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曼昆《经济学原理》frontiers--(汉魅HanMei—经济金融类汇总分享)


Frontiers of Microeconomics

22

Copyright 2004 South-Western

ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION
A difference in access to relevant knowledge is called information asymmetry. asymmetry

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard Moral Hazard
Moral hazard refers to the tendency of a person who is imperfectly monitored to engage in dishonest or otherwise undesirable behavior. Employers can respond to the moral-hazard problem in various ways:
Better monitoring. High wages. Delayed payment.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard Moral Hazard
An agent is a person who is performing an act for another person, called the principal. The principal is a person for whom another person, called the agent, is performing some act.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard Adverse Selection
Adverse selection refers to the tendency for the mix of unobserved attributes to become undesirable from the standpoint of an uniformed party.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Hidden Actions: Principals, Agents, and Moral Hazard
Example of Adverse Selection:
Many time potential buyers may not even consider used cars because they surmise that the sellers know something bad about the cars. This is also known as the lemons problem. Insurance—People with hidden health problems are more likely to want to buy health insurance than those with good health In certain labor markets, if a firm reduces the wage it pays, high productivity workers tend to quit.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Signaling to Convey Private Information How do Markets respond to Asymmetric Information?
Signaling
Signaling refers to an action taken by an informed party to reveal private information to an uninformed party.

Screening
Screening occurs when an action taken by an uniformed party induces an informed party to reveal information.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Asymmetric Information and Markets The study of asymmetric information gives us new reason to be wary of markets.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Asymmetric Information and Public Policy When some people know more than others do, the market may fail to put the resources to their best uses.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Asymmetric Information and Public Policy Although asymmetric information may call for government action, three facts complicate the issue:
Private markets can sometimes deal with information asymmetries on their own The government rarely has more information than the private parties. The government itself is an imperfect institution

Copyright 2004 South-Western

POLITICAL ECONOMY
Political economy (public choice ) is the public application of economic methods to the study of how government works.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

POLITICAL ECONOMY
Problems Associated with How Government Determines Public Policy
The Condorcet Paradox Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem The Median-Voter Theorem Self-interested Politicians

Copyright 2004 South-Western

The Condorcet Voting Paradox

Voter Type
Type 1 Percent of electorate First choice Second choice Third choice Type 2 Type 3

35 A B C

45 B C A

20 C A B
Copyright 2004 South-Western

The Condorcet Voting Paradox The Condorcet Paradox occurs when the majority rule fails to produce transitive preferences for society. Transitive preferences imply that if A is preferred to B, and B is preferred to C, then A is preferred to C.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem Arrow’s impossibility theorem is a mathematical result which shows that, under certain conditions, there is no scheme for aggregating individual preferences into a valid set of social preferences.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem No Voting System Can Satisfy All of the Following
Unanimity Transitivity Independence of irrelevant alternatives No dictators

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Median Voter Theorem The median voter theorem is a mathematical result that shows that if voters are choosing a point along a line and each voter wants the point closest to his most preferred point, then majority rule will pick the most preferred point of the median voter.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS
Recently, a field called behavioral economics has emerged in which economists make use of basic psychological insights to examine economic problems.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Politicians Are People Too Some politicians are motivated by self-interest. Some politicians sacrifice the national interest to solidify their base of voters.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS
People aren’t always rational:
People are overconfident People give too much weight to a small number of vivid observations People are reluctant to change their minds.

People care about fairness as demonstrated by the ultimatum game People are inconsistent over time.

Copyright 2004 South-Western

Summary
In many economic transactions, information is asymmetric. When there are hidden actions, principals may be concerned that agents suffer from the problem of moral hazard. When there are hidden characteristics, buyers may be concerned about the problems of adverse selection among sellers. Private markets sometimes deal with asymmetric information with signaling and screening.
Copyright 2004 South-Western

Summary
Although government policy can sometimes improve market outcomes, governments are themselves imperfect institutions.
The Condorcet paradox shows that majority rule may fail to produce transitive preferences for society. Arrow’s impossibility theorem shows that no voting scheme will be perfect. In many situations, democratic institutions will produce the outcome desired by the median voter, regardless of the preferences of the rest of the electorate.
Copyright 2004 South-Western

Summary
Individuals who set government policy may be motivated by self-interest rather than the national interest. The study of psychology and economics reveals that human decisionmaking is more complex than is assumed in conventional economic theory. People are not always rational, they care about the fairness of economic outcomes, and they can be inconsistent over time.
Copyright 2004 South-Western


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