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虚拟语气



虚拟语气

虚拟语气的概念
? 虚拟语气是一种特殊的动词形式,一是用 来表示说话人所说的话不是一个事实,而 是一种假设、猜测、怀疑等(在条件从句中 或让步状语从句中);一是表示说话人的愿 望、要求、命令、建议等 (在宾语从句、表 语从句、同位语从句)。

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在条件从句中
一、在条件从句中

(叫虚拟条件句),表示与事实相反 的条件。分三种情况(以 do 为例):
表示与事实情况相反

条件从句的谓语形式 过去式(did) (be常用 were) 过去完成式(had +done ①过去式 (did) ②should + do ③were to do

主句的谓语形式 Would / could / might / should (用于第1人称) +动 词原形(do) 上面4个情态动词+have done 4个情态动词 + do

表示现在情况 表示过去情况 表示将来情况

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在条件从句中
[例句] 1. If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met him. 要是你早来几分钟的话,你就能见到他了。(与过 去事实相反) 2. If it were sunny tomorrow, I would come to see you. 明天要是天气好的话,我来看你。(与将来事实可 能相反) 3. If I were you, I would go at once. 假如我是你的话,我会马上走。(与现在事实相反, 事实上我不可能是你)

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在条件从句中

二、省略 if 的条件从句
当从句中有 were, had 或 should 时,可省略if ,而 把它们放在句首。 ? If I were to meet him tomorrow, I should ask him about it. Were I to meet him tomorrow,…

? If he should fail in the experiment this time, he would try again. Should he fail in the experiment…

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在复合句中的应用:
三、错综时间的条件句
即从句与主句的动作发生的时间不同。此时,需要 按时间来确定虚拟形式。如: 1. If they had studied hard, they could do it easily now. 如果他们以前努力学习的话,现在干的就会容易 些。 2. If he had not taken my advice, he wouldn't do it much better like this. 如果他不听取我的建议,他就不会干得这样好。

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在:在宾语从句中
1、记住:这些动词后面接的宾语从句:表示愿望 ( wish), 建议(suggest, advice, propose, recommend) ,要求(demand, request, require, insist), 命令(order, command)等。 2、除wish外,其它动词用should + do 构成, should 可以省略。 3、 wish接宾语从句有三种情况: 1) 现在:用过去式 2) 过去:用过去完成式 (had done) 3) 将来:用情态动词(would / could) + do

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在:在宾语从句中
[例句]

1. I wish she would be on my side. 我希望她能站在我一边。 2. I wish I were 30 years younger. 我但愿自己能年轻三十岁。 3. I wish (that) you would get a good job. 我希望你能找到一个好职业。 4. He wished he hadn't done it. 他想要是他没这样做该多好。 5. He ordered that the students wash the clothes every week by themselves. 他要求学生每周都要自己洗衣服。

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在:在宾语从句中
4、记住:insist / suggest 各有两种意思,要用不同的语气 Insist 表示“坚决要求”时,用虚拟形式,即 should + do; Insist 表示“坚称,坚持说”时,用陈述语气,表示事实。 Suggest 表示“建议”时,用虚拟形式。 Suggest 表示“表明、暗示”时,用陈述语气。 [例句] 1) The teacher suggested that we (should) clean the blackboard after class. 老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。 2) He insisted that all of us should be there on time by any means. 他坚持要我们大家想尽办法按时去那儿。 3) He insisted that he was right.

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在:在宾语从句中 5. 在would (had) rather(宁愿) 引导的宾语 从句中

当从句表示现在或将来的时间时,谓语动词要 用一般过去时;表示过去时间时,谓语动词 要用过去完成时。
I would rather he came tomorrow than today.

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在主语从句中
在句型 “It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... ” 中,that 后面的从句中的谓语 动词用: should + 动词原形 [例句] 1. It’s necessary that we should have a walk now. 我们有必要出去散散步。 2. It’s natural that she should do so. 她这样做是很自然的。 3. It’s important that we should take good care of the patient. 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在表语从句中

主句的主语常是表示说话人愿望(wish / desire)、建议(suggestion / advice) 要求 (requirement / demand)、命令(order, command)等的名词,表语从句的谓语动词 用 (should) + do. Our suggestion is that you (should) be there on time.

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在同位语从句中

同位语从句的先行词常是表示说话人愿望、 建议、要求、命令等的名词。 ? The suggestion that students (should) learn something practical is worth considering.
? Do you know the order that you (should) keep watch.

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在 as if 从句中
在as if 从句中,常用虚拟形式,即表示与现在事实 相反,用过去式;与过去事实相反用过去完成式 (had done). 一、as if 连接表语从句 she looked as if she were made of ice. 她看起来似乎是冰做的 he looked as if he hadn’t slept for two days. 二、as if 连接让步状语从 句 She looked after the boy as if he were her own son. 她照顾这男孩就像自己的儿子一样。

He speaks to us as if he had been there. 他给我们讲的好象他去过那儿。

虚拟语气
虚拟语气中的几个特例
1. if only 意为:若是...那该多好啊; 真希望...; 只要, 只要...就好 表示现在的情况,应用过去式; 如果是过去的情况, 应用过去完成时态 If only I had arrived in time! If only she didn’t drive so fast.
2. It’s (high/right) time that… that 从句要用虚拟语气:谓语用过去时或should + do It’s time that you left here.

虚拟语气
虚拟语气中的几个特例

3. 一些介词短语, 如:but for(要不是), without, otherwise(否则), in that case(如果是那样的 话), 表示含蓄的条件,这时主句要用虚拟语 气 Without your help, we would not have made such rapid progress.

虚拟语气
简单的归纳

1、表示说话人的要求、建议、命令时,常用 (should) do表示虚拟形式, 主要用于名词性 从句中。
2、其它情况常用两种形式:表示与现在事实 相反,用过去式;表示与过去事实相反用 过去完成式。

虚拟语气
Exercises
A the party if he had gone to 1. Alan ___ London. A. would have missed B. had missed C. would miss D. missed D you at 2. If I knew you were coming, I ___ the airport. A. had met B. met C. would meet D. would have met

虚拟语气
3. If only I ___ B to my parents! (But I didn’t.) A. listened B. had listened C. should listen D. would listen 4. Tom suggested that Ann ___ A the house. A. sell B. sold C. shall sell D. would sell B to the university. 5. I wish this bus ___ A. go B. went C. has gone D. had gone

虚拟语气
C a square 6. Simon looks as though he never ___ meal(吃得饱), though his parents feed him very well. A. get B. getting C. got D. should get 7. He is talking so much about America as if he A there. ___ A. had been B. were C. was D. been B you some money, but I hadn’t got any then. 8. I ___ A. would lend B. would have lent C. could lend D. may have lent

虚拟语气
9. – Have you ever been to Beijing? D -- No, but I wish I ___. A. have B. will C. do D. had B 10. I don’t think it is the right time that you __. A. will go B. went C. go D. must go 11. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it C ____. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken



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