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定语从句经典归类分析讲解



基础知识:
英语的句子成分有 7 种:主语(subject), 谓语(predicate),表语(predicative), 宾语(object),定语(attribute),状语(adverbial)和补语(complement)。 从句类型:三大从句:1. 名词性从句(主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句,同位 语从句)2. 形容词性从句(即定语从句)3. 副词性从句(即状语从句,包括时 间,条件,结果,目的,原因,让步,地点,方式等) 7 种基本句型: 不及物动词句型 S+V+C S+V S+V+A 及物动词+宾语 S+V+O S+V+Oi(人) +Od (物) S+V+O+Co(宾语补足语) S+V+O+A

定语从句 一、基本概念
定语从句:在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。如: Do you know the man who spoke at the meeting just now? That is the house where he lived ten years ago. 先行词:定语从句所修饰的词叫先行词 关系词:(关系代词和关系副词)定语从句一般用关系代词或关系副词来引导, 关系词的作用: a.放在先行词与定语从句之间起连接作用;b.在从句中充当成分; c.代替先行词。 引导定语从句的关系代词有:that, which,who, whom(宾语), whose, as 等 关系副词有:when(表时间), where(地点), why(原因)

二、关系词的用法
1. 关系代词的用法和选择 (1) who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. Students who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning.

(2) whom 指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。 Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus. Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see. 注意:关系代词 whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替,也可省略。 The man ( whom / who ) you met just now is my old friend. (3) which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. The factory which makes computers is far away from here. This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all. (4)that 即可指认又可指物。指人时,相当于 who 或 whom;指物时,相当于 which。在定语从句中作主语或宾语,作宾语时常可省略。 The person that /whom you introduced to me is very kind. The season that / which comes after spring is summer. 注意:作表语只用 that,它既可以指人,也可以指物,但时常省略。如: He is no longer the man that he used to be. This is no longer the dirty place (that) it used to be. (5)whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语。 a. I visited a scientist whose name is known to all over the country. b. It was a meeting whose importance I did not realize at that time. 注意: 注: “whose +名词中心词”这一结构在定语从句中既能作主语 (如上 a 句) , 又能作宾语(如上 b 句)。whose 的先行词常用来指人,但有时也可以用来指具 体事物或抽象概念,这时可以与 of which 结构互换,词序是: “the+ 名词 +of which”,如: They came to a house whose back wall had broken down.. (= the back wall of which) He’s written a book the name of which I’ve completely forgotten. (= whose name) 2. “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时,从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous. The school in which he once studied is very famous.

Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for. Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine for which you asked. This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday. This is the boy with whom I played tennis yesterday.

We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about. We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked. The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions. 注意: 1.含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如: look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. This is the watch for which I am looking (X). The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy(x). 2.若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时只可用 whom,不可用 who, that;关 系代词指物时只可用 which,不可用 that。关系代词是所有格时用 whose。 The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. 3“介词 . +关系代词” 前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each , few 等代词或者数词。 He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. 3. 关系副词的用法 (1) when 指时间,在从句中作时间状语,它的先行词通常有:time, day, morning, night, week, year 等。如: I still remember the time when I first became a college student.

Do you know the date when Lincoln was born? 注:when 时常可以省略,特别是在某些句型和某些时间状语中。如: Each time he came, he did his best to help us. But help never stopped coming from the day she fell ill. (2) where 指地点,在从句中作地点状语。它的先行词通常有 place, spot, street, house, room This is the hotel where they are staying. I forget the house where the Smiths lived.

(3) why 指原因或理由,它的先行词只有 reason 如: That is the reason why he is leaving so soon. 注意:1. 这三个关系副词在意义上都相当于一定的介词+which 结构: when = on (in, at, during?) + which; where = in (at, on?) + which; why = for which.

如:I was in Beijing on the day when (=on which) he arrived. The office where (=in which) he works is on the third floor. This is the chief reason why (=for which) we did it. 2. 当先行词是表时间的 time, day 等和表地点的 place, house 等时, 一定要注意分 析从句的结构,如果缺少主语或宾语时,关系词应该用 which 或 that, 缺少时间 状语或地点状语时,才能用 when 或 where。如: I’ll never forget the day when my hometown was liberated. I’ll never forget the days which/that we spent together last summer. His father works in a factory where radio parts are made. factory which/that makes radio parts. 3.when 和 where 既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。 而 why 只能引导限制性定语从句。 His father works in a

三、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句
1.限制性定语从句说明先行词的情况,对先行词起限定作用,与先行词关系十 分密切,不可用逗号隔开,也不可省略,否则全句意义就不完整。如: This is the telegram which he refers to. Is there anything (that) I can do for you?

2.非限制性定语从句只是对先行词作补充说明,没有限定作用,它与先行词的

关系比较松散,如果省略,原句的意义仍然完整。在文字中通常用逗号与主句隔 开。译法上译成先行词的定语“...的”,通常译成主句的并列句。如: This note was left by Tom, who was here a moment ago. As a boy, he was always making things, most of which were electric. 引导非限制性定语从句的关系词有:who, whom, whose, which, when 和 where 3. 两种定语从句的内涵不同,限制性定语从句具有涉他性,而非限制性定语句 具有唯一性,这在理解和翻译时应特别注意。试比较: All the books there, which have beautiful pictures in them, were written by him。 所有的书都带插图,这些书都写得很好。(意含: 没有不带插图的书。 All the books there that have beautiful pictures in them were written by him. 所有里面带插图的书都写得很好。(意含: 不带插图的书则不一定写得好。) His brother, who is eighteen years old, is a PLA man. 他哥哥十八岁,是一名人民解放军。(只有一个哥哥) His brother who is eighteen years old is a PLA man 他那十八岁的哥哥是一名人民解放军。(不止一个哥哥) 4. 有时,非限制性定语从句所修饰的不是某一个词,而是整个主句或是主句中 的一个部分,这时一般采用 which 或 as 来引导。如: He passed the exam, which/as he hoped he would. 注:(1)as 引导的从句可以放在主句之前,而 which 引导的从句只能放在主句 之后。 They are hollow, which makes them very light. of China. (2)从意义上讲,which 指前面主句的内容;而 as 指代的是作为一般人都知道 的常识性的东西,因此常译成“就象? ?那样”。 (3)如果定语从句的内容对主句的内容起消极作用,则用 which,而不用 as, 如:She stole her friend’s money, which was disgraceful. He tore up my photo, which upset me. 5. 在正式文体中,以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句通常以 in which 或 that 引导,如: As is known to all, Taiwan is a part

The way in which you answered the questions was admirable.

但在非正式文体中,

人们通常省略 in which 或 that : I don’t like the way (that) you laugh at her.

四、限制性定语从句中只能用 that 引导定语从句的情况
1.当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing, something, all, none, few, little, some 等 代词时,或当先行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时 All that can be done has been done. There is little that I can do for you. Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? We heard clearly every word that he said. 2.当先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰时。 The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 3.当先行词是形容词最高级被形容词最高级修饰时。 That’s the most expensive hotel that we’ve ever stayed in. 4. 当先行词被 the very, the only, the next, the last 等所修饰时。如: This is the very book that I want to find. 注意:当先行词指人时,通常用关系

代词 who e.g.Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting. 5. 当先行词既指人又指物时。 She described in her compositions the people and places that impressed her most. 6. 当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时。 Who is the man that is standing by the gate? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?

五、关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句
as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时, 其用法有相同之处,也有不同之处。具 体情况是 1.相同性:as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语,代表前面整个句子。 He married her, as / which was natural. (作主语) He is honest, as / which we can see. (作宾语)

2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、之后,甚至还可以分割主句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外,as 常常有“正如、正 像”的含义。

注意:当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时,关系词往往只用 which。 如:Tom was late for school again and again, which made histeacher very angry. 3. 当先行词受 such, so , the same 修饰时,常用 as I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 注意:当先行词受 the same 修饰时,有时也用 that 引导定语从句,但与 as 有区 别。在表示具体事物时,二者有区别,一般而言,表同一种类所用 as, 表同一事 物多用 that. This is the same instrument that I used yesterday. 这就是我昨天用过的那台仪器。 This is the same instrument as I used yesterday.这台仪器跟我昨天用过的那台一样。 六、关系代词与关系副词的选择 用关系代词还是关系副词引导定语从句主要看关系词在定语从句中的作用 (即所 担当的成分). Compare : A. I know a place where we can have a picnic. I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. B. I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. I will never forget the days that / which we spent.



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