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人教版选修6高二英语-语法复习-虚拟语气


一. 语气的分类
英语的动词一般可带三种不同的语气: 陈 述语气, 祈使语气和虚拟语气。不同的语气 用动词的不同形式来表示。 ? 陈述语气 I went to the theatre yesterday. Jack hadn’t come back home yet. ? 祈使语气 Let’s go. Don’t touch anything on the table until the bell rings.

? 虚拟语气
If I were you, I would not leave her alone.

Our teacher suggested that we
go to the library this afternoon.

关于陈述语气1(用来陈述讲话人 认为是事实的事情)

I am not interested in what you said.
Have you ever been to France?

What a splendid palace!

What will you do if it rains tomorrow?

I will stay at home if it rains tomorrow.

关于陈述语气 2

关于祈使语气 1(The Imperative Mood)

关于祈使语气 2

关于祈使语气 3

关于祈使语气 4

虚拟语气 Subjunctive Mood

2017/12/14

如果我有一千万,我就能买一栋房子 我有一千万吗? 没有。 所以我仍然没有房子。 如果我有翅膀,我就能飞。 我有翅膀吗? 没有。 所以我也没办法飞。 如果把整个太平洋的水倒出, 也浇不息我对你爱情的火 整个太平洋的水全部倒得出吗? 不行。 所以我并不爱你。

These show your good wishes or dreams. It is evident that they are not real or they can’t come true
romantic , unrealistic, best wishes

(The Subjunctive Mood)表示说话人所说的 话不是事实, 而是一种假设, 愿望, 怀疑或推 测。虚拟语气主要用于if条件状语从句, 条件句:分真实条件句和虚拟条件句两 种。

a. 真实条件句 表示条件是真的或有可能 实现的, 采用陈述语气。 b. 虚拟条件句表示条件是无法实现或几 乎无法实现的, 采用虚拟语气。
2017/12/14

真实条件句

真实条件句用于陈述语气, 假设的情
况可能发生, 其中if是如果的意思。 时态关系 句型: 条件从句 主句 一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形 If he comes, he will bring his violin.

The volleyball match will be put off

if it ___.
A. will rain B. rains

C. rained

D. is rained

答案B真实条件句主句为将来时,
从句用一般现在时。

注意: 1) 在真实条件句中, 主句不能用be going to表示将来, 该用shall, will。

(错) If you leave now, you are never
going to regret it.

(对) If you leave now, you will never
regret it.

2) 表示真理时, 主句谓语动词便不用 shall (will) +动词原形, 而直接用一 般现在时的动词形式。 If he has time , he always walks into the café and asks for a cup of coffee.

二. ‘if ’虚拟条件句的概念
由 ‘if’ 引导的虚拟条件句叫作 ‘if’虚拟 条件句 I could easily recognize if I had seen him before. 其他虚拟条件句(without 或but for ) Without your help, I couldn’t have finished my work on time.

三. ‘if ’虚拟条件句的结构
a. 表示与现在事实相反的假设 b. 表示与过去事实相反的假设 c. 表示与将来事实相反的假设

虚拟语气
1. 虚拟语气用于条件状语从句中 (1) 表示与现在事实相反的假设,

条件 If 从句的谓语 主句的谓语形式 从句 形式
would/could/

现在

过去时(were)

should/might +v. (原 )

If I were a boy, I would join the army.

What would you do if you won the lottery? If I won the lottery,
I would…

If I won the lottery now, I would travel around the world.

If I won the lottery, I would buy an expensive car.

If I had a lot of money,
I would buy a villa.

villa

If it were fine now, I would go shopping.

were teacher, I…. If I ____a
If I were a teacher, I would not leave much homework

PRACTICE 1: Fill in the blanks.

a. If they were ____ (be) here, they
__________ would take (take) your advice. b. If the world-war _____ burst (burst) out again, what _____________ would happen (happen) to our people on earth?

c. If I were ____ (be) in your position, I _________ would ask (ask) for teacher’s help.

b. 表示与过去事实相反的假设 条件 If 从句的谓 从句 语形式 过去 过去完成时 主句的谓语形式

would/could/should/

might + have+ done (had + done)

发生交通事故 have a car accident

If he __________ had driven more carefully, he _________________ would not have had the car accident yesterday.

had had If I ____________time last night, would have gone to see the I _____________ film with you . (have time; go)

learnt how to swim, (learn) If I had ________

I __________________ would not have been trapped in this island. (be trapped)

PRACTICE 2: Fill in the blanks.
a. If Tom ________ had been (be) more careful in the exam, he ________________ would have passed (pass) it already. b. If you _______ had got (get) up
catch-caught -caught earlier, you

________________ would have caught (catch) the first train.

c. If I _______ had met (meet) you yesterday,

we would ______________ have gone (go) to the
concert together.

c. 表示与将来事实相反的假设 条件 If 从句的谓语 从句 形式 未来 1. 过去时(v-ed) 2. should+ v. 3. were to do would/could/ should/ might +v. (原) 主句的谓语形式

1.If the teacher asked me to solve the problem next time, I could try my best. 2.If he should fail in the experiment this time, he would try again. 3.If we were to panic (惊慌), we would not be able to help.

If he got up early tomorrow,

he would be on time

two years later , maybe you will be in X University

visited should visit

If we _____________ were to visit Zhejiang University (visit) tomorrow, ____________________________. we would go to the library.

? Nothing in the world can be as painful as this. ? Just let your sword cut into my throat! Don’t hesitate! should give/were to give/gave ? If the God ________________________me another chance,I_____________ the girl three words: I love would tell her! (give/tell) ? If our love _________ be set a time limit, I wish it had to would be ___________ 10,000 years! (have to/ be)

If I did/ were to do/ should +v.…, I would/ could/ might/ should +v.…”

If I grew up , I would be a/an… just like LuYu .
hostess鲁豫

When I grow up…

actress刘亦菲

guitar player

If 条件状语从句
含义 If 从句
谓语动词 might/should would/could+ did do 与过去事 would/could/ had done should might 实相反 have done

主句谓语形式

例句

与现在事 were 实相反

If I were a teacher, I would

not leave much homework If we had studied harder, we would have entered Can’nan high school

If条件状语从句

含义

If 从句谓语动词

主句谓语形式

表示对未来
的虚拟

did should do were to

would/could do

1.If I had had enough money I would buy a new car. would have bought 2. He would have come to the party if he wasn’t busy had not been 3. If I were the volunteer of Shanghai expo, I would not have studied here .
would not study

*4.If I had studied English hard in middle school,
my English would not have been so poor (bad) now
would not be

虚拟语气的倒装 If I were a teacher, I would have lots of students.
Were _____ I a teacher, I would have lots of students.

If I had entered rui’an high school, I would not sit here now.
Had _____entered I ____ rui’an high school, I would not sit here now.

If we should visit Zhejiang University tomorrow, I would play basketball there. Should we ____ _____ Zhejiang University tomorrow, I would play basketball there.

虚拟语气
虚拟语气在 在条件从句中
三.介词 without 引导的短语代替 if 引导的条件 从句.有时if引导的虚拟条件从句,可用介词without
或but for 引导的短语来代替 1. If there were no water, fish could not live. Without water, fish could not live. 2. If you had not helped me, I would have failed. Without /but for your help, I would have failed. 3. If the Party didn’t lead us, we could not realize .. Without the Party’s leadership, we could not realize ...

1. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she ___, she would have met my brother. A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come 2.But for the help of my English teacher, I ___the first prize in the English Writing Competition. A. would not win B. would not have won C. would win D. would have won

Testing form

? 3 If there were no water in the world, everything ______. A. will die B. would die C. would have died D. have died 4 If I ______ you, I ______ more attention to English idioms and phrases. A. was; shall pay B. am; will pay C. would be; would pay D. were; would pay

5 Alan ___ the party if he had gone to London. A would have missed B. had missed C. would miss D. missed 6 .—It was the drug,not the disease,that killed the boy. —He would be still alive today if he ________ that drug. A. not take B. shouldn’t have taken C. didn’t take D. hadn’t taken

? 7.(2002 上 海 高 考 题 )It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ________ in love,at the age of seven,with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall ? 8.If it ________ so hard,we’d go to town. A. isn’t raining B. weren’t raining C. doesn’t rain D. has rain

主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,
这时主从句位于动词的虚拟语气形式因 时间不同而不同, 这叫做混合条件句。 例句中从句与过去事实相反, 主句与 现在事实相反。 If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.

If the staff had been more careful,

the mall would not be on fire now.

虚拟语气的特殊用法:

2

wish
In Subjunctive mood

I wish I were as tall as YaoMing .

I wish I were a bird.

1) 表示对现在情况的虚拟: 从 句动词用过去式(v-ed) (be动 词一般用were) 。

I wish every day were my birthday.

(2) 表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词

常用“had+过去分词”。 I wish/wished I hadn’t eaten so much watermelon.

The party was terrible, I wish

I had never gone to it.

(3) 表示对将来的主观愿望: 从句动词形 式为 “ would+动词原形”。
但愿她立刻来。 I wish she would come soon.

I wish it would rain tomorrow.
I wish…. tomorro w

+ did(与事实相反的情况, )
wish

+ had done(与过去事实相反)
+would /could/ might +do (将来不大可能实现的愿望 )

二.

wish

宾语 从句用虚拟语气

were 1.I wish I______(be) as strong as you. 2.How I wish I _____(be) young again. were had seen 3.I wish I ____________(see) you yesterday. had known 4.I wish I__________(know) your telephone number earlier. 5.I wish I ___________(can fly) to the moon one day. could fly
6. — Have you ever been to Beijing? — No, but I wish I ______. A. have B. will C. do D. had 7. I wish that I ______ with you last night. A. could have gone B. could go C. have gone D. went E. had gone

? 5. I wish that you ______ such a bad headache because I’m sure that you would have enjoyed the concert. A. wouldn’t have B. didn’t have C. hadn’t had D. haven’t had ? 6 I wish I ____ able to tell him all about it last
night. A. was
B. were C. had been D. should be

三.as if /as through 引导的方式状语从句“好 象/似乎”
1.The woman takes good care of the were orphans as if she______(be ) their own mother. 2.She speaks English so fluently as if she __________ had studied (study) it in England. were (be) going to rain 3. It looks as if it ______

3

as if / as though
did 与现在事实相反的 had done 与过去事实相反或想象的事物

He behaves as if he owned the house.

( But he doesn’t own it or probably doesn’t own it or we don’t know whether he owns it or not.)

He talks about Rome as though he had been there himself.

4
Demand Suggest Order Propose Request Command Insist …etc

+(should ) do

表示愿望、建议、命令、请求等

These show your good wishes or dreams.

退一步海阔天空(时态往后退)
It also can show suggestions, orders, requirements

要用should+do 构成 (P87记得要背诵这些词(⊙o⊙)哦

09 年高考再现
It is recommended that you ______swim after eating a large meal. A. wouldn’t B. couldn’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t

? The workers in the factory demanded that the boss ____their pay by 20% ? A. should raise B. would be raised ? C. raised D. raise was (be) right and (should) ? The insisted that he _____ _______be set free. (set) ? The smile on his face suggested that he ____(be) was happy should have ? He suggests that we _____________one more day off. (have )
suggest/insist 各有两种意思,要用不同的语气 (1)suggest 当“建议”讲时其后的宾语从句(should) + do (2) suggest 的意思是“暗示”;不用虚拟 Insist
坚持认为 :该用啥形式用啥形式 坚持要求:其后的宾语从句(should) + do

? He suggested that we should have one more day. (But we didn’t have for our university dream.) We should have had three-day off during Labor Day We could have had three-day off during Labor Day

5

主语从句中的虚拟语气

在句型 “It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... ” 中,that 后面的从句中的谓语动词 用: should + 动词原形 [例句] 1. It’s necessary that we should have a walk now. 我们有必要出去散散步。 2. It’s natural that she should do so. 她这样做是很自然的。 3. It’s important that we should take good care of the patient. 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。

虚拟语气几个特例
1. if only 意为:若是...那该多好啊; 真希望...; 只要, 只要...就好 表示现在的情况,应用过去式; 如果是过去的情况,应 用过去完成时态 If only I had arrived in time! If only she didn’t drive so fast. 2. It’s (high/right) time that… that 从句要用虚拟语气:过去时或should + do It’s time that you left/should leave here.


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