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英语定语从句用法详解(初中)



英语定语从句用法详解(初中)
在复合句中 , 修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句 , 被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词 , 引 导定语从句的有关系代词 who, whom, whose, which, that 等和关系副词 where, when, why 等 , 关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担任句子成份。 1.由 who 引导的定语从句中 , who 用作主语 , 如 : This is the boy who often helps me. 2.由 whom 引导的定语从句中,whom 用作宾语,如:The man whom you are waiting for has gone home. 3.由 whose 引导的定语从句中 , whose 用作定语 , 如 : Do you know the girl whose skirt is white? 4.由 which 引导的定语从句中,which 用作主语或谓语动词的宾语或介词的宾语,如: The room in which there is a machine is a work shop. The river which is in front of my house is very clean. This is the pen which you want. 注意 : (1)whom, which 用作介词宾语时 , 介词可放在 whom、which 之前 , 也可放在从句原来的 位置上;但在含有介词的动词固定词组中,介词只能放在原来的位置上。如: He is the very person whom we must take good care of. (2)引导非限制性定语从句时,必须用关系代词 which,不用 that,如:I have lost my bag, which I like very much. (3)关系代词在句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词保持一致。 5.由 that 引导的定语从句中,that 可以指人或物,在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语,但不 能放在介词后面作介词宾语,如: The book that I bought yesterday was written by Lu Xun. 注意在下面几种情况下必须用 that 引导定语从句。 (1)先行词是不定代词 all, few, little, much, something, nothing, anything 等 , 如 : All that we have to do is to practise English. (2)先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,如 The first letter that I got from him will be kept. (3)先行词被 all, any, every, each, few, little, no, some 等修饰 , 如 I've eaten up all the food that you gave me. (4)先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the last 修饰时如 He is the only person that I want to talk with. (5)先行词既有人又有物时,如: They talked about persons and things that they met. (6)当句中已有 who 时 , 为避免重复 , 如 : Who is the man that is giving us the class? 6.由 when, where, why 引导的定语从句,如: I don't know the reason why he was late. This is the place where we have lived for 5 years. I'll never forget the day when I met Mr Li for the first time. 注意:先行词是表示地点时,如果从句的谓语动词是及物的,就用 that(which),如果从句的 谓语动词是不及物的,就用 where 引导。This is the house Which /that he has lived in for 15 years.(Where he has lived for 15 year.)

7. 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 (1)限制性定语从句是句中不可缺少的组成部分,主句和从句之间不用逗号分开。引导非限 制性定语从句的关系代词有 who, whom, whose, which, of which 等,这些关系代词都不能省 略。 (2)非限制性定语从句是对主句先行词的补充说明 , 没有这种从句 , 不影响主句意思的完 整, 一般用逗号把主句和从句分开 , 关系代词用 which,不用 that;指人时可用 who,如 : I have two brothers, who are both students. 8.如何简化定语从句 (1).定语从句简化为形容词或形容词短语作后置定语。如: My grandfather lives in a village that is far away from here. →My grandfather lives in a village far away from here.我祖父住在离这儿很远的一个村子。 This is a book that is worth reading. →This is a book worth reading. 这是一本值得看的书。 (2) 定语从句简化为现在分词或现在分词短语作前置或后置定语。 The man who is standing under the tree is our English teacher. →The man standing under the tree is our English teacher. 站在树下面的那个人是我们的英语老师。 I saw the house that was burning at that time.→I saw the burning house at that time. 当时我看到那房子在燃烧。 (3)定语从句简化为过去分词短语作后置定语。 I like to see the films which are directed by Zhang Yimou.→I like to see the films directed by Zhang Yimou. 我喜欢看张艺谋导演的电影。 She is the girl who was praised at the school meeting.→She is the girl praised at the school meeting. 她就是在校会上受表彰的那个女孩。 (4)定语从句简化为不定式作后置定语。 He is always the first person that comes to school.→He is always the first person to come to school.他总是第一个到校。 The report which will be given tomorrow is important to us.→The report to be given tomorrow is important to us.明天要作的报告对我们很重要。 (5)定语从句简化为 what 从句。 I couldn't remember the words that he said.→I couldn't remember what he said. 我记不得他说的话。 【典型例题解析】 例 1 The second book ______I want to read is Business @ the Speed of Thought. A. which B. what C. that D. as 解析 先行词 book 被序数词修饰时要用 that 引导定语从句,故选 C。 例 2 I'll never forget the days _____I stayed with you. A. when B. in which C. that D. for which 解析 本题指时间,故选 A。 例 3 The book______ is sold out at the moment. A. you need B. what you need C. which you need it D. that you need it 解析 B、C、D 中的 what 和 it 与先行 The book 相抵触 , 故选 A。

例 4 Is this the place ______Lincoln once lived. A. that B. which C. where D. when 解析 本题指地点,故选 C。 例 5 I'm one of the boys _________ never late for school. A. that is B. who are C. who am D. who is 解析 本题中 who 用作主语,谓语动词与先行词 the boys 保持一致,故选 B。 【选讲例题】 例 6 Her sister,______ you met at my home, was a teacher of English. A. whom B. that C. which D. who is 解析 非限制性定语从句中 , 关系代词用 which,不用 that,但指人时用 who 或 whom.故选 A。 例 7 These book are for students _____ mother language is not English. A. of whom B. that C. which D. whose
解析 whose 引导的定语从句中,whose 用作定语,故选 D。



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