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第19周 黎守翠 必修5总复习



上周教学总结与反思

welcome ? 背景:由于我是新来的教师,部分学生
对我的教法暂时不太适应,但相处融洽
? 总结: ? 单词掌握差,阅读翻译提高能力弱。 ? 反思: ? 加强引导,提高学习效率,增进师生交

的交流。

上周教学总结与反思
? 总结:

? 前一个多月都在为会考做准备,这周开

始复习必修五的内容。在会考中,很多 学生的问题暴露出来了,基础薄弱,针 对这类学生,复习基础知识是根本。 ? 反思:
? 加强引导,提高学习效率,巩固基础知

识,增进师生交的交流。

Teaching aims 【1】To review the words and phrases 【2】To develop the students’ ability. Important and difficult points: New words and phrases Students’ ability

英语

人教版

Book 5

Unit 1 Great scientists

Ⅰ.重点单词识记 1. defeat 2. attend 3. expose 4. /dI ′fi?t/ vt.打败;战胜;使受挫;n.失败 /?′tend/ vt.照顾;护理;出席;参加 /I k′sp??z/ vt.暴露;揭露;使曝光

/kj??/ n.治愈;痊愈;vt.治愈;治疗 cure 5. challenge /′t??lI nd?/ n.挑战;vt.向??挑战 6. absorb 7. suspect 嫌疑犯 /?b′z??b/ vt.吸收;吸引;使专心 /s?′spekt/ vt.认为;怀疑;/′s?spekt/ n.

8. blame 9. pollute 10. handle 11. link 12. positive 13. reject

/bleI m/ vt.责备;谴责;n.过失;责备 /p?′lu?t/ vt.污染;弄脏 /′h?ndl/ n.柄;把手;vt.处理;操纵 /lI ?k/ vt.& n.连接;联系 /′p?z?tI v/ adj.积极的;肯定的;确实的 /rI ′d?ekt/ vt.拒绝;不接受;抛弃

14. scientific /?saI ?n′tI fI k/ adj.科学的→science n.科学 15. conclude /k?n′klu?d/ vt.& vi.结束;推断出→

conclusion n.结论;结束

16. analyse 17. announce 18. instruct

/′?n?laI z/ vt.分析→ analysis n.分析 /?′na?ns/ vt.宣布;通告→ /I n′str?kt/ vt.命令;指示;教导→ n.说明;指示 /k?n′trI bju?t/ vt.& vi.捐献;贡献; n.贡献 /I n?θju?zI ′?stI k/ adj.热情的;热心的→

announcement n.通告 instruction
19. contribute 20. enthusiastic

捐助→ contribution

enthusiasm n.热情

Ⅱ.重点短语识记 1. 3. 5. 6.

put forward
expose...to link...to... apart from

提出 使显露;暴露 将??和??连接或联系起来 除??之外;此外 讲得通;有意义

draw a conclusion得出结论 2.
4. be to blame for 该为??受责备;应为??承担责任

7. (be) strict with... 对??严格的 8. make sense

语境填词——常用单词自测
1.Astronomy is the

scientific (science) study of the

sun,moon,stars and other heaven bodies. 2.Your information is inaccurate and your

conclusion (conclude) is therefore wrong.
3.We agreed with his acute political situation.

analysis

(analyse) of the

4.Nothing is more

valuable

(value) than time,but

nothing is less valued. 5.Our cook’s sudden announcement (announce) that she was leaving took us quite by surprise. 6.He became a construction (construct) worker after he left school.

7.The Chinese people have made a great contribution (contribute) to the whole world. 8.I put forward a plan but he did not appear enthusiastic (enthusiasm) about it. 9.The leadership of the movement (move) are in agreement on this issue. 10.That painful experience makes them (caution) in the future.

cautious

3 Look at the following simple words, we can make another expressions using make+a+ noun instead of them. to mistake = make a mistake
to suggest to plan to speak make a suggestion make a plan to decide make a decision make a contribution make a noise make a description

to contribute make a speech to be noisy

to change
to investigate

make a change to describe

make an investigation

4 In English verbs like make are very active and useful, You have also learned many phrases. Can you list some and make sentences with them? make money 挣钱 make sure 确信 make friends 交朋友 make a face 做鬼脸 make the bed 铺床 make one’s way to
一路前进, 向前

make room for 为…腾出空位 make up one’s mind 下决心; 决定

补充词组
约会 闲言碎语 道谦 竞争 选择

make an appointment make a gossip
make an apology

make a contest
make a choice

In English there are other verbs like “make”, can you list some ?

have a go have a talk have a rest have a walk have a picnic have a rest have a discussion

take a test take a taxi /bus /train take a bath take a seat take a nap take an exam take a journey

J o h n S n ow, a w e l l - k n o w n do ct or i n L o n d on , b ec a me _______(inspire) when he thought about helping ordinary people who _________(expose) to cholera, a______(die) disease of its day. Many thousands of people died _________ there was an outbreak because no one knew the cause of it. John wanted to help solve the problem. He got interested in two theories __________(explain) how cholera killed people. He believed in the second theory ________suggested that people _________(absorb) the disease with their meals. In 1854, when another ________ hit London, he was ready to test the two theories. _________ the help of the map he made, he got a valuable clue about the cause of the disease and was able to announce that the water was __________(blame).

used as

课文回顾
1. But he became inspired when he thought
about helping ordinary people exposed to

cholera.
2. Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood.

3. He knew he would never be controlled until
its cause was found.

5. People absorbed this disease into their

bodies with their meals. From the stomach
the disease attacked the body quickly and soon the affected person was dead. 6. It came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London. 7. He told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the water pump so it could not be used.

? 过去分词作定语和表语的区别:
? 定语 ? 表语 放在名词和代词的前面或后面 表示动作已经完成或被动的 放在be 动词或系动词的后面

说明主语的状态或构成被动语态

A 单个的过去分词作定语时一般兼有被 动和完成的意义,常作前置定语。 e.g. a lost animal 一只迷路的动物 注意:过去分词作定语时,有时只有被 动意义。 e.g. spoken English 英语口语 written exercises 书面练习

少数表示位移或状态改变的不及物动词

的过去分词只有完成的意义。
a fallen leaves 一片落叶 the risen sun 升起来的太阳 the advanced countries 发达国家 a retired teacher 一名退休教师 by-gone days 过去的岁月

2. 过去分词作表语,构成的系表结构 与被动语态的区别: 过去分词作表语,强调主语的特点或 所处的状态;而被动语态中,主语是 动词所表示动作的承受者。 This shop is now closed. 这家商店现在已经关门了。(状态) This shop is closed at 6 pm every day. 这家商店每天下午6点关门。(动作)

过去分词作表语一般用来表示感受或状 态(系动词+过去分词) No wonder he is excited! (predicative)

可以用作表语的常见的过去分词有:

move moving At the sight of the ________
scene, all the people present
were _________ moved to tears. 看到这么动人的情景, 所有 在场的人都感动得流下了眼泪。

excite excited when We get __________
we see this __________ exciting
picture.

英语中这样的分词还有很多, 如:

amusing, amused; encouraging, encouraged; disappointing, disappointed; puzzling, puzzled; satisfying, satisfied; tiring, tired; pleasing, pleased; astonishing, astonished等。

Ⅰ.重点单词识记 1. consist 2. credit 4. conflict /k?n′sIst/ vi.组成;在于;一致 /′kredI t/ n.信任;学分;信贷;赞扬 /′k?nflI kt/ n.矛盾;冲突

3. furnished /′f??nI ?t/ adj.带家具的;装备良好的 5. unwilling /??n′wI lI?/ adj.不愿意(的);不乐意(的) 6.countryside /′k?ntrIsaId/ n.乡下;农村 7. quarrel 争吵;吵架 /′kw?r?l/ n.争吵;争论;吵架;vi.

alike /?′laI k/ adj.相同的;类似的 9. sightseeing /?saI t′si?I ?/ n.观光;浏览 10. splendid /′splendI d/ adj.壮丽的;辉煌的;极好的
8. 11. thrill 12. /θrI l/ vt.使激动;使胆战心惊 /′er?/ n.错误;过失;谬误 /k?n′sI st?nt/ adj.一致的 /dI ′laI t/ n.快乐;高兴;喜悦;vt.

error

13. consistent 15. delight

14. opportunity /??p?′tju?n?tI / n.机会,时机 使高兴;使欣喜

16. unite

/ju?′naI t/ vi.& vt.联合;团结→united adj. n.联合;联盟;协会

联合的;团结的→ union

17. convenience /k?n′vi?nI ?ns/ n.便利;方便→

convenient adj.便利的 18. collection /k?′lek?n/ n.收藏品;珍藏;收集→ collect vt.收藏 19. arrange /?′reI nd?/ vt.筹备;安排;整理→ arrangement n.准备;筹备;整理
20.

fold

/f??ld/ vt.折叠;对折→unfold(反义词)vt.

打开

21. attract

/?′tr?kt/ vt.吸引;引起注意→

attraction n.吸引(力);魅力 22. enjoyable /I n′d??I ?bl/ adj.令人愉快的;使人高兴的→ enjoy v.欣赏;喜爱→enjoyment n.乐趣;享乐
23. description /dI ′skrI p??n/ n.描写;描述→ describe vt. 描写;形容 24. possibility /?p?sI ′bI lI ti/ n.可能(性)→ possible 可能的 adj.

Ⅱ.重点短语识记 1. consist of 2. divide...into 4. for convenience 5. leave out 7. break down 由??组成 把??分成 为了方便 省去;遗漏;不考虑 (机器)损坏;破坏

3.break away (from) 挣脱(束缚);脱离

6. take the place of 代替 8. be consistent with与??一致

语境填词——常用单词自测
1.The TV advertisements have 2.I have to find a the shelves. 3.We have business company in Iran.

influenced (influence)

my attitude towards drinking and driving.

convenient (convenience) location for
relations (relation) with a

4.He felt an immediate she was very attractive. 5.We have made all the conference. 6.Several firms were

attraction (attract) for her,for
arrangements (arrange) for the

united (unite) to form one

company. 7.It’s illegal (legal) to read people’s private letters without permission.

8.It is a

thrilling (thrill) news to hear of your being

appointed as CEO of your company. 9.The smell of perfume suggests (suggestion) the girl whom I met in the plane was on her way to Lisbon. 10.The last five years has seen a

consistent (consistence)

improvement in the country’s economy.

Unit 2 The United Kingdom If you study British history, you may find the country went through several different ________. The first name England ________(refer) to England and Wales, but when the two countries joined Scotland in 1603, the name Great Britain was given to represent the country. With the _________(join) of Northern Ireland, the country got the name the United Kingdom, which was shown to the world in a new flag _________(call) the Union Jack. ________ the four countries, England is the ________ and is divided into ________ zones: the South, the North and the Midlands. Its capital _________, which has been influenced by some invaders, _________ the Romans, the Anglo-Saxons and the Normans, is the greatest _________(history) treasure of all with its museums, art collections, theatres, parks and buildings.

Grammar
Past participles used as object complement (过去分词做宾语补足语)

什么是宾语补足语?
英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直 接宾语以外,还要有一个宾语补足 语,才能使句子的意义完整。这类 常用的及物动词有:make, consider, cause, see, find, call, get, have, let, etc.

作宾语补足语的过去分词与宾语之间的关系
1. 及物动词(短语)的过去分词用作宾语补足 语时, 宾语即是过去分词的逻辑宾语, 宾语 和过去分词之间存在逻辑上的被动关系。 如: I want the letter posted. 我想把这封信寄出去。 2. 少数不及物动词如 go, change, fall 等的 过去分词作宾语补足语时, 仅表示动作完成。 因此, 宾语与过去分词之间不存在逻辑上 的被动关系。

需用过去分词作宾语补足语的情况 1. 使役动词 get, have, make, keep, leave

等后, 可用过去分词做宾语补足语, 表:
“致使某人或某事被??‖ We should keep them informed of what is going on here. Jane got her bad tooth pulled out at the dentist’s.

I had my recorder repaired.
( I asked somebody else to repair it. )

I had the room cleaned.
( I organized it. )

He had his foot injured.
( something bad happened. )

2. 感官动词feel, find, hear, notice, see, watch

等表示感觉和心理状态的动词之后,
表: ―感受到某人或某事被做”。

I was sleeping when I heard my name called. He was disappointed to find his suggestions turned down.

She found Tom’s hair cut.
She found his room cleaned. She found his bike repaired.

hair room
bike

She found his clothes washed. clothes She found the walls painted. walls

3. 表示“意欲; 命令”的动词如: like, order, want, wish, 相当于过去分词短语前省略了to be,

表示“希望/要求某人或某事被做”。
I wish these letters (to be) typed as soon as possible. The father wants his daughter taught the piano.

He didn’t want such question discussed at the meeting.

使役 keep, leave, get, have, make 看 watch, notice, see, look at, observe catch 听 hear, listen to 感 feel 闻 smell 发现 find 情感 want, wish, like

sth./sb. done sth./sb. 被??

1) Being poor at English, I’m afraid

I can’t make myself ____. D
A. understand B. to understand

C. understanding
D. understood

2) I have had my bike ______, and C

I’m going to have somebody
______ my radio tomorrow.

A. repair; to repair
B. repairing; to be repaired C. repaired; repair

D. to repair; repairing

3) You must get the work ______(do) done before Friday.

4) ______ (enter)the room, the Entering nurse found the tape-recorder

stolen(steal). ______

5) We are pleased to see the
settled (settle) so quickly. problem ______

settle 解决

Fill in the blanks.
I heard someone _________me. calling called I heard my name ________. break the window. I found Tom _______ broken I found the window _______.

5.―with +宾语+过去分词”结构中, 过去分词 用作介词 with 的宾语补足语。这一结构通常 在句中作时间、方式、条件、原因等状语。 The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back. 凶手被带进来了, 他的 双手被绑在背后。(表方式) With water heated, we can see the steam. 水一被加热, 我们就会看到水蒸气。(表条件) With the matter settled, we all went home. 事情得到解决, 我们都回家了。(表原因)

6. 过去分词与不定式, 现在分词作宾补的 区别: 三者与宾语逻辑上都是主谓关系, 但过去分词强调他们之间的被动关系, 不定式强调动作发生的全过程, 现在分词 强调他们之间的主动关系, 正在进行。

I saw her taken out of the classroom. I saw her come into the classroom.

I saw her coming into the classroom.

省略to的情况:
1) 情态动词 (除ought 外, ought to);

2) 使役动词 let, have, make;
3) 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice, observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补, 省略to。注意: 在被动语态中则to不能省掉。 I saw him dance. =He was seen to dance.

The boss made them work the whole night.
=They were made to work the whole night.

用所给单词的正确形式填空。
1 What he had said made me _________. surprised (surprise) 2 My glasses are broken. I’ll have to get them repaired ________. (repair)

3 I heard the song ______ sung in English.
(sing)

4 You should make your voice ______ heard (hear). 5 I want you to keep me _________ informed (inform) of how things are going with you. 6 The price is fine with me. How would paid (pay)? you like it _____ 7 At last I succeeded in making myself __________ (understand). understood

改错
1. They woke up, finding everything around changing. changed 2. He got his tooth pull out yesterday. pulled 3. The murderer was brought in, with his hands being tied behind his back. tied

注意:有些过去分词(短语)因来源于系表结构, 作状语时不强调被动而重在描述主语的状态。 be lost in be dressed in be worried about be tired of be located in be caught in be based on be filled in

作非谓语 时,省掉 “be”

unit 3
Ⅰ.重点单词识记 1. representative /?reprI ′zent?tI v/ n.代表;典型人物; adj.典型的;有代表性的 2. previous 3. uncertain 4. tolerate 5. adjustment 6. fasten /′pri?vΙ ?s/ adj.在前的;早先的 /?n′s??tn/ adj.不确切的;无把握的 /′t?l?reI t/ vt.容忍;忍受 /?′d??stm?nt/ n.调整;调节 /′fɑ?sn/ vt.系牢;扎牢

7. guide 指导 8. lack 东西 9. instant 刻的 10. aspect 11. material 12. recycle

/ɡaI d/ n.指导;向导;导游;vt.指引; /l?k/ vi.& vt.缺乏;没有;n.缺乏;短缺的 /′I nst?nt/ n.瞬间;片刻;adj.立即的;立 /′?spekt/ n.方面;层面 /m?′tI ?rI ?l/ n.原料,材料 /?ri?′saI kl/ vt.回收利用;再利用

13.motivation 14. switch 15. greedy 16.impression

/?m??tI ′veI ?n/ n.动机 /swI t?/ n.开关;转换;vt.转换 /′ɡri?dI/ adj.贪吃的;贪婪的;贪心的 /I m′pre?n/ n.印象;感想;印记→ vt.使(某人)印象深刻 /′k?nst?nt/ adj.时常发生的;连续不断的→

impress
17. constant

constantly adv.不断地

18. press 19. optimistic

/pres/ vi.& vt.按;压;逼迫;n.按;压; n.压力 /??ptI ′mI stI k/ adj.乐观的;乐观主义的→

印刷;新闻→ pressure

pessimistic (反义词)adj.悲观的;悲观主义的 20. surroundings /s?′ra?ndI ?z/ n.环境;周围的事物→ surrounding
adj.周围的

Ⅱ.重点短语识记 1. take up 2. lose sight of 4. sweep up 5.speed up 6. assist in 7. slide into 8. be back on one’s feet 9. in no time 拿起;接受;开始;继续 ...看不见?? 打扫;横扫 加速 帮助;援助;协助 移动;溜进?? 恢复;完全复原 立刻

3. catch sight of ...瞥见??

语境填词——常用单词自测
1.I will tell him this thing

instantly (instant) he arrives.

2.The government consists of two representative (represent) assemblies. 3.There is pressure on the government to (settlement) the problem.

settle

4.There is a political motivation (motivate) for these actions. 5.The roots of the plants are
greedy (greed) for water.

6.The boat was large enough to receive (receiver) ten people. 7.Alice gives the
impression (impress) of being younger

than she really is.

8.We are constantly (constant) telling him to work hard. 9.He had
previously (previous) worked as a reporter.

10.Animals should live in their natural

surroundings

(surrounding).

Unit 3 Life in the future Li Qiang couldn’t believe that he had traveled to the year AD 3008 _______ a time capsule. Because this was his ________ time trip, he was worried and ________(settle) so that he suffered _________”time lag”. Besides, he was hit by the lack of fresh air. His guide, Wang Ping, who was very _________(understand), gave him some green tablets and a mask, which helped him _______ the problems. However, Li Qiang experienced something new. He flew ________ the ground in a hovering carriage. ________(arrive) home, he was shown into a large bright, clean room with a wall of trees. After eating something, he fell ________ asleep in the bed that _________(produce) from the floor.

过去分词与现在分词作状语
过去分词表完成、被动, 与逻辑主语之间

是被动关系; 现在分词表进行、主动, 与
主句主语之间是主动关系。如果一个被动

的动作发生在谓语动词之前, 则可使用现在
分词的完成被动式或过去分词。

过去分词表完成、被动, 作状语时, 其逻辑主语是主句的主语, 且与主语 之间存在着被动关系。过去分词作

状语可表时间、原因、 让步、 结果、
方式、 条件等。

1. People say it is Canada's most beautiful surrounded by mountains and the city, ___________ Pacific Ocean. 2. The first person to arrive was Tony Garcia followed by Julia from Colombia, closely ________ Smith from Britain. 3. ________ Worried about the time available, Zhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London.

Built in 1885, it was the oldest car 4. _____ taking part. 5. Dressed _______ up as Father Christmas and accompanied by a “guard of honor” ____________ of six pretty girls, he set off down the main street … 6. ________ Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days.

Summary
1) 过去分词在句子中可以作时间状语、 原因状语、伴随状语、条件状语和

让步状语等。
2) 过去分词作状语时,过去分词的逻辑

主语与句子主语一致。

注意:有些过去分词(短语)因来源于系表结构, 作状语时不强调被动而重在描述主语的状态。 be lost in be dressed in be worried about be tired of be located in be caught in be based on be filled in

作非谓语 时,省掉 “be”

unit4
Ⅰ.重点单词识记 1. submit 2. eager 4. assess 5. deadline /s?b′mI t/ vt.递交;呈递(文件等) /′i?ɡ?/ adj.渴望的;热切的 /?′ses/ vt.评估;评定 /′dedlaI n/ n.最后期限

3.concentrate /′k?ns?ntreI t/ vt.& vi.集中;聚集

6.meanwhile /′mi?nwaI l/ adv.其间,同时 7. deliberately /dI ′lI b?r?tlI / adv.故意地 8. sceptical /′skeptI kl/ adj.怀疑的

9. process 步骤

/′pr??ses/ vt.加工;处理;n.程序;过程;

10. thorough /′θ?r?/ adj.彻底的;详尽的 11. gifted 12. case 13. demand 14. publish 15. crime 16. acquire /′ɡI ftI d/ adj.有天赋的 /keI s/ n.情况;病例;案例 /dI ′mɑ?nd/ n.需求;要求;vt.强烈要求 /′p?blI ?/ vt.出版;发行;发表;公布 /kraI m/ n.罪行;犯罪 /?′kwaI ?/ vt.获得;取得;学到

17. accuse 18. inform

/?′kju?z/ vt.指责;谴责;控告 /I n′f??m/ vt.告知;通知→

information n.信息,消息 19. profession /pr?′fe?n/ n.职业;专业→ professional adj.专业的;职业的;n.专业人员
20. guilty /′ɡI ltI / adj.犯罪的;有罪的;内疚的→ n.有罪;犯罪;内疚 /′teknI kl/ adj.技术(上)的;技巧方面的→ n.技巧;技术

guilt
21. technical

technique

22. delighted /dI ′laI tI d/ adj.快乐的;欣喜的→delight n. 喜悦;欢喜;vt.使高兴 23. unusual /?n′ju????l/ adj.不同寻常的;独特的→

unusually adv.不平常地;异常地 24.admirable /′?dm?r?bl/ adj.值得赞扬的;令人钦佩的→ admire vt.佩服;赞赏→ admiration n.佩服 25. assist /?′sI st/ vt.帮助;协助;援助→assistant n.
助手;售货员 26. approve /?′pru?v/ v.赞成;认可;批准→

approval n.赞成

Ⅱ.重点短语识记 1. concentrate on 2. accuse...of 3. depend on 5. ahead of 6. in case 7. so as to (do sth.) 集中;全神贯注于 因??指责或控告?? 依靠;依赖 在??前面 以防万一 为了(做)??

4. be eager to do sth. 渴望干??

语境填词——常用单词自测
1.I can’t give my agreement. 2.I was 3.Many
delighted (delight) to be invited to her party.
approval (approve) to such an

journalists

(journal) as well as photographers

have been invited to their opening ceremony.

4.Thanks for giving me the information (inform) I wanted. 5.His unusual behavior is really should learn from him. 6.My colleague is eager to find two help with her research. 7.It’s said that she is not a professional (professor) player;she is just an amateur.
assistants (assist) to admirable (admire);we

8.It seems strange that he should have missed the deadline
deliberately (deliberate).

9.The editor feels

guilty (guilt) about not publishing your

article in the latest issue. 10.I have made an appointment (appoint) with one of the senior students in this college.

Unit 4 Making the news It is Zhou Yang’s first day at the office of China Daily. He is excited and ________ to go out _______ a story on his own, but he can’t because he isn’t ___________(experience) enough. His new boss, Hu Xin, is sharing with him how to be a good reporter. To be a good reporter, one needs to be curious, which _________(able) one to ask many different questions and acquire all the information he needs to know. Besides, it’s important for a reporter to have a nose ________ a story, _________(know) if someone is telling the truth. And while interviewing people, a reporter has to listen to the answers carefully because he has to listen to the _________(detail) facts and prepare the next question __________(depend) on what people say. If possible, a reporter can __________(recorder) the interview in case he _________(accuse) of printing lies.

倒装 (Inversion):
在英语中,主语和谓语的语序通常是主语在前, 谓语在后:主语+谓语 但有时为了语法结构的需要,或者是为了强调, 谓语的全部或一部分却提到主语前面,这种语序 叫做倒装。 倒装可分为: a.全部倒装:谓语+主语 b.部分倒装:助动词/be动词/情态动词+主语

基本语序natural order

subject 主+ verb谓+object 宾 I love English.

?

Here comes the car. (全倒)

动词主体仍在 后面

?

Never will Zhou Yang forget….(半倒)

全部倒装
1. 用于 there be 句型。 (there be+主语) 主语位于谓语are there之后 原句自然顺序是: Many students are there in the classroom. There are many students in the classroom.

2. 用于“here (there, now, then) + 不及物 动词 + 主语的句型中, 或以out, in, up, down, away 等副词开头的句子里面, 表示强调。 ? Here comes the bus. ? There goes the bell. 名词 ? Now comes our turn. ? Out went the children.

On the wall hangs a picture.

Here comes the bus.

注意: 代词作主语时, 主谓语序不变。 Here comes he. × Here he comes. Away went they. × Away they went.

3. 当句首状语是表示地点的介词词组时,

也常引起全部倒装。
? From the valley came a frightening sound. ? Under the tree stands a little boy.

Out rushed the dog.

Away went the girls.

1) Look out! ______ B A. The bus come there B. There comes the bus. C. Does the bus come? D. Comes the bus there. D half asleep. 2) Under a big tree ____, A. did sat a fat man B. a fat man sat C. did a fat man sat D. sat a fat man

部分倒装
1. 用于only开头的句子(修饰副词、介词短语或状语从句) Only in this way can you learn English well.

2. 用于 never,not, hardly, seldom, little,
not only 等否定词开头的句子里。 Never will he do this again.

Not only can mp3s provide us with fun, but also they can help us learn English well.

只有当Not only…but also连接两个分句时, 才在第一个分句用倒装结构。 如果置于句首的Not only…but also 仅连接两个并列词语, 不可用倒装结构。 Not only you but also I am fond of music.

3. 用于 so, nor, neither 开头的句子, 表示重复的内容:也 此句谓语应与前句谓语的时态形式一致。 ? Jack can not answer the question. Neither can I. ? He has been to Beijing. ____________ So have I. 我也去过。(不同人/情况) So he has 是的, 他确实去过。

A 1) My wife is a teacher, and ___. A. so am I B. so I am C. also I am D. too I am 2) She is not fond of cooking, ___ D I. A. so am B. nor do C. neither do D. nor am

4. 在 so / such …that 的结构中, 若so/such
置于句首, 则句子部分倒装. 1) It is such an interesting book that John

has read it twice.
2) It is so interesting a book that John has read it twice. Such an interesting book is it that John has read it twice. So interesting a book is it that John has read it twice.

5. 由as 或though 引导的让步状语从句有时也用 倒装句, 即把表语或部分谓语提前。

他虽有耐心, 但也不愿意等三个小时。
Although he was patient, he was unwilling to wait three hours. Patient though / as he was, he was unwilling to wait three hours.

他虽然是个孩子, 但已经熟知英语。
Although /though he is a child, he has a good knowledge of English. Child as / though he is, he has a good knowledge of English.

表语中含冠词,要省略冠词后,再倒装。

6. 用于某些祝愿的句子。 1) May you succeed! 2) Long live China!

I have never seen such a performance. Never have I seen such a performance.

Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.
当Not until引出主从复合句, 主句倒装, 从句不倒装。

Not only can mp3s provide us with fun, but also they can help us learn English well.

只有当Not only…but also连接两个分句时, 才在第一个分句用倒装结构。 如果置于句首的Not only…but also 仅连接两个并列词语, 不可用倒装结构。 Not only you but also I am fond of music.

Only by practicing everyday can you learn English well.

配套练习
1. ---Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother? B ---I don’t know, _______. A. nor don’t I care B. nor do I care C. I don’t care neither D. I don’t care also

2. Not until all the fish died in the river ____ A how

serious the pollution was.
A. did the villagers realize

B. the villagers realized
C. the villagers did realized D. didn’t the villagers realized

3. Only in this way ____ C do it well.
A. must we C. can we B. we could D. we can

5. Only when class began ____ C that he had left his book

at home.

A. will realize

B. he did

realize C. did he realize

D. should he realize

6. Not a single mistake ____ A in the dictation yesterday.

A. did he make
D. he had made

B. made by him C. he made

unit5
Ⅰ.重点单词识记 1. temporary 2. choke 3. complex 4. vital 5. ceremony 6. aid 7. pour /′temp?r?rI / adj.暂时的;临时的 /t???k/ vi.& vt.(使)噎住;(使)窒息 /′k?mpleks/ adj.复杂的 /′vaI tl/ adj.至关重要的;生死攸关的 /′serI m?nI / n.典礼;仪式 /eI d/ n.& vt.帮助;援助;资助 /p??(r)/ vt.& vi.倒;灌;注;涌

8. variety

/v?′raI?tI/ n.变化;多样(化);多变(性)→ adj.各种各样的 adv.承受不住地;不堪忍受地

various

9.unbearable /?n′be?r?bl/ adj.难以忍受的;不能容忍的 → unbearably 10. tight 11. firm 紧地;牢牢地 /f??m/ adj.坚定的;稳定有力的→ adv.坚固地;稳定地 /taIt/ adj.牢的;紧的;紧密的→ tightly adv.

firmly

12. apply

/?′plaI / vt.涂;敷;搽;应用;运用;vi.申 n.应用;使 n.申请人

请;请求;使用;有效→ application 用;申请→ applicant

13. pressure /′pre??/ n.压力;挤压;压迫(感)→

press
14. injury 15. bleed

vi.& vt.按;压;挤 /′I nd??rI / n.损伤;伤害→ injure vt. /bli?d/ vi.& vt.流血→ blood n.血,血液

弄伤??,损伤→ injured adj.受伤的

16. poison 17. treat 18. mild 19. swell 肿胀的

/′p?I zn/ n.毒药;毒害;vt.毒害; /tri?t/ vt.& vi.治疗;对待;款待;n.款待;招 n.治疗;处理;对待 /maI ld/ adj.轻微的;温和的;温柔的→ /swel/ vi.& vt.(使)膨胀;隆起→swollen adj.

使中毒→ poisonous adj.有毒的;有害的 待→ treatment

mildly adv.轻微地;温和地

20.bravery /′breI v?rI / n.勇敢;勇气→brave adj.勇敢的

Ⅱ.重点短语识记 1. fall ill 2. electric shock 3. squeeze out 5. in place 生病 触电;电休克 榨出;挤出

4. over and over again 反复;多次 在适当的位置;适当

6.

a number of first aid

若干;许多 找到 急救 起(重要)作用; 有影响 应用于,适用于

7. put one’s hands on 8. 9.

make a difference

10. apply to

Unit 5 First aid First aid is the kind of help ________ to someone ________falls ill or gets injury before a doctor can _______(find). Of course, the illness or injury is not serious. Now let’s talk about FIRST AID for burns. You have three layers of skin that protect yourself _________diseases, poisons and the harmful rays ________ the sun. Your skin also gives you your ________ of touch. First aid is a very important step in the _________(treat). People can get burned by many things, ________ hot liquids, steam, fire, radiation, the sun, electricity, etc. There are three types of burns. Burns are called first degree, second degree or third degree burns, depending on ________layers are burned. Different degree burn can be treated in a different _________. Let’s keep these things in mind.

1. 省略句的定义
省略是为了避免重复、突出新信息并使 上下文紧密连接的一种语法修辞手段。 省略在语言中, 尤其在对话中, 是一种 十分普遍的现象。

2. 句子成分的省略
省略前提: 主谓宾, 定状表, 如有重复可删掉 。 省略原则: 词语省略后, 不致令人费解。 省略类型:
1. 心照不宣型(用于祈使句和某些现成的简单句中); 2. 承前省后型(用于对话、并列句和动词不定式中); 3. 可有可无型(用于宾从中的that、定从中作宾语 的whom, which, that和某些状从中) 4. 虚拟倒装型(只用于需要倒装的虚拟条件句中)。

简单句中的省略
1. 省略主语: 祈使句中的主语通常被省略; 其他省略的主语的情况多限于少数现成的说法。

(1) (You) Come in, please. (2) ( I ) See you tomorrow. (3) ( I ) Thank you for your help.

(4) ( I ) Beg your pardon.

简单句中的省略
2. 省略主语或谓语的一部分
(1) (There is) No smoking. (2) (Will you) Have a smoke? (3) Why (do you) not say hello to him? (4) How (do you think) about a cup of tea?

(5) (You come) this way, please.

3. 省略宾语:可省略宾语的全部; 可省略作宾语
的动词不定式, 只保留to, 但如果该宾语是动词

be或完成时态, 则须在to后加上be或have。
(1) ---Do you know Miss Hu? ---I don’t know (her). (2) Don’t touch anything unless the teacher tells you to (touch). (3) ---Are you a teacher? ---No, but I want to be (a teacher). (4) ---He hasn’t finished the task. ---Well, he ought to have (finish it).

4. 省略表语
(1) ---Are you thirsty? ---Yes, I am (thirsty). (2) His brother is lazy. Nor is his sister (lazy).

5. 同时省略几个句子成分
(1) ---Are you fell better now?

--- (I’m feeling) better (now).
(2) (I wish) Good luck (to you)!

(3) Let’s meet at the school gate as the
same as (we met) yesterday.

并列句中的省略
两个并列分句中, 后一分句常省略与前一分句 中相同的部分。
(1) My father is a doctor and my mother (is) a nurse.

(2) I study at college and my sister (studies)
at high school

(3) Lin’s father was not at home, but his
mother was (at home).

主从复合句中的省略
1. 主句中有一些主谓被省略 (1) (I’m) Sorry to heat that you are ill. (2) (It’s) a pity that you missed such a good chance. 2. 省略从句中与主句相同的部分 They do not visit their parents as much as they ought to (visit their parents). 3. 主句与从句各有一些成分被省略 The sooner (you do it) , the better (it will be).

4. 省略一个从句或从句的一部分, 可用so 或

not代替。常用于此类的动词有believe, think,
expect, guess, hope, imagine, suppose, say, tell 等以及appear, seem, afraid etc. (1) –Is he coming back tonight? --I think so. (2) –She must be busy now? --If so, she can’t go with us. (3) –Is she feeling better today? --I’m afraid not. (4) –Do you think he will attend the meeting? --I guess not.

其他省略
1. 连词that的省略
(1)宾语从句中常省略连词that.

I know (that) he is a student.
(2) 在定语从句中, that在从句中作宾语时可省略。另外,
凡是进行时态和被动语态的定语从句都可省略关系代词

和be 动词。
He likes the songs (that) Andy Lau sings. He likes the songs (that are) sung by Andy Lau.

2. 在某些状语从句中, 从句的主语与主句的
主语一致时, 可省去“主语+be‖部分。 (1)When (he was) still a boy of 10, he had to work day and night. (2)She tried her best though (she was) rather poor in health. (3)While (you are) cycling, (you) don’t forget the traffic lights. 骑车时, 不要忘记看红绿灯。

3. 不定式符号to的省略
1) 并列的不定式可省去后面的 to. I told him to sit down and wait for a moment.

2) help 当“帮助”讲时, 后面的宾语或宾补的
不定式符号to可带可不带。

I will help (to) do it for you.
I will help you (to) do it.

(3) 介词but前若有动词do, 后面的不定式不带
to. The boy did nothing but play.

4) 某些使役动词(let, make, have) 及感官动词

(see, watch, hear, notice, observe, feel, look at,
listen to等)后面作宾语补足语的不定式一定

要省去 to, 但在被动语态中须将to 复原。
I saw the boy fall from the tree. The boy was seen to fall from the tree. The boss made us work 12 hours a day. We were made to work 12 hours a day.

5) 主语从句中有动词do, 后面作表语的不定式

的to可带可不带。
What we can do now is (to) wait.

6) find 当“发现”讲时,后面作宾语补足语的
不定式符号to可带可不带。

We found him (to) work very hard at the
experiment.

但如果是不定式 to be, 则不能省略。
She found him to be dishonest.

4. 连词if在部分虚拟条件句中可省略, 但要将 后面的should, were, had提到主语的前面。
I they had time time , they would certainly come (1) If Had and help us. (2) Were I you , I would do the work better. (If I were you) (3) Should there be a flood, what should we do? (If there should be a flood)

5. 英语中有一些固定的省略结构: 在以if, when, though, as if (好象)等连词引导 的从句中, 如从句中的主要动词是be, 常将主语 it 和动词be 省略。 If it is necessary, we shall send a telegram home. 如有必要, 我们就往家里打电报。 Whenever it is possible, he will come to my help. 他一有可能就来帮助我。

Notes
1. 省略句可同时省掉句子几个成份 What exciting news! (= What exciting news it is!) 多么令人激动的消息啊! Pity he’s failed. (= It is a pity that he’s failed.) 很遗憾, 他失败了。 I like him more than her. (= I like him more than I like her.) 我喜欢他更甚于喜欢她。

3. 被省略的部分一般可以在句子中补上, 但 有时省略结构已经定型, 如果把省略部分补上, 反而不合乎习惯。 He is taller than I am. 他比我高。 (am之后省略tall, 补上不合习惯) No parking. 禁止停车。 (告示用语 = No parking is allowed here.) 有一些习惯表达很难补上所省略的部分: Not at all. 不用谢。 No matter. 不要紧。 Thanks. 谢谢。

Exercise
1. I Haven’t seen you for ages. 2. It Sounds like a good idea. 3. I am Sorry to hear that. 4. Walk this way, please! 5. Would you like Joining us for a walk? 6. Would you like Some more tea? 7. It Doesn’t matter. 8. It is a Pity you couldn’t come. 9. What/Such Terrible weather! 10. Are you Going to the supermarket?

替代
(一)so和not作替代词, 代替被省略的某个词(组)

或句子, 一般同表示个人看法或想法的动词连用,
作be afraid, believe, become, all, do, expect, fear,

hope, imagine, say, see, speak, suppose, think
等的宾语。Not代替否定的句子还可放在 perhaps, probably, absolutely等副词后。

e.g. She was not angry at first, but became so (=angry) after a while. --Is he the best student in the class? --I think so (=He is best student in the class). --I think not (=He is not the best student in the class).

(二)替代的应用 1. so可以放在句首或句尾, 但若谓语动词是see, notice, hear等,则只能放在句首。如: I believe (say, think…)so. =So I believe (say, think…). —He is absent today. —So I see (hear, notice). 2. 在表示肯定或怀疑意义的句中不可用so。 如:误: I doubt so. 正: I doubt it.

3.在ask和know之后也不用so。如: 误: Why do you ask so? 正: Why do you ask that?

4. do so一般只用替代动态动词, 不替代静态 动词。如: She said she would go with me, but she didn’t do so.
---Alice feels better today. ---I think she does. ---So she does. 而不能说 I think she does so.



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