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英语四级读美文【8】


Unit 8 Sports Forum 体育论坛
Text 1 Criticism about the Idea of Winning in Sports Although sports in the United States are glorified by many, there are others who are especially critical of the power of sports to corrupt when certain things are carried to excess. An excessive desire to win in sports, for example, can weaken rather than strengthen traditional American values. Critics have pointed out that there is a long tradition of coaches and players who have done just this. Vince Lombardi, a famous professional football coach of the 1960s, was often criticized for stating that winning is the “only thing” that matters in sports. Woody Hayes, another famous football coach, once said: “Anyone who tells me, ‘Don’t worry that you lost;you played a good game anyway’, I just hate.” Critics believe that such statements by coaches weaken the idea that other things, such as fair play, following the rules of the game, and behaving with dignity when one is defeated, are also important. Unfortunately, many coaches still share the “winning is the only thing” philosophy. There is, however, also a tradition of honorable defeat in American sports. Sociologist Harry Edwards, for example, has pointed out that “The all important significance of winning is known, but likewise, there is the consoling(可安慰的) reward of the honorable defeat. Indeed, the sweetness of winning is derived from the knowledge of having defeated a courageous opponent who performed honorably.” When the idea of winning in sports is carried to excess, however, honorable competition can turn into disorder and violence. In one game, the players of two professional baseball teams became so angry at each other that the game turned into a large scale fight between the two teams. The coach of one of the teams was happy about the fight because, in the games that followed, his team consistently won. He thought that the fight had helped to bring the men on his team closer together. Similarly, a professional football coach stated: “If we didn’t go out there and fight, I’d be worried. You go out there and protect your teammates. The guys who sit on the bench, they’re the losers.” Both coaches seemed to share the view that if occasional fights with opposing teams helped to increase the winning spirit of their players, so much the better. Hockey(曲棍球) coaches would probably agree. Professional hockey teams are notorious(臭名昭著的) for the fights among players during games. Some hockey fans seem to expect this fighting as part of the entertainment. [A] corrupt [B] consistently [C] derived [D] dignity [E] entertainment [F] glorified [G] honorable [H] opponent [I] occasional [J] professional [K] scale [L] significance [M] strengthen [N] violence 对在运动中获胜的思想的批评 尽管在美国许多人都崇尚运动,但还是有一些人对过量运动的破坏力量持批评态度。例如,在运动中过分地渴望获胜更 多地是削弱而不是巩固美国传统的价值观。 评论家们曾经指出教练和运动员这样做是一个长久的传统。20 世纪 60 年代美国著名的专业橄榄球教练文森·伦巴蒂经 常因为说获胜是体育运动中最为重要的事而受到批评。 另一个著名的橄榄球教练武德·海斯曾经说过: “任何一个人跟我说’ 不要因为失败而苦恼,不管怎样,你都表现得很不错’,我很讨厌这种话。 ”评论家们认为教练们这样的想法削弱了其他一 些更重要的东西,如公平竞争、遵守比赛规则、失败时表现不能有失尊严。遗憾的是,许多教练仍然坚持“获胜是惟一重 要的事”这种理念。 然而, 在美国运动中也有“光荣的失败”这一传统观念。 例如, 社会学家哈里·爱德华兹曾经指出: “胜利的重要性尽人皆知, 但同样,对值得尊敬的失败也有安慰奖。确实,胜利的甜蜜来源于打败了一个勇敢的、表现得令人尊敬的对手。 ” 然而,当在运动中获胜的思想被太过强调的时候,光荣的比赛就会进入无秩序和充满暴力的状态。一场比赛中,两个专 业棒球队的队员对对方感到非常愤怒,以至于那场比赛最后变成了两个队之间大规模的斗殴。其中一个队的教练因这场 斗殴而感到高兴,因为在接下来的比赛中,他带的队一直赢。他认为那场斗殴让他的队员更加紧密地团结在一起。 同样地,一个专业橄榄球教练曾说过: “如果我们不去那里打架,我会不高兴的。你要出去保护你的队友。那些袖手旁观 的家伙是失败者。 ”这两个教练看来有一个共同的观点,那就是如果偶尔与对方队员的斗殴有助于增强他们队员获胜的信 念的话,那就再好不过了。曲棍球教练可能也会赞成该观点。专业曲棍球队因比赛中队员之间的斗殴而臭名昭著。一些

曲棍球迷似乎期望把这种斗殴作为娱乐的一部分。 难 句 解 析 1. Although sports in the United States are glorified by many, there are others who are especially critical of the power of sports to corrupt when certain things are carried to excess. 【分析】多重复合句。句首 Although 引导让步状语从句,后面不可以用 but。主句为 there be 句型,其中 who 引导的 定语从句修饰 others, to corrupt 作宾语补足语,句末 when 引导 时间状语从句。 2. Critics believe that such statements by coaches weaken the idea that other things, such as fair play, following the rules of the game, and behaving with dignity when one is defeated, are also important. 【分析】多重复合句。believe 后为 that 引导的宾语从句,其中 that 引导的从句为 idea 的同位语, when 引导的为时间 状语从句,following...the game 和 behaving... defeated 为 other things 的伴随状语,such as fair play 为插入语。 3. Indeed, the sweetness of winning is derived from the knowledge of having defeated a courageous opponent who performed honorably. 【分析】复合句。分词短语 having defeated... 之所以用完成时,是因为其表示的动作完成了以后,主语表示的动作才发 生,who 引导定语从句修饰 opponent。

下面我们学习文中标红的高频词#09#09 高频词汇

glorify

/9glO:rIfaI/ @@ vt. 褒扬,使光荣

【引申】 〈同根〉glory n. 荣誉,光荣|glorious a. 光荣的 , 显赫的 【活用例句】Her brave deeds were glorified in song and story.人们用歌曲和故事来颂扬她的勇敢行为。

corrupt /k59r((f6))pt/ @@ a. 贪污的,腐败的 v. 使腐化,使坠落
【联想】由于领导腐败(corrupt),这家公司破产(bankrupt)了 【搭配】a corrupt judge 贪赃舞弊的法官 【提示】 一起来记忆的“同根兄弟”词有: abrupt a. 突然的|bankrupt v. 使破产|interrupt 打断|corruption n. 腐败, 贪污, 堕落 【活用例句】 Do you think young people are corrupted by big city life?你认为大城市的生活会使年轻人道德败坏吗?

strengthen* /9stre((ce))Tn,9stre((ce))kTn/ @@ vt. 加强;巩固#09
【词根】来自 strength(强度) + en(动词后缀)→加强 【搭配】strengthen social ties 加强社会联系;strengthen the city’s buildings and highways 加固城市楼房和公路 【引申】 〈同根〉strength n. 力气;力量〈同缀〉共享 -en 动词后缀→darken v. 变黑暗,使黑暗|fasten v. 系紧|hasten v. 促进,赶快〈反义〉cripple vt. 严重削弱 n. 跛子 【阅读例句】First, the very best of them stay in the States and — like immigrants throughout history — strengthen the nation. 首先,最好的留学生往往留在了美国——就像历史上的那些移民——从而使美国变得更为强大。[07.12]

professional*

/pr59feS5nl/ @@ a. 职业的,专业的 #09 n. 自由职业者,专业人员

【搭配】a professional man 专业人员 【听力例句】Professional pickpockets do not see victims only handbags, jewels and money.专业扒手根本就不看人,他们只 看守提包,珠宝和钱。[04.1]

dignity

/9dIgnItI/ @@ n. 庄严,端庄;尊严,高贵

【联想】dig(挖) + n + ity(名词后缀)→高贵的品格需挖掘 【搭配】the dignity of work 工作的光荣;die with dignity 死得有尊严 【活用例句】 She accepted the criticism with dignity. 她大度地接受了批评。/It’s difficult to preserve your dignity when you have no job and no home.一个无家无业的人难以保持自己的尊严。

honorable

/9((e7))nFr5bl/ @@ a. 光荣的,荣誉的;可敬的,高尚的

【搭配】honorable career in government 光荣的从政生涯;an honorable man 高尚的人 【引申】 〈同义〉worthy a. (of)值得的,配得上的;可尊敬的

【听力例句】Where I come from in southeastern London that is an honorable profession.我来自伦敦东南部,在那这可是一个 光荣的职业。[04.1]

significance*

/sIg9nIfIk5ns/ @@ n. 意义,重要性

【词根】是动词 signify(表示…的意思,意味)的名词形式 【搭配】of no (little) significance 无关紧要的 【活用例句】Could you explain to me the significance of this part of the contract? 你能给我解释一下合同这一部分的含义 吗? 同 义 巧 辨 importance, consequence, significance 三者都含“重要性”的意思。 importance 为一般用语, 着重指“重要程度较高” 如: , news of importance 重要新闻; consequence 侧重指“有较深远影响的后果” 如:If you behave so foolishly, you must be ready to take the consequences. 如果你这样愚昧 , 下去,你必须准备自食其果。significance 指“具有重大而深远的意义” 如:an event of significance 具有重要意义的事件。 ,

derive

/dI9raIv/ @@ vt. 取得,得到;追溯…的起源(或来由) vi. (from)起源,衍生

【联想】de+rive(r)→黄河是中华文明的发源地→起源 【搭配】derive from 得自,衍生 【引申】 〈同根〉derivation n. 出处;衍生 【活用例句】His power derives mainly from his popularity with the army.他的权力主要来自他在军队中的威望。

opponent*

/59p5Un5nt/ @@ n. 反对者;敌手,对手

【词根】op(against) + pon (put 放置) + ent(…人)→置身于反对的立场→对手 【引申】 〈反义〉advocator n. 拥护者 【活用例句】He taught me how to use an opponent’s strength to fight against himself. 他教我如何以其人之道还治其人之身。 同根↓

postpone

/8p5Ust9p5Un,p59sp-/ @@ vt. 推迟,延期

【词根】post(在后的) + pone(放)→放到后面→推迟 【提示】postpone 后面要求接名词或动名词作宾语,如 postpone sending an answer 推迟给予答复。 【听力例句】They will postpone their program if it rains. 如果下雨他们就会推迟安排。[02.6] 同义↓

delay

/dI9leI/ @@ n. 耽搁(的时间),延迟 v. 耽搁, ;推迟,使延期

【联想】耽误(delay)贮存而致腐烂(decay) 【提示】delay 作及物动词时,后面跟动名词或名词作宾语,不跟不定式。 【活用例句】[谚] Sharpening your axe will not delay your job of cutting wood.磨刀不误砍柴工。

disorder

/dIs9O:d5(r)/ @@ n. 杂乱,混乱,无秩序状态

【词根】dis(没) + order(顺序)→没有顺序→混乱 【搭配】in disorder 混乱,紊乱;fall into disorder 陷入混乱 【引申】 〈反义〉order n. 顺序;有条理 【听力例句】She committed suicide because of her mental disorder. 她因精神错乱而自杀。[07.12]

scale*

/skeIl/ @@ n. 规模;等级;[ pl. ] 天平;比例(尺);刻度;(鱼等的)鳞 vt. 攀登,爬越

【词源】巧记“多义” 记住“刻度”的含义即可,古人在树上划一道道的刻度,记录自己有多高,那是最原始的“秤,测量” : 的含义。古人把鱼捞起来一看, “哇,这种动物刻痕累累,身体上自带刻度!”要想攀登一座高山,古人没有工具,只能借 助山壁上的一道道刻痕,用手扣住石缝往上爬,所以 scale 有“攀登”之意。 【搭配】on a (large) scale (大)规模地,在(大)规模上;the scales of the justice 正义的天平;scale the heights of his profession 登上了他事业的顶峰 【短语】scale down (production) 按比例缩减(生产) 【引申】 〈同义〉extent n. 程度,范围,限度 【活用例句】At the other end of the scale, life is a constant struggle to get enough to eat. 对于处在社会最底层的人来说,生

活就是为吃饱肚子而不断挣扎的过程。

consistently

/k5n9sIst5ntlI/ @@ ad. 一贯地,一向,始终如一地

【引申】 〈同根〉consistent a. 一致的;一贯的:consistent policy 一贯的政策〈近形〉insistently ad. 坚持地,强求地 【活用例句】The old man lives consistently with the laws of health.这位老人的生活符合健康原则。

occasional

/59keIZ5nl/ @@ a. 偶然的,非经常的;特殊场合的;临时的

【引申】 〈同根〉occasion n. 时刻,场合;时机;起因 vt. 引起|occasionally ad. 偶尔地 【活用例句】Occasional music was played at the graduation.毕业仪式上演奏了庆典的音乐。 同根↓

occasion*

/59keIZFn/ @@ n. 时刻,场合;盛会;[ sing. ] 时机;起因 vt. 引起

【搭配】choose one’s occasion 选择时机;an occasion for general rejoicing 举国欢腾的时候;on a public occasion 在公共 场合;on occasion(s) 有时 【听力例句】She disagrees with Dr. Andrews on many occasions.在许多方面她都不同意安得鲁医生的观点。[06.6]

entertainment* /8ent59teInm5nt/ @@ n. 娱乐,娱乐表演
【搭配】live entertainment 现场直播的娱乐节目 【阅读例句】The world of arts and entertainment is often referred to as“the entertainment industry”or“show business.”艺术和娱 乐界经常被称为“娱乐业”或“演艺业” [03.6] 。 同根↓

entertain*

/8ent59teIn/ @@ vt. 招待,款待;给…娱乐,使快乐 vi. 招待,请客

【联想】enter(进入)+tain(拿)→拿着东西进去,一般是请客送礼或要招待别人 【写作例句】Athletes not only entertain people but also take the peace message all over the world.运动员不仅愉悦观众,还把 和平的信息传遍整个世界。

下面我们学习文中标黑的常用词#09#09 常用词汇

excess* /Ik9ses,9ek-/ @@ n. 过量,超越 a. 过量的,额外的
【词根】ex(出) + cess(go 走)→走出界限→过度 【搭配】in excess 过度,过量;in excess of 超过;excess food 多余的食物 【引申】 〈同根〉excessive a. 过多的,过度的〈同义〉overtake vt. 超过,赶上 【活用例句】An excess of fat in one’s diet can lead to heart disease.食物中脂肪过多会导致心脏病。

weaken*

/9wi:k5n/ @@ v. (使) 变弱 ,(使) 减弱

【词根】来自:weak(弱的) + en(使) →(使) 变弱 【搭配】weaken his resolve 削弱他的信心;weaken the building’s foundation 削弱大厦的地基 【活用例句】The team has been weakened by injury.这个队因伤实力减弱。

matter* /9m{t5(r)/ @@ vi. 有重要性,要紧,有关系
【搭配】matter to sb 对某人要紧 【活用例句】The children matter more to her than anything else in the world.对她来说,在这个世界上没有比孩子更重要的 了。/It doesn’t matter to me what you do. 你做什么我无所谓。

fair*

/fe5(r)/ @@ a. 公平的;相当大的;浅色的;(肤色)白皙的 n. 展览会

【搭配】an open and fair race 公开公平的比赛;a fair number of people 相当多的人;long fair hair 一头浅色头发;export commodities fair 出口商品交易会 【阅读例句】 is likely to have fewer but healthier children and can insist on the development of all her children, ensuring that She her daughters are given a fair chance. 她可能会有更少但却更健康的孩子,并会坚持让所有的孩子都得到发展,以确保女 儿们有一个公平的机会。 [06.6]

defeat

/dI9fi:t/ @@ vt. 击败,战胜 n. 击败,战胜

【搭配】defeat the champion 战胜冠军;resign oneself to defeat 甘心失败;a succession of defeats 一连串的失败 【写作例句】After the defeat of SARS, people relieve their tense feelings through different ways.战胜了非典之后,人们通过 各种方式缓解紧张的情绪。 同 义 巧 辨 defeat, conquer, overcome 都含“战胜” “击败”的意思。 , defeat 指“赢得胜利” 尤其指军事上或各种竞赛中的胜利, defeat the enemy 打败敌人; , 如: conquer 指“征服” “战胜” 特别指“获得对人、物或感情的控制” 如:conquer nature 征服自然;overcome 指“战胜” “压倒” “克服” 尤 , , , 、 、 , 指“感情”而言,如:overcome difficulties 克服困难。 !!!图 5

likewise*

/9laIkwaIz/ @@ ad. 同样地,照样地;又,也

【构词】like(相同的) + wise 【引申】 〈同义〉also ad. 也,亦,同样 【活用例句】To achieve this goal, you must have ambition;likewise you need to exert great efforts.要实现这一目标,你必须 有雄心壮志,同时还得十分努力。

courageous /k59reIdZ5s/ @@ a. 勇敢的,有胆量的
【引申】 〈同根〉courage n. 勇气,精神|discourage v. 使气馁|encourage vt. 鼓励,怂恿 【活用例句】 He is courageous in defending truth.他勇于维护真理。 Text 2 Organized Sports in America Most social scientists believe that the sports that are organized by a society generally reflect the basic values of that society and attempt to strengthen them in the minds and emotions of its people. Therefore, organized sports have a more serious social purpose than spontaneous, unorganized play by individuals. This is certainly true in the United States, where the three most popular organized sports are football, basketball, and baseball. Nowhere are the ways and words of democracy better illustrated than in sports. Organized sports are seen by Americans as an inspiring example of equality of opportunity in action. In sports, people of different races and economic backgrounds get an equal chance to excel. For this reason, notes sociologist Harry Edwards, Americans view organized sports as “a laboratory in which young men, regardless of social class, can learn the advantages and rewards of a competitive system”. Although Edwards specifically mentions young men, young women also compete in organized sports without regard to their race or economic background. Women’s sports are growing in popularity in the United States, and they now have more funding and support at the college level than in the past. The 1996 Olympics provided evidence of the increased interest in women’s organized sports. American women won gold medals for several team sports — softball, basketball, soccer, and gymnastics. The idea of competition is at the very heart of organized sports in the United States. Many Americans believe that learning how to win in sports helps develop the habits necessary to compete successfully in later life. This training, in turn, strengthens American society as a whole. “It is commonly held,” says one sports writer, “that the competitive ethic taught in sports must be learned and ingrained(根深蒂固的) in youth for the future success of American business and military efforts.”

[A] advantages [B] excel [C] emotions [D] evidence [E] inspiring [F] illustrated [G] military [H] organized [I] popular [J] regard [K] spontaneous 美国有组织的体育运动 大多数社会科学家认为由团体组织的体育运动通常反映该团体的基本价值观并试图在人们头脑中和情感上强化它们。因 而有组织的体育运动比个人自发的无组织运动有更严肃的社会目的。美国就是这样,美国最流行的三项有组织的体育运 动是橄榄球,篮球和棒球。没有哪种方式比体育运动更能阐明民主的形式和口号的了。 有组织的体育运动被美国人视为有效的,鼓舞人心的,机会均等的运动。在体育运动中,不同种族和经济背景的人们有 同等出人头地的机会。社会学家哈里·爱德华兹指出,因为这个原因,美国人把有组织的体育运动看作是“一个实验室不 论什么社会阶层的年轻男子都能从中获得竞争体系的好处和回报” 虽然爱德华兹特别提到了年轻男子,年轻女子也一样 。

可以在有组织的体育运动中比赛,而不必考虑她们的种族或经济背景。在美国,女子体育运动的普及程度与日俱增,她 们现在在大学层次上的运动得到比过去更多的资金和支持。1996 年奥林匹克运动就证明人们对有组织的女子体育运动 的兴趣增加了。美国女子在垒球、篮球、足球和体操等几个团体项目上夺得了金牌。 在美国,竞争观念是有组织体育运动的核心。很多美国人都认为学会如何在体育运动中获胜有助于习惯的培养,这些习 惯会令你在今后的竞争中脱颖而出。反过来这种训练又从整体上巩固了美国社会。一个体育撰稿人说: “人们普遍认为, 为了美国未来商业和军事的成功,在体育运动中所教的竞争规则一定要让年轻人学会并植根于他们的思想意识中。 ” 难 句 解 析 1. Most social scientists believe that the sports that are organized by a society generally reflect the basic values of that society and attempt to strengthen them in the minds and emotions of its people. 【分析】多重复合句。believe 后为 that 引导的宾语从句。其中 that 引导的定语从句修饰 the sports,reflect 和 attempt 为从 句中并列谓语动词,句末介词短语 in the minds and emotions of its people 作从句状语,其中 of its people 作后置定 语修饰 minds 和 emotions。 2. For this reason, notes sociologist Harry Edwards, Americans view organized sports as “a laboratory in which young men, regardless of social class, can learn the advantages and rewards of a competitive system.” 【分析】复合句。notes sociologist Harry Edwards 为插入语,句中 view...as 为固定搭配, “将…视为” which 引导定语从句 , 修饰 laboratory,regardless of... 作插入语,介词短语 of a competitive 作后置定语,修饰 advantages 和 rewards。 3. “It is commonly held,” says one sports writer, “that the competitive ethic taught in sports must be learned and ingrained in youth for the future success of American business and military efforts. 【分析】复合句。says one sports writer 为插入语,主干为 It is held that... 句型,It 为形式主语,真正的主语为 that 从 句, taught in sports 为过去分词短语后置作定语修饰 ethic, 表示目的, for 介词短语 of...efforts 作后置定语修饰 the future success。

下面我们学习文中标红的高频词#09#09 高频词汇

organize 9O:g5naIz
构 vt. 建立

【引申】 〈派生〉organization / -isation n. 组织,机构,团体〈同义〉institute n. 学院,机

【活用例句】Making a decent speech requires the speaker to organize his words logically with full emotions and then present it with proper pace, intonation, and gesture. 要做好演讲要求演讲者富有逻辑和激情地组织语言,演讲时要具备恰当的节奏, 语调和姿势。

emotion*

/I9m5USFn/ @@ n. 情感,感情;激情

【词根】e + mot(动) + ion →容易波动的情绪→情感 【搭配】with deep emotion 有深厚的感情;a whole range of emotions 各种各样的情感 【提示】 mood 指情绪; emotion 指爱、 恨等情感; attitude 指对人或事的态度; feeling 指各种内外的感觉(最常用的词); passion 指激情。 【引申】 〈派生〉emotional a. 情感的,情绪的|emotionally ad. 感情上,情绪上〈同义〉feeling n. 感情|passion n. 激 情,热情 【活用例句】The very essence of literature is the war between emotion and intellect. 文学的本质是情感与理智的斗争。

spontaneous

/sp((e7))n9teInI5s/ @@ a. 自发的,无意识的

【词根】spont(自愿) + aneous(…的)→自愿的→自发的 【搭配】a spontaneous offer of help 主动提出帮助;spontaneous responses 不假思索的回答 【引申】 〈同义〉natural a. 自然的,出于本性的,天赋的 【活用例句】Hearing the joke, we burst into spontaneous laughter.听到笑话,我们不由自主地大笑起来。

popular*

/9p((e7))pjUl5(r)/ @@ a. 受欢迎的,通俗的,流行的

【搭配】be popular with/among... 在…中受欢迎 【引申】 〈同根〉popularity n. 普及,流行;声望

【活用例句】According to the popular belief, the present premier is unlikely to win a reappointment in the coming cabinet reshuffle. 按照民众的观点,现任总理不太可能在即将到来的内阁改组中获得连任。

illustrate*

/9Il5streIt/ @@ vt. 举例说明,阐明

【词根】il + lustr(光,照亮) + ate(使)→使内容更明朗→说明 【搭配】illustrate his point 阐明他的观点;illustrate sales figures 显示销售数字 【引申】 〈同根〉illustration n. 说明,例证;图解,插图 【活用例句】A recent survey illustrates that the divorce rate has rocketed as women’s financial dependence on men has plummeted. 最近的调查说明妇女对男人经济依附程度直线下降,离婚率急剧上升。 同义↓

exemplify

/Ig9zemplIfaI/ @@ v. 例证;作为…的范例

【词根】是 example( n. 例子)的同源异体的动词形式 【搭配】exemplify the problems involved 举例说明所涉及的问题 【活用例句】His food exemplifies Italian cooking at its best. 他的菜肴代表了意大利烹饪的最高峰。

inspiring

/In9spaI5rI((ce))/ @@ a. 令人鼓舞的,振奋人心的

【搭配】an inspiring speech 激动人心的讲话 【引申】 〈同根〉inspiration n. 灵感,鼓舞人心的人或事物|inspire vt. 鼓舞;给…以灵感:inspire everyone to follow his example 鼓励每人都照他做;inspire sb with courage 鼓起某人的勇气 【活用例句】The inspiring music acted on the emotions of the students.那激昂的音乐使学生们情绪激昂。

excel

/Ik9sel/ @@ v. 擅长,突出

【搭配】excel in foreign languages 擅长外语;excel oneself 胜过过去 【引申】 〈同根〉excellence


n. 优秀;卓越

【活用例句】His meals are always very good, but this time he’s excelled himself.他做的饭菜一直很拿手, 但这次做得更好。

advantage* /5d9vA:ntIdZ/ @@ n. 利益,好处;有利条件,有利因素
【词根】advant(看作 advance 前进) + age(行为)→前进,进步→优点 【搭配】take advantage of 利用,占便宜;have an advantage over ...比…有优势 【听力例句】The hotel clerk tried to take advantage of his inexperience.饭店职员想利用他的经验不足。[07.6]

regard

/rI9gA:d/ @@ n. 关心;注意;敬重;[ pl. ](~s)问候,致意 v. (~as)把…看作;重视;注意;考虑;注视

【搭配】without regard to 不顾虑,不遵守;with regard to 关于;regard... as 把…视为… 【活用例句】She is generally regarded as one of the best writers in the country.人们普遍认为她是该国最优秀的作家之一。

evidence*

/9evId5ns/ @@ n. 根据,证据;迹象

【词根】e + vid(看) + ence →证实所看见的人或物→证据 【搭配】bear evidence of... 有…的迹象;in evidence 明显的 【引申】 〈同根〉evident a. 明显的,明白的 【活用例句】There is evidence that language-acquiring must be stimulated.有证据证明,学习语言必须要有激发才行。 同 义 巧 辨 evidence, proof, witness evidence“证据” 即证明一事正确的凭据, , 一般表抽象意义, 如: Running away is the evidence of his guilt.逃跑证明他有罪。 proof“证明,证据” 一般指实物证据,如:Give me some proof of what you said. 给我一些证据证明你所说的。witness “见 , 证” 多作“证人,目击者”来讲,如:He was summoned as a witness. 他作为证人被传唤。 ,

military*

/9mIlItFrI/ @@ a. 军事的,军用的 n. [the ~] 军队,武装力量

【词根】milit(军事) + ary(…的)→军事的 【搭配】the military academy 军事院校;yield to military threat 向军事威胁妥协;military targets 军事目标 【活用例句】There used to be a military base in the region.这地区过去有个军事基地。

下面我们学习文中标黑的常用词#09#09 常用词汇

purpose*
of... 以…为目的

/9p((ae)):p5s/ @@ n. 目的,意图

【搭配】 purpose 故意地; on cross purposes 误解, 观点分歧; (the) purpose of... 为的是…, for 为了…起见; with the purpose

【听力例句】Many people say the purpose of the engagement period is to permit enough time to plan the wedding.很多人说订 婚期间的目的是为了有足够的时间准备婚礼。[05.6]

democracy

/dI9m((e7))kr5sI/ @@ n. 民主,民主制;民主国家

【词根】demo(人民) + cracy(统治)→人民统治→民主,民主制 【搭配】the principles of democracy 民主原则;western democracy 西方民主国家;the fight for justice and democracy 为正 义和民主的斗争 【引申】 〈同根〉democratic a. 民主的,有民主精神(或作风)的 【完形例句】 They believed strongly that democracy depended on responsibility and that a growing capitalist economy depended on the productivity of workers. 他们强烈地主张:民主是建立在责任感之上的,而不断增长的资本主义经济则是建立在工 人的生产能力上的。[08.12]

race

/reIs/ @@ n. 种族;赛跑 v. 赛跑,竞赛

【搭配】human race 人种,种族;race for the prize 比赛争夺奖品 【听力例句】My everyday is a race against the clock that I never ever seem to win.我每一天都在和时间赛跑,我似乎永远也 无法取胜。[08.6]

level*

/9levl/ @@ n. 水平,等级;水平线;高度 a. 水平的;同程度的;平稳的 v. (使)变平坦

【短语】on the level 直率地;level down 使降至同等水平;level off (使)变得平坦,平整;level up 提高到同一水平 【引申】 〈同义〉criterion n. 准绳,标准|standard n. 标准,水准 【阅读例句】 After a while, people became attached to one brand and sales leveled off.过了一段时间, 人们开始喜欢一种品牌, 销售量呈平稳状态发展。[01.6]

hold*

/h5Uld/ @@ v. 拿,握;掌握;担任;持有;维持;占据;容纳;适用;进行 n. 握住;控制;船舱

【短语】hold back (anger, secret) 抑制(怒气),保守(秘密),阻挡,退缩;hold down (the price, anger) 阻止(物价)上涨,压 制(怒气),控制;hold forth 滔滔不绝地讲;hold off 不接近,拖延;hold on 等一会,(打电话时)不挂断,握住不放,坚 持住;hold out (one’s arms, claims) 伸出(手臂),坚持(要求),不屈服,维持,支持;hold over 延缓,推迟;hold up 抢劫, 延迟,举出,展示;hold together 使结合,团结;hold with (awarding the child)赞成,赞同(奖励孩子) 【阅读例句】People holding on to sad memories of the past will find it difficult to move forward.驻足于过去痛苦回忆的人会 很难前进。[06.12]

Text 3 Youth Sport Participation Sport is not only physically challenging, but it can also be mentally challenging. Criticism from coaches, parents, and other teammates, as well as pressure to win can create an excessive amount of anxiety or stress for young athletes. Stress can be physical, emotional, or psychological and research has indicated that it can lead to burnout. Burnout has been described as dropping or quitting of an activity that was at one time enjoyable. The early years of development are critical years for learning about oneself. The sport setting is one where valuable experiences can take place. Young athletes can, for example, learn how to cooperate with others, make friends, and gain other social skills that will be used throughout their lives. Coaches and parents should be aware, at all times, that their feedback to youngsters can greatly affect their children. Youngsters may take their parents and coaches’ criticisms to heart and find a flaw (缺陷) in themselves. Coaches and parents should also be cautious that youth sport participation does not become work for children. The outcome of the game should not be more important than the process of learning the sport and other life lessons. In today’s youth sport setting,

young athletes may be worrying more about who will win instead of enjoying themselves and the sport. Following a game many parents and coaches focus on the outcome and find fault with youngsters’ performances. Positive reinforcement should be provided regardless of the outcome. Research indicates that positive reinforcement motivates and has a greater effect on learning than criticism. Again, criticism can create high levels of stress, which can lead to burnout.

[A] cautious [B] cooperate [C] Criticism [D] challenging [E] described [F] emotional [G] feedback [H] focus [I] reinforcement [J] stress 年轻人参与体育运动 体育运动不仅是对运动员体能的挑战,更是对运动员精神与意志的考验。获胜的压力以及教练、家长和其他队员的批评 都可能引起年轻运动员过分焦虑和紧张。这种紧张可能是生理上的、情感上的或心理上的。研究表明,紧张可能会导致 精疲力竭,这会使运动员不得不放弃曾一度很感兴趣的活动。 早期成长阶段是自我了解的关键时期。 体育运动环境是获得宝贵经验的场所。 例如, 年轻运动员能学会如何与别人合作、 如何交友以及其他受用一生的社交技巧。教练和家长不论什么时候都应该意识到他们对年轻人的教诲会在很大程度上影 响孩子。年轻人会将家长和教练的批评牢记在心,并从自己身上找出不足。 教练和家长也应该审慎地意识到参与体育活动不应该成为孩子们的工作。对孩子们来说,更重要的应该是了解这项运动 和其他人生经验的过程, 而不是比赛结果。 在今天年轻人的运动环境中, 他们关心的可能是胜负而不是享受运动和人生。 比赛结束后,许多家长和教练关注的也是结果,然后挑剔运动员的表现。事实上,不管比赛结果如何,都有必要给予积 极的肯定。调查研究表明,正面的肯定能够激发孩子的学习积极性,这比批评更有效。而且,批评容易造成高度紧张, 从而导致精疲力竭。 难 句 解 析 1. Burnout has been described as dropping or quitting of an activity that was at one time enjoyable. 【分析】复合句。其中 describe...as... 意为“描述为…,被称为…” that 引导定语从句修饰 an activity。 , 2. Young athletes can, for example, learn how to cooperate with others, make friends, and gain other social skills that will be used throughout their lives. 【分析】复合句。宾语为并列的不定式短语,that 引导定语 从句修饰 skills,for example 为插入语。 3. Research indicates that positive reinforcement motivates and has a greater effect on learning than criticism. 【分析】 复合句。 indicates 后为 that 引导的宾语从句, 其中谓语动词 motivates 和 has 并列, have effect on 为固定搭配“对… 产生影响” 。

下面我们学习文中标红的高频词#09#09 高频词汇

challenging / 9tS{lIndZI((ce))/ @@ a. 挑战性的;引起兴趣的
【搭配】a challenging assignment 具有挑战性的任务;a challenging problem 具有挑战性的问题 【阅读例句】Sport is not only physically challenging, but it can also be mentally challenging.运动不仅挑战体力,而且挑战脑 力。[01.6] 同根↓

challenge*
怀疑

/ 9tS{lIndZ/ @@ n. 艰巨的任务;质疑;挑战书,邀请比赛 vt. 考验…的能力,激励;向…挑战;对…

【联想】ch(吃的谐音)+allenge(看作 allege 断言)→对断言都口吃的人感到怀疑→对…怀疑 【搭配】challenge sb to fight 向某人挑战;challenge sb’s right to do sth 对某人做某事的权利提出异议 【阅读例句】The challenge to Internet advertisers is to create ads that audience members remember.网络广告商所面临的挑战 是创作出让这一目标观众群能够记住的广告。[08.6]

criticism*

/9krItIsIzFm/ @@ n. 批评,非难

【词根】来自 critic(批评家) + ism(名词后缀) 【引申】 〈同义〉comment n. 评论〈反义〉praise n. 赞扬,赞美的话〈同根〉critic n. 批评家,评论家|critical a. 批评

的;决定性的|criticize /-ise vt. 批评,批判 【活用例句】Criticism and self-criticism is necessary in that it helps us to find and correct our mistakes. 批评和自我批评是必 要的,有助于我们发现错误并纠正错误。

stress

/stres/ @@ n. 重压,压力;强调,重要性 v. 着重,重读;强调

【搭配】avoid stress 躲避压力;sustained stress 持续的压力 【听力例句】 Today I stress the importance of doing a job right the first time.今天我强调第一次就把工作做好的重要性。 [03.6]

emotional

/I9m5US5nl/ @@ a. 感情 (上) 的;情绪 (上) 的;令人动情的;情绪激动的

【词根】来自 emotion(情感) + al(…的)→感情上的 【搭配】emotional problems;emotional character 易动感情的性格 【阅读例句】What you’re seeking is not physical energy. It’s emotional energy.你所需要的并不是生理力量,而是情感力量。 [06.12]

describe*

/dI9skraIb/ @@ vt. 描写,叙述,形容;画出(图形等)

【词根】de(表加强) + scribe (写)→写得很详细→描写 【搭配】describe ... as 把…说成是 【活用例句】After returning home from the movie theatre, Jessie described the film as being “a classic masterpiece of documentary”. 从影院回家后,杰西说那部片子是“纪录片中的经典杰作” 。

cooperate* /k5U9((e7))p5reIt/ @@ vi. 合作,协作,配合
【联想】co(一起) + operate(活动)→一起活动→合作 【搭配】cooperate with... 与…合作;cooperate to do sth 配合做某事 【活用例句】Each of the paper assignments for the three groups covers a vast topic and requires in-depth exploration, thus therefore everyone must cooperate very well with other members in his group. 三个小组中每个小组所要提交的论文都涵盖了 范围较广的主题并且要求进行深度研究,因此每个人都必须与同组的成员进行良好的合作。

feedback

/9fi:db{k/ @@ n. 反馈,反馈信息

【构词】feed(向…提供) + back(回来)→反回来提供→反馈 【搭配】positive and negative feedback 正反两方面的反馈;feedback on my work 对我的工作的反馈 【活用例句】The tutor tried to give each student some feedback on their performance. 指导教师设法对每个学生的表现都做 出一定的反馈。

cautious

/ 9kO:S5s/ @@ a. 小心的,谨慎的

【词根】caut(小心) + ious(…的) 【搭配】 cautious about sth(doing sth) 在(做某事)某事上十分慎重; cautious approach to deal with the problem 处理该问 be a 题的谨慎办法 【写作例句】We should take cautious measures to prevent the negative effect of computers on men’s living.我们应该采取谨慎 措施,防止计算机对人们生活的负面影响

focus*

/9f5Uk5s/ @@ v. (on)(使)聚集;(使)集中,聚焦 #09 n. 焦点;(注意、活动等的)中心

【联想】foc(看作 for 为了) + us(我们)→焦点访谈的口号是为我们人民服务 【搭配】focus on the outcome 把注意力集中在结果上;the focus of people’s attention 人们关注的焦点 【听力例句】What will future news reports focus on when talking about transportation?将来的交通报告在谈论起交通时会关 注什么?[05.6]

reinforcement* /8ri:In9fO:sm5nt/ @@ n. 增援,加固,加强
【词根】re(再) + in + force(力量) + ment →再加力量→增强 【阅读例句】Positive reinforcement should be provided regardless of the outcome.无论结果如何都应该给以肯定的支持。 [01.6] 同根↓

reinforce*

/8ri:In9fO:s/ @@ vt. 增强,加强,增援

【词根】re(再)+in+force(力量)→再加力量→增强 【活用例句】The factors push wages and prices up together, the one reinforcing the other.诸多因素促使工资和价格上升,而 工资与价格之间又相互推动。

下面我们学习文中标黑的常用词#09#09 常用词汇

anxiety*

/{((ce))9zaI5tI/ @@ n. 焦虑;挂念;渴望,热望

【搭配】ease his anxiety 打消他的顾虑 【引申】 〈同根〉anxious a. 焦虑的;渴望的 【活用例句】The mother was filled with anxiety about her daughter’s health. 母亲为女儿的健康忧心忡忡。

physical*

/9fIzIkl/ @@ a. 身体的,肉体的;物理的,物质的 n. 体检

【搭配】increase physical exertion 加强身体锻炼;physical condition 身体条件 【阅读例句】 Hillenbrand barely had enough physical energy to drag herself out of bed to write. 西尔布兰德几乎没有体力将她 从病榻上支撑起来进行写作。[06.12]

quit*

/kwIt/ @@ v. 停止,放弃;离开,辞(职)

【联想】我是不是该安静的(quiet)离开(quit) 【搭配】quit the show 退出表演;quit smoking 戒烟;quit the job 辞职 【引申】 〈同义〉resign vi. 辞职 vt. 辞去,放弃;(to)使顺从 【活用例句】He has decided to quit as manager of the team.他已决定辞掉球队经理的职务。 同义↓

cease*

/ si:s/ @@ v. & n. 停止,终止

【联想】c + ease(安逸,安心)→生于忧患,死于安乐→停止,中止 【搭配】cease to do sth 停止做某事[强调停止将要发生的事情];cease doing sth 停止做某事[指停止先前或正在进行的事 情] 【引申】 〈同义〉stop v. & n. 停止|pause vi. & n. 暂停,停止 【活用例句】 Thirty years on, food deliveries have ceased, fresh vegetables are almost unobtainable in the country. 30 年过去了, 现在已经没有人上门送食物了,也很难从乡下弄到新鲜蔬菜了。 同义↓

halt /hO:lt/ @@ v. (使)停住,(使)停止 n. 停止,暂停
【联想】暂停(halt)盐(salt)的销售 【搭配】at a halt 停止,停顿;bring to a halt 使停止;come to a halt 停下来;halt between two opinions 拿不定主意 【写作例句】The government called upon all departments and institutions to take effective measures to bring fake and inferior goods to a halt.政府要求所有部门、机构采取有效措施打击假冒伪劣商品。 gain*;geIn;#09 vt. 获得,取得;增加;增添;(钟、表)走快 vi. 得益;取得进展;(钟、表)走快 n. 增进;好处,收益, 利润 【搭配】gain on (the enemies)逼近(敌人),赶上;gain momentum 加强,(动量)不断增加;gain confidence 增强信心;gain two minutes 快两分钟 【听力例句】In subsequent presentations, Pania gained reputation as a highly effective speaker. 在接下的讲话中,人们都觉得 潘尼是个出色的演说家。[06.12]

positive*

/9p((e7))zItIv/ @@ a. 确实的;积极的;肯定的;阳性的

【词根】pos(放、置) + itive(…的)→要放置在某处→确实的 【搭配】some positive life-changing events 一些影响积极的人生转折事件;have both negative and positive effects 产生正 反两方面影响 【阅读例句】Exercise is one of the few factors with a positive role in long-term maintenance of body weight. 锻炼是对长期保

持体重起着积极作用的为数不多的因素之一。[05.1]

Text 4 Arguments about International Sport Some people believe that international sport creates friendship between the nations and that if countries play games together they will learn to live together. Others say that the opposite is true that international contests encourage false national pride and lead to misunderstanding and hatred. There is probably some truth in both arguments, but in recent years the Olympic Games have done little to support the view that sports encourages international fellowship. Not only was there the tragic accident involving the murder of athletes, but the Games were also ruined by incidents caused primarily by minor national contests. One country received its second-place medals with visible indignation after the hockey final. There had been noisy scenes at the end of the hockey match, the losers objecting to the final decisions. They were convinced that one of their goals should not have been rejected as invalid and that their opponents’ victory was unfair. Their manager was in a rage when he said: “This wasn’t hockey. Hockey and the International Hockey Federation are finished.” The president of the Federation said later that such behavior could result in the suspension(暂停) of the team for at least three years. The American basketball team announced that they would not yield first place to Russia, after a doubtful end to their contest. The game ended in disturbance. It was thought at first that the United States had won, by a single point, but it was announced that there were three seconds still to play. A Russian player then threw the ball from one end of the court to the other, and another player popped it into the basket. It was the first time the USA had ever lost an Olympic basketball match. An appeal jury debated the matter for four and a half hours before announcing that the result would stand. The American players then voted not to receive the silver medals. Incidents of this kind will continue as long as sport is played competitively rather than for the love of the game. The suggestion that athletes should compete as individuals, or in non-national(非国家的) teams, might be too much to hope for. But in the present organization of the Olympics there is far too much that encourages aggressive patriotism(爱国主义). [A] appeal [B] aggressive [C] announced [D] convinced [E] disturbance [F] hatred [G] fellowship [H] invalid [I] opposite [J] popped [K] rage [L] ruined [M] visible [N] yield 关于国际体育运动的争议 参 考 译 文 有人认为国际体育运动促进了国家间的友好交往,而且如果同台竞技,各国人民还将学会如何相处。另有一些人则持相 反观点,他们认为国际竞赛助长了错误的民族自豪感,并且会引起误解和仇恨。双方的观点或许都有一定的道理,但近 年来奥运会对维护体育运动,促进国际友好所做的努力收效甚微。奥运会上不仅出现了运动员被谋杀的悲剧事件,而且 由于少数国家间的比赛引起的事件而受到了破坏。 一场曲棍球决赛后,获得亚军的队员领奖时一脸的愤愤不平。比赛快结束时,失利者对比赛结果提出了抗议,场面一度 出现了混乱。他们坚信他们的一个进球不应该被判无效,对手的胜利是不公正的。他们的领队非常愤怒地说: “这不是曲 棍球,曲棍球和国际曲棍球协会完蛋了。 ”事后,曲棍球协会主席说,他们的做法可能让球队停赛至少三年。 由于比赛在快结束时出现了争议,美国国家篮球队说他们不会把冠军拱手让给俄罗斯。比赛结束时一片混乱。一开始大 家觉得美国以一分的优势赢得了比赛,随即又宣布说比赛还有三秒钟。此时, 一名俄罗斯队员将球从球场一边传到另一 边,另一名队员投篮命中。这是美国在奥运会的篮球比赛上首次失利。申诉仲裁委员会经过四个半小时的辩论后宣布维 持原判。美国队员经表决拒绝接受银牌。 只要人们进行体育运动是为了竞争,而不是抱着对运动本身的热爱,此类事件仍会发生。而让运动员作为个人或非国家 队参赛,恐怕也只是奢望。但是现有奥运会的组织形式里助长侵略性爱国主义的成分太多。 难 句 解 析 1. Some people believe that international sport creates friendship between the nations and that if countries play games together they will learn to live together. 【分析】多重复合句。believe 后为两个由 that 引导的表示并列关系的宾语从句,第二个宾语从句中包含一个由 if 引导

的条 件状语从句。 2. Not only was there the tragic incident involving the murder of athletes, but the Games were also ruined by incidents caused primarily by minor national contests. 【分析】复合句。not only 等含否定意义的关联词放在句首时,句子要进行部分倒装,第一个分句中现在分词短语 involving the murder of athletes 作后置定语,修饰 incident;第二个分句中 caused primarily by minor national contests 为过 去分词短语作后置定语,修饰 incidents。 3. The suggestion that athletes should compete as individuals, or in non-national(非国家的) team, might be too much to hope for. 【分析】复合句。其中 that 引导的从句作 suggestion 的同位语,as 在这里作介词,意思是“作为” “以…身份” 将主谓语 , , 分开,hope for 为“希望,期望”的意思。

下面我们学习文中标红的高频词#09#09 高频词汇

opposite*

/9((e7))p5zIt,-5sIt/ @@ prep. & ad. 在对面 a. 对面的,相反的 n. 对立面,对立物;相反

【词根】来自 oppose(相对) + ite(…的)→相对的,相反的 【搭配】shift in the opposite direction 向相反的方向调整过来;on the opposite page 在相反页上;the opposite of heavy 重 的对立面 【引申】 〈同根〉opposition


n. 反对;反抗;对立

【活用例句】But, in fact, the opposite is true: more often than not, things that lead to happiness involve some pain.但事实上恰 恰相反:通向幸福的途中往往总会有痛苦。 同义↓

contrary

/9k((e7))ntr5rI/ @@ a. (to)相反的,对抗的 n. [the-]相反,相反事物

【短语】on the contrary 正相反;to the contrary 相反的(地) 【活用例句】This is not an economical way to get more water;on the contrary it is very expensive. 这种方式并不是一种获得 更多水的节约方式,相反其造价非常高。

hatred* /9heItrId/ @@ n. 强烈的憎恶或敌意
【词根】来自 hat(e)(讨厌) + red(红)→因为讨厌,脸都红了→憎恶 【搭配】have a hatred for 憎恶;in hatred of 憎恨 【引申】 〈同根〉hate vt. 憎恨,不喜欢〈同义〉dislike n. 嫌恶〈反义〉affection n. 喜爱|love n. 爱,热爱 【活用例句】When they were doing business and Jeff knew he was being swindled, he had nothing but bald hatred for the New Mark Estate. 当他们在做生意而杰夫知道自己受了骗时,他有的只是对纽马克地产公司的满腔仇恨。

fellowship

/9fel5USIp/ @@ n. 交情,友谊

【词根】来自 fellow(伙伴) + ship(关系)→伙伴关系 【搭配】bear sb fellowship 与某人有交情;give the right hand of fellowship 同人结交;good fellowship 人缘好 【活用例句】 There will also be an opportunity for fellowship and a cup of tea after the meeting. 会后, 大家还有一起喝杯茶, 共叙友谊的机会。

ruin*

/9rUIn,9ru:In/ @@ v. (使)毁灭;(使)破产 n. 毁灭,毁坏;[ pl. ] 废墟

【联想】大雨(rain)毁坏(ruin)了庄稼 【搭配】ruin one’s life 打乱生活;ruin your health 搞垮你的健康;in ruins 成废墟,毁灭 【阅读例句】But anxiety doesn’t have to ruin your life. 但是焦虑不应该对你的生活产生负面影响。[04.1]

visible* /9vIzIbl/ @@ a. 看得见的,可见的,有形的
【词根】vis(看) + ible(…的)→看得见的 【搭配】visible benefits 显而易见的实惠;visible signs 明显的标志 【引申】 〈同根〉invisible a. 看不见的,无形的 【活用例句】 Most stars are not visible to the naked eye.大多数星星肉眼看不见。She made a visible effort to control her anger. / 看得出她竭力控制自己不发火。

convince*

/k5n9vIns/ @@ vt. 使确信,使信服,说服

【词根】con(完全) + vince(征服)→完全征服对方→使信服 【搭配】convince sb of sth 使某人相信某事 【引申】 〈同义〉persuade vt. 说服,使相信 【活用例句】 Consumers may be convinced to buy a product of poor quality or high price because of an advertisement.顾客可能 被一则广告说服,去买劣质高价商品。 同根↓

convict /k5n9vIkt/ @@ vt. (经审讯)证明…有罪,宣判…有罪; ; n. 囚犯
【词根】con(强调) + vict(征服)→把对方彻底征服→证明…有罪 【搭配】convict sb of fraud 被判诈骗罪 【活用例句】You can’t convict a man of a crime on circumstantial evidence alone.不能只靠旁证就判定一个人有罪.

invalid

/9Inv5li:d,-lId/ @@ a. 无效的

【词根】in(无) + valid(有效的) →无效的 【搭配】invalid claims 无效的要求;invalid contracts 无效的契约;declare a marriage invalid 宣布一桩结婚无效 【引申】 〈反义〉valid a. 有效的,正当的〈同义〉vain a. 徒劳的,无效的;自负的 【活用例句】After the old man died, his children found that his will was invalid.这位老人死后,他的子女们才发现他的遗嘱 是作废的。

rage

/reIdZ/ @@ vi. 发怒;(风)狂吹 ,(浪)汹涌;(战争等)激烈进行 n. 盛怒;[the ?] 风靡一时的事物,时尚

【联想】r + age(时代)→不同的时代有不同的时尚 【搭配】in a rage 一怒之下;fly into rage 勃然大怒;be (all) the rage 风行一时 【活用例句】 Hearing the professor’s prejudiced comments on his term paper on which he has dedicated nearly two month’s hard work, Owen rushed out of the department office in a rage. 欧文在其学期论文上花费了将近两个月的功夫,当他听到教 授对论文带有偏见的评论时,一怒之下冲出了系办公室。

announce

/59n5Uns/ @@ vt. 宣布;通告

【引申】 〈同根〉announcement n. 宣告,发表|announcer n. 广播员,报幕员|denounce v. 指责;告发〈同义〉pronounce vt. 发音;宣布|sentence n. 句子 vt. 宣判,判决 【活用例句】 The moment Samaranch announced that the 2008 Olympic Game would go to the city of Beijing, all Chinese people exclaimed in delight.萨马兰奇宣布 2008 年奥运会将在北京举行的那一刻,所有中国人高兴地欢呼起来。

yield*

/ji:ld/ @@ vt. 产生,出产;放弃 vi. (to)屈服;倒塌 n. 产量,收益

【联想】这片田地(field)盛产(yield)土豆 【搭配】yield to customers 向顾客妥协;yield up his gun 缴枪;a high crop yield 丰收 【活用例句】Educating girls quite possibly yields a higher rate of return than any other investment available in the developing world. 在发展中国家,比起其他方面的投资,使女孩受教育完全可能带来更高的回报。[06.6] 近义↓

compromise

/9k((e7))mpr5maIz/ @@ vi. 妥协 vt. 放弃(原则、理想等) n. 妥协,折衷办法

【联想】com(共同) + promise(保证)→相互保证→妥协 【活用例句】I won’t compromise. Don’t enforce obedience on me.我不会妥协,不要强迫我服从。

disturbance /dI9st((ae)):b5ns/ @@ n. 骚动;动乱
【词根】为 disturb( vt. 打扰,使烦恼,打乱)的名词形式 【搭配】quiet a disturbance 平息骚乱;without disturbance 不受干扰地 【引申】 〈同根〉 disturb vt. 打扰,扰乱〈同缀〉共享 -ance 名词后缀→ annoyance n. 烦恼,骚扰|appearance n. 出现; 外貌|disappearance n. 不见,消失 【活用例句】Those men were charged by the police with causing a disturbance.那些人因制造骚乱被警方控诉。

pop /p((e7))p/ @@ vi. 突然出现;发出砰的响声 n. 流行音乐;(发出)砰的一声 a. [口语](音乐、艺术等)通俗的

【搭配】pop up 突然出现;pop music 流行音乐 【活用例句】The cork came out of the bottle with a loud pop.软木塞砰的一声从瓶口迸了出来。/ The window opened and a dog’s head popped out. 窗子打开了,冷不防一只狗探出头来。

appeal* /59pi:l/ @@ n. 感染力;呼吁;上诉 vi. 有吸引力;呼吁;上诉;(to)诉诸 vt. 将…上诉
【搭配】have appeal 有吸引力,引人入胜;an appeal for sth 呼吁某事,请求某事;appeal to sb(sth)求助于某人或某物, 向某人或某物呼吁;迎合某人的心意;appeal against... 对…进行申诉 【引申】 〈同根〉appealing


a. 有吸引力的,有感染力的;恳求的

【活用例句】A marketer may reposition the product to appeal to new market sections. 市场营销者可以对产品重新定位来吸 引新的市场。

aggressive

/59gresIv/ @@ a. 侵略性的,攻击性的

【词根】ag(表方向) + gress(行走) + ive(…的)→不断行走,走到别国→侵略的 【引申】 同义〉 〈 hostile a. 敌对的|offensive a. 无礼的, 攻击性的 〈同根〉 gress 指“行走” progress 向前走→进步|regression 。 向后走→退步,退化|aggress 向…走去→侵略|congress 走到一起来→会议。 【活用例句】Thanks to our aggressive marketing tactics, our sales have risen sharply this year. 多亏了我们大刀阔斧的市场战 略,我们的销售额今年猛增。

下面我们学习文中标黑的常用词#09#09 常用词汇

contest /9k((e7))ntest/ @@ n. 比赛;竞争 ;k5n9test; vt. 竞争;对…提出质疑
【联想】con(一起) + test(考试)→一起测试→比赛 【搭配】contest the prize 争夺奖品;contest a statement 对一项声明提出质疑 【引申】 〈同根〉contestant


n. 竞争者,参加竞赛者

【活用例句】His wife is contesting a seat on the council.他的妻子正在竞争委员会成员的资格。

false*

/fO:ls/ @@ a. 不真实的,错误的;伪造的;虚伪的

【搭配】avoid false alarms 避免错误信号;false identification 假身份证 【活用例句】What is true cannot become false, and what is false cannot become true. 真的假不了 , 假的真不了。

misunderstanding

/8mIs((f6))nd59st{ndI((ce))/ @@ n. 误会,误解

【引申】 〈同根〉misunderstand vt. 误解,误会〈反义〉understanding n. 谅解,理解〈同缀〉mis-=wrong (ly),bad(ly)错 误的,不好的→misbehave v. (使)行为无礼貌|misfortune n. 不幸,灾祸 【活用例句】A misunderstanding was the beginning of their quarrel.他们的争吵起因于彼此误解。

incident*

/9InsIdFnt/ @@ n. (突发)事件,事变;发生的事

【词根】in + cid(fall 落下) + ent(物)→从天而降的东西→发生的事 【搭配】an international incident 国际性事件;without incident 平安无事 【引申】 〈同义〉occurrence n. 事件;发生 【活用例句】The Xi’an Incident was a very important turning point in China’s modern history. 西安事变是中国近代史上一个 很重要的转折点。 同 义 巧 辨#09accident, incident accident 指偶然发生的不可预测的事件,强调“意外,突发” 如:traffic accident 交通事故;incident 指附属性的小事件, , 如大事中的小环节,也可指政治事变。 !!!图 6

minor*

/9maIn5(r)/ @@ a. 较少的,较小的;次要的 n. 未成年人

【词根】mini(小) + or(…人、物)→未成年人 【搭配】a minor part in a play 剧中的配角;a minor matter 小事;a minor fault 小过失;a minor party 少数党 【引申】 〈同根〉minority n. 少数,少数民族〈同义〉secondary a. 次要的〈反义〉major a. 主要的 【听力例句】Yes. But I’m sorry the flight is delayed because of a minor mechanical problem. Please wait for further notice. 是

的,但是很抱歉飞机由于一个很小的机械故障而晚点,请您等候进一步通知。[02.6]

unfair

/((f6))n9fe5(r)/ @@ a. 不公平的,不公正的

【词根】un(不) + fair(公平)→不公平的 【活用例句】Unfair criticism can undermine employees’ self-confidence.不公正的批评会削弱雇员的自信心。 同义↓

unjust

/((f6))n9dZ((f6))st/ @@ a. 不公平的,不公正的

【搭配】an unjust accusation 不公正的指控 【引申】 〈反义〉just ad. 正好;只是;非常;勉强地 a. 正义的

doubtful

/9daUtf5l/ @@ a. 难以预测的,未定的;怀疑的,可疑的

【搭配】be doubtful about sth 对某事不确定或怀疑 【引申】 〈同根〉undoubtedly ad. 无疑,必定 【活用例句】I have yet to check up some doubtful points.我还得核实一些疑点。

court*

/kO:t/ @@ n. 法庭;球场;宫廷;庭院

【搭配】the civil court 民事法庭;a tennis court 网球场;take sb to court 对某人起诉,控告;pay court to 追逐,求爱 【引申】 〈同根〉courtroom


n. 法庭,审判室

【活用例句】The case was settled out of court. 这案件已庭外和解。/ The case took five years to come to the court. 那案件历 时五年才被法庭受理。

jury /9dZU5rI/ @@ n. 陪审团;(竞赛或展览的) 评判委员会
【词根】jur(法律) + y(名词后缀) 【搭配】members of the jury 陪审团成员;serve on a jury 担任陪审员 【活用例句】The jury has returned a verdict of guilty.陪审团已做出有罪的判定。

stand*

/st{nd/ @@ vi. 保持有效,继续存在 vt. 经得起

【搭配】 stand a chance 有机会; stand on one’s own (two) feet 自助, 自立; stand by one’s promise 遵守诺言; stand out a crisis 挨过危机;stand up for 维护,拥护,支持 【引申】 〈同根〉bystander


n. 旁观者

【写作例句】He pointed out that the ban still stands.他指出禁令仍然有效。/ This work will hardly stand close examination.这 种作品很难经得起认真的检验。

vote*

/v5Ut/ @@ n. 票,投票,选举,表决 v. 投票,选举(出),表决

【联想】笔记(note)记录了投票(vote)结果 【短语】vote in 选出;vote sb (sth) down 投票否决,投票击败;vote sth through 投票通过 【活用例句】He became a citizen, thereby gaining the right to vote.他成为公民,并因此获得了选举权。

新机考练习 Exercise 8 (Part 1)一、 语篇词汇听写 England is 1 with the heaviest snowfall to hit the country in nearly two decades. Among the 2 regions are London and surrounding areas. Travel disruption and 3 cancellations are widespread. Where some tried to fight the elements, others simply took the day off and enjoyed the unusual 15-centimeter-deep 4 of beautiful white snow. Unlike parts of the world that regularly deal with snow, when it does show up in England, and sticks around, all sorts of 5 break out. This is the worst 6 to hit England in 18 years. And for some the journey into work became an exercise in futility. One commuter said the roads were really bad and we probably had to take today as holiday, but we had 7 we would come out and make the most of it. At one stage, London’s public bus service was completely 8 due to dangerous driving conditions. Cancellations or 9 on the subway lines and rail services were common. Air travelers were also feeling the effect at airports like Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted. More than 500 schools have also 10, much to the delight of the students. Forecasters here said more snow could be in store Tuesday when another weather

front moves into Britain. 1._______ 2._______ 3._______ 4._______ 5._______ 6._______ 7._______ 8._______ 9._______ 10._______ (Part 2)二、句子词汇听写 1. Another method by which people appear to ______ without actually doing so is to say “I am sorry you’re upset”. 2. All her energies are ______upon her children and she seems to have little time for anything else. 3. It’s good to know that quite a few popular English expressions actually ______ from the Bible. 4. The article suggests that when a person is under unusual _______ he should be especially careful to have a well-balanced diet. 5. We love peace, yet we are not the kind of people to_______ to any military threat. 三、句段选择填空 It should hardly be shocking to discover that middle-class parents do far more to help their kids. State schools are supposed to offer all children the same education, providing the opportunity to compensate (弥补) for these differences 1 home environments. Instead, the fashion for handing 2 more responsibility to parents can only 3 the classroom divide. 1. [A] from [B]between [C] in 2. [A] out [B]over [C]in 3. [A]stress [B]regulate [C]reinforce Are passenger side air bags dangerous? Media reports unfortunately have 4 to fears that air bags can kill and 5 children. These fears have been 6 by a new message, that children of 12 and under must sit in the back 7 protect them from possible air bag deployment (扩展). 4. [A] happened [B]led [C]resulted 5. [A]damage [B]injure [C] save 6. [A]strengthened [B]eliminated [C] solidified 7. [A]in [B]for [C]to 练习答案 一、 1.【答案】struggling。注意 struggle 的 ing 形式要去 e,不要误写为“striking” 。 2.【答案】hardest-hit。注意是 hard 的最高级形式,以及 hardest 与 hit 间要用连字符。 3.【答案】massive。注意不要误写为“messed” 。 4.【答案】blanket。注意 blanket 与 of 的连读,不要误听为“blank” 。 5.【答案】chaos。注意 chaos 不要漏写 s。 6.【答案】snowstorm。注意不要误写为“show storm” 。 7.【答案】thought。注意不要误写为“sort” 。 8.【答案】shut down。 9.【答案】big delays。注意 delay 要用复数形式。 10.【答案】canceled classes。注意 cancel 过去分词可以双写也可不双写。 二、 1.【答案】apologize。注意此单词的拼写,有两种拼法,apologize/-ise。 2.【答案】focused。注意时态,不要漏写 ed,更不要误写为“folks” 。 3.【答案】derive。注意不要误写为“drive” 。 4.【答案】stress。注意不要误写为“distress”或“dress” 。 5.【答案】yield。注意 yield 有省音现象,不要误听为或误写为“field” “fill”等。 、 三、 1. 选[C]。短语搭配题。能和 differences 搭配的介词有[B]between 和[C]in。但 difference between 表示两者之间的差异, 而空格后只有 home environments,因此排除[B]而选[C]in,表示“在某方面的差异” 。

2. 选[B]。短语搭配题。根据前一句话, “学校应该给所有的学生提供同样的教育,来弥补学生因家庭环境不同造成的差 异” 接着,用“Instead”表语义的转折,表示学校实际并没有承担相应的责任,而是在转嫁职责,[B]over 符合语义要求, , hand over responsibility to parents 意为“将职责转移给家长们” hand out 意为“把…拿出来,分发” hand in 意为“交上” 。 ; 。 3. 选[C]。词汇辨析题。由句首的 Instead 可知,让家长承担更多教学责任的后果与学校应该实现的目标 (弥补来自家庭 背景的差距) 应该是相违背的。因此选[C]reinforce“增强,加固” [A]stress“强调,着重” [B]regulate“管制,控制”均不符合 。 ; 语义。 4 选[B]。逻辑推理题。第一句问“乘客侧气囊危险吗?”本句是对第一句的回答。既然有 unfortunately“不幸地” 可知媒体 , 报道应该是让人们有这种担心的,所以选[B],led to“导致” 符合逻辑。happened to 意思是“恰好” 用在此处语义不通,所 , , 以排除[A]。[C]resulted 不能和 to 搭配。 5. 选[B]。词汇辨析题。由上句可知,这里的担心应该是气囊的危害性。所填词是动词与 kill 并列,宾语是人,所以排 除[C] save 以及宾语为物的[A]damage“破坏” 选[B]injure“伤害” , 。 6. 选[A]。逻辑推理题。前文讲的是媒体关于气囊的报道带给人们的恐惧,由此可知儿童一定要坐在后排座位上以防止 气囊不慎展开。这种信息应该是加强了人们的恐惧,由此可排除[B]eliminated“消除” [C]solidified“使巩固,结实” 常用来 。 , 作用于建筑物等物体。所以[A]strengthened“加强”符合句意。 7. 选[C]。 语法结构题。 [A]in 和[B]for 后面不能直接接动词原形, 故排除; [C]to 用在此处, 连接前后两个动作, 表目的。


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