1、概述 由两个或两个以上的简单句并列连接起来的句子称为 并列句(compound sentence)。并列句中的各个简 单句彼此独立，互不依从，但它们表达的意思之间有 一定的关系。并列句中的各个简单句通常用并列连词 连接起来。并列连词之前可用逗号，也可不用逗号 （但however、therefore、otherwise等并列连词前 后都常有逗号）。常见的并列句
2、并列连词根据不同含义，分为如下几类： （1）表示连接，常用的有and、not only...but also、neither...nor等。 Right now it's the summer vacation and I’m helping my dad on the farm. Not only is he our teacher, but also he is our friend. Neither did the naughty boy go home, nor did his parents come to search for him. Neither has she changed her mind, nor will she do so. Both she and I are good at English.
He not only plays the piano but also the violin. 注意 ：上述句子是不规范的用法，因为not only plays the piano 与 but also the violin 在语法结构上不对称。 必须说成： He plays not only the piano but also the violin. (连接两个宾语) 又如： ? Not only Mr Lin but also his son joined the Party two years ago. (连接两个主语) ? I not only play tennis but also practise shooting. (连接两个谓语动词) ? They speak English not only in class but also in the dormitory. (连接两个地点状语)
? 主谓一致： Not only the students but also the teacher was against the plan./ Not only the teacher but also the students were against the plan. is in favour of father’s ? Neither I nor he ___ smoking. am going to be in ? Either you or I ____ charge of the matter.
? 句型转换： 1. She not only sings beautifully but also dances wonderfully. =Not only does she sing beautifully but also dances wonderfully. 2. The poor man had not only been fined, but he had (also) been sent to prison. =Not only had the poor man been fined, but he had (also) been sent to prison. 3. Not only did we learn the technology through an online course but we also learned to communicate with friends in English. =We not only learned …. 4. He neither knows nor cares what happened. = Neither does he know nor does he care what happened.
（2）表示转折，常用的有but、however、while、 yet 等。 We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat.（与前述 情况相反） Certainly he apologized. However, I won‘t forgive him. (注意其位置及标点) He was feeling bad. He went to work, however, and tried to concentrate. Instead, he asked his father why he was not able to hatch chickens while hens could. （表对比, 两句主 语不一样） The worker hunted for jobs in New York for months, (and) yet he couldn‘t find any work. （指不管作出多 大努力或让步，仍达不到预期的结果）
yet, still and nevertheless:
1. He worked hard, yet (conj) he failed. 2. He treated you badly; still (还是), he is your brother and you ought to help him. 3. To be sure (诚然，固然), it’s no longer winter; nevertheless, it’s quite cold. (指即使作出完全的让步也不会发生任何影响) We are going nevertheless (conj) we shall return. 我们要走了, 不过我们还要回来。
Exercises: 1. It is often said that the joy of traveling is but in not in arriving at your destination ____ the journey itself. 2. In some places women are expected to while men work at home and earn money ______ raise their children. 3. I thought those figures were correct. However I have recently heard they were ________, not. 4. ______ hungry I am, I never seem to be able However to finish off this loaf of bread.
（3）表示选择，常用的有or、or else、otherwise、 either...or等。 They must be taken away from the heat of the fire, or they might get burnt. Take this bus, or else you won't get there in time. Work hard, otherwise you'll be sorry. Either you are mad or I am.
（4）表示原因，只有for一个词。 They had often heard of elephants, but they had never seen one; for being blind, how could they? He found increasingly difficult to read, for his eyesight was beginning to fail.
（5）表示结果，常用的有so、therefore。 It's time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. He worked day and night; therefore, he was able to buy the sports car. （6）并列复合句 除以上简单的并列句之外，还有一种较复杂的并列句， 叫做并列复合句(compound complex sentence)，即 其中的一个分句可包含一个以上从句。 I sucked a finger, but the finger I put into my mouth was not the one I had dipped into the cup.
（7）when 做连词，表“当……的时候，突然…” (=and then; at that time)，此时不用while替代。其 句型有： was/were doing sth. when …正在做某事，突然…; was/were about to do sth. when…正将做某事，突 然…; had (just/hardly/scarcely ) done sth when… 刚（未）做完某事，突然…; was/were on the point of doing sth when… 正将做某事，突然…。 凡是when表此意义时，其后可加suddenly，表突然 插入的动作。
eg.： ①I had hardly entered my room when (suddenly) the telephone rang．＝Hardly had I entered my room when (suddenly) the telephone rang．我刚一走进房门 电话就响了。 ②I was thinking of this when I heard my name called. 我正想着这件事时，突然听到有人叫我的名字。 ③ We were about to start when (suddenly) it began to rain. 我们刚要出发就开始下雨了。 ④He was on the point of leaving when (suddenly) someone knocked at the door. 他刚要走就有人敲门。
? 1. If you don’t get up now, you’ll be late for work. Get up now, or you’ll be late for work. ? 2. He is a poet. He is also a writer. He is not only a poet but also a writer. ? 3. He is watching TV. I’m reading the newspaper. He is watching TV while I’m reading the newspaper. ? 4. She c