飞船 【搭配】launch into 投入,进入;launch an attack on the Princess 对王妃发起攻击;launch the spacecraft 发射宇宙飞船 【活用例句】 Through the project, many people have received training and decided to launch their own enterprise. 通过此项目, 许多人都接受了培训,并决定自己创业。

coordinate* /k5U9O:dInIt/ @@ vt. 调节,协调 n. 坐标
【词根】co(共同) + ordin(顺序) + ate(使…)→使有顺序→协调 【搭配】coordinate with a wide range of colours 可与很多颜色搭配;coordinate water policy 协调水资源政策 【活用例句】We must coordinate our efforts to help the flood victims. 我们应该齐心协力以援助遭水灾的难民。

undertake* /8((f6))nd59teIk/ @@ vt. 承担,着手做;同意,答应;保证
【词根】under(在…下) + take(取得)→从下取得→身受→承担 【搭配】undertake responsibility 承担责任 【引申】 〈同义〉take on 承担|agree vi. 同意|promise vt. 允诺,答应 【活用例句】He undertook to finish the job by Friday. 他答应星期五之前完成这一工作。

account

/59kaUnt/ @@ n. 描述;账户;说明 vi. (~for) 做出解释; (在数量,比例方面) 占

【联想】ac(加强) + count(计算)→账目需要一数再数→账 【短语】account for 说明…的原因,是…的原因;(在数量、比例方面)占;take... into account (=take account of) 考虑到, 顾及;体谅 【活用例句】It is reported that drivers’spinning of the radio dial accounted for a large percentage of accidents. 据报道,司机在 驾驶时转动收音机的旋钮导致了很大比例的交通事故。

mysterious* /mI9stI5rI5s/ @@ a. 神秘的,难以理解的,诡秘的
【搭配】a mysterious event 神秘事件;a mysterious look 神秘的眼神 【引申】 〈同根〉mystery n. 秘密 【听力例句】But learning to speak languages seems to be a very mysterious process. 但是学习语言似乎是一个非常神秘的过 程。[08.12] 同根↓

mystery*

/9mIstFrI/ @@ n. 神秘(性);神秘的人(或事物)

【联想】my(我的) + stery(看作 story 故事)→我的故事很神秘 【搭配】uncover mystery 揭露神秘性 【活用例句】The cause of dinosaur’s becoming extinct remains a mystery. 恐龙灭绝的原因仍然是个谜。

grasp*

/grA:sp/ @@ vt. & n. 抓紧,抓住;理解,领会

【联想】他见到她宛如抓住(grasp)一根救命稻草(grass) 【搭配】grasp my hands 抓住我的手;grasp the importance of his words 理解他的话的重要性 【阅读例句】 They fail to grasp that welcoming foreign students to the United States has two important positive effects.欢迎外国 留学生具有两个最为明显的积极效应,他们并不明白这一点。[07.12]

下面我们学习文中标黑的常用词#09#09 常用词汇

detail*

/9di:teIl/ @@ n. 细节,琐事 vt. 详述,详细说明

【联想】de(去掉) + tail(尾巴)→去掉尾巴→细枝末节的改动 【短语】go into details 详述,逐一说明;in detail 详细地 【活用例句】The book details all the hotels in the area and their facilities. 这本书详细介绍了当地所有的旅馆及其设施。 派生↓

detailed

/9di:teIld/ @@ a. 详细的,逐条的

【搭配】a detailed account 详细的叙述 【阅读例句】Newspapers are a less expensive advertising medium than television and provide a way for advertisers to communicate a longer, more detailed message to their audience than they can through television.在报纸上刊登广告,费用没有 电视那么高,而且,与电视相比,广告商可以通过报纸给读者提供更长、更详细的商品或服务信息。[08.6]

amazing

/59meIzI((ce))/ @@ a. 令人吃惊的

【词根】来自 amaze,是其形容词形式 【活用例句】The amazing landscape in Tibet attracts countless tourists every year.西藏那令人惊叹的美景每年都吸引了无数 的游客。 同义↓

astonishing /59st((e7))nISI((ce))/ @@ a. 惊人的,令人惊讶的
【引申】 〈同根〉astonishment n. 惊讶|astonish vt. 使惊讶〈同义〉amazing a. 令人惊异的|surprising a. 令人惊讶的| marvelous a. 奇迹般的,惊人的,了不起的

【完形例句】Language is the most astonishing behavior in the animal kingdom. 语言是动物世界最为奇异的行为。[06.12] 同 义 巧 辨 surprising, astonishing, amazing surprising 是通用词,它的含义是“使人一愣” 这种吃惊可能包含着高兴也可能包含害怕或忧虑;astonishing 在现代英语 。 中通常表示某事使人震惊得难以置信;amazing 所表示的吃惊中包含着使人迷惑不解、困窘或惊疑不定之意。三词的“惊 讶”程度是:surprising<astonishing<amazing。

candidate

/9k{ndIdIt/ @@ n. 候选人;投考者

【联想】can(能) + did(做) + ate →能做实事的人才能当候选人 【搭配】one of the leading candidates for the presidency 总统职位的主要候选人之一 【阅读例句】Why do you think you are the right candidate for this position? 为什么你觉得你是这个职位的正确人选 呢?[06.6]

stain*

/steIn/ @@ vt. 玷污,染污;染色 n. 污点,污迹

【联想】一下雨(rain),到处都是污点(stain) 【搭配】stain the family honor 玷污了家庭荣誉;stubborn stains 顽固的污渍 【引申】 〈同根〉stainless


a. 无瑕疵的,不锈的

【活用例句】Please be careful when you are drinking coffee in case you stain the new carpet.喝咖啡时请当心些,不要弄脏了 新地毯。 同义↓

blur /bl((ae)):(r)/ @@ v. 弄脏,玷污;(使)变模糊 n. 模糊,模糊的东西
【联想】海天碧蓝(blue)一色,界线模糊(blur)不清 【搭配】blurred photos / writing 模糊不清的照片 / 字迹 【活用例句】The island was a faint blur through misty rain. 烟雨中小岛隐隐约约一片模糊。

fit* /fIt/ @@ vt. 使适合,安装 vi. 合身 a. 适合的;健康的 n. 突发,一阵发作
【搭配】 in with (my friends / the surroundings)适合(我的朋友), fit 适应(周围的环境); into(the company’s overall marketing fit strategy)适合(公司的整体市场策略);a fit of coughing 一阵咳嗽 【阅读例句】And key theft is responsible for 40% of the thefts of vehicles fitted with a tracking system. 在安装了追踪系统的 车辆中,有 40%的汽车失窃案都与车钥匙被盗有关。[06.6]

slightly /9slaItlI/ @@ ad. 略微,稍微
【搭配】a slightly different version 略有不同的说法;know her slightly 对她略知一二 【活用例句】In spite of the gloomy economic forecasts, manufacturing output has risen slightly. 尽管经济前景黯淡,但制造 业的产量仍有少量的增长。

task

/tA:sk/ @@ n. 任务,工作,作业

【联想】黄昏(dusk)她趴在书桌(desk)上做作业(task) 【搭配】perform a task 执行任务;a thankless task 吃力不讨好的工作 【活用例句】He is quite sure that it’s absolutely impossible for him to fulfill the task within two days.他十分肯定,让他在两 天内完成任务是绝对不可能的。 同义↓

assignment /59saInm5nt/ @@ n. (分派的) 任务,(指定的) 作业;分配,指派
【搭配】finish his assignment 完成他的作业;check every assignment 检查每一项作业 【阅读例句】Some years ago I was offered a writing assignment that would require three months of travel through Europe.多年 前,我接到一项写作任务,而要完成这项任务,就得去欧洲旅行三个月。[08.6] 同根↓

assign

/59saIn/ @@ vt. 指派,选派;指定(时间、地点等);分配,布置(作业)

【词根】as(表方向) + sign(签名,做记号)→标出→指定,选出 【搭配】assign duties 分配任务;assign a day for the meeting 指定开会日期

【引申】 〈同义〉allocate vt. 分配,分派|appoint vt. 任命,委派|distribute vt. 分送,分配|delegate v. 委派…为代表| install vt. 安装;任命 【活用例句】I don’t think it advisable that Tim be assigned to the job since he has no experience. 蒂姆没有经验,分配他做这 项工作是不合适的。

follow

/9f((e7))l5U/ @@ v. 跟随;沿行;遵循;听得懂

【搭配】follow the fox 追赶狐狸;follow sb’s counsel 牢记某人忠告 【听力例句】He wanted to follow the tradition of his country.他想尊重他们国家的传统。[05.6] 近形↓

hollow* /9hAl5U/ @@ a. 中空的,凹陷的;(声音)沉闷的;虚伪的,空虚的
【联想】不理解(follow)他的空(hollow)头承诺 【引申】 〈同义〉vacant a. 空的,空白的|empty a. 空的,空洞的 【活用例句】The greatest distinction between human and apes is the hollow space humans have under their chins. 人与类人猿 之间身体上最大的差别是人的下巴下方有凹陷的空间。 Text 2 The Significance of Punctuality A punctual person is in the habit of doing a thing at the proper time and is never late keeping an appointment. The unpunctual man, on the other hand, never does what he has to do at the proper time. He is always in a hurry and in the end loses both time and his good name. There is a proverb(格言) which says, “Time flies never to be recalled.” This is very true. A lost thing may be found again, but lost time can never be regained. Time is more valuable than material things. In fact time is life itself, and the unpunctual man is forever wasting and mismanaging(管理不当) his most valuable wealth as well as others. The unpunctual man is always complaining that he finds no time to answer letters, or return calls or keep appointments promptly. But the man who really has a great deal to do is very careful of his time and seldom complains of want of it. He knows that he can not keep every appointment promptly and deal with every piece of work when it has to be attended to. Failure to be punctual in keeping one’s appointments is a sign of discourtesy(失礼) towards others. If a person is invited to a dinner and arrives later than the appointed time, he keeps all the other guests waiting for him. This is a great discourtesy both towards the host and the other guests. Friends sometimes grow cold towards each other, or even become enemies, because one of them has been remiss in answering letters or keeping appointments. Unpunctuality, moreover, is very harmful when it comes to doing one’s duty, whether public or private. Imagine how it would be if those who are given important tasks failed to be at their proper place at the appointed time. A man who is known to be habitually unpunctual is never trusted by his friends or fellow men. And the unpunctual man is a source of annoyance both to others and to himself. [A] appointed [B] annoyance [C] sign [D] recalled [E] punctual [F] promptly [G] valuable [H] habitually [I] appointment [J] complaining 守时的重要性 一个守时的人习惯于在恰当的时间做一件事,约会时从来不会迟到。 相反,一个不守时的人从来不在合适的时间做他应该做的事。他总是急急忙忙,最后既错过了时间又丧失了好名声。如 同那句谚语所说“时光一去不复还。 ”确实如此。一件丢失的东西可能再找回,但错过的时间却永远不会再回来。时间比物 质的东西更宝贵。事实上,时间就是生命,一个不守时的人永远都在浪费,对自己和别人最宝贵的财富总是处置不当。 不守时的人总在抱怨他没有时间回信、回电或及时赴约。但是真正有很多事情要做的人很珍惜自己的时间,也很少抱怨 他没有时间。他知道自己不能准时赴所有的约会,所以只在每一件事必须处理的时候才去处理。 不能准时赴约是对别人失礼的一种表现。如果一个人被邀去赴宴,却比约定时间晚到,而让其他所有的客人都等他。这 无论是对主人还是其他的客人都是很不礼貌的。 因为其中一人疏于回信或者是疏于守约,好朋友有时也会变得冷淡,甚至会变成敌人。再者,当提到尽职的时候,不管 是公众的还是私人的,不守时都是非常有害的。想象如果那些被委以重任的人在指定的时间未能出现在恰当的位置,情 况会怎么样。一个从不守时的人永远都不会令朋友或同事信服。不守时的人是令别人和自己烦恼的源泉。

难 句 解 析 1. He knows that he can not keep every appointment promptly and deal with every piece of work when it has to be attended to. 【分析】多重复合句。that 引导的从句作 knows 的宾语,其中 keep 与 deal with 并列,when 引导时间状语从句,attend to 为固定短语,为“处理,对付”的意思。 2. Unpunctuality, moreover, is very harmful when it comes to doing one’s duty, whether public or private. 【分析】复合句。句中 when 引导的为时间状语从句,whether 引导的为条件状语。come to 为“谈到,涉及”的意思。 3. Imagine how it would be if those who are given important tasks failed to be at their proper place at the appointed time. 【分析】 多重复合句。 本句为祈使句,if 引导条件状语从句,其中 who 引导的定语从句修饰 those, 将从句主谓语分开, 句末的两个 at 短语分别作地点和时间状语。

下面我们学习文中标红的高频词#09#09 高频词汇

punctual*

/9p((f6))((ce))ktjU5l/ @@ a. 守时的,准时的

【词根】punct(刺) + ual(…的)→像针刺那么准确的→准时的 【搭配】a punctual start at 9 o’clock 九点准时开始;a punctual person 守时的人 【引申】 〈同义〉on time 准时〈反义〉unpunctual a. 不准时的 【听力例句】The ideal person is punctual and is considerate of other people’s time.完美的人是守时的并能体谅别人的时间。 [06.6]

appointment

/59p((e7))Intm5nt/ @@ n. 约会,约定;任命,委派;委任的职位

【词根】来自 appoint(约定) + ment(名词后缀) 【搭配】 make / fix / have an appointment 预约某人见面; keep an appointment 守约去会见某人; break an appointment 失约; cancel an appointment 取消预约 【听力例句】I told you yesterday to make an appointment. 我昨天告诉你让你约见医生的。[04.1]

recall*

/rI9kO:l/ @@ vt. 回忆,回想;召回,收回

【词根】re(重新) + call(叫) →回忆起 【搭配】recall what happened 回想所发生的事情;recall all the faulty cars 召回有问题的汽车 【活用例句】She can recall the names of most characters in the novel.她能说出小说中大多数角色的名字。

valuable*

/9v{ljU5bl/ @@ a. 宝贵的,贵重的;有价值的

【引申】 〈同缀〉共享 -able → available a. 可用到的,可利用的|changeable a. 可改变的|desirable a. 值得要的,合意 的|irritable a. 易怒的,急躁的|noticeable a. 显而易见的,值得注意的|reasonable a. 合理的,有道理的 【活用例句】Nothing is more valuable than time, but nothing is less valued. 没有比时间更贵重的东西,但也没有比它更受 轻视的东西。 同义↓

precious*

/9preS5s/ @@ a. 珍贵的,贵重的

【词根】preci(价值) + ous(…的)→有价值的→珍贵的 【搭配】the precious present 珍贵的礼物;precious stones 宝石;be precious to sb 对某人非常珍贵 【活用例句】The most precious of all possessions is a wise and loyal friend.明智忠实的朋友是最为宝贵的财富。 同根↓

appreciate* /59pri:SIeIt/ @@ vt. 赏识,鉴赏;感激
【词根】ap(表加强) + preci(价值) + ate(动词后缀) →肯定价值→赏识 【搭配】appreciate literature 欣赏文学;appreciate all your help 感谢你的一切帮助 【引申】 〈同根〉appreciative a. 欣赏的,有欣赏力的,表示感激的|appreciable a. 可感知的,可评估的 同义↓

admire* /5d9maI5(r)/ @@ vt. 钦佩,赞赏,称赞
【词根】ad(加强) + mire(惊奇)→让人很惊奇→赞赏

【搭配】admire his persistence 佩服他坚韧的精神 【活用例句】I admire him for his success in business. 我佩服他事业有成。

complain*

/k5m9pleIn/ @@ vi. 抱怨,诉苦,埋怨

【联想】com + plain(平常的)→不要抱怨生活的平淡→抱怨 【搭配】complain of waking up tired 抱怨醒来太累;complain about her job 抱怨她的工作 【引申】 〈派生〉complaint n. 诉苦,抱怨〈同义〉moan n. & vi. 抱怨,呻吟,牢骚 【活用例句】She complained that she never saw me and that I had no time for family life. 她抱怨说她从来看不到我而且我也 没有时间陪家里人。

promptly

/9pr((e7))mptlI/ @@ ad. 迅速地,敏捷地;即时地,马上地

【引申】 〈同根〉prompt a. 敏捷的,迅速的|prompting n. 促进,激励〈同义〉immediately ad. 立即,马上|instantly ad. 立即|quickly ad. 很快地|swiftly ad. 很快地,即刻 【活用例句】Paying bills promptly is good financial practice. 及时对账是理财的好习惯。

sign*

/saIn/ @@ n. 迹象;标记,符号

【引申】 〈同根〉signal n. 信号〈同义〉indication n. 迹象〈音似〉sigh n. 叹息 【活用例句】There are signs that restaurants are becoming more popular with families. 有迹象表明饭馆越来越受到家庭的欢 迎。 派生↓

signature

/9sIgnItS5(r)/ @@ n. 签名,署名,签字

【词根】sign(标记) + ature(表行为、状态)→在文件上标记→签名 【引申】 〈同根〉signal n. 信号,暗号 v. 发出信号 【活用例句】He added his signature to the petition.他在请愿书上签上了自己的名字。

appoint*

/59p((e7))Int/ @@ vt. 任命,委派;约定,指定(时间、地点)

【词根】ap(加强) + point(指向,指出)→指定某人做→任命,委任 【搭配】appoint sb (as)... 任命某人为…;the appointed time 预定 (约定) 的时间 【活用例句】During the Gulf War, Tang Shizeng went to Iraq as a correspondent especially appointed by the Xin Hua News Agency. 海湾战争期间,唐师曾以新华社特派记者的身份前往伊拉克。

habitually

/h59bItjU5lI,-tSU-/ @@ ad. 习惯地;惯常地

【词根】来自 habit(习惯) + ual + ly (…地) 【引申】 〈同根〉habit n. 习惯,习性|habitual a. 习惯的,惯常的 【活用例句】Drivers who habitually cut in are bound to cause accidents sooner or later. 习惯于超车的驾驶员迟早要出车祸。

annoyance

/59n((e7))I5ns/ @@ n. 烦恼;烦恼的事情,讨厌的东西

【搭配】put sb to annoyance 使某人烦恼;to one’s annoyance 使人为难的是…,使人烦恼的是… 【引申】 〈同根〉annoy vt. 使苦恼|annoying a. 恼人的,讨厌的〈同缀〉共享 -ance 名词后缀→ appearance n. 出现,露 面;外貌,外观|disappearance n. 不见,消失|attendance n. 出席,出席的人数〈同义〉agony n. 痛苦,创痛 【活用例句】He gave a mild answer, in spite of his annoyance.他尽管已恼火, 但回答得还是很和蔼.

下面我们学习文中标黑的常用词#09#09 常用词汇

proper* /9pr((e7))p5(r)/ @@ a. 正当的;适当的
【搭配】at a proper time 在适当的时候;proper behavior 合适的行为 【引申】 〈同义〉right a. 正当的,正确的|plausible a. 似乎正确的,似有道理的|accurate a. 正确的,精确的|correct a. 正确的,恰当的 【阅读例句】Dogs are social animals and without proper training, they will behave like wild animals.狗是社会性动物,如果不

经适当的训练它们的行为就会像野生动物一样。[01.1]

invite*

/In9vaIt/ @@ v. 邀请

【搭配】invite sb to dinner 请某人吃饭 【引申】 〈同根〉invitation n. 邀请,吸引 【听力例句】Only men are invited to the bachelor party.这个单身聚会只有男士参加。[05.6]

host*

/h5Ust/ @@ n. 主人,旅馆招待 v. 当作主人招待

【搭配】play host to 招待 , 接待 【引申】 〈同义〉master n. 主人 【活用例句】We all hoped that China could eliminate the rivals to host the 2008 Olympic Game. 我们都曾希望中国能淘汰其 他对手,主办 2008 年的奥运会。

harmful*

/9hA:mf(U)l/ @@ a. 有害的;能造成损害的

【搭配】be harmful to sb 对某人有害 (=do sb harm) 【引申】 〈同根〉harm vt. & n. 伤害,损害|harmfully ad. 伤害地,有害地|harmfulness n. 伤害,有害|harmless a. 无 害的;injury n. 损害,伤害〈反义〉intact a. 完整无缺的,未受损伤的 【写作例句】Smoking is extremely harmful to people’s health. It can lead to lung cancer.吸烟对人体健康特别有害,可能会导 致肺癌。

duty*


/9dju:tI/ @@ n. 责任,义务;职责,职务;税,关税

【搭配】off duty 下了班(的),不在值班(的);on duty 在上班(的),在值班(的);do one’s duty 尽职责;death duties 遗产

【引申】 〈同义〉obligation n. 义务,责任 【写作例句】I feel it is our duty not to pollute our environment.我认为不污染环境是我们的义务。

fail*

/feIl/ @@ vi. 失败;失灵,失去作用;衰退 vt. 不能;忘记;使失望;没有通过(考试)

【搭配】fail to keep the appointment 没有履约;fail to persuade her 未能说服她;fail the exam 考试不及格 【活用例句】The patient’s health failed to such an extent that he was put into intensive care. 病人健康衰退得很厉害,不得不 接受特别护理。 Text 3 Function of Interpersonal Relationships Since we are social beings, the quality of our lives depends in large measure on our interpersonal relationships. One strength of the human condition is our tendency to give and receive support from one another under stressful circumstances. Social support consists of the exchange of resources among people based on their interpersonal ties. Those of us with strong support systems appear better able to cope with major life changes and daily hassles(困难). People with strong social ties live longer and have better health than those without such ties. Studies over a range of illnesses, from depression to heart disease, reveal that the presence of social support helps people fend off(挡开) illness, and the absence of such support makes poor health more likely. Social support cushions stress in a number of ways. First, friends, relatives, and co-workers may let us know that they value us. Our self- respect is strengthened when we feel accepted by others despite our faults and difficulties. Second, other people often provide us with informational support. They help us to define and understand our problems and find solutions to them. Third, we typically find social companionship supportive. Engaging in leisure-time activities with others helps us to meet our social needs while at the same time distracting us from our worries and troubles. Finally, other people may give us instrumental support — financial aid, material resources, and needed services — that reduces stress by helping us resolve and cope with our problems. [A] ties [B] cushions [C] depression [D] distracting [E] Engaging [F] absence [G] resolve [H] reveal [I] circumstances [J] strength [K] interpersonal [L] understand 人际关系的作用 因为我们是生活在社会中,所以我们的生活质量在很大程度上取决于我们的人际关系。人类的优势就是我们在遭受压力 时会相互给予和接受帮助。社会支持由人们之间基于人际关系的资源交换构成。有强大支持的人能更好地处理重大的人 生变革和日常困难。有很强的社会关系的人能够比那些没有这些关系的人活的更长并更健康。对一系列的疾病,从忧郁

症到心脏病进行研究后发现社会支持的存在帮助人们抵抗疾病,而缺乏这类支持则可能造成身体不佳。 社会支持以多种方式缓冲压力。首先,朋友、亲人和同事可以让我们知道他们重视我们。当我们有缺点和困难仍被其他 人接受的时候,我们的自尊得以增强。其次,其他人常常给我们提供信息的支持。他们帮助我们定义和理解我们的问题 并找到解决办法。第三,很典型的,我们发现社会交往是有帮助的。与其他人一起从事休闲活动有助于满足我们的社交 需求,同时将我们的注意力从忧虑和烦恼中转移开来。最后,其他人可能给我们有益的支持——如经济援助,物质资源 以及必要的服务——通过帮助我们解决和处理问题而减轻我们的压力。 难 句 解 析 1. Studies over a range of illnesses, from depression to heart disease, reveal that the presence of social support helps people fend off illness, and the absence of such support makes poor health more likely. 【分析】 多重复合句。 介词短语 over a range of illnesses 作定语, 修饰 studies。 from depression to heart disease 为同位语, 对前边的 illnesses 进行解释说明,reveal 后边是由 that 引导的宾语从句,该宾语 从句由两个表并列关系的分句组成, 中间由 and 连接。 2. Engaging in leisure-time activities with others helps us to meet our social needs while at the same time distracting us from our worries and troubles. 【分析】简单句。Engaging... activities 为动名词短语作主语,置于句首,谓语动词用第三人称单数,while 为连词,表 示“和…同时” distracting... troubles 为现在分词作状语,表示主语的另一个动作。 , 3. Finally, other people may give us instrumental support — financial aid, material resources, and needed services — that reduces stress by helping us resolve and cope with our problems. 【分析】复合句。其中 financial aid... services 为 support 的同位语,对 instrumental support 进行解释说明,that 引导定 语从句修饰 instrumental support,help 后接不带 to 的不定式宾语 resolve 和 cope with。 下面我们学习文中标红的高频词#09#09 高频词汇

interpersonal

/8Int59p((ae)):sFn5l/ @@ a. 人际关系的,人际的

【搭配】interpersonal skills 人际交往技巧 【引申】 〈同缀〉intermediate a. 中间的,中级的|international a. 国际的,世界性的 【活用例句】The complexities of interpersonal relations bothered her. 人际关系的复杂情况使她困惑不已。

strength*
肉力量

/stre((ce))T,stre((ce))kT/ @@ n. 优势,长处;强度;浓度

【搭配】 intellectual strengths and limitations 知识上的长处与不足;in strength 大批;improve muscular strength 增强肌

【引申】 〈相关〉pitch n. 程度,强度 vt. 投掷,扔 【阅读例句】One strength of the human condition is our tendency to give and receive support from one another under stressful circumstances.人类的一个优点就是在艰难环境下会自然给予他人或接受他人的帮助。[00.6]

circumstance*

/ 9s((ae)):k5mst5ns/ @@ n. 环境,条件,[ pl. ] 境况,经济状况

【词根】circum(周围) + stance(站)→周围站立的东西→环境 【搭配】personal circumstances 个人经济状况 【引申】 〈相关〉under no circumstances 无论如何不;under this circumstance 在这种情况下,(情况) 既然如此 【活用例句】We have been told that under no circumstances may we use the telephone in the office for personal affairs. 我们被 告知,在任何情况下都不得使用办公室电话办私事。

tie* /taI/ @@ vt. 连接,使有关联 vi. 不分胜负 n. 领带;绳子;联系;牵连
【短语】tie down 限制,牵制;tie in with (the facts)与(事实)一致,配合;tie (the boat) up (把船)拴住,捆牢 【活用例句】She tied the newspaper in a bundle. 她把报纸扎成一捆。/Pay increases are tied to inflation. 提高工资和通货膨 胀紧密相关。

depression

/dI9preSFn/ @@ n. 抑郁,沮丧;不景气,萧条(期);洼地,凹陷

【词根】来自 depress(使沮丧) + ion(名词后缀) 【搭配】suffer from acute depression 患有严重的抑郁症;economic depression 经济萧条

【引申】 〈同根〉depress vt. 使沮丧;使不景气;压下〈反义〉encouragement n. 鼓励,激励 【阅读例句】 know that chronic pain can disrupt a person’s life, causing problems that range from missed work to depression. We 我们知道慢性疼痛可以扰乱一个人的生活,引起各种问题,包括从延误工作到抑郁症。[07.6]

reveal* /rI9vi:l/ @@ vt. 揭露,泄露;展现,显示
【联想】re(反) + veal(看作 veil 面纱)→除去面纱→展现,揭露 【搭配】reveal the end of a film 揭晓电影的结局;reveal a white set of teeth 露出一口洁白的牙齿;reveal the details of the murder 披露谋杀的细节 【活用例句】You can’t conceal your sorrow, because your eyes reveal everything. 你隐藏不了悲伤,因为你的眼睛已经告诉 了我们一切。

absence*

/9{bsFns/ @@ n. 缺乏,不存在;缺席,不在

【搭配】absence from 缺席;in the absence of evidence 缺乏证据 【引申】 〈同根〉absent a. 缺乏的;缺席的 【活用例句】She never speaks ill of anyone in his or her absence.她从不乘人不在时说别人的坏话。

cushion*

/9kUSFn/ @@ vt. 缓和…的冲击,减轻…的效果;压制 n. 垫子,坐垫

【谐音】 “苦行”→苦行僧盘腿在垫子上打坐→垫子 【搭配】cushion stress 减轻压力;cushion complaints 隐忍委屈;cushion the effect of unemployment 减轻失业的影响 【活用例句】Social support cushions stress in a number of ways. 社会支持可以在很多方面缓解压力。

understand /9((f6))nd59st{nd/ @@ v. 理解,了解,领会,闻知
【提示】①understand 后面要求跟名词或动名词作宾语,不跟不定式。②后面可跟不定式作宾语补足语。 【阅读例句】Students themselves seem to understand the weaknesses inherent in the setup. 学生们自己似乎开始明白网络教 育的内在弱点。[07.12] 同义↓

comprehend

/8k((e7))mprI9hend/ @@ v. 领会;包括;理解

【联想】com(come 来) + prehend(pretend 假装)→对学问的理解,来不得半点假装,懂就懂,不懂就不懂→理解 【听力例句】On the subject of space walks, for example, audiences vary in their interests and how much complexity they can comprehend. 例如,在太空行走的问题上,不同的观众兴趣不同,理解的深度也不同。[08.12] 派生↓

comprehensive*

/8k((e7))mprI-9hensIv/ @@ a. 广泛的,综合的

【搭配】comprehensive knowledge 渊博的知识;a comprehensive mind 宽大的心胸;be comprehensive of 包含 【引申】 〈同根〉comprehensively ad. 包括地,综合地 【活用例句】He gave a comprehensive explanation of the problem. 他对那个问题做了一个全面的解释。

engage*

/In9geIdZ/ @@ vi. (in)参加,从事于 #09 vt. 吸引;使从事,聘;使订婚

【联想】正忙于(engage)抵押(mortgage)行李(luggage) 【搭配】engage sb as a consultant 雇佣某人担任顾问;engage the mind and the eye 赏心悦目;be engaged to her boss 与她 的老板订婚;engage in cleaning the car 忙于洗车 【听力例句】Knowledge workers engage in mind work.受过教育的工人从事的是脑力劳动。[08.6]

distract /dI9str{kt/ @@ vt. 转移(注意力),使分心
【词根】dis(分开) + tract(拉)→(注意力)被拉开→分散,打扰 【搭配】distract me from work 使我不能专心工作;distract attention 分散注意力 【引申】 〈同缀〉extract vt. 取出,提取;摘录 n. 摘录,选段;提取物 【活用例句】Noise distracted the writer from his work.吵闹声使这位作者工作时注意力分散。

resolve*

/rI9z((e7))lv/ @@ vt. 解决,解答;决意;(into)分解 vi. 决定,决意 n. 决心

【词根】re(表强调) + solve(解决) 【搭配】 resolve a contradiction 解决矛盾; resolve and cope with our problems 下决心处理问题; make a resolve to do sth 决

心做某事 【引申】 〈同根〉resolution n. 解答,解决;solution n. 解答,解决(问题的)方法 【活用例句】She resolved that she would never see him again / never to see him again. 她决心不再见他。

下面我们学习文中标黑的常用词#09#09 常用词汇

depend*

/dI9pend/ @@ vi. 依赖;指望;取决于;信赖,视…而定

【搭配】depend on parents 依赖父母;depend on local customs and ways of life 取决于当地风俗及生活方式 【听力例句】 Tomorrow’s wealth depends on the development and exchange of knowledge.今后的财富依靠的是知识的发展和 交流。[08.6]

base*

/beIs/ @@ vt. (on, upon)把…建立在…的基础上 n. 基础;基地

【搭配】base on / upon 基于,建立在…基础上 【引申】 〈同根〉basic n. 基本,要素 a. 基本的|basically ad. 基本地|basis n. 基础〈同义〉foundation n. 地基;基础 【听力例句】We’re now witnessing the emergence of an advanced economy based on information and knowledge.目前我们正 见证着以信息和知识为基础的发达经济体系的兴起。[08.6]

range*

/reIndZ/ @@ n. 幅度;距离;山脉;靶场 vi. 变动;涉及;四处搜索

【联想】改变(change)射程(range) 【搭配】 investigate a range of different models 调查各种各样不同的型号; great mountain range 雄伟的山脉; of range the out of sth 超出某物的范围;range from kindergartens to colleges 范围从幼儿园到大学 【引申】 〈同义〉vary vi. 变化,有不同 【活用例句】She was out of range (of my voice). 她在那地方听不见我的声音。/The frontier ranges from the northern hills to the southern coast.边界从北部山地一直延伸到南部海岸。 同根↓

arrange /59reIndZ/ @@ vi. 做安排,做准备 vt. 安排;整理
【词根】ar (加强) + range(行列)→按行列排放→排列,布置 【搭配】arrange to do sth 安排做某事;arrange(for sb / sth) to do sth 安排(某人/某事) 去做某事 【活用例句】We have arranged to go to the cinema on Friday, but we can be flexible and go another day. 我们已经安排好星期 五去看电影,但是也可以灵活变通,改天去也行。 同义↓

schedule

/9Sedju:l/ @@ vt. 安排,排定 n. 时刻表;明细表

【短语】ahead of schedule 提前;on schedule 按时间表,准时 【阅读例句】Now, appointments are scheduled to the half-hour. 现在的预约通常都是安排在半小时以内。[03.1]

presence*

/9prezns/ @@ n. 存在;出席,到场;仪表,仪态

【词根】是 present(出席的;目前的)的名词形式 【搭配】in sb’s presence 当着某人的面,有某人在场;a man of great presence 风度翩翩的男子 【引申】 〈同根〉present a. 出席的;现在的 n. 现在,目前〈反义〉absence n. 缺乏;缺席,不在 【活用例句】I was surprised by the presence of so many people at the meeting.这么多人出席会议使我感到吃惊。

typically

/9tIpIk5lI/ @@ ad. 向来,总是;典型地,有代表性地

【引申】 〈同根〉typical a. 典型的,有代表性的〈同义〉model a. 模范的,典型的 n. 典型,模特 【阅读例句】Cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose and scratchy throat typically develop gradually, and adults and teens often do not get a fever. 普通感冒的一些典型症状,如鼻塞、流鼻涕、喉咙发痒,发展较缓慢,且成人和青少年患者 一般不会有发热症状。[05.1]

meet*

/mi:t/ @@ v. 满足;符合;遇见,(迎)接;开会 n. 运动会

【搭配】meet with (hardship)经历(艰难);偶然遇到;meet all qualifications 符合所有条件 【听力例句】Individual colleges choose their own students who have to meet the minimum entrance requirements set by the

university.每个学院从那些通过学校设置的最低入学要求的学生里选择自己的学生。[03.6] Text 4 Perceiving Other People The process of perceiving other people is rarely translated (to ourselves or others) into cold, objective terms. “She was 5 feet 8 inches tall, had fair hair, and wore a colored skirt.” More often,we try to get inside the other person to pinpoint his or her attitudes,emotions, motivations, abilities, ideas and characters. Furthermore, we sometimes behave as if we can accomplish this difficult job very quickly — perhaps with a two-second glance. We try to obtain information about others in many ways. Berger suggests several methods for reducing uncertainties about others: watching, without being noticed, a person interacting with others, particularly with others who are known to you so you can compare the observed person’s behavior with the known others’ behavior;observing a person in a situation where social behavior is relatively unrestrained or where a wide variety of behavioral responses are called for;deliberately structuring the physical or social environment so as to observe the person’s response to specific stimuli(刺激);asking people who have had or have frequent contact with the person about him or her;and using various strategies in face-to-face interaction to uncover information about another person’s questions, self-disclosures(自我表露), and so on. Getting to know someone is a never-ending task, largely because people are constantly changing and the methods we use to obtain information are often imprecise. You may have known someone for ten years and still know very little about him. If we accept the idea that we won’t ever fully know another person, it enables us to deal more easily with those things that get in the way of accurate knowledge such as secrets and deceptions. It will also keep us from being too surprised or shocked by seemingly inconsistent behavior. Ironically(讽刺性地), those things that keep us from knowing another person too well (secrets and deceptions) may be just as important to the development of a virtue (e.g., disclosures and truthful statements).

[A] virtue [B] accurate [C] accomplish [D] contact [E] deceptions [F] deliberately [G] glance [H] inconsistent [I] motivations [J] particularly [K] perceiving [L] strategies [M] translated [N] unrestrained 了解他人 了解别人的过程很少被描述为冷静客观。如“她有 5.8 英尺高,金黄色的头发,穿着一件彩色的裙子” 更多的时候,我 。 们试图深入到另一个人的内心,以了解他或她的态度、情感、动机、能力、想法和个性。此外,有时我们的举动好像能 够很快完成这项艰巨的工作——或许扫视两秒钟就够了。 我们尽量通过多种方法获得有关其他人的信息。伯杰提出了几种方法,可以减少对其他人的不确定性:在不被注意到的 情况下观察一个人与其他人,特别是你认识的人的行动,这样你就可以比较被观察者的行为和你认识的那个人的行为; 在社会行为相对无约束的情况下或者在需要大量行为反应的环境里观察一个人;要有意建构自然和社会环境以便观察到 那人对特定刺激的反应。要了解人们谁曾经或正在与他或她周围的人频繁接触;要在面对面的互动中采用不同的策略揭 示关于人的问题、自我表露等诸如此类的信息。 了解一个人是永无休止的工作,这在很大程度上是因为人总是不断改变的,而且我们获取信息的方法也常常不准确。你 可能认识一个人十几年却仍然对他了解甚少。如果我们能接受这样一种观点,即我们永远不可能完全了解另一个人,这 会使我们更容易对待诸如秘密和诡计之类的妨碍我们获得准确信息的事情。它也会使我们免于对表面上不一致的行为感 到惊讶或震惊。具有讽刺意味的是,那些阻止我们进一步了解另一个人的事情(如秘密和诡计)可能对品德(如揭发事实和 诚实的陈述)的形成同样重要。 难 句 解 析 1. Getting to know someone is a never-ending task, largely because people are constantly changing and the methods we use to obtain information are often imprecise. 【分析】多重复合句。现在分词短语作主语,谓语动词用单数,because 引导原因状语从句,其中又包含并列的从句, we use to obtain information 作后置定语修饰 methods。 2. If we accept the idea that we won’t ever fully know another person, it enables us to deal more easily with those things that get in the way of accurate knowledge such as secrets and deceptions. 【分析】多重复合句。在 if 引导的条件状语从句中,that 引导的从句是 the idea 的同位语,在主句中 to deal...things 为

宾语补足语,that 引导定语从句修饰 those things。 3. Ironically, those things that keep us from knowing another person too well (eg., secrets and deceptions) may be just as important to the development of a virtue (e.g., disclosures and truthful statements). 【分析】复合句。其中 that 引导的定语从句修饰主语 those things,括号中的举例起补充说明作用。keep...from...为固定 搭配, 意思是“阻止,防止” 。

下面我们学习文中标红的高频词#09#09 高频词汇

perceive*

/p59si:v/ @@ vt. 感知,感觉,察觉;认识到,意识到;理解

【词根】per(全部) + ceive(take 拿)→凭感觉拿→感知 【搭配】perceive the error 意识到错误;perceive what sb mean(s)明白某人的意思 【引申】 〈同根〉perceivable a. 可知觉的,感觉得到的 【活用例句】He gradually perceived that his parents had been right.他渐渐地了解到他的父母是对的。

translate*

/tr{ns9leIt,tr{nz-/ @@ v. 翻译;转化

【搭配】translate the book into Chinese 把这本书翻译成汉语 【完形例句】The speaker has to translate thoughts into spoken language. 说话者要将思维转换成语言。[06.12] 同义↓

interpret

/In9t((ae)):prIt/ @@ vi. 口译,翻译 vt. 解释,说明;理解

【搭配】interpret a dream #09 解梦 【活用例句】Literature helps to interpret life.文学有助于阐释人生。 派生↓

interpretation

/In8t((ae)):prI9teISFn/ @@ n. 解释,说明;(表演、演奏的)艺术处理

【词根】来自 interpret(解释) + ation(名词后缀) 【活用例句】 This means that we fit our actions to those of other people based on a constant mental process of appraisal and interpretation.这意味着我们的大脑里不断对别人进行评价和阐释,并据此做出反应。

motivation

/8m5UtI9veISFn/ @@ n. 动机

【引申】 〈同根〉motivate vt. 作为…的动机,激励,激发|motive n. 动机,目的 【阅读例句】Privatization, or the threat of it, is a motivation as well. 私有化或者说是私有化的威胁同样也是一个动力。 [03.1]

accomplish*

/59k((f6))mplIS,9k((e7))m-/ @@ vt. 做成功,完成,实现

【联想】ac + compl(看作 complete 完成) + ish(使)→完成 【引申】 〈同根〉accomplishment n. 成就〈同义〉achieve vt. 完成,实现|fulfill vt. 履行,实现|attain vt. 达到,获得 【活用例句】Many people have accomplished a lot of goals by the time they’re twenty. 许多人在 20 岁的时候就已经实现了 很多目标。

glance

/glA:ns/ @@ n. 一瞥,扫视

【词根】gl(发光) + ance →看的时候不是眼睛在发光吗? 【短语】at a glance 一瞥;at first glance 乍一看,一看就 【引申】 〈同义〉glimpse n. 一瞥,一看|skim v. 浏览 【活用例句】Exchange a glance with someone, then look away. Do you realize that you have made a statement?与别人交换一 下眼神,然后看向别处。你是否意识到自己已表达了一种意思? 同义↓

glimpse /glImps/ @@ vt. & n. 一瞥,一看
【联想】g+limp(跛行;无精神的)+se→无精神的人对什么也只是一瞥 【搭配】catch / get a glimpse of sb / sth 瞥了一眼某人 / 物 【阅读例句】 brief glimpse at a daily newspaper vividly shows how much people in the United States think about business. 随 A

便在日报上瞥上一眼,就不难发现有多少美国人在关注着商业。[03.6] 同类↓

gaze

/geIz/ @@ v. 注视;凝视 n. 凝视

【谐音】 “盖茨”→比尔·盖茨令世人瞩目→凝视,注视 【搭配】gaze at 凝视,注视;gaze after sb 目送某人 【活用例句】Your intent gaze made her uncomfortable.你的注目凝视使她感到不自在。 同 义 巧 辨 gaze, stare gaze 强调因赞赏和欢快而注视某事物,如:We stood gazing at the beautiful scenery. 我们站着凝视美丽的景色。stare 强调 由于惊奇、害怕、生气或深思而睁大眼睛关注于某事,如:She stared at me, trying to remember who I was. 她瞪着眼睛看 着我,设法回忆起我是谁。 !!!图 7

particularly /p59tIkjUl5lI/ @@ ad. 尤其,特别
【引申】 〈同根〉 particular a. 特别的;挑剔的: particular about 对… 挑剔的,吹毛求疵的 be 〈同义〉especially ad. 尤其, 特别 【活用例句】Many women still feel that they are being held back by a male culture, particularly in the professional services sector. 很多女性始终感觉受男性文化的抑制,尤其是在一些专业服务领域。

unrestrained

/8((f6))nrI9streInd/ @@ a. 未受抑制的,无节制的,放纵的

【搭配】unrestrained anger 未克制的怒火;unrestrained violence 肆无忌惮的暴力 【引申】 〈同根〉restrain vt. 阻止;抑制|restraint n. 抑制,限制 【活用例句】Your laughter can surely be unrestrained as long as you make certain that nobody is getting hurt. 只要你认定没有 人会受到伤害,你大可以笑个够。

deliberately /dI9lIb5rItlI/ @@ ad. 故意地,有意地;慎重地,谨慎地
【引申】 〈同根〉deliberate a. 故意的;慎重的〈同义〉on purpose 故意地 【活用例句】The woman punished her son as he broke the vase deliberately. 那位女士因为儿子有意打碎花瓶而惩罚他。

contact*

/9k((e7))nt{kt/ @@ n. 接触,联系;社会关系 vt. 与…取得联系,与…接触

【词根】con(共同) + tact(接触) 【搭配】avoid close contact 避免密切接触;contact the owner 联系主人;make / have / bring into contact with... 与…取得 联系,与…接触;be in contact with 接触,有联系 【写作例句】With the development of modern transport, contacts between people and nations have become more frequent than ever before. 随着现代运输的发展,人们及国家之间的联系比以前更加频繁了。

strategy*

/9str{tIdZI/ @@ n. 战略,策略

【联想】strat(看作 start 开始) + egy →开始就得讲究策略 【搭配】military strategy 军事策略 【活用例句】By careful strategy he managed to push the proposal through.通过审慎的谋划,他成功地使该建议获得通过。

accurate*

/9{kjUrIt/ @@ a. 准确的,精确的;正确无误的

【词根】ac(加强) + cur(关心) + ate(形容词后缀)→一再关心,使其精确→精确的 【搭配】be accurate in one’s work 做事精确;be quick and accurate at figures 计算迅速而精确;take accurate aim 瞄准 【引申】 〈同根〉accuracy n. 准确(性),精确(性) 〈同义〉precise a. 精确的 【活用例句】She is extremely accurate with a bow and arrow, hitting the bull’s eye every time. 她射箭十分准确,每次都射中 靶心。

deception

/dI9sepSFn/ @@



n. 欺骗;诡计

【词根】是 deceive 的名词形式 【活用例句】He was accused of obtaining property by deception. 他被指控骗取钱财。

inconsistent

/8Ink5n9sIstFnt/ @@ a. 不一致的;不协调的

【搭配】inconsistent behavior 前后不一致的行为;inconsistent with (思想、意见等)不一致的,不协调的 【引申】 〈同根〉consistent a. 坚持的,一贯的;一致的,符合的 【活用例句】English weather is very inconsistent;one moment it’s raining and the next it’s sunny.英国的天气反复无常,一会 儿下雨,一会儿又放晴。

virtue*

/9v((ae)):tSu:,-tju:/ @@ n. 优点,长处;美德,德行

【短语】by virtue of 借助,由于 【活用例句】At that time, she could see by their shocked and altered faces that even their disguised virtues were being burned away. 那时,通过他们震惊的表情和变形的面孔,她能看出他们伪装的美德已经灰飞烟灭了。

下面我们学习文中标黑的常用词#09#09 常用词汇

process*

/9pr5Uses/ @@ n. 过程,进程;工序;(法律)程序 vt. 加工,处理

【词根】pro(=forward) + cess(行进)→向前行进的进程→过程 【引申】 〈同根〉processor n. 处理器〈同义〉procedure n. 程序,手续,步骤 【活用例句】Your application for a mortgage is now being processed.你要求抵押的申请正在审理中。

objective*

/((e7))b9dZektIv,5b-/ @@ a. 客观的,不带偏见的 n. 目标,目的

【词根】来自 object(客体) + ive(…的) 【搭配】take an objective view of a situation 对形势持客观的看法;an objective description 客观如实的描绘 【引申】 〈同义〉fair a. 公平的|impartial a. 公平的,不偏不倚的〈反义〉partial a. 偏袒的,偏爱的 【活用例句】 economist gave an objective report of the economic problems.那位经济学家对这些经济问题做了客观评价。 The

interact /8Int5r9{kt/ @@ vi. 相互作用,相互影响
【词根】inter(相互) + act(作用) 【阅读例句】I wanted to open my eyes and expand my vision by interacting with people who weren’t studying science or engineering.我希望通过跟那些不学理工的人打交道来扩大眼界,增长见识。[01.1]

behavior

/bI9heIvj5(r)/ @@ n. 行为,举止,表现

【搭配】be on one’s best behavior 举止有礼,行为检点 【引申】 〈同根〉behave vt. 表现,举止端正:behave oneself 检点自己的行为 【阅读例句】 I did was let him know his behaviour was unacceptable. 我所做的一切只不过是告诉那个小男孩他的行为是 All 不可接受的。[08.12]

frequent*

/9fri:kw5nt/ @@ a. 频繁的,时常发生的,常见的 vt. 常到,常去

【联想】随后的(subsequent)一连串(sequence)事件是常见的(frequent) 【搭配】have frequent contact with sb 与某人频繁接触 / a frequent visitor 常客 【引申】 〈同根〉frequency n. 次数,频率〈同义〉common a. 普通的,常见|regular a. 经常的 【完形例句】Most of them are not serious;fainting and dizziness are the most frequent complaints.多数不是很严重,昏厥、 目眩是常见情况。[05.12] 同义↓

resort

/rI9zO:t/ @@ vi. (to)求助 n. 诉诸;求助(或凭借)的对象,采用的手段(或办法);胜地

【联想】向上级打报告(report)求助(resort) 【写作例句】When an examination is approaching;drawing near, some students do not work hard to prepare for it but want to resort to cheating.当考试临近时,有些学生不努力准备,却想采用作弊的手段。

uncover /((f6))n9k((f6))v5(r)/ @@ vt. 揭露,暴露;揭开…的盖子
【词根】来自 un(不) + cover(掩盖)→不掩盖→揭露 【搭配】uncover mystery / plan / plot 揭露神秘性;计划;阴谋 【阅读例句】 Tracking whales is but one example of an exciting new world just opening to civilian scientists after the cold war as the Navy starts to share and partly uncover its global network of underwater listening system.冷战之后, 海洋开始部分公开全球

水下监听网络。正是由于分享该网络的好处,才给平民科学家开启了一片精彩的新天地。而搜寻蓝鲸踪迹只不过是其中 一例而已。[02.6] 同义↓

bare

/be5(r)/ @@ vt. 使露出,暴露 a. 赤裸的;光秃的;勉强的

【联想】熊 (bear)妈妈赤裸(bare)身体来照顾(care)小熊 【搭配】with one’s head bare 光着头 (既没有戴帽子) ;bare hills 光秃的小山 【活用例句】Although they plant trees in this area every year, the tops of some hills are still bare.虽然他们每年都在这个地方 植树,但是一些山顶还是光秃秃的。

secret* /9si:krIt/ @@ a. 秘密的,机密的 n. 秘密
【短语】in secret 暗地里,秘密地 【引申】 〈反义〉open a. 公开的 【听力例句】In fact I think of good manners as sort of hidden beauty secret.实际上我认为好的礼貌是美丽的秘密。[04.1]

shock*

/S((e7))k/ @@ n. 震动,冲击;休克;电击 v. (使)震惊

【搭配】culture shock 文化冲击;in a state of shock 处于休克状态 【听力例句】Then, one Saturday morning, he did something that shocked his family and doctors. 然而有一天周六上午,他做 了一件令家人和医生震惊的事情。[07.6]

statement* /9steItm5nt/ @@ n. 声明;陈述;说法;报表
【词根】来自 state(声明,陈述) + ment(名词后缀) 【搭配】a formal statement 一个正式声明;make a different statement 做出不同的陈述 【活用例句】Can you deny the truth of his statement? 你能否认他的声明是真实的吗? 新机考练习 Exercise 10 (Part 1)一、 语篇词汇听写 Health care costs are a major 1 of Americans. The percentage of people covered by private health insurance 2 last year. Yet more people had insurance than the year before. The Census Bureau says that was because of an increase in government health programs. Government programs 3 eighty-three million people last year, about twenty-eight percent of the nation. Federal and state programs 4 older people, the poor and members of the military. But 5 other developed countries, the United States does not offer health insurance to all its citizens. Forty-seven million people were uninsured in two thousand six. The Census Bureau says that number 6 by more than a million last year. But experts 7 that the current economic downturn will again raise the number of uninsured. People buy health insurance to pay some or all the costs of medical care. But plans can be 8 , and people with existing conditions may not be able to get coverage at all. Yet even people with insurance may not have enough coverage to pay high 9 . The Commonwealth Fund, a research group, says twenty-five million adults are underinsured. It says that is a sixty percent increase in five years. The United States now spends more than two trillion dollars a year on health care. Health spending could represent 10 in less than ten years. 1._______ 2._______ 3._______ 4._______ 5._______ 6._______ 7._______ 8._______ 9._______ 10._______

(Part 2)二、句子词汇听写 1. Many people lost their jobs during the business . 2. But even when ______ with examples of genuine contrition(痛悔), children still need help to become aware of the complexities of saying sorry. 3. The first thing they did when they moved into the new house was to have a telephone ______. 4. If the father says he hates fat meat or the mother refuses vegetables in the child’s hearing he is likely to copy this ______.

5. I would never have to a court of law if I hadn’t been so desperate. 三、句段选择填空 Google has signaled its intent to muscle in on (入侵) yet another industry not typically 1 with Internet services: property sales. 1.[A]parted[B]associated[C]bound Some proverbs are native to Britain. Other proverbs have come into language from Latin and Greek. Lucretius, a classical Roman author, 2 the proverb one man’s meat is another man’s poison, meaning that what is good for one person is 3 to another. 2.[A]invented[B]made[C]created 3.[A]strange[B]tolerable[C]harmful Some experts, who regard language primarily as a code using symbols to represent sounds, view reading as simply the decoding of symbols into the sounds they stand 4 . These authorities 5 that meaning, being concerned with thinking, must be taught independently of the decoding process. Others maintain that reading is inextricably related to thinking, and that a child who pronounces sounds without 6 their meaning is not truly reading. The reader, 7 some, is not just a person with a theoretical ability to read but one who actually reads. 4. [A]by[B]to[C]for 5. [A]content[B]contend[C]contact 6. [A]interpreting[B]saying[C]explaining 7. [A] for example [B] according to [C] as to 练习答案 一、 1.【答案】concern。注意不要误写作“concert” 。 2.【答案】dropped。注意此处填的是 drop 的过去式,要双写单词末尾的“p” 不要写作“tropic” 。 。 3.【答案】covered。注意该单词与后面单词的连读,不要听成“governed” 。 4.【答案】insure。注意不能写作“ensure” 。 5.【答案】unlike。注意辨音,注意“un”的发音,从而正确拼写。 6.【答案】fell。注意不要写作“feel” 。 7.【答案】predict。注意辨音,不要写作“predicate”等不相符的单词。 8.【答案】costly。注音辨音,不要写作“constantly”或“lastly”等错误单词。 9.【答案】medical bills。注意这两个单词的拼写,注意 bills 的复数形式。 10.【答案】one-fifth of the economy。注意数字“one-fifth”的拼写,连字符可省略。 二、 1.【答案】depression。注意该单词的拼写,不要写作“impression” “expression”等近形词。 、 2.【答案】presented。注意不要误写为“peasant” 。 3.【答案】installed。注意过去分词形式,不要误写为“instill” 。 4.【答案】procedure。注意此单词的拼写,不要误写为“process” 。 5.【答案】resorted。注意不要误写为“resulted” 。 三、 1. 选[B]。 固定搭配题。 这里提到 Google 进军房产销售领域 (property sales) , 而这是与它一向从事的网络服务是无关的, 因此[B]associated 正确,be associated with“与…有关” part 与 with 连用时,是不及物动词,因此不能用于被动语态,排 。 除[A];[C]bound 和 with 连用的短语是 be bound up with 不符合题目的语义要求。 2. 选[C]。语境词汇题。首先分辨清楚空格后的 the proverb 与 one man’s meet is another man’s poison 是同位语关系,所填 词的宾语即为 proverb,主语是人,所以填表示“创造”的词,三个选项中只有[C]created 合适,它意为“创造,使产生” 指 , 通过艺术或想象力创造,例如:create a poem“创作一首诗” [A]invented“发明” 它是指运用智谋或想象生产或设计(以前未 。 , 知的东西),多指科技上的发明创造;[B]made“做,使存在”均不符题意。 3. 选[C]。语境词汇题。 meaning that ...to another 是对 one man’s meat is another man’s poison 的解释,meat 和 poison 形成

了鲜明的对比,因此所填词也应和 good 构成对比,[C]harmful“有害的”符合题意。[A]strange“奇怪的” [B]tolerable“可容 ; 忍的”均不符合语义。4. 选[C]。固定搭配题。句意为:把符号解码为他们所代表的声音。本题要求填入一个能够与 stand 搭配的介词,应用动词与介词的固定搭配来解答。stand for 为固定搭配,意为“代表” 符合题意。本题依字面意思可能误 , 选[A]项,但 stand by 意为“袖手旁观” 显然不符合题意。 , 5. 选[B]。词义辨析题。本题要求填入一个能够支配宾语从句的动词,几个选项形似,应从意义上加以区分。content 作 动词时意思为“满意于” 一般用于 content oneself with sth;contend“主张,认为” contact 意为“联系” 依上述分析,结合句 , ; 。 意,很明显应该选择 contend“主张” 。 6. 选[A]。词义辨析题。本题要求填入适当的动名词形式,应联系上下文解决。句中提到儿童只是会发音不叫真正的阅 读,很明显这里指“儿童没有理解” 选择 interpreting“理解”一项。选项[B]“说”和选项[C]“解释”均不符合语义。 , 7. 选[C]。 逻辑搭配题。 本题要求填入合适的介词或介词短语, 应联系上下文解决。 本题关键在于理解 some 的指代含义。 上文中引述了专家们的几个观点,这里同样是一种观点,那么这里的 some 只能指代 experts,所以这里应选择 according to“根据” 选项[A] “例如” 选项[C]“至于,关于” 本题易误选[C]as to,原因在于不理解 some 代指什么。 。 ; 。


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