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2017年6月四六级


2017 年 6 月四级 听力批量导入
Passage one 1. A) The man in the car was absent-minded. B) The test driver made a wrong judgment. C) The self-driving system was faulty. D) The car was moving at a fast speed. ##B 2. A) They have done better than conventional cars. B) They have caused several severe crashes. C) They have posed a threat to other drivers. D) They have generally done quite well. ##D

Passage two
3. A) He works at a national park. B) He is a queen bee specialist. C) He removed the bees from the boot. D) He drove the bees away from his car. ##A 4. A) They were looking after the queen. B) They were making a lot of noise. C) They were looking for a new box to live in. D) They were dancing in a unique way ##B

Passage three 5. A) The discovery of a new species of snake. B) The second trip to a small remote island. C) The finding of two new species of frog. D) The latest test on a rare animal species.

##A 6. A) A poisonous snake attacked him on his field trip. B) He discovered a rare frog on a deserted island. C) A snake crawled onto his head in his sleep. D) He fell from a tall palm tree by accident. ##C 7. A) From its genes. B) From its length. C) From its origin. D) From its colour. ##D

脚本: Passage one One of Google’s self-driving cars crashed into a bus in California last month. There were no injuries. It is not the first timeone of Google’s famed self-driving cars has been involved in a crash, but it may be the first time it has caused one. On February14th the self-driving car, traveling at 2 mph (about 3.2 km/h), pulled out in front of a public bus going 15 mph (about 24 km/h).The man in the Google vehicle reported that he assumed the bus would slow down to let the car out, and so he did not switchto the manual mode. In a statement, Google said, “We clearly bear some responsibility, because if our car hadn’t moved, therewouldn’t have been a crash. That said, our test driver believed the bus was going to slow or stop to allow us to merge into thetraffic, and that there would be sufficient space to do that.” The company’s self-driving cars have done well over a million milesacross various states in the US, and until now have only reported minor accidents.
Q1: According to Google, what was the cause of the accident? Q2: How have Google‘s self-driving cars performed so far?

Passage two Thousands of bees left a town after landing on the back of a car when their queen got stuck in its boot. Tom Moses, whoworks at a nearby national park, noticed a “brown patch” on the back of the car after the owner parked it to do some shopping.When he looked closer, he realized it was a huge group of bees. Moses said, “I have never seen that many bees in one spot.It was very unusual. They were very close together and there was a lot of noise and movement. It was interesting to see sucha strange sight, but there were a lot of people around and I was a bit worried about the bees and the people stopping to look.I thought that someone might do something stupid.” Moses called two local bee specialists who helped removed the bees by attracting them into a box. Moses spent three hours looking after the bee and was stung five times. He said, “My stings are abit painful but I am pleased it all worked out and I could help. People need to realize that bees are valuable and they should belooked after.”

Q3: What do we learn about Tom Moses? Q4: What do we know about the bees on the back of the car? Passage three

A new species of snake has been discovered on a remote island in the Bahamas. Scientists identified 20 of the one-meter-long snakes during two trips to the Caribbean islands. The second trip was made in October last year. One of the creatures madea dramatic appearance by moving onto the head of the team leader as he slept. The snake has been named Silver Boa because it is metal-colored and the first specimen found was climbing a silver palm tree. The team was led by Dr. Graham Reynolds, fromHarvard University. The scientist confirmed the snake was a previously unknown species after conducting a genetic analysis oftissue samples. Commenting on the find, snake expert Robert Henderson from the Milwaukee Museum of Natural History said, “Worldwide new species of frogs are being discovered and described quite regularly. New species of snakes, however, are muchrarer.” Q5: What is the news report mainly about? Q6: What do we learn about the scientific team leader? Q7: How did the newly discovered creature get its name? Passage 8. A) The security check takes time. B) He has to check a lot of luggage. C) His flight is leaving in less than 2 hours. D) The airport is a long way from the hotel. ##C 9. A) In cash. B) By credit card. C) With a traveler’s check. D) With his smart phone. ##B 10. A) Give him a receipt. B) Confirm his flight. C) Look after his luggage. D) Find a porter for him. ##A 11. A) Signing up for membership of Sheraton Hotel. B) Staying in the same hotel next time he comes. C) Loading her luggage onto the airport shuttle. D) Posting a comment on the hotel’s webpage. ##D

Passage two 12. A) He is the only boy in his family. B) He becomes tearful in wind. C) He has stopped making terrible faces. D) He is his teacher’s favorite student. ##C 13. A) Tell him to play in her backyard. B) Do something funny to amuse him. C) Give him some cherry stones to play with. D) Warn him of danger by making up a story. ##D 14. A) They could break people’s legs. B) They could sometimes terrify adults. C) They could fly against a strong wind. D) They could knock people unconscious. ##A 15. A) One would get a spot on their tongue if they told a lie deliberately. B) One would have to shave their head to remove a bat in their hair. C) One would go to prison if they put a stamp on upside down. D) One would have curly hair if they ate too much stale bread. ##B

脚本: Passage one W: Did you enjoy your stay with us, Mr. Brown? M: Yes, very much. I had a wonderful time here. Now I’m going to the airport. My flight leaves in less than 2 hours. So, couldyou tell me, what’s the quickest way to get there? W: Well, we can call a taxi for you. We also have a free airport shuttle service. M: That sounds great. But will the shuttle get me to the airport in time? W: Yes, it should. The next shuttle leaves in 15 minutes, and it takes some 25 minutes to get to the airport. M: Fantastic!I’ll just wait in the lobby. Will you please let me know when it’s leaving? W: Of course, sir. M: Now I would like to settle my mini-bar bill. How much is that? W: Let’s see. It comes to $37.50. How would you like to pay for it? M: I’ll pay with my credit card. Thanks. But I’ll need a receipt so I can charge it to my company. W: Absolutely! Here you are, sir. If you like, you can leave your bags with the porter and he can load them onto the shuttle foryou when it arrives. M: That would be great. Thank you.

W: Would you like to leave a comment on our webpage when you have time? M: Sure. I had a really good stay here and I’d like to recommend your hotel to my friends and colleagues. W: That’s very kind of you. Thank you again for staying at Sheraton Hotel. Q8: Why does the man ask about the quickest way to the airport? Q9: How is the man going to pay his bill? Q10: What did the man ask the woman to do? Q11: What favor does the woman ask of the man? Passage two M: You know, Ben’s given up making those terrible faces he used to make. The other day, he came home from school almost intears. His teacher said if he went on like that, his face would get stuck when the winds changed. W: And he believed her? M: Yeah, he is only a little boy. Don’t you remember all those things we used to believe when we were little? I remember myaunt Mary used to say if you swallow a cherry stone, a tree will grow out of your mouth. And I’m still terrified today, sort ofsubconsciously, you know, if I swallow one by mistake. W: Yeah, I suppose you’re right. The one that used to get me was that swans could break your leg with a blow of the wing. M: They can, can’t they? I always thought they could. W: No, they are not that strong. But there is another one even more terrifying. That is if you put a postage stamp on upsidedown, you’ll go to prison. M: No, never heard of that, but my grandmother was a terror for that kind of thing. For example, she would say, you’ll get aspot on your tongue if you tell a lie. If you eat stale bread, your hair will curl. And here’s one more. We went on a campingtrip once in Italy, and my wife spent the whole time worrying about bats getting into her hair. She said her grandmotherreckoned you had to shave your head to get it out. My wife was really terrified. W: Silly, isn’t it? But that’s how some parents try to keep their kids from doing the wrong thing or getting into trouble. Q12: What does the man say about Ben? Q13: What did aunt Marry use to do when the man was a child? Q14: What does the woman believe swans could do? Q15: What did the grandmother of the man’s wife say?

Passage one 16. A) People were excited to go traveling overseas. B) People were formal and disciplined. C) Everything seemed to be changing. D) Things from the Victorian era came back alive. ##C

17. A) Meeting people. B) Watching TV at home. C) Drinking coffee. D) Trying new foods. ##A 18. A) He was interested in stylish dresses. B) He was a man full of imagination. C) He was able to make a lot of money. D) He was a young student in the 1960s. ##D Passage two 19. A) They run away immediately. B) They avoid looking at them. C) They show anger on their faces. D) They make threatening sounds. ##B 20. A) It turns to its owner for help. B) It looks away and gets angry too. C) It focuses its eyes on their mouths. D) It turns away to avoid conflict. ##C 21. A) By observing their facial features carefully. B) By taking in their facial expressions as a whole. C) By focusing on a particular body movement. D) By interpreting different emotions in different ways. ##B Passage three 22. A) They have to look for food and shelter underground. B) They take little notice of the changes in temperature. C) They have difficulty adapting to the changed environment. D) They resort to different means to survive the bitter cold. ##D 23. A) They have their weight reduced to the minimum. B) They can maintain their heart beat at the normal rate. C) They consume the energy stored before the long sleep.

D) The can keep their body temperature warm and stable. ##C 24. A) By storing enough food beforehand. B) By seeking food and shelter in people’s houses. C) By growing thicker hair to stay warm. D) By staying in hiding places and eating very little. ##A 25. A) To save energy. B) To keep company. C) To stay safe. D) To protect the young. ##C

脚本: Passage one If I could go back in history and live when I liked, I wouldn’t go back very far. In fact, I’d like to relive a period I’vealready lived—the 1960s. I was in my twenties, and everything was being renewed. People were coming out of a formal andalmost Victorian attitude, and you really felt anything was possible. Meeting people was the thing, and you went to coffee barswhere you met friends and spent the evening. The cinema, the theater … all that was very exciting with new things comingout. In fact, we seemed to be out all the time! I don’t really remember working—of course I was a student—or sitting around athome very much. That just wasn’t where the scene was, even eating! It was the first time ordinary people started going out toeat. We were beginning to be adventurous about food, but we were more interested in meeting people than in eating or drinking.And dress, yes, that was the revolution. I mean, girls went around in really short skirts, and wore flowers in their hair. And menwere in jeans, and could wear their hair long too. It was a wonderful period. It was like living in an age you could never haveimagined, and that never has come back. We didn’t have much money, but it didn’t matter. And there was plenty of opportunityto do whatever you felt like doing. Q16: Why does the speaker say he would like to relive the 1960s? Q17: What does the speaker say was the most popular thing to do at that time? Q18: What do we learn about the speaker?

Passage two Dogs, man’s best friends, have a clear strategy for dealing with angry owners—they look away. New research shows that dogs limit their eye contact with angry humans. The scientists suggest this may be an attempt tocalm humans down. This behavior may have evolved as dogs gradually learned they could benefit from avoiding conflicts withhumans. To conduct the tests, the University of Helsinki researchers trained 31 dogs to rest in front of a video screen. Facialphotos of dogs and humans were displayed on the screen for 1.5 seconds. They showed threatening,

pleasant and neutral expressions. Nearby cameras tracked the dogs’ eye movements. Dogs in the study looked most at the eyes of humans and other dogs tosense their emotions. When dogs looked at expressions of angry dogs, their eyes rested more on the mouth, perhaps to interpretthe threatening expressions. And when looking at angry humans, they tended to turn away their gaze. Dogs may have learned to detect threat signs from humans and respond by trying to make peace, according to researcherSanniSomppi. Avoiding conflicts may have helped dogs develop better bonds with humans. The researchers also note that dogsscan faces as a whole to sense how people are feeling, instead of focusing on a given feature. They suggest this indicates thatdogs aren’t sensing emotions from a single feature, but piecing together information from all facial features just as humans do. Q19: What do dogs do when they are faced with angry humans? Q20: What does a dog do when it sees the expressions of angry dogs? Q21: How does a dog sense people’s feelings? Passage three Winter in many places is very cold. There is lots of snow around, and the ground freezes, which can make life difficult foranimals. People in cold places live in warm houses and have learned to adapt. What do animals do? There are three main waysthat animals survive the cold in winter: sleep, adapt or migrate. Some animals, such as bears, frogs and snakes, sleep all winter. They sleep very deeply and need little or no food. Whilesleeping, their body temperature drops, and their heart beat slows down. To prepare for this before winter, these animals eat extra food to become fat, which gives them the energy they need while they sleep. Other animals adapt. For example, by staying active in winter. It is often hard for them to find food, so some animals,such as mice, collect extra food before winter, and hide it. When winter comes, they return to their hiding places to eat the food.Some animals grow thicker fur, or live in tree holes or underground to stay warm. Some birds migrate by flying to a warmer place for the winter, where they can find more food. Some fly very long distances, including one kind of bird that flies from the remote north of the world all the way to the distant south. Some birds fly ingroups for safety, while others fly alone. Q22: What does the speaker say about animals in winter? Q23: What do we learn about animals that sleep through winter? Q24: How do animals like mice adapt to the severe winter? Q25: Why do some birds fly in groups when migrating, according to the speaker?

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段落匹配题
<b>The Blessing and Curse of the People Who Never Forget</b>

A handful of people can recall almost every day of their lives in enormous detail—and after years of research, neuroscientists are finally beginning to understand how they do it. [A] For most of us, memory is a mess of blurred and faded pictures of our lives. As much as we would like to cling on toour past, even the saddest moments can be washed away with time. [B] Ask NimaVeiseh what he was doing for any day in the past 15 years, however, and he will give you the details of theweather, what he was wearing, or even what side of the train he was sitting on his journey to work. “My memory is like a libraryof video tapes, walk-throughs of every day of my life from waking to sleeping,” he explains. [C] Veiseh can even put a date on when those tapes started recording: 15 December 2000, when he met his first girlfriendat his best friend’s 16th birthday party. He had always had a good memory, but the thrill of young love seems to have shifted agear in his mind: from now on, he would start recording his whole life in detail. “I could tell you everything about every dayafter that.” [D] Needless to say, people like Veiseh are of great interest to neuroscientists ( 神经科学专家 ) hoping to understand the way the brain records our lives. A couple of recent papers have finally opened a window on these people’s extraordinary minds.And such research might even suggest ways for us all to relive our past with greater clarity. *E+ ‘Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory’ (or HSAM for short), first came to light in the early 2000s, with a youngwoman named Jill Price. Emailing the neuroscientist and memory researcher Jim McGaugh one day, she claimed that she couldrecall every day of her life since the age of 12. Could he help explain her experiences? [F] McGaugh invited her to his lab, and began to test her: he would give her a date and ask her to tell him about the worldevents on that day. True to her word, she was correct almost every time. *G+ It didn’t take long for magazines and documentary film-makers to come to understand her “total recall”, and thanks tothe subsequent media interest, a few dozen other subjects (including Veiseh) have since come forward and contacted the team atthe University of California, Irvine. [H] Interestingly, their memories are highly self-centred: although they can remember “autobiographical” life events in extraordinary detail, they seem to be no better than average at recalling impersonal information, such as random ( 任意选取的 ) lists of words. Nor are they necessarily better at remembering a round of drinks, say. And although their memories are vast, theyare still likely to suffer from “false memories”. Clearly, there is no such thing as a “perfect” memory—their extraordinary mindsare still using the same flawed tools that the rest of us rely on. The question is, how? [I] Lawrence Patihis at the University of Southern Mississippi recently studied around 20 people with HSAM and found that they scored particularly high on two measures: fantasy proneness ( 倾向 ) and absorption. Fantasy proneness could be considered a tendency to imagine and daydream, whereas absorption is the tendency to allow your mind to become fully absorbed in an activity—to pay complete attention to the sensations (感受) and the experiences. “I’m extremely sensitive to sounds, smells and visual detail,” explains Nicole Donohue, who has taken part in many of these studies. “I definitely feel things morestrongly than the average person.” [J] The absorption helps them to establish strong foundations for a recollection, says Patihis, and the fantasy pronenessmeans that they revisit those memories again and again in the coming weeks and months. Each time this initial memory trace is “replayed”, it becomes even stronger. In some ways, you probably go through that process after a big event like your weddingday—but

the difference is that thanks to their other psychological tendencies, the HSAM subjects are doing it day in, day out,for the whole of their lives. [K] Not everyone with a tendency to fantasise will develop HSAM, though, so Patihis suggests that something must have caused them to think so much about their past “Maybe some experience in their childhood meant that they became obsessed (着迷 ) with calendars and what happened to them,” says Patihis. *L+ The people with HSAM I’ve interviewed would certainly agree that it can be a mixed blessing. On the plus side, it allows you to relive the most transformative and enriching experiences. Veiseh, for instance, travelled a lot in his youth. In hisspare time, he visited the local art galleries, and the paintings are now lodged deep in his autobiographical memories. *M+ “Imagine being able to remember every painting, on every wall, in every gallery space, between nearly 40 countries,”he says. “That’s a big education in art by itself.” With this comprehensive knowledge of the history of art, he has since becomea professional painter. [N] Donohue, now a history teacher, agrees that it helped during certain parts of her education: “I can definitely rememberwhat I learned on certain days at school. I could imagine what the teacher was saying or what it looked like in the book.” [O] Not everyone with HSAM has experienced these benefits, however. Viewing the past in high definition can also make itvery difficult to get over pain and regret. “It can be very hard to forget embarrassing moments,” says Donohue. “You feel sameemotions—it is just as raw, just as fresh… You can’t turn off that stream of memories, no matter how hard you try.” Veisehagrees: “It is like having these open wounds—they are just a part of you,” he says. [P] This means they often have to make a special effort to lay the past to rest. Bill, for instance, often gets painful “flashbacks”, in which unwanted memories intrude into his consciousness, but overall he has chosen to see it as the best way ofavoiding repeating the same mistakes. “Some people are absorbed in the past but not open to new memories, but that’s not thecase for me. I look forward to each day and experiencing something new.”

36. People with HSAM have the same memory as ordinary people when it comes to impersonal information. ##H 37. Fantasy proneness will not necessarily cause people to develop HSAM. ##K 38. Veiseh began to remember the details of his everyday experiences after he met his first young love. ##C 39. Many more people with HSAM started to contact researchers due to the mass media. ##G 40. People with HSAM often have to make efforts to avoid focusing on the past. ##P 41. Most people do not have clear memories of past events. ##A 42. HSAM can be both a curse and a blessing. ##L

43. A young woman sought explanation from a brain scientist when she noticed her unusual memory. ##E 44. Some people with HSAM find it very hard to get rid of unpleasant memories. ##O 45. A recent study of people with HSAM reveals that they are liable to fantasy and full absorption in an activity. ##I

选词填空
The method for making beer has changed over time. Hops ( 啤酒花 ), for example, which give many a modern beer its bitter flavor, are a__26__recent addition to the beverage. This was first mentioned in reference to brewing in the ninth century.Now, researchers have found a 27 ingredient in residue ( 残留物 ) from 5,000-year-old beer brewing equipment. While digging two pits at a site in the central plains of China, scientists discovered fragments from pots and vessels. The different shapes of the containers 28they were used to brew, filter, and store beer. They may be ancient ―beer-making tools,‖ and the earliest29 evidence of beer brewing in China, the researchers reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. To30that theory, the team examined the yellowish, dried 31 inside the vessels. The majority of the grains, about 80%, were from cereal crops like barley (大麦), and about 10% were bits of roots, 32 lily, which would have made the beer sweeter, the scientists say. Barley was an unexpected find: the crop was domesticated in Western Eurasia and didn‘t become a 33food in central China until about 2,000 years ago, according to the researchers. Based on that timing, they indicate barley mayhave 34 in the region not as food, but as 35 material for beer brewing. ### (A) arrived (B) consuming (C) direct (D) exclusively (E) including (F) inform (G) raw (H) reached (I) relatively (J) remains (K) resources (L) staple

(M) suggest (N) surprising (O) test

### 26. I 27. N 28. M 29. C 30. O 31. J 32. E 33. L 34. A 35. G 原文: The method for making beer has changed over time. Hops (啤酒花), for example, which give many a modern beer its bitter flavor, are a relativelyrecent addition to the beverage. This was first mentioned in reference to brewing in the ninth century.Now, researchers have found a surprisingingredient in residue ( 残 留 物 ) from 5,000-year-old beer brewing equipment. While digging two pits at a site in the central plains of China, scientists discovered fragments from pots and vessels. The different shapes of the containers suggestthey were used to brew, filter, and store beer. They may be ancient ―beer-making tools,‖ and the earliestdirect evidence of beer brewing in China, the researchers reported in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Totestthat theory, the team examined the yellowish, dried remains inside the vessels. The majority of the grains, about 80%, were from cereal crops like barley (大 麦), and about 10% were bits of roots, including lily, which would have made the beer sweeter, the scientists say. Barley was an unexpected find: the crop was domesticated in Western Eurasia and didn‘t become a staplefood in central China until about 2,000 years ago, according to the researchers. Based on that timing, they indicate barley mayhave arrived in the region not as food, but as raw material for beer brewing.

仔细阅读
Passage one 46. What does the author think of the phrase “midlife crisis”? A) It has led to a lot of debate. B) It is widely acknowledged. C) It is no longer fashionable. D) It misrepresents real life. ##D 47. How does Barbara Hagerty view midlife? A) It may be the beginning of a crisis. B) It can be a new phase of one’s life. C) It can be terrifying for the unprepared. D) It may see old-age diseases approaching. ##B 48. How is midlife pictured in the book Life Reimaged? A) It can be quite rosy. B) It can be burdensome. C) It undergoes radical transformation. D) It makes for the best part of one’s life. ## 49.C According to Karl Barth, midlife is the time _________. A) to relax B) to mature C) to harvest D) to reflect ##B 50. What does the author say about midlife today? A) It is more meaningful than other stages of life. B) It is likely to change the narrative of one’s life. C) It is more important to those with a longer lifespan. D) It is likely to be a critical turning point in one’s life. ##D Passage two 51. Why do people in many cultures prize the egg?

A) It is a welcome sign of the coming of spring. B) It is their major source of protein in winter. C) It can easily be made into a work of art. D) It can bring wealth and honor to them. ##A 52. What do we learn about the decorated “eggs” in Russia? A) They are shaped like jewel cases. B) They are cherished by the rich. C) They are heavily painted in red. D) They are favored as a form of art. ##D 53. Why have contemporary artists continued the egg art tradition? A) Eggs serve as an enduring symbol of new life. B) Eggs have an oval shape appealing to artists. C) Eggs reflect the anxieties of people today. D) Eggs provide a unique surface to paint on. ##C 54. Why does Chast enjoy the process of decorating eggs? A) She never knows if the egg will break before the design is completed. B) She can add multiple details to the design to communicate her idea. C) She always drives great pleasure form designing something new. D) She is never sure what the final design will look like until the end. ##A 55. What do we learn from the passage about egg-painting? A) It originated in the eastern part of Europe. B) It has a history of over two thousand years. C) It is the most time-honored form of fancy art. D) It is especially favored as a church decoration. ##B

脚本: Passage one The phrase almost completes itself: midlife crisis. It’s the stage in the middle of the journey when people feel youth vanishing, their prospects narrowing and death approaching. There’s only one problem with the cliché ( 套话 ). It isn’t true. “In fact, there is almost no hard evidence for midlife crisis other than a few small pilot studies conducted decades ago,”Barbara Hagerty writes in her new book, Life Reimagined. The bulk of the research shows that there may be a pause, or a shifting of gears in the 40s or 50s, but this shift “can be exciting, rather than terrifying.”

Barbara Hagerty looks at some of the features of people who turn midlife into a rebirth. They break routines, because “autopilot is death.” They choose purpose over happiness—having a clear sense of purpose even reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. They give priority to relationships, as careers often recede ( 逐渐淡化 ). Life Reimagined paints a picture of middle age that is far from gloomy. Midlife seems like the second big phase of decision-making. Your identity has been formed; you’ve built up your resources; and now you have the chance to take the big risksprecisely because your foundation is already secure. Karl Barth described midlife precisely this way. At middle age, he wrote, “the sowing is behind; now is the time to reap.The run has been taken; now is the time to leap. Preparation has been made; now is the time for the venture of the work itself.” The middle-aged person, Barth continued, can see death in the distance, but moves with a “measured haste” to get big newthings done while there is still time. What Barth wrote decades ago is even truer today. People are healthy and energetic longer. We have presidential candidates running for their first term in office at age 68, 69 and 74. A longer lifespan is now changing the narrative structure of lifeitself. What could have been considered the beginning of a descent is now a potential turning point—the turning point you are most equipped to take full advantage of. Passage two In spring, chickens start laying again, bringing a welcome source of protein at winter’s end. So it’s no surprise that culturesaround the world celebrate spring by honoring the egg. Some traditions are simple, like the red eggs that get baked into Greek Easter breads. Others elevate the egg into a fancy art,like the heavily jewel-covered “eggs” that were favored by the Russians starting in the 19th century.One ancient form of egg art comes to us from Ukraine. For centuries, Ukrainians have been drawing complicated patterns oneggs. Contemporary artists have followed this tradition to create eggs that speak to the anxieties of our age: Life is precious, anddelicate. Eggs are, too. “There’s something about their delicate nature that appeals to me,” says New Yorker cartoonist Roz Chast. Several yearsago, she became interested in eggs and learned the traditional Ukrainian technique to draw her very modern characters. “I’vebroken eggs at every stage of the process—from the very beginning to the very, very end.” But there’s an appeal in that vulnerability. “There’s part of this sickening horror of knowing you’re walking on the edgewith this, that I kind of like, knowing that it could all fall apart at any second.” Chast’s designs, such as a worried man alone ina tiny rowboat, reflect that delicateness. Traditional Ukrainian decorated eggs also spoke to those fears. The elaborate patterns were believed to offer protectionagainst evil. “There’s an ancient legend that as long as these eggs are made, evil will not prevail in the world,” says Joan Brander, aCanadian egg-painter who has been painting eggs for over 60 years, having learned the art from her Ukrainian relatives. The tradition, dating back to 300 B.C., was later incorporated into the Christian church. The old symbols, however, stillendure. A decorated egg with a bird on it, given to a young married couple, is a wish for children. A decorated egg thrown intothe field would be a wish for a good

harvest.

2017 年 6 月第二套
听力批量导入
Passage one 1. A) The majority of drivers prefer to drive and park themselves. B) Human drivers become easily distracted or tired while driving. C) Most drivers feel uncertain about the safety of self-driving cars. D) Most drivers have test driven cars with automatic braking features. ##C 2. A) Their drivers would feel safe after getting used to the automatic devices. B) They would be unpopular with drivers who only trust their own skills. C) Their increased comfort levels have boosted their sales. D) They are not actually as safe as automakers advertise. ##A Passage two 3. A) Thefts of snowmobile dogs in Alaska. B) A series of injuries to snowmobile drivers. C) Attacks on some Iditarod Race competitors. D) A serious accidents in the Alaska sports event. ##C 4. A) He stayed behind to look after his injured dogs. B) He has won the Alaska Iditarod Race four times. C) He received a minor injury in the Iditarod Race. D) He has quit the competition in Alaska for good. ##B Passage three 5. A) It sank into the sea due to overloading. B) It ran into Nicaragua’s Big Corn Island. C) It disappeared between two large islands. D) It turned over because of strong winds.

##D 6. A) 13. B) 25. C) 30. D) 32. ##D 7. A) He has helped with the rescue effort. B) He is being investigated by the police. C) He was drowned with the passengers. D) He is among those people missing.. ##B

脚本: Passage one Automakers and tech companies are working hard to offer the first true self-driving car. But 75% of drivers say theywouldn’t feel safe in such a vehicle. Still, 60% of drivers would like to get some kind of self-driving feature, such as automaticbraking or self-parking, the next time they buy a new car. The attitudes are published in a new AAA survey of 1, 800 drivers. Advocates of self-driving cars argue they would be safer than in cars driven by humans because they wouldn’t get distracted or drive when tired. But those surveyed by AAA say, they trust their own driving skills. Many feel the technology is too new and unproven. John Nielsen, AAA’s managing director of automotive engineering and repair, said tests suggest drivers may be overestimating their own abilities. He also believes they will be more likely to trust self-driving cars as they become more familiar withfeatures such as automatic braking or parking. He estimates that the “comfort level” will increase considerably in five to ten years. Q1: What is the finding of the AAA survey? Q2: What does John Nielsen say about self-driving cars?

Passage two One dog has been killed and multiple dogs have been injured by a snowmobile driver in what appears to be an intentionalattack on competitors in the Iditarod Race in Alaska. AliyZirkle was the first to report an attack.A snowmobile driver had repeatedly attempted to harm her and her team, and one of Zirkle’s dogs had received anon-life-threatening injury. Zirkle reported the attack when she arrived in Nulato, Alaska, in the early hours of the morning. Then Jeff King, a four-time champion, reported a similar attack. His team was hit by a snowmobile driver, injuring several dogs and killing a 3-year-old male dog.

Reporter Zachariah Hughes says that neither King nor Zirkle was injured. Although this incident very much alters the race of the two participants competing for a win, both are going to continue ontheir way toward the finishing line. Alaska State Troopers released a statement saying they’ve arrested Arnold Demoski, 26. He faces trial on several charges. Q3: What is the news report mainly about? Q4: What do we learn about Jeff King?

Passage three A tour boat turned over off the coast of Nicaragua, killing at least 13 people and leaving more passengers missing, officialsaid. The boat was carrying 32 people—25 Costa Ricans, four Americans and three Nicaraguans. The 13 dead were all Costa Ricans, the Foreign Ministry said. The boat, traveling between Nicaragua’s Big Corn Island and Little Corn Island, turned over Saturday near the larger island.Some passengers remain missing, the Costa Rican Foreign Ministry said, but did not specify how many. A local radio said an unspecified number of people were rescued, including the tour boat’s owner, Hilario Blandon. Nicaraguan naval authorities had banned sea travel in the area because of bad weather and strong winds, but the tour boatproceeded anyway. Blandon, the boat’s owner, has been arrested by Nicaraguan authorities, the state-run news agency said. Both he and a crewmember, are being investigated for unintentional murder and exposing people to danger, according to police. Q5: What happened to the tour boat sailing off the Nicaraguan coast? Q6: How many people was the boat carrying? Q7: What do we know about the owner of the boat?

Passage one 8. A) At a shopping centre. B) At a community college. C) At an accountancy firm. D) At an IT company. ##C 9. A) Helping out with data input. B) Arranging interviews. C) Sorting application forms. D) Making phone calls. ##A 10. A) He enjoys using computers.

B) He needs the money badly. C) He wants to work in the city centre. D) He has relevant working experience. ##B 11. A) Purchase some business suits. B) Learn some computer language. C) Improve his programming skills. D) Review some accountancy terms. ##D Passage two 12. A) They are keen on high technology. B) They are poor at technology skills. C) They often listen to National Public Radio. D) They feel superior in science and technology. ##B 13. A) Japanese. B) Germans. C) Poles. D) Americans. ##A 14. A) Emailing. B) Texting. C) Science. D) Literacy. ##D 15. A) It is undergoing a drastic reform. B) It lays emphasis on creative thinking. C) It has much room for improvement. D) It prioritizes training of practical skills. ##C 脚本: Passage one M: Hi, Susan, you’re looking very smart today. W: I always look smart, James. Actually, I’m on my way to a job interview. M: What job? Oh, you mean, for the summer holidays? W: Yeah.There’s only two weeks to go. I’ve got a second interview with that big foreign accountancy firm in the city center.You know the one. M: That’s fantastic!

W: The work is just helping out with data input, you know, but the pay isn’t too bad. It might suit you too. I know they have at least two temporary positions available. And I don’t think they have anyone else yet. M: Hmm …. If they take you on, tell them you know a friend who’d be really good too. I really need the money and the experience would look good on my resume. Maybe we’ll be working together. The dream team. W: OK.We’ll do. If the boss likes me, I’ll mention it. It’ll be good to have someone around who I know. I’ll phone you afterwards. But perhaps you should put in an application anyway. M: Thanks, Susan.That’s great. Listen, do you want a lift to the city? I have my dad’s car today, and nothing else to do thismorning. W: Sure. Thanks, James. M: Let’s go then. The car’s over there. W: By the way, how’s your knowledge of accountancy? The interviewer may ask you about it. M: No problem. I think I can survive. I might just have to review a few accountancy terms. Maybe you can give me a practiceinterview first. W: Of course.Let’s go then. Don’t want to be late. Q8: Where will Susan probably get a job? 9Q: What will Susan’s future job involve? Q10: Why does James want the job in that company? Q11: What does James say he will have to do to prepare for the interview?

Passage two W: There’s new data out today that confirms that many Americans are not good at math, and when it comes to everyday technology skills, we are dead last when compared to other developed countries. Here’s Gabrielle Emanuel of National PublicRadio. M: Let’s start with the bad news that Americans are terrible at technology skills, using email, naming a file on a computer, usinga link on a webpage, or just texting someone. W: No country scored below the U.S.? M: Only one country. Poland performed as poorly as we did. Who came out the first? Japan did the best and then Finland. Ifyou look at data about reading and math, you’ll notice something interesting. Younger adults who went to college or graduate school were doing pretty well. In literacy, they were actually doing better than peers in other countries. W: So that’s a bit of good news. M: But when you look at Americans who have a high school diploma, they look a lot like other countries’ high school dropouts.We have a lot of work to do. That is especially true when it comes to math. You go to the store and there’s a sale. Buy one,get the second half off. You can decide to buy two. How much do you pay? W: You mean high school graduates can’t do this task in general? M: You’re right. What does that tell us about our education system? Well, it tells us that we need to think about the preparedness of our students as they are leaving high school. W: Right.And schools, employers, in fact we all need to do something about it. Thank you, Gabrielle. Q12: What does the man say about Americans?

Q13: Who performed the best in technology skills according to the man? Q14: In what aspect did American college students perform well? Q15: What do we learn from the conversation about American high school education?

听力长篇 Passage one 16. A) They have small roots. B) They grow white flowers. C) They taste like apples. D) They come from Central Africa. ##A 17. A) They turned from white to purple in color. B) They became popular on the world market. C) They became an important food for humans. D) They began to look like modern-day carrots. ##D 18. A) They were found quite nutritious. B) There were serious food shortages. C) People discovered their medicinal value. D) Farm machines helped lower their prices. ##B Passage two 19. A) She could update her family any time she liked. B) She could call up her family whenever she liked. C) She could locate her friends wherever they were. D) She could download as many pictures as she likes. ##A 20. A) She liked to inform her friends about her success. B) She enjoyed reading her friends’ status updates. C) She felt quite popular among them. D) She felt she was a teenager again. ##B 21. A) She could barely respond to all her 500 Facebook friends. B) She spent more time updating her friends than her family. C) She could barely balance Facebook updates and her work. D) She didn’t seem to be doing as well as her Facebook friends. ##D

Passage three 22. A) They have strong muscles. B) They live a longer lifer than horses. C) They eat much less in winter. D) The can work longer than donkeys. ##A 23. A) It was a pet of a Spanish king. B) It was bought by George Washington. C) It was brought over from Spain. D) It was donated by a U.S. ambassador. ##C 24. A) They met and exchanged ideas on animal breeding. B) They participated in a mule-driving competition. C) They showed and traded animals in the market. D) They fed mules with the best food they could find. ##C 25. A) The wider use of horses. B) The arrival of tractors. C) A shrinking animal trade. D) A growing donkey population. ##B

脚本: Passage one Wild carrots probably evolved with the other flowering plants about 360 million years ago. Like apples, carrots are nativeto Central Asia. That’s why horses, which also come from Central Asia, like both apples and carrots so much. With wild carrots, the roots are white, small and skinny, so you’d have to pick a lot of wild carrots to get enough to eat.Doctors used carrot seeds and roots as medicine, on the theory that foods that taste bad must be good for you. Around 800 AD, people in Central Asia managed to develop a new kind of carrot—a purple carrot—that attracted moreinterest from international traders. Then, in the late 1500s, food scientists in the Netherlands cultivated large, straight, sweet,red carrots like the ones we eat today. But people still mostly fed carrots to horses, donkeys and pigs, and didn’t eat them themselves. In the 1600s, people in China used carrots as medicine, but they also ate carrots boiled in soup. The red color was popular for Chinese New Year celebrations. But carrots got their biggest boost during the two world wars, when food shortages forced people to eat them, and governments told everyone how healthy carrots were. Today, cooler countries grow most of the world’s carrots. Machines do most of

the planting and picking, and carrots are easy to store and ship, so they are cheap almost everywhere. Q16: What do we learn from the talk about wild carrots? Q17: What does the speaker say about carrots in the late 1500s? Q18: Why did people turn to carrots for food during the two world wars? Passage two Katherine loved Facebook. With Facebook she could stay connected with her family no matter how far away they were.She could see their photos and read their status updates. With Facebook, she could keep her relatives up-to-date on what she wasdoing. Another thing Katherine loved about Facebook was that she didn’t have to think about time zones when updating family.Whenever she called her parents or other relatives, she always had to think about the time difference so that she wouldn’t wakesomeone up or call when she knew they were at church. Facebook was so convenient. When Katherine joined Facebook, some of her classmates at high school started to add her as a friend. At first, this didn’tbother her. She loved learning about the success of people she knew when she was just a teenager. She loved finding out peoplewere getting married, having babies, and traveling. Soon, however, Katherine found herself comparing herself with the people she was reading about on Facebook. It beganto make her feel bad that some people seemed to be doing so much better than she was. She was also spending a lot of time onFacebook. It took a lot of time and energy to keep up with everyone’s status updates. Katherine started to think. She looked at the list of over 500 friends she had on Facebook and realized some of them werenot really friends at all. 19. What was one particular convenience Katherine loved about Facebook? 20. How did Katherine feel when her classmates added her as a Facebook friend? 21. What made Katherine feel bad about herself later on? Passage three Do you know where a mule comes from? It is the child of a donkey and a horse. Mules have strong muscles like horses, butthey eat less, can work longer, and are gentler, like donkeys. George Washington was the first person in the United States to own mules. He had heard that mules made good farm animals and he contacted the U.S. ambassador in Spain to ask about them. In 1785, King Charles III of Spain sent Washington amale donkey as a gift. That male donkey became the father of the mule industry in the U.S. Every April, Maury County holds a Mule Day celebration. Held in Columbia, Tennessee, Mule Day had its beginningsas “Breeder’s Day” in the 1840s. Farmers and farm animal breeders would bring their animals to market every April to show,buy, and trade. This was an important businessbefore the days of tractors, when many families made a living from farming andmules were used as work animals. Eventually, tractors began to replace mules, making them less in demand. A parade was added to Mule Day in 1934 to attract more people. Over the years other activities have been added, and todaymore than 200,000 people show up each year to watch and participate. If you visit during Mule Day celebrations, you might seemule-driving contests, square

dances, horse shows or even tree-cutting competitions. Q22: What does the speaker say about mules? Q23: What do we learn about the donkey which is said to be the father of the U.S. mule industry? Q24: What did farmers usually do on Mule Day in the 1840s? Q25: What made mule less in demand in America?

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<b>Team Spirit</b> [A] Teams have become the basic building blocks of organizations. Recruitment advertisements routinely call for “teamplayers”. Business schools grade their students in part on their performance in group projects. Office managers knock downwalls to encourage team building. Teams are as old as civilisation, of course: even Jesus had 12 co-workers. But a new report byDeloitte, “Global Human Capital Trends”, based on a survey of more than 7,000 executives in over 130 countries, suggests thatthe fashion for teamwork has reached a new high. Almost half of those surveyed said their companies were either in the middle of restructuring or about to embark on ( 开始 ) it; and for the most part, restructuring meant putting more emphasis on teams. [B] Companies are abandoning conventional functional departments and organising employees into cross-disciplinaryteams that focus on particular products, problems or customers. These teams are gaining more power to run their own affairs. They are also spending more time working with each other rather than reporting upwards. Deloitte argues that a new organisational form is on the rise: a network of teams is replacing the conventional hierarchy ( 等 级体制 ). [C] The fashion for teams is driven by a sense that the old way of organising people is too rigid for both the modern marketplace and the expectations of employees. Technological innovation places a greater value on agility (灵活性 ). John Chambers, chairman of Cisco Systems Inc. , a worldwide leader in electronics products, says that “we compete against market transitions (过 渡 ), not competitors. Product transitions used to take five or seven years; now they take one or two.” Digital technology also makes it easier for people to co-ordinate their activities without resorting to hierarchy. The “millennials” ( 千禧一代 ) who will soon make up half the workforce in rich countries were raised from nursery school onwards to work in groups. [D] The fashion for teams is also spreading from the usual corporate suspects (such as GE and IBM) to some more unusualones. The Cleveland Clinic, a hospital operator, has reorganised its medical staff into teams to focus on particular treatment areas; consultants, nurses and others collaborate closely instead of being separated by speciality ( 专业 ) and rank. The US Army has gone the same way. In his book, Team of Teams, General Stanley McChrystal describes how the army’s hierarchical structure hindered its operations during the early stages of the Iraq war. His solution was to learn something from the rebels it wasfighting: decentralising authority to

self-organising teams. [E] A good rule of thumb is that as soon as generals and hospital administrators jump on a management bandwagon ( 追随一种管理潮流 ), it is time to ask questions. Leigh Thompson of Kellogg School of Management in Illinois warns that, “ Teamsare not always the answer—teams may provide insight, creativity and knowledge in a way that a person working independentlycannot; but teamwork may also lead to confusion, delay and poor decision-making.” The late Richard Hackman of Harvard University once argued, “I have no question that when you have a team, the possibility exists that it will generate magic, producingsomething extraordinary… But don’t count on it.” [F] Hackman (who died in 2013) noted that teams are hindered by problems of co-ordination and motivation that chip awayat the benefits of collaboration. High-flyers ( 能干的人 ) who are forced to work in teams may be undervalued and free-riders empowered. Group-think may be unavoidable. In a study of 120 teams of senior executives, he discovered that less than 10% oftheir supposed members agreed on who exactly was on the team. If it is hard enough to define a team’s membership, agreeingon its purpose is harder still. [G] Profound changes in the workforce are making teams trickier to manage. Teams work best if their members have astrong common culture. This is hard to achieve when, as is now the case in many big firms, a large proportion of staff are temporary contractors. Teamwork improves with time: America’s National Transportation Safety Board found that 73% of the incidents in its civil-aviation database occurred on a crew’s first day of flying together. However, as Amy Edmondson of Harvardpoints out,organisations increasingly use “team” as a verb rather than a noun: they form teams for specific purposes and thenquickly disband them. [H] The least that can be concluded from this research is that companies need to think harder about managing teams. Theyneed to rid their minds of sentimentalism ( 感情用事 ): the most successful teams have leaders who are able to set an overall direction and take immediate action. They need to keep teams small and focused: giving in to pressure to be more “inclusive” isa guarantee of dysfunction. Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s boss, says that “If I see more than two pizzas for lunch, the team is too big.”They need to immunise teams against group-think: Hackman argued that the best ones contain “deviants” ( 离经叛道者 ) who are willing to do something that may be upsetting to others. [I] A new study of 12, 000 workers in 17 countries by Steelcase, a furniture-maker which also does consulting, finds thatthe best way to ensure employees are “engaged” is to give them more control over where and how they do their work— whichmay mean liberating them from having to do everything in collaboration with others. [J] However, organisations need to learn something bigger than how to manage teams better: they need to be in the habitof asking themselves whether teams are the best tools for the job. Team-building skills are in short supply: Deloitte reports thatonly 12% of the executives they contacted feel they understand the way people work together in networks and only 21% feelconfident in their ability to build cross-functional teams. Loosely managed teams can become hotbeds of distraction—employees routinely complain that they can’t get their work done because they are forced to spend too much time in meetings or compelled to work in noisy offices. Even in the age of open-plan offices and social networks some work is best left to the individual.

本题意为:成功的团队领导人明确知道团队的发展方向并能采取果断行动。根据题干关键词组:successful team leaders 和 take prompt action 定位至原文 H 段:the most successful teams have leaders who are able to set an overall direction and take immediate action (最成功的团队领导人能够设定一个总方向,然后采取果 断行动) 。题干中的 know exactly where the team should go 对应原文的 able to set an overall direction;题干中 的 take promptaction 对应原文的 take immediate action。 ||本题意为:权力下放在军事行动中也被认为更加高效。根据题干关键词组: Decentralisation 和 military operations 定位至原文 D 段:The US Army has gone the same way. In his book, Team of Teams, General StanleyMcChrystal describes how the army‘s hierarchical structure hindered its operations during th e early stages of the Iraq war.His solution was to learn something from the rebels it was fighting: decentralising authority to self-organising teams(美国军队也是这样做的。在他的《团队的团队》一书中,斯坦利·麦克里斯特尔将军 描述了军队的等级制度如何阻碍了在伊拉克战争初期的行动。他的解决方案是从与其对战的叛军中学到一 些东西:下放权力到自行运作的团队) 。由大意可知题干是对该部分的概括总结。
|| 本题意为:在很多公司,传统的组织形式正在给团队网络让位。根据题干关键词组:conventional,network

of teams 可定位至原文 B 段的最后一句:a network of teams is replacing the conventional hierarchy(团队网 络正在取代传统的等级制度) 。题干中的 is giving way to 对应原文的 is replacing。 || 本题意为:在管理不善的团队里,成员在工作上会更容易分心。根据题干中的关键词组:poorlymanaged teams 和 distracted 可 定 位 至 原 文 J 段 。 本 段 提 到 : Loosely managed teams can become hotbeds of distraction—employees routinely complain that they can‘t get their work done because they are forced to spend too much timein meetings or compelled to work in noisy offices (松散的管理团队会是注意力分散的温床—— 员工 们经常抱怨他们不能完成工作,因为他们被迫花太多时间开会或被迫在嘈杂的办公室工作) 。题干中的 poorly managed teams 对应原文的 Loosely managed teams;题干中的 distracted 对应原文的 distraction。 || 本题意为: 当成员共享同一个文化时, 团队合作最高效。 根据题干中的关键词组: share the same culture 可 定位至原文 G 段。本段第二句提到:Teams work best if their members have a strong common culture(如果团 队成员具有很强的共同文化,团队表现将会最佳) 。题干中的 most effective 对应原文的 work best;题干中 的 share the same culture 对应原文的 have a strong common culture。 || 本题意为:根据 Deloitte 的报道,团队合作在公司中正日益盛行。根据题干中的关键词 report 和 Deloitte 可定位至原文 A 段。 本段提到:But a new report by Deloitte … suggests that the fashion for teamwork hasreached a new high… for the most part, restructuring meant putting more emphasis on teams (但是德勤的一 份新报告??表明团队合作的时尚已经达到了一个新的高度。几乎一半的受访者表示他们的公司在重组中 或即将开始重组;而大多数情况下,重组意味着把更多的重点放在团队建设上) 。题干中的 becoming increasingly popular 对应原文的 putting more emphasis on teams。 || 本题意为: 一些成员发现很难在成员资格和团队目标的问题上达成一致。 根据题干关键词组: hard,agree on, membership 和 purpose 可 定 位 至 原 文 F 段 。 本 段 最 后 一 句 提 到 : If it is hard enough to define a team‘smembership, agreeing on its purpose is harder still(如果界定一个团队的成员尚且困难,那么在目标上 达成一致将更难) 。由大意可知本题干是对该句的概括总结。 ||本题意为:一些学者认为尽管团队合作有创造奇迹的潜力,但并不总是很可靠。E 段最后一句提到: I have no question that when you have a team, the possibility exists that it will generate magic, producing something extraordinary…But don‘t count on it(我不会怀疑,当你拥有一个团队的时候,有创造奇迹、创造 非凡的可能性??但不要指望它) 。题干中的 not reliable 对应原文的 don‘t count on it;题干中的 work wonders 对应原文的 generatemagic。 || 本题意为: 为确保员工工作投入, 建议在工作地点和工作方式上给予员工更多灵活性。 根据题干关键词: ensure 和 where and how they work 定位至原文 I 段。本段提到:the best way to ensure employees are ―engaged‖is to give them more control over where and how they do their work(确保员工“投入”的最佳方式是 让他们更多地控制自己的工作地点和工作方式) 。 题干中的 commitment 对应原文的 engaged; 题干中的 give

them more flexibility 对应原文的 give them more control。

45. Product transitions take much less time now than in the past. C)

36. Successful team leaders know exactly where the team should go and are able to take prompt action. ##H 37. Decentralisation of authority was also found to be more effective in military operations. ##D 38. In many companies, the conventional form of organisation is giving way to a network of teams. ##B 39. Members of poorly managed teams are easily distracted from their work. ##J 40. Teamwork is most effective when team members share the same culture. ##G 41. According to a report by Deloitte, teamwork is becoming increasingly popular among companies. ##A 42. Some team members find it hard to agree on questions like membership and the team’s purpose. ##F 43. Some scholars think teamwork may not always be reliable, despite its potential to work wonders. ##E 44. To ensure employees’ commitment, it is advisable to give them more flexibility as to where and how they work. ##I 45. Product transitions take much less time now than in the past. ##C 本题意为:当涉及到非个人信息时,超级自传体记忆症者跟普通人的记忆是相同的。根据题 干关键词组 the same memory 和 impersonal information 定位至原文 H 段: they seem to be no better than average at recalling impersonal information(在记忆非个人信息方面, 他们似 乎并不比普通人强) 。题干中的 have the same memory 对应原文的 be no better than; ordinary 对应原文的 average。所以本题选 H 段。 || 本题意为:幻想倾向不见得一定会使人出现超级自传体记忆症。根据题干关键词组 Fantasy proneness 和 develop HSAM 定位至原文 K 段, 本段首句提到: Not everyone with a tendency to fantasies will develop HSAM (不是每一个有幻想倾向的人都会发展出 “超级自传 体记忆症” ) 。由大意可知题干是对该部分的概括总结。 || 本题意为:自从遇见少年时的初恋后,Veisch 开始记得自己每天的生活细节。根据题干 关键词 young love 可定位至原文 C 段: He had always had a good memory, but the thrill of

young love seems to have shifted a gear in his mind: from now on, he would start recording his whole life in detail.(他之前记忆力就一直很好,然而年轻爱情的兴奋感似乎扳动了大脑中记 忆的加速档:从那时开始,他将开始记录他生命中的每个细节) 。由大意可知题干是对该部 分的概括总结。 ||本题意为:由于大众媒体的原因,更多超级自传体记忆症者开始联系研究人员。根据题干 中的关键词组:contact researchers, due to 和 the mass media 可定位至原文 G 段。本段 提到:? thanks to the subsequent media interest, a few dozen other subjects (including Veiseh) have since come forward and contacted the team (得益于这些媒体的后续兴趣, 其他几十个受 试者,包括维瑟,主动与加利福尼亚大学欧文分校的团队取得了联系) 。由大意可知题干是 对该部分的概括总结。题干中的 due to 对应原文的 thanks to。 ||本题意为:超级自传体记忆症者常常要努力避免专注于过去。根据题干中的关键词组: make efforts 和 past 可定位至原文 P 段。本段首句提到: This means they often have to make a special effort to lay the past to rest (这意味着他们常常不得不付出特别的努力来放下 过去) 。题干中的 avoid focusing on the past 对应原文的 lay the past to rest。 ||本题意为:大部分人对过去的事情没有清楚的记忆。文章的首段首句就提到: For most of us, memory is a mess of blurred and faded pictures of our lives. As much as we would like to cling on to our past, even the saddest moments can be washed away with time(对于大多数人来说, 记忆就像一本贴满了混乱模糊且逐渐褪色的人生快照的剪贴薄。 无论我们多想紧紧抓住我们 的过去,然而即使最痛苦的时刻也会被时间冲走) 。由大意可知本题是对该段的概括总结。 ||本题意为:超级自传体记忆症是福也是祸。根据题干中的关键词: a curse and a blessing 可定位至原文 L 段。本段首句提到: The people with HSAM I’ve interviewed would certainly agree that it can be a mixed blessing(我所采访过的拥有 HSAM 能力者肯定都会同意,这种 能力让人喜忧参半) 。 其中 a mixed blessing 意为 “福祸或利弊参半之事” , 对应题干的 a curse and a blessing。 ||本题意为:当一位年轻女士注意到自己的特殊记忆力时,她向一位大脑科学家寻求答案。 根据题干中的关键词组: a young woman, explanation 和 brain scientist 可定位至原文 E 段: ? with a young woman named Jill Price. Emailing the neuroscientist and memory researcher Jim McGaugh one day, she claimed that she could recall every day of her life since the age of 12. Could he help explain her experiences(??一个名叫吉尔?普莱斯的女孩。 一天, 吉尔发邮件给神经科学专家兼记忆研究员吉姆?麦克高夫, 告诉他她能够记忆起 12 岁 以来每一天的生活细节。麦克高夫能否帮助她解释她的经历呢) 。由大意可知本题是对该段 的概括总结。 ||本题意为: 一些超级自传体记忆症者发现很难摆脱不愉快的记忆。 根据题干关键词: hard 和 get rid of unpleasant memories 定位至原文 O 段。本段提到: Viewing the past in high definition can also make it very difficult to get over pain and regret (对过去记得太清楚也会导致 人很难从过去的痛苦和遗憾中摆脱出来) 。题干中的 find it very hard to get rid of unpleasant memories 对应原文中的 make it very difficult to get over pain and regret。 || 本题意为:近期一项针对超级自传体记忆症者的研究表明,他们容易幻想并全身心专注 于某一活动。根据题干关键词: a recent study, liable to fantasy 和 absorption 可定位至 原文 I 段: Lawrence Patihis at the University of Southern Mississippi, recently studied around 20 people with HSAM and found that they scored particularly high on two measures: fantasy proneness and absorption(南密西西比大学的劳伦斯?帕特西斯最近研究了近 20 位拥有 HSAM 能力者,发现他们在幻想倾向和专注力两方面得分特别高) 。由大意可知本题干是对 该段的概括总结。

选词填空
As if you needed another reason to hate the gym, it now turns out that exercise can exhaust not only your muscles, but alsoyour eyes. Fear not, however, for coffee can stimulate them again. During 26 exercise, our muscles tire as they run out offuel and build up waste products. Muscle performance can also be affected by a 27 called “central fatigue,” in which an imbalance in the body’s chemical messengers prevents the central nervous system from directing muscle movements 28. It wasnot known, however, whether central fatigue might also affect motor systems not directly 29in the exercise itself, such asthose that move the eyes. To find out, researchers gave 11 volunteer cyclists a carbohydrate ( 碳水化合物的 ) 30 either with a moderate dose of caffeine ( 咖啡因 ), which is known to stimulate the central nervous system, or as a placebo ( 安慰剂 ) without, during 3 hours of 31. After exercising, the scientists tested the cyclists with eye-tracking cameras to see how well their brains could still 32 their visual system. The team found that exercise reduced the speed of rapid eye movements by about 8%,33their ability to capture new visual information. The caffeine, the equivalent of two strong cups of coffee, was34 toreverse this effect, with some cyclists even displaying35 eye movement speeds. So it might be a good idea to get someoneelse to drive you home after that marathon. ### (A) cautiously (B) commit (C) control (D) cycling (E) effectively (F) increased (G) involved (H) limited (I) phenomenon (J) preventing (K) sensitive (L) slowing (M) solution (N) sufficient (O) vigorous ###
26. O 27. I 28. E 29. G 30. M 31. D 32. C 33. J

34. N 35. F

脚本: As if you needed another reason to hate the gym, it now turns out that exercise can exhaust not only your muscles, but alsoyour eyes. Fear not, however, for coffee can stimulate them again. During vigorous exercise, our muscles tire as they run out offuel and build up waste products. Muscle performance can also be affected by a phenomenon called “central fatigue,” in which an imbalance in the body’s chemical messengers prevents the central nervous system from directing muscle movements effectively. It wasnot known, however, whether central fatigue might also affect motor systems not directly involved in the exercise itself, such as those that move the eyes. To find out, researchers gave 11 volunteer cyclists a carbohydrate ( 碳 水 化 合 物 的 ) solutioneither with a moderate dose of caffeine ( 咖啡因 ), which is known to stimulate the central nervous system, or as a placebo ( 安慰剂 ) without, during 3 hours of cycling. After exercising, the scientists tested the cyclists with eye-tracking cameras to see how well their brains could still control their visual system. The team found that exercise reduced the speed of rapid eye movements by about 8%,preventing their ability to capture new visual information. The caffeine, the equivalent of two strong cups of coffee, wassufficient toreverse this effect, with some cyclists even displayingincreased eye movement speeds. So it might be a good idea to get someoneelse to drive you home after that marathon.

仔细阅读
Passage one 46. The market sales of toilet paper have decreased because ________. A) Britons have cut their spending on it B) its prices have gone up over the years C) its quality has seen marked improvement D) Britons have developed the habit of saving ##A 47. What does the author think of the future of the tissue paper market in the UK? A) It will expand in time. B) It will remain gloomy. C) It will experience ups and downs. D) It will recover as population grows. ##B 48. What does Jack Duckett say about toilet paper? A) Special offers would promote its sales.

B) Consumers are loyal to certain brands. C) Luxurious features add much to the price. D) Consumers have a variety to choose from. ##C 49. What do we learn about Britons concerning toilet paper? A) They are particular about the quality of toilet paper. B) They emphasize the strength of toilet paper the most. C) They prefer cheap toilet paper to recycled toilet paper. D) They reject using toilet paper with unnecessary features. ##A 50. What can we infer from the last paragraph? A) More and more Britons buy recycled toilet paper to protect the environment. B) Toilet paper manufacturers are facing a great challenge in promoting its sales. C) Toilet paper manufacturers compete with one another to improve product quality. D) Environmental protection is not much of a concern when Britons buy toilet paper. ##D Passage two 51. What does Lindson-Hawley say about her mother? A) She quit smoking with her daughter’s help. B) She succeeded in quitting smoking abruptly. C) She was also a researcher of tobacco and health. D) She studied the smoking patters of adult smokers. ##B 52. What kind of support did smokers receive to quit smoking in Lindson-Hawley’s study? A) They were given physical training. B) They were looked after by physicians. C) They were encouraged by psychologists. D) They were offered nicotine replacements. ##D 53. How does Dr. Gabriela Ferreira view the result of Lindson-Hawley’s experiment? A) It is idealized. B) It is unexpected. C) It is encouraging. D) It is misleading. ##C 54. The idea of “a marathon” (Line 2, Para. 5) illustrates the popular belief that quitting smoking ________. A) is something few can accomplish

B) needs some practice first C) requires a lot of patience D) is a challenge at the beginning ##B 55. What happens when people try to quit smoking gradually? A) They find it even more difficult. B) They are simply unable to make it. C) They show fewer withdrawal symptoms. D) They feel much less pain in the process. ##A 脚本 Passage one Shoppers in the UK are spending less money on toilet paper to save money, research has shown. Penny-pinching UK consumers choose cheaper products from discounters such as Aldi and Lidl rather than luxury alternatives. This has wiped 6% off the value of the soft tissue paper market in the UK. It has shrunk from ?1.19 billion in 2011 to ?1.12 billion in 2015, according to a new report from market research company Mintel. Furthermore, the future of the market looksfar from rosy, with sales expected to fall further to ?1.11 billion in 2016. In the last year alone, despite an increase in the UK population and a subsequent rise in the number of households, sales oftoilet paper fell by 2%, with the average household reducing their toilet roll spending from ?43 in 2014 to ?41 in 2015. Overall, almost three in five people say they try to limit their usage of paper—including facial tissue and kitchen roll—tosave money. “Strength, softness and thickness remain the leading indicators of toilet paper quality, with just a small proportionof consumers preferring more luxurious alternatives, such as those with flower patterns or perfume,” said Mintel analyst JackDuckett. “These extra features are deemed unnecessary by the majority of shoppers, which probably reflects how these types ofproducts are typically more expensive than regular toilet paper, even when on special offer.” While consumers are spending less on toilet paper, they remain fussy—in theory at least—when it comes to paper quality.Top of Britons’ toilet paper wish list is softness (57%) followed by strength (45%) and thickness (36%). One in 10 buyers rank toilet rolls made from recycled paper among their top considerations, highlighting how overall theenvironment is much less of a consideration for shoppers than product quality. In a challenge for manufacturers, 81% of paperproduct users said they would consider buying recycled toilet tissue if it were comparable in quality to standard paper.

Passage two “One of the reasons I find this topic very interesting is because my mom was a smoker when I was younger,” says Lind-son-Hawley, who studies tobacco and health at the University of Oxford. By studying about 700 adult smokers, she found out that her mom quit the right way—by

stopping abruptly and completely. In her study, participants were randomly ( 随机地 ) assigned to two groups. One had to quit abruptly on a given day, going from about a pack a day to zero. The other cut down gradually over the course of two weeks. People in both groups used nicotine ( 尼古丁 ) patches before they quit, in addition to a second form of nicotine replacement, like gum or spray. They also had talk therapy with a nurse before and after quit day. Six months out, more people who had quit abruptly had stuck with it—more than one-fifth of them, compared to aboutone-seventh in the other group. Although these numbers appear low, it is much higher than if people try without support. And the quit rates were particularly convincing given that before the study started, most of the people had said they’drather cut down gradually before quitting. “If you’re training for a marathon, you wouldn’t expect to turn up and just be able to run it. And I think people see that for smoking as well. They think, ‘well, if I gradually reduce, it’s like practice,’ ” says Lindsons-Hawley. But that wasn’t the case. Instead of giving people practice, the gradual reduction likely gave them cravings ( 瘾)and withdrawal symptoms before they even reached quit day, which could be why fewer people in that group actually made it tothat point. “Regardless of your stated preference, if you’re ready to quit, quitting abruptly is more effective,” says Dr. GabrieiaFerreira. “When you can quote a specific number like a fifth of the patients were able to quit, that’s compelling. It gives themthe encouragement, I think, to really go for it,” Ferreira says. People rarely manage to quit the first time they try. But at least, she says, they can maximize the odds of success.

2017 年 6 月六级
听力批量导入
Passage one
1. A) Doing enjoyable work. B) Having friendly colleagues. C) Earning a competitive salary. D) Working for supportive bosses. ## B 2. A) 31%. B) 20%. C) 25%. D) 73%.

##B 3. A) Those of a small size. B) Those run by women. C) Those that are well managed. D) Those full of skilled workers. ##A 4. A) They can hop from job to job easily. B) They can win recognition of their work. C) They can better balance work and life. D) They can take on more than one job. ##C

Passage two 5. A) It is a book of European history. B) It is an introduction to music. C) It is about the city of Bruges. D) It is a collection of photos. ##D 6. A) When painting the concert hall of Bruges. B) When vacationing in an Italian coastal city. C) When taking pictures for a concert catalogue. D) When writing about Belgium‘s coastal regions. ##C 7. A) The entire European coastline will be submerged. B) The rich heritage of Europe will be lost completely. C) The seawater of Europe will be seriously polluted. D) The major European scenic spots will disappear. ##A 8. A) Its waterways are being increasingly polluted. B) People cannot get around without using boats. C) It attracts large numbers of tourists from home and abroad. D) Tourists use wooden paths to reach their hotels in the morning. ##D 脚本: Passage one

W: Welcome to Work Place.And in today‘s program, we‘re looking at the results of two recentl y published surveys, which bothdeal with the same topic—happiness at work. John, tell us about the first survey. M: Well, this was done by a human resources consultancy, who interviewed more than 1,000 workers and established a top 10of the factors which make people happy at work. The most important factor, for the majority of the people interviewed, washaving friendly, supportive colleagues. In fact, 73% of people interviewed put their relationship with colleagues as the keyfactor contributing to happiness at work, which is a very high percentage. The second most important factor was havingwork that is enjoyable. The two least important factors were having one‘s achievements recognized, and rather surprisingly,earning a competitive salary. W: So, we are not mainly motivated by money? M: Apparently not. W: Any other interesting information in the survey? M: Yes. For example, 25% of the working people interviewed described themselves as ―very happy‖ at work. However, 20% ofemployees described themselves as ―being unhappy‖. W: That‘s quite a lot of unhappy people at work every day. M: It is, isn‘t it? And there were several more interesting conclusions revealed by the survey. Firs t of all, small is beautiful: people definitely prefer working for smaller organizations or companies with less than 100 staff. We also find out that, generallyspeaking, women were happier in their work than men. W: Yes, we are, aren‘t we? M: And workers on part-time contracts, who only work 4 or 5 hours a day, are happier than those who work full-time. The researchers concluded that this is probably due to a better work-life balance. W: Are bosses happier than their employees? M: Yes, perhaps not surprisingly, the higher people go in a company, the happier they are. So senior managers enjoy their jobsmore than people working under them. Q1: What is the No.1 factor that made employees happy according to the survey? Q2: What is the percentage of the people surveyed who felt unhappy at work? Q3: What kind of companies are popular with employees? Q4: What is the possible reason for people on part-time contracts to be happier?

Passage two W: Mr. De Keyzer, I‘m a great lover of your book Moments Before the Flood. Can you tell us how you first became interestedin this subject matter? M: In 2006, when the concert hall of the city of Bruges asked me to take some pictures for a catalogue for a new concert seasonaround the theme of water, I found myself working along the Belgian coastline. As there had been numerous alarmingarticles in the press about a climate catastrophe waiting to happen, I started looking at the sea and the beach very differently,a place where I spent so many perfect days as a child. This fear of a looming danger became the subject of a large-scalephoto project. W: You wrote in the book ―I don‘t want to photograph the disaster; I want to photograph the disaster waiting to happen.‖ Canyou talk a bit about that? M: It is clear now that it is a matter of time before the entire European coastline disappears under water. The same goes fornumerous big cities around the world. My idea was to photograph this beautiful and very unique coastline, rich in historybefore it‘s too late—as a last witness. W: Can you talk a bit about how history plays a role in this project? M: Sure. The project is also about the history of Europe looking at the sea and wondering when the next enemy

would appear.In the images, you see all kinds of possible defense constructions to hold back the Romans, Germans, Vikings, and nownature as enemy No. 1. For example, there is the image of the bridge into the sea taken at the Normandy D-Day landing site.Also, Venice, the city eternally threatened by the sea, where every morning wooden pathways have to be set up to allowtourists to reach their hotels. W: Thank you, Mr. De Keyzer. It was a pleasure to have you with us today. Q5: What does the man say about the book Moments Before the Flood? Q6: When did the man get his idea for the work? Q7: What will happen when the climate catastrophe occurs? Q8: What does the man say about Venice?

Passage one
9. A) They make careful preparations beforehand. B) They take too many irrelevant factors into account. C) They spend too much time anticipating their defeat. D) They try hard to avoid getting off on the wrong foot. ##C 10. A) A person‘s nervous system is more complicated than imagined. B) Golfers usually have positive mental images of themselves. C) Mental images often interfere with athletes‘ performance. D) Thinking has the same effect on the nervous system as doing. ##D 11. A) Anticipate possible problems. B) Make a list of do‘s and don‘ts. C) Picture themselves succeeding. D) Try to appear more professional. ##C 12. A) She wore a designer dress. B) She won her first jury trial. C) She did not speak loud enough. D) She presented moving pictures. ##B Passage two 13. A) Its long-term effects are yet to be proved. B) Its health benefits have been overestimated. C) It helps people to avoid developing breast cancer. D) It enables patients with diabetes to recover sooner. ##C 14.

A) It focused on their ways of life during young adulthood. B) It tracked their change in food preferences for 20 years. C) It focused on their difference from men in fiber intake. D) It tracked their eating habits since their adolescence. ##D 15. A) Fiber may help to reduce hormones in the body. B) Fiber may bring more benefits to women than men. C) Fiber may improve the function of heart muscles. D) Fiber may make blood circulation more smooth. ##A

脚本 Passage one When facing a new situation, some people tend to rehearse their defeat by spending too much time anticipating the worst.I remember talking with a young lawyer who was about to begin her first jury trial. She was very nervous. I asked what impression she wanted to make on the jury. She replied, ―I don‘t want to look too inexperienced; I don‘t want them to suspect this ismy first trial.‖ This lawyer had fallen victim to the ―don‘ts‖ syndrome—a form of negative goals setting. The ―don‘ts‖ can beself-fulfilling because your mind responds to pictures. Research conducted at Stanford University shows a mental image firethe nervous system the same way as actually doing something. That means when a golfer tells himself ―Don‘t hit the ball intothe water‖, his mind sees the image of the ball flying into the water. So guess where the ball will go. Consequently, before going into any stressful situation, focus only on what you want to have happen. I asked the lawyeragain how she wanted to appear at her first trial. And this time she said, ―I want to look professional and self-assured.‖ I told herto create a picture of what self-assured would look like. To her, it meant moving confidently around the court room, using convincing body language and projecting her voice so it could be heard from the judge‘s bench to the back door. She also imagineda skillful closing argument and a winning trial. A few weeks after this positive dress rehearsal, the young lawyer did win. Q9: What do some people do when they face a new situation? Q10: What does the research conducted at Stanford University show? Q11: What advice does the speaker give to people in a stressful situation? Q12: What do we learn about the lawyer in the court? Passage two Most Americans don‘t eat enough fruits, vegetables or whole grains. Research now says adding fiber to the teen diet mayhelp lower the risk of breast cancer. Conversations about the benefits of fiber are probably more common in nursing homes thanhigh schools. But along comes a new study that could change that. Kristi King, a diet specialist at Texas Children‘s Hospital,finds it‘s hard to get teenager patients‘ attention about healthy eating by telling them that eating lots of high-fiber foods couldreduce the risk of breast cancer before middle age. That‘s a powerful message. The new finding is based on a study of 44,000women. They were surveyed about their diets during high school, and their eating habits were tracked for two decades. It turnsout that those who consumed the highest levels of fiber during adolescence had a lower risk of developing breast cancer, compared to the women

who ate the least fiber. This important study demonstrates that the more fiber you eat during your highschool years, the lower your risk is in developing breast cancer in later life. The finding points to long-standing evidence that fiber may reduce circulating female hormone levels, which could explain the reduced risk. The bottom line here is the morefiber you eat, perhaps, a lower level of hormone in your body, and therefore, a lower lifetime risk of developing breast cancer.High-fiber diets are also linked to a reduced risk of heart disease and diabetes. That‘s why women are told to eat 25 grams offiber a day—men even more. Q13: What does the new study tell about adding fiber to the teen diet? Q14: What do we learn about the survey of the 44,000 women? Q15: What explanation does the speaker offer for the research finding?

Passage one 16. A) Observing the change in marketing. B) Conducting research on consumer behaviour. C) Studying the hazards of young people drinking. D) Investigating the impact of media on government. ##B 17. A) It is the cause of many street riots. B) It is getting worse year by year. C) It is a chief concern of parents. D) It is an act of socialising. ##D 18. A) They spent a week studying their own purchasing behaviour. B) They researched the impact of mobile phones on young people. C) They analysed their family budgets over the years. D) They conducted a thorough research on advertising. ##A Passage two 19. A) It is helping its banks to improve efficiency. B) It is trying hard to do away with dirty money. C) It is the first country to use credit cards in the world. D) It is likely to give up paper money in the near future. ##D 20. A) Whether it is possible to travel without carrying any physical currency. B) Whether it is possible to predict how much money one is going to spend. C) Whether the absence of physical currency causes a person to spend more. D) Whether the absence of physical currency is going to affect everyday life.

##C 21. A) There was no food service on the train. B) The service on the train was not good. C) The restaurant car accepted cash only. D) The cash in her handbag was missing. ##C 22. A) By putting money into envelopes. B) By drawing money week by week. C) By limiting their day-to-day spending. D) By refusing to buy anything on credit. ##A Passage three 23. A) Population explosion. B) Chronic hunger. C) Extinction of rare species. D) Environmental deterioration. ##B 24. A) They contribute to overpopulation. B) About half of them are unintended. C) They have been brought under control. D) The majority of them tend to end halfway. ##B 25. A) It is essential to the well-being of all species on earth. B) It is becoming a subject of interdisciplinary research. C) It is neglected in many of the developing countries. D) It is beginning to attract postgraduates‘ attention. ##A

脚本:

Passage one
Well my current research is really about consumer behaviour. So recently I‘ve looked at young people‘s drinking and it‘sobviously a major concern to government at the moment. I‘ve also looked at how older people are represented in the media.Again, it‘s of major current interest with older people becoming a much larger proportion of UK and indeed world society. I‘malso interested in how consumers operate online, and how that online behaviour might be different from how they operate offline when they go to the shops. Well, I think that the important thing here is to actually understand what‘s happening from the consumers‘ perspective.One of the things that businesses and indeed government organizations often fail to do is to really see

what is happening fromthe consumers‘ perspective. For example, in the case of young people‘s drinking, one of the things that I‘ve identified is thatdrinking for people, say, between the ages of 18 and 24 is all about the social activity. A lot of the government advertising has been about individual responsibility, but actually understanding that drinking isvery much about the social activity and finding ways to help young people get home safely and not end up in hospital is one ofthe things that we‘ve tried to present there. The key thing about consumer behaviour is that it‘s very much about how consumers change. Markets always change faster than marketing; so we have to look at what consumers are doing. Currently I teach consumer behaviour to undergraduates intheir second year and we look at all kinds of things in consumer behaviour and particularly how consumers are presented in advertising. So they get involved by looking at advertising and really critically assessing the consumer behaviour aspects of it, andgetting involved, sometimes doing primary research. For example, last year my students spent a week looking at their own purchasing and analysed it in detail from shopping to the relationship that they have with their retail banks and their mobile phoneproviders. I think they found it very useful and it also helped them identify just what kind of budgets they had too. The fact ofthe matter is that there‘s a whole range of interesting research out there, an d I think as the years go on, there is going to be muchmore for us to consider and certainly much more for students to become involved in. Q16: What is the speaker currently doing? Q17: What has the speaker found about young people‘s drinking? Q18: What does the speaker say that his students did last year?

Passage two Sweden was the first European country to print and use paper money, but it may soon do away with physical currencies.Banks can save a lot of money and avoid regulatory headaches by moving to a cash-free system, and they can also avoid bankrobberies, theft, and dirty money. Claer Barrett, the editor of Financial Times Money, says the Western world is headed toward a world without physicalcurrency. Andy Holder, the chief economist at the Bank of England, suggested that the UK move toward a government-backeddigital currency. But does a cashless society really make good economic sense? The fact that cash is being drawn out of society is less a feature of our everyday lives, and the ease of electronic payments — is this actually making us spend more moneywithout realizing it? Barrett wanted to find out if the absence of physical currency does indeed cause a person to spend more, so she decided toconduct an experiment a few months ago. She decided that she was going to try to just use cash for two weeks to make all of heressential purchases and see what that would do to her spending. She found she did spend a lot less money because it is incredibly hard to predict how much cash one is going to need —she was forever drawing money out of cash points. Months later, shewas still finding cash stuffed in her trouser pockets and the pockets of her handbags. During the experiment, Barrett took a train ride. On the way, there was an announcement that the restaurant car was notcurrently accepting credit cards. The train cars were filled with groans because many of the passengers were traveling withoutcash. ―It underlines just how much things have changed in the last generation,‖ Barrett says. ―My parents, when they wereyounger, used to budget by putting money into envelopes. They‘d get paid and they‘d immediately separate the cash into pilesand put them in envelopes, so they knew what they had to spend week by week. It was a very effective way for them to keeptrack of their spending.‖ Nowadays, we‘re all on credit cards; we‘re doing online purchases and money is kind of becoming aless physical and more imaginary type of thing that we can‘t get our hands around.

Q19: What do we learn about Sweden? Q20: What did Claer Barrett want to find out with her experiment? Q21: What did Claer Barrett find on her train ride? Q22: How did people of the last generation budget their spending? Passage three Why should you consider taking a course in demography in college? You‘ll be growing up in a generation where the babyboomers are going into retirement and dying. You will face the problems in the aging of the population that have never beenfaced before. You will hear more and more about migration between countries and between rural areas and cities. You need tounderstand as a citizen and as a tax payer and as a voter what‘s really behind the arguments. I want to tell you about the past, present and future of the human population. So let‘s start with a few problems. Rightnow, a billion people are chronically hungry. That means they wake up hungry, they are hungry all day, and they go to sleephungry. A billion people are living in slums, not the same billion people, but there is some overlap. Living in slums means theydon‘t have infrastructure to take the garbage away; they don‘t have secure water supplies to drink. Nearly a billion people areilliterate. Try to imagine your life being illiterate. You can‘t read the labels on the bottles in the supermarket, if you can get to asupermarket. Two-thirds of those people who are illiterate are women. And about 200 to 250 million women don‘t have accessto birth control they want, so that they can control their own fertility. This is not only a problem in developing countries. Abouthalf of all pregnancies globally are unintended. So those are examples of population problems. Demography gives you the tools to understand and to address these problems. It‘s not only the study of human population,but the populations of non-human species, including viruses like influenza, the bacteria in your gut, plants that you eat, animalsthat you enjoy, all that provide you with meat. Demography also includes the study of non-living objects like light bulbs andtaxi cabs and buildings because these are also populations. It studies these populations, in the past, present and future, usingquantitative data and mathematical models as tools of analysis. I see demography as a central subject related to economics. It is the means to intervene more wisely and more effectivelyin the real world to improve the well-being, not only of yourself—important as that may be—but of people around you and ofother species with whom we share the planet. Q23: What is one of the problems the speaker mentions in his talk? Q24: What does the speaker say about pregnancies? Q25: How does the speaker view the study of populations?

阅读批量导入
选词填空
After becoming president of Purdue University in 2013, Mitch Daniels asked the faculty to prove that their students haveactually achieved one of higher education‘s most important goals: critical thinking skill. Two years before, a nationwide studyof college graduates had shown that more than a third had made no __26_ gains in such mental abilities during their schoolyears. Mr. Daniels needed to __ 27_ the high cost of attending Purdue to its students and their families. After all, the percentageof Americans who say a college degree is ―very important‖ has

fallen __28 _ in the last 5-6 years. Purdue now has a pilot test to assess students‘ critical thinking skills. Yet like many college teachers around the U.S., thefaculty remain __29__ that their work as educators can be measured by a ―learning __30 __‖ such as a graduate‘s ability to investigate and reason. However, the professors need not worry so much. The results of a recent experiment showed that professorscan use __ 31__ metrics to measure how well students do in three key areas: critical thinking, written communication, and quantitative literacy. Despite the success of the experiment, the actual results are worrisome, and mostly ___32__ earlier studies. The organizersof the experiment concluded that far fewer students were achieving at high levels on critical thinking than they were doing forwritten communication or quantitative literacy. And that conclusion is based only on students nearing graduation. American universities, despite their global ___33__ for excellence in teaching, have only begun to demonstrate what theycan produce in real-world learning. Knowledge-based degrees are still important, but employers are __34__ advanced thinkingskills from college graduates. If the intellectual worth of a college degree can be __35 __ measured, more people will seek highereducation—and come out better thinkers. ### A) accurately B) confirm C) demanding D) doubtful E) drastically F) justify G) monopolized H) outcome I) predominance J) presuming K) reputation L) significant M) signify N) simultaneously O) standardized ### 26.L 27. F 28. E 29. D 30. H 31. O 32. B 33. K 34. C 35. A 脚本:

After becoming president of Purdue University in 2013, Mitch Daniels asked the faculty to prove that their students haveactually achieved one of higher education‘s most important goals: critical thinking skill. Two years before, a nationwide studyof college graduates had shown that more than a third had made no significant gains in such mental abilities during their schoolyears. Mr. Daniels needed tojustify the high cost of attending Purdue to its students and their families. After all, the percentageof American s who say a college degree is ―very important‖ has fallen drasticallyin the last 5-6 years. Purdue now has a pilot test to assess students‘ critical thinking skills. Yet like many college teachers around the U.S., thefaculty remain doubtful that their work as educators can be measured by a ―learningoutcome‖ such as a graduate‘s ability to investigate and reason. However, the professors need not worry so much. The results of a recent experiment showed that professorscan usestandardized metrics to measure how well students do in three key areas: critical thinking, written communication, and quantitative literacy. Despite the success of the experiment, the actual results are worrisome, and mostly confirm earlier studies. The organizersof the experiment concluded that far fewer students were achieving at high levels on critical thinking than they were doing forwritten communication or quantitative literacy. And that conclusion is based only on students nearing graduation. American universities, despite their global reputation for excellence in teaching, have only begun to demonstrate what theycan produce in real-world learning. Knowledge-based degrees are still important, but employers are demanding advanced thinkingskills from college graduates. If the intellectual worth of a college degree can be accurately measured, more people will seek highereducation —and come out better thinkers.

解析: 空格位于 no 和名词 gains 之间,可判断此处应填形容词修饰 gains(改进) ,备选中,符合句意的 只有 significant。… more than a third had made no significant gains in such mental abilities during their school years 意为:在大学期间,有三分之一以上的学生在诸如此类的心智能力方面没有取得重大收获。空格位于 needed to 之后,故本题从动词原形中选:B) confirm(确认;证实) 、F) justify(证明??有理; 为??辩解) 、 M) signify (意味着; 表达情感、 意愿等) , 根据本句主谓结构: Mr. Daniels needed to do sth. tosb., 所以该动词后可跟双宾语。结合句意,上句提到大学生在批判性思维能力上并没有取得重大进展,故校长 丹尼尔斯有必要向学生和家长就普渡大学的高昂学费做出解释。 F) justify 符合句法和语义, justify sth./oneself tosb. 意为“对??做出解释;为??辩解” 。 || 本题较简单, 空格所在句的主谓结构完整, 空格位于谓语动词 fallen 之后, 故此处应填副词。 根据句意: 在过去五六年里,认为大学“非常重要”的美国人的比例____ 下滑。备选副词中只有 E) drastically(彻底 地;剧烈地)符合。 ||空格所在句的大意可结合后一句理解:However, the professors need not worry so much(教授们对此 不必太担心) ,所以可推测本句要表达:大学的教职工们对自己作为教育者的工作能否被衡量保持怀疑或不 自信心;又因空格位于系动词 remain 之后,且后跟 that 从句,由此可断定 doubtful 最佳,doubtful 后可 跟 that/if/whether,意为“未必;难说” 。 ||本题较简单,空格位于名词短语 a ―learning ____‖,后面的 such as 是对此名词短语的举例说明,故此处应 填名词。备选名词:H) outcome(结果;成果) 、I) predominance (优势) 、K) reputation(名声;名誉) , 其中只有 a ―learning outcome‖(一种学习成果)符合上下文的理解,所以本题选 H) outcome。 || 本题____ metrics 在空格所在句中作动词 can use 的宾语,空格修饰名词 metrics(衡量) ,故此处应填形 容词。结合备选词义,只有 standardized metrics(标准的衡量)符合逻辑。 ||本句位于 and 并列句中, mostly 是代词作本句主语, 故空格处应作 mostly 的谓语动词, 根据上下文时态, 本空应填动词原形形式。 结合句意, 备选中只有 confirm (确认; 证实) 符合, mostly confirm the earlier studies

意为:大部分结果证实了先前的研究。 || 本题较简单,介词 despite 后跟名词,且与空格后的 for 构成搭配,备选名词中符合的只有 reputation(名 声;名誉) , reputation for sth./for doing sth. 。 predominance 一般指数量上占优势,与其后的 excellence inteaching 语义不对等,所以可排除。 ||空格所在句位于 but 转折句中,主语是 employers,谓语部分是 are _____,宾语部分是 advancing thinking skills(高级的思维能力) ,所以空格处是及物动词 ing 形式。备选中只有 demanding 符合句法和大 意。employers are demanding advanced thinking skills 意为:雇佣单位越来越要求大学毕业生要具备更高的 思维能力。 || 本题较简单,空格所在 if 从句的句法结构完整,空格位于动词 measured 之前,故此处应填副词。备选 副词中只有 accurately measured(精确衡量)表达最佳且符合大意。所以本题选 A) accurately。

段落匹配
<b>The Price of Oil and the Price of Carbon</b> [A] Fossil fuel prices are likely to stay ―low for long.‖ Notwithstanding important recent progress in developing renewablefuel sources, low fossil fuel prices could discourage further innovation in, and adoption of, cleaner energy technologies. The result would be higher emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. [B] Policymakers should not allow low energy prices to derail the clean energy transition. Action to restore appropriateprice incentives, notably through corrective carbon pricing, is urgently needed to lower the risk of irreversible and potentiallydevastating effects of climate change. That approach also offers fiscal benefits. [C] Oil prices have dropped by over 60% since June 2014. A commonly held view in the oil industry is that ―the best curefor low oil prices is low oil prices.‖ The reasoning behind th is saying is that low oil prices discourage investment in new production capacity, eventually shifting the oil supply curve backward and bringing prices back up as existing oil fields—whichcan be tapped at relatively low marginal cost—are depleted. In fact, in line with past experience, capital expenditure in the oilsector has dropped sharply in many producing countries, including the United States. The dynamic adjustment to low oil pricesmay, however, be different this time around. [D] Oil prices are expected to remain lower for longer. The advent of new technologies has added about 4.2 million barrelsper day to the crude oil market, contributing to a global over-supply. In addition, other factors are putting downward pressureon oil prices: change in the strategic behavior of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, the projected increase inIranian exports, the scaling-down of global demand (especially from emerging markets), the long-term drop in petroleum consumption in the United States, and some displacement of oil by substitutes. These likely persistent forces, like the growth ofshale (页岩) oil, point to a ―low for long‖ scenario. Futures markets, which show only a modest recovery of prices to around $60a barrel by 2019, support this view. [E] Natural gas and coal—also fossil fuels—have similarly seen price declines that look to be long-lived. Coal and naturalgas are mainly used for electricity generation, whereas oil is used mostly to power transportation, yet the prices of all these energy sources are linked. The North American shale gas boom has resulted in record low prices there. The recent discovery of thegiant Zohr gas field off the Egyptian coast will eventually have impact on pricing in the Mediterranean region and Europe, andthere is significant development potential in many other places, notably Argentina. Coal prices also are low, owing to over-supply and the scaling-down of demand, especially from China, which burns half of the world‘s coal. [F] Technological innovations have unleashed the power of renewables such as wind, hydro, solar, and geothermal (地热).Even Africa and the Middle East, home to economies that are heavily dependent on fossil fuel exports, have enormous potentialto develop renewables. For example, the United Arab Emirates has endorsed an ambitious

target to draw 24% of its primary energy consumption from renewable sources by 2021. [G] Progress in the development of renewables could be fragile, however, if fossil fuel prices remain low for long. Renewables account for only a small share of global primary energy consumption, which is still dominated by fossil fuels—30%each for coal and oil, 25% for natural gas. But renewable energy will have to displace fossil fuels to a much greater extent in thefuture to avoid unacceptable climate risks. [H] Unfortunately, the current low prices for oil, gas, and coal may provide little incentive for research to find even cheaper substitutes for those fuels. There is strong evidence that both innovation and adoption of cleaner technology are strongly encouraged by higher fossil fuel prices. The same is true for new technologies for alleviating fossil fuel emissions. [I] The current low fossil fuel price environment will thus certainly delay the energy transition from fossil fuel to cleanenergy sources. Unless renewables become cheap enough that substantial carbon deposits are left underground for a very longtime, if not forever, the planet will likely be exposed to potentially catastrophic climate risks. [J] Some climate impacts may already be discernible. For example, the United Nations Children‘s Fund estimates thatsome 11 million children in Africa face hunger, disease, and water shortages as a result of the strongest El Nino ( 厄尔尼诺)weather phenomenon in decades. Many scientists believe that El Nino events, caused by warming in the Pacific, are becomingmore intense as a result of climate change. [K] Nations from around the world have gathered in Paris for the United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21,with the goal of a universal and potentially legally-binding agreement on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We need verybroad participation to fully address the global tragedy that results when countries fail to take into account the negative impactof their carbon emissions on the rest of the world. Moreover, non-participation by nations, if sufficiently widespread, can undermine the political will of participating countries to act. [L] The nations participating at COP 21 are focusing on quantitative emissions-reduction commitments. Economic reasoning shows that the least expensive way for each country is to put a price on carbon emissions. The reason is that when carbon ispriced, those emissions reductions that are least costly to implement will happen first. The International Monetary Fund calculates that countries can generate substantial fiscal revenues by eliminating fossil fuel subsidies and levying carbon charges thatcapture the domestic damage caused by emissions. A tax on upstream carbon sources is one easy way to put a price on carbonemissions, although some countries may wish to use other methods, such as emissions trading schemes. In order to maximizeglobal welfare, every country‘s carbon pricing should reflect not only the purely domestic damage from emissions, but also thedamage to foreign countries. [M] Setting the right carbon price will therefore efficiently align the costs paid by carbon users with the true social opportunity cost of using carbon. By raising relative demand for clean energy sources, a carbon price would also help align the marketreturn to clean-energy innovation with its social return, spurring the refinement of existing technologies and the developmentof new ones. And it would raise the demand for technologies such as carbon capture and storage, spurring their further development. If not corrected by the appropriate carbon price, low fossil fuel prices are not accurately signaling to markets the truesocial profitability of clean energy. While alternative estimates of the damage from carbon emissions differ, and it‘s especiallyhard to reckon the likely costs of possible catastrophic climate events, most estimates suggest substantial negative effects. [N] Direct subsidies to research and development have been adopted by some governments but are a poor substitute for acarbon price: they do only part of the job, leaving in place market incentives to over-use fossil fuels and thereby add to the stockof atmospheric greenhouse gases without regard to the collateral ( 附带的) costs. [O] The hope is that the success of COP 21 opens the door to future international agreement on carbon prices.

Agreementon an international carbon-price floor would be a good starting point in that process. Failure to address comprehensively theproblem of greenhouse gas emissions, however, exposes all generations, present and future, to incalculable risks.

36. A number of factors are driving down the global oil prices not just for now but in the foreseeable future. ## D 37. Pricing carbon proves the most economical way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ##L 38. It is estimated that extreme weather conditions have endangered the lives of millions of African children. ##J 39. The prices of coal are low as a result of over-supply and decreasing demand. ##E 40. Higher fossil fuel prices prove to be conducive to innovation and application of cleaner technology. ##H 41. If fossil fuel prices remain low for a long time, it may lead to higher emissions of greenhouse gases. ##A 42. Fossil fuels remain the major source of primary energy consumption in today‘s world. ##G 43. Even major fossil fuel exporting countries have great potential to develop renewable energies. ##F 44. Greenhouse gas emissions, if not properly dealt with, will pose endless risks for mankind. ##O 45. It is urgent for governments to increase the cost of using fossil fuels to an appropriate level to lessen the catastrophic effectsof climate change. ##B 解析 本题意为:不仅现在,而且在可预见的将来,很多因素都在促使全球油价下跌。原文 D 段第一句提到: Oil prices are expected to remain lower for longer(预计油价将会持续走低) ,第 3 句提到:In addition, otherfactors are putting downward pressure on oil prices (另外,还有其他因素正在对油价产生下行的压力) , 由大意可知本题是对该部分的概括总结。 || 本题意为:碳定价被证明是减少温室气体排放最经济的方法。原文 L 段第 2 句提到:Economic reasoning shows that the least expensive way for each country is to put a price on carbon emissions. The reason is that whencarbon is priced, those emissions reductions that are least costly to implement will happen first (经济推论显 示,对每个国家来讲,最低成本的方法是对碳排放定价。原因是当碳被定价时,那些最低成本的减排措施 就会首先实施) ,由大意可知本题是对该部分的概括总结。题干中的 Pricing carbon 对应原文中的 to put a price on carbonemissions,the most economical 对应原文的 the least expensive。 || 本题意为:据估计,极端天气状况已经危及到成百上千万非洲儿童的生命。根据题干关键词 millions of African children 可定位至原文 J 段:lion children in Africa face hunger, disease, and water shortages as a result of the strongest EL Nino ( 厄尔尼诺) weatherphenomenon in decades(例如,联合国儿童基金会估计, 由于几十年来强劲的厄尔尼诺气候现象,非洲大约有 1100 万儿童面临饥饿、疾病和水资源短缺等问题) 。 由大意可知题干是对该部分的概括总结。 || 本题意为:由于供应过剩、需求减少,煤炭价格很低。根据题干关键词组 over-supply and decreasing

demand 可定位至原文 E 段,最后一句提到: Coal prices also are low, owing to over-supply and the scaling-downof demand, especially from China, which burns half of the world‘s coal (由于供应过剩和需求下降, 特别是消耗全球一半煤炭量的中国需求量减少,也导致了煤炭价格的下跌) 。题干中的 as a result of 对应原 文的 owing to,decreasing demand 对应原文的 scaling-down of demand。 || 本题意为:化石燃料价格上升被证明有助于清洁技术的创新和应用。由题干关键词:Higher fossil fuel price, innovation 和 cleaner technology 可定位至原文 H 段。 本段提到: There is strong evidence that both innovation and adoption of cleaner technology are strongly encouraged by higher fossil fuel prices (有强有力的证 据表明,化石燃料的高价会强烈地促进清洁技术的创新和应用) 。由大意可知本题是对该段的概括总结。题 干中的 prove 对应原文的 evidence,be conducive to 对应原文的 are encouraged by,application 对应原文的 adoption。需要注意的是,A 段是本题一个干扰段,A 段提到:Notwithstanding important recent progress in developing renewable fuelsources, low fossil fuel prices could discourage further innovation in, and adoption of, cleaner energy technologies(尽管近期在开发可再生燃料方面有了重要的进展,但是化石燃料的价格走低可 能会阻碍清洁能源技术的进一步创新和应用) 。A 段只是指出这种可能性,而题干强调的是 prove,所以本 题是对 H 段的概括总结。 || 本题意为:如果化石燃料价格长时间走低,这可能会导致温室气体排放量增加。文章首段就提到: Fossil fuel prices are likely to stay ―low for long‖(化石燃料的价格可能会一直“持续走低” ) ;The result would behigher emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (其结果将是二氧化碳和其他温室气体的排 放量增加) 。由大意可知本题是对 A 段的概括总结。 || 本题意为:化石燃料是当今世界一次能源消耗的主要来源。根据原文 G 段 Renewables account for only a small share of global primary energy consumption, which is still dominated by fossil fuels—30% each for coal andoil, 25% for natural gas(可再生能源在全球一次能源消耗中仅占小部份份额,目前仍然以化石燃料 为主体,煤炭和石油分别占 30%,天然气占 25%) 。由大意可知本题是对该段的概括总结。题干中的 major source 对应原文的 be dominated by。 || 本题意为:甚至连主要的化石燃料出口国家也有很大潜力开发可再生能源。根据题干关键词组 exporting countries, potential 和 develop renewable energies, 可定位至原文 F: Even Africa and the Middle East, home to economies that are heavily dependent on fossil fuel exports, have enormous potential to develop renewables(即使是非常依赖化石燃料出口的经济体,如非洲和中东地区,也具有开发可再生能源的巨大潜 力) 。由大意可知本题是对该段的概括总结。 ||本题意为:如果不妥善处理温室气体排放问题,人类会被置于无尽的风险中。文章最后一段最后一 句提到:Failure to address comprehensively the problem of greenhouse gas emissions, however, exposes all generations,present and future, to incalculable risks(未能全面解决温室气体排放问题,无论现在还是将来,都 将使我们的世世代代遭受无法估量的风险) 。题干中的 not properly dealt with 对应原文的 Failure to address comprehensively;题干中的 pose endless risks for mankind 对应原文的 expose all generations to in calculable risks。 || 本题意为:政府亟需将化石燃料的使用成本提到适当水平,以降低气候变化带来的灾难性影响。根 据原文 B 段第 2 句:Action to restore appropriate price incentives, notably through corrective carbon pricing, is urgently needed to lower the risk of irreversible and potentially devastating effects of climate change(应该迫切需 要采取能恢复合理价格的激励机制,尤其是通过纠正碳定价的手段,来降低气候变化引起不可逆转或潜在 的破坏性影响的风险) 。题干中的 lessen the catastrophic effects of climate change 对应原文的 lower the risk of irreversible and potentially devastating effects of climate change。

仔细阅读
Passage one

Open data sharers are still in the minority in many fields. Although many researchers broadly agree that public access toraw data would accelerate science, most are reluctant to post the results of their own labors online. Some communities have agreed to share online—geneticists, for example, post DNA sequences at the GenBankrepository ( 库), and astronomers are accustomed to accessing images of galaxies and stars from, say, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, atelescope that has observed some 500 million objects —but these remain the exception, not the rule. Historically, scientists haveobjected to sharing for many reasons: it is a lot of work; until recently, good databases did not exist; grant funders were notpushing for sharing; it has been difficult to agree on standards for formatting data; and there is no agreed way to assign creditfor data. But the barriers are disappearing in part because journals and funding agencies worldwide are encouraging scientists tomake their data public. Last year, the Royal Society in London said in its report that scientists need to ―shift away from a research culture where data is viewed as a private preserve‖. F unding agencies note that data paid for with public money shouldbe public information, and the scientific community is recognizing that data can now be shared digitally in ways that were notpossible before. To match the growing demand, services are springing up to make it easier to publish research products onlineand enable other researchers to discover and cite them. Although calls to share data often concentrate on the moral advantages of sharing, the practice is not purely altruistic ( 利他的). Researchers who share get plenty of personal benefits, including more connections with colleagues, improved visibilityand increased citations. The most successful sharers —those whose data are downloaded and cited the most often—get noticed,and their work gets used. For example, one of the most popular data sets on multidisciplinary repository Dryad is about wooddensity around the world; it has been downloaded 5,700 times. Co-author Amy Zanne thinks that users probably range fromclimate-change researchers wanting to estimate how much carbon is stored in biomass, to foresters looking for information ondifferent grades of timber. ―I would much prefer to have my data used by the maximum number of people to ask their own questions,‖ she says. ―It‘s important to allow readers and reviewers to see exactly how you arrive at your results. Publishing data andcode allows your science to be reproducible.‖ Even people whose data are less popular can benefit. By making the effort to organize and label files so others can understand them, scientists become more organized and better disciplined themselves, thus avoiding confusion later on. Passage two Macy‘s reported its sales plunged 5.2% in November and December at stores open more than a year, a disappointing holiday season performance that capped a difficult year for a department store chain facing wide-ranging challenges. Its flagshipstores in major U. S. cities depend heavily on international tourist spending, which shrank at many retailers due to a strong dollar. Meanwhile, Macy‘s has simply struggled to lure consumers who are more interested in spending on travel or dining out thanon new clothes or accessories. The company blamed much of the poor performance in November and December on unseasonably warm weather. ―About80% of our company‘s year-over-year declines in comparable sales can be attributed to shortfalls ( 短缺) in cold-weathergoods,‖ said chief executive Terry Lundgren in a press release. This prompted the company to cut its forecasts for the full fourthquarter. However, it‘s clear that Macy‘s believes its troubles run deeper than a temporary aberration ( 偏离) off the thermometer.The retail giant said the poor financial performance this year has pushed it to begin implementing $400 million in cost-cuttingmeasures. The company pledged to cut 600 back-office positions, though some 150 worker in those roles would be reassignedto other jobs. It also plans to offer ―voluntary separation‖ packages to 165 senior executives. It will slash staffing at its fleet of770 stores, a move affecting some 3,000 employees.

The retailer also announced the locations of 36 stores it will close in early 2016. The company had previously announcedthe planned closures, but had not said which locations would be affected. None of the chain‘s stores in the Washington metropolitan area are to be closed. Macy‘s has been moving aggressively to try to remake itself for a new era of shopping. It has plans to open more locationsof Macy‘s Backstage, a newly-developed off-price concept which might help it better compete with ambitious T. J. Maxx. It‘salso pushing ahead in 2016 with an expansion of Bluemercury, the beauty chain it bought last year. At a time when young beauty shoppers are often turning to Sephora or Ulta instead of department store beauty counters, Macy‘s hopes Bluemercury willhelp strengthen its position in the category. One relative bright spot for Macy‘s during the holiday season was the online channel, where it rang up ―double-digit‖ increases in sales and a 25% in the number of orders it filled. That relative strength would be consistent with what was seen in thewider retail industry during the early part of the holiday season. While Thanksgiving, Black Friday and Cyber Monday all sawrecord spending online, in-store sales plunged over the holiday weekend.

Passage one 46. What do many researchers generally accept? A) It is imperative to protect scientists‘ patents. B) Repositories are essential to scientific research. C) Open data sharing is most important to medical science. D) Open data sharing is conducive to scientific advancement. ##D 47. What is the attitude of most researchers towards making their own data public? A) Opposed. B) Ambiguous. C) Liberal. D) Neutral. ##A 48. According to the passage, what might hinder open data sharing? A) The fear of massive copying. B) The lack of a research culture. C) The belief that research data is private intellectual property. D) The concern that certain agencies may make a profit out of it. ##C 49. What helps lift some of the barriers to open data sharing? A) The ever-growing demand for big data. B) The advantage of digital technology. C) The changing attitude of journals and funders. D) The trend of social and economic development. ##C

50. Dryad serves as an example to show how open data sharing ______. A) is becoming increasingly popular B) benefits sharers and users alike C) makes researchers successful D) saves both money and labor ##B Passage two 51. What does the author say about the shrinking spending of international tourists in the U.S.? A) It is attributable to the rising value of the U.S. dollar. B) It is a direct result of the global economic recession. C) It reflects a shift of their interest in consumer goods. D) It poses a potential threat to the retail business in the U.S. ##A 52. What does Macy‘s believe about its problems? A) They can be solved with better management. B) They cannot be attributed to weather only. C) They are not as serious in its online stores. D) They call for increased investments. ##B 53. In order to cut costs, Macy‘s decided to ______. A) cut the salary of senior executives B) relocate some of its chain stores C) adjust its promotion strategies D) reduce the size of its staff ##D 54. Why does Macy‘s plan to expand Bluemercury in 2016? A) To experiment on its new business concept. B) To focus more on beauty products than clothing. C) To promote sales of its products by lowering prices. D) To be more competitive in sales of beauty products. ##D 55. What can we learn about Macy‘s during the holiday season? A) Sales dropped sharply in its physical stores. B) Its retail sales exceeded those of T. J. Maxx. C) It helped Bluemercury establish its position worldwide. D) It filled its stores with abundant supply of merchandise. ##A

2017 年 6 月第二套 听力批量导入
Passage one 1. A) He would feel insulted. B) He would feel very sad. C) He would be embarrassed. D) He would be disappointed. ##A 2. A) They are worthy of a prize. B) They are of little value. C) They make good reading. D) They need improvement. ##D 3. A) He seldom writes a book straight through. B) He writes several books simultaneously. C) He draws on his real-life experiences. D) He often turns to his wife for help. ##A 4. A) Writing a book is just like watching a football match. B) Writers actually work every bit as hard as footballers. C) He likes watching a football match after finishing a book. D) Unlike a football match, there is no end to writing a book. ##D Passage two 5. A) Achievements of black male athletes in college. B) Financial assistance to black athletes in college. C) High college dropout rates among black athletes. D) Undergraduate enrollments of black athletes. ##C 6. A) They display great talent in every kind of game.

B) They are better at sports than at academic work. C) They have difficulty finding money to complete their studies. D) They make money for the college but often fail to earn a degree. ##D 7. A) About 15%. B) Around 40% C) Slightly over 50%. D) Approximately 70%. ##C 8. A) Coaches lack the incentive to graduate them. B) College degrees do not count much to them. C) They have little interest in academic work. D) Schools do not deem it a serious problem. ##A

脚本: Passage one W: Mr. Ishiguro, have you ever found one of your books at a secondhand bookstore? M: Yes. That kind of thing is difficult. If they‘ve got my book there, I think, ―Well, this is an insult! Somebody didn‘t want tokeep my book!‖ But if it‘s not there, I feel it‘s an insult too. I think, ―Why aren‘t peopl e exchanging my book? Why isn‘t itin this store?‖ W: Does being a writer require a thick skin? M: Yes, for example, my wife can be very harsh. I began working on my latest book, The Buried Giant, in 2004, but I stoppedafter I showed my wife a little section. She thought it was rubbish.W: Even after you won a Booker Prize? M: She‘s not intimidated at all and she criticizes me in exactly the same way she did when I was first unpublished and I wasstarting. W: But you would never compromise on your vision. M: No, I wouldn‘t ever compromise on the essential, the ideas or the themes. This isn‘t really what my wife is trying to criticizeme about. It‘s always about execution. W: So why did you put your book, The Buried Giant, aside for so long? Apparently you started working on it over 10 years ago. M: I‘ve often stopped writing a book and left it for a few years. And by the time I come back to it, it may have changed. Usuallymy imagination has moved on and I can think of different contexts or a different way to do it. W: What does it feel like when you finally finish a book? M: It‘s funny you ask that because I never have this moment when I feel, ―Ah, I‘ve finished!‖ I watch footballers at the end ofthe match, you know, the whistle goes and they‘ve won or lost. Until then they‘ve been giving everything they have and at that moment they know it‘s over. It‘s funny for an author. There‘s never a finishing whistle. Q1: How would the man feel if he found his book in a secondhand bookstore? Q2: What does the man‘s wife think of his books?

Q3: What does the man do when he engages in writing? Q4: What does the man want to say by mentioning the football match? Passage two W: According to a study of race and equity in education, black athletes are dropping out of college across the country atalarming rates. With us to talk about the findings in the study is Washington Post columnist Kevin Blackistone. Goodmorning. M: Good morning, how are you? W: Fine, thank you. What is new that you found in this study? M: Well, this is Shaun Harper‘s study, and he points out that on major college campuses across the county, black males makeup less than 3 percent of undergraduate enrollments. Yet, when you look at their numbers or percentages on the revenuegenerating sports teams of football and basketball, they make up well into 50 to 60 percent of those teams. So the idea is thatthey are really there to be part of the revenue-generating working class of athletes on campus and not necessarily there to bepart of the educating class as most students in other groups are. W: Compared with other groups, I think the numbers in this group, at those 65 schools, are something like just barely more thanhalf of the black male athletes graduate at all. M: Exactly.And what‘s really bad about this is these athletes are supposedly promised at least one thing as reward for all theirblood and sweat. And that is a college degree, which can be a transformative tool in our society when you talk about upwardmobility. And that‘s really the troubling part about th is. W: Well, this has been talked about so much, really, in recent years. Why hasn‘t it changed? M: Well, I think one of the reasons it hasn‘t changed is because there‘s really no economic pressure to change this. All of theincentive is really on winning and not losing on the field or on the court. Coaches do not necessarily have the incentive tograduate players. Q5: What are the speakers talking about? Q6: What is the new finding about black male athletes in the study? Q7: What is the graduation rate of black male athletes? Q8: What accounts for black athletes‘ failure to obtain a college degree, according to the man?

Passage one
9. A) Marketing strategies. B) Holiday shopping. C) Shopping malls. D) Online stores. ##B 10. A) About 50% of holiday shoppers. B) About 20-30% of holiday shoppers. C) About 136 million. D) About 183.8 million. ##D 11. A) They have fewer customers.

B) They find it hard to survive. C) The are thriving once more. D) They appeal to elderly customers. ##C 12. A) Better quality of consumer goods. B) Higher employment and wages. C) Greater varieties of commodities. D) People having more leisure time. ##B Passage two 13. A) They are new species of big insects. B) They are overprescribed antibiotics. C) They are life-threatening diseases. D) They are antibiotic-resistant bacteria. ##D 14. A) Antibiotics are now in short supply. B) Many infections are no longer curable. C) Large amounts of tax money are wasted. D) Routine operations have become complex. ##B 15. A) Facilities. B) Expertise. C) Money. D) Publicity. ##C Passage three 16. A) It is accessible only to the talented. B) It improves students‘ ability to think. C) It starts a lifelong learning process. D) It gives birth to many eminent scholars. ##B 17. A) They encourage academic democracy. B) They promote globalization. C) They uphold the presidents‘ authority. D) They protect students‘ rights. ##A 18.

A) His thirst for knowledge. B) His eagerness to find a job. C) His contempt for authority. D) His potential for leadership. ##A Passage four 19. A) Few people know how to retrieve information properly. B) People can enhance their memory with a few tricks. C) Most people have a rather poor long-term memory. D) People tend to underestimate their mental powers. ##D 20. A) They present the states in a surprisingly different order. B) They include more or less the same number of states. C) They are exactly the same as is shown in the atlas. D) They contain names of the most familiar states. ##B 21. A) Focusing on what is likely to be tested. B) Having a good sleep the night before. C) Reviewing your lessons where the exam is to take place. D) Making sensible decisions while choosing your answers. ##C 22. A) Discover when you can learn best. B) Change your time of study daily. C) Give yourself a double bonus afterwards. D) Follow the example of a marathon runner. ##A Passage five 23. A) He is a politician. B) He is a businessman. C) He is a sociologist. D) He is an economist. ##C 24. A) In slums. B) In Africa. C) In pre-industrial societies. D) In developing countries. ##D 25.

A) They have no access to health care, let alone entertainment or recreation. B) Their income is less than 50% of the national average family income. C) They work extra hours to have their basic needs met. D) Their children cannot afford to go to private schools. ##B

脚本: Passage one
America‘s holiday shopping season starts on Black Friday, the day after Thanksgiving. It is the busiest shopping dayof the year. Retailers make the most money this time of year, about 20 to 30 percent of annual revenue. About 136 millionpeople will shop during the Thanksgiving Holiday weekend. More and more will shop online. In an era of instant information,shoppers can use their mobile phones to find deals. About 183.8 million people will shop on Cyber Monday, the first Mondayafter Thanksgiving. More than half of all holiday purchases will be made online. One-in-five Americans will use a tablet orsmartphone. Online spending on Black Friday will rise 15 percent to hit $ 2.7 billion this year. Cyber Monday spending willincrease 12 percent to $ 3 billion. For many, shopping online was ―a more comfortable alternative‖ than crowded malls. Theshift to online shopping has had a bi g impact on traditional shopping malls. Since 2010, more than 24 shopping malls haveclosed and an additional 60 are struggling. However, Fortune says the weakest of the malls have closed. The sector is thrivingagain. The International Council of Shopping Centers said 94.2 percent of malls were full, or occupied with shops by the end of 2014. That is the highest level in 27 years. Economist Gus Faucher said lower unemployment and rising wages could giveAmericans more money to spend. The average American consumer will spend about $ 805 on gifts. That‘s about $ 630.5 billionbetween November and December—an increase of 3.7 percent from last year. Q9: What is the speaker mainly talking about? Q10: How many people will shop on Cyber Monday? Q11: What does Fortune say about traditional shopping malls? Q12: What is said to account for the increased number of shoppers? Passage two For years, many of us have relied on antibiotic use to treat various infections. And the reality is that antibiotics have beenresponsible for saving millions of lives since penicillin, one of the earliest antibiotics, was first used on a clinical basis 70 yearsago. However, today is a new era in which taking antibiotics can cause some very dangerous and potentially life-threatening situations. In fact, you may have heard about the new ―superbugs‖, which are antibiotic-resistant bacteria that have developed asa result of overprescribed antibiotics. In the past, health experts warned us that the day would come in which it would becomevery difficult to provide medical care for even common problems such as lung infection or severe sour throat. And, apparently,that day has come because seemingly routine operations such as knee replacements are now much more hazardous due to thelooming threat of these infections. The problem has grown into such epidemic proportions that this severe strain of resistant bacteria is being blamedfornearly 700,000 deaths each year throughout the world; and, unfortunately, health experts worry that the number will rise to 10million or more on a yearly basis by 2050. With such a large life-threatening epidemic, it is sad to say that only 1.2 percent ofbudgetary money for the National Institute of Health is currently being spent on research to tackle this problem. This is a far cryfrom the funds necessary for a problem of such magnitude. Q13: What do we learn about the ―superbugs‖?

Q14: What is the result of the overuse of antibiotics? Q15: What is most urgently needed for tackling the large life-threatening epidemic, according to the speaker?

Passage three
This is the reason you are here in a university. You are here to be educated. You are here to understand thinking betterand to think better yourself. It‘s not a chance you‘re going to have throughout your lifetime. For the next few years, you have achance to focus on thinking. I think about some of the students who took advantage of their opportunities in a university. One of the stories I alwayslike to tell is of a freshman seminar that I had a chance to teach at Harvard when I was president of the university. I taught aseminar on globalization and I assigned a reading that I had written about global capital flows. And as I did each week, I askedone of the students to introduce the readings. And this young man, in October of his freshman year, said something like the following. ―The reading by President Summers on the flow of capital across countries, it was kind of interesting, but the data didnot come close to supporting the conclusions.‖ And I thought to myself, ―What a fantastic thing this was. How could somebodywho had been there for five weeks tell the person who had the title ?President‘ that he didn‘t really know what he was talkingabout?‖ And it was a special moment. Now, I don‘t want to be misunderstood. I explained to my student that I actually thought he was rather more confused thanI was and I argued back, but what was really important about that was the universities stand out as places that really are aboutthe authority of ideas. You see it in faculty members who are pleased when their students make a discovery that undermines acherished theory that they had put forward. I think of another student I had who came to me one morning, one evening actually, walked into my office and said that Ihad written a pretty good paper, but that it had five important mistakes and that he wanted a job. You could debate whether theyactually were mistakes, but you couldn‘t debate that young man‘s hunger to learn. You could not debate that that young manwas someone who wanted to make a difference in economics and he is today a professor of economics. And his works are morecited as an economist than any other economist in the world. Q16: What does the speaker say about a university? Q17: What do we learn from the speaker‘s stories about universities? Q18: What does the speaker see in the young man who challenged his paper?

Passage four Psychological research shows we consistently underestimate our metal powers. If you think this does not apply to you,then here is a simple test to show you are wrong. Write down the names of all the American states you can remember. Put thelist away and then set yourself the same task a week later. Provided you have not cheated by consulting an atlas, you will noticesomething rather surprising. The two lists will contain roughly the same number of states, but they will not be identical. Somenames will have slipped away, but others will have replaced them. This suggests that somewhere in your mind you may wellhave a record of virtually every state. So it is not really your memory letting you down; just your ability to retrieve informationfrom it. We would remember a lot more if we had more confidence in our memories and knew how to use them properly. Oneuseful tip is that things are more likely to be remembered if you are in exactly the same state and place as you were when youlearned them. So if you are a student who always reviews over black coffee, perhaps it would be sensible to prime yourself witha cup before the exam. If possible, you should also try to learn information in the room where it is going to be tested. When youlearn is also important. Lots of people swear they can absorb new information more efficiently at some times of the day than atothers. Research shows this is not just imagination.

There is a biological rhythm for learning, though it affects different peoplein different ways. For most of us, the best plan is to take in new information in the morning and then try to consolidate it intomemory during the afternoon. But this does not apply to everyone, so it is essential to establish your own rhythm. You can dothis by learning a set number of lines of poetry at different times of the day and seeing when most lines stick. When you havedone this, try to organize your life so that the time set aside for learning coincides with the time when your memory is at itsbest. Avoid learning marathons—they do not make the best use of your mind. Take plenty of breaks, because they offer a double bonus: the time off gives your mind a chance to do some preliminary consolidation and it also gives a memory boost to thelearning. Q19: What does the simple test suggest? Q20: What do we learn about the two lists in the test? Q21: What does the speaker suggest about preparing for and taking an exam? Q22:What tip does the speaker give on learning? Passage five Hello! Today I am going to talk about poverty. Poverty has become a critical issue in today‘s world. It concerns not only us sociologists, but also economists, politiciansand business people. Poverty has been understood in many different ways. One useful way is to distinguish between three degrees of poverty—extreme poverty, moderate poverty, and relative poverty. The first type of poverty is extreme poverty. It‘s also called absolute poverty. In extreme poverty, h ouseholds cannot meetbasic needs for survival. People are chronically hungry. They are unable to access safe drinking water, let alone health care.They cannot afford education for their children. In short, people who live in extreme poverty do not have even the minimumresources to support themselves and their families. Where does extreme poverty occur? Well, you can find it only in developingcountries. Well, what about moderate poverty? Unlike extreme poverty, moderate poverty generally refers to conditions of life inwhich basic needs are met, but barely. People living in moderate poverty have the resources to keep themselves alive, but onlyat a very basic level. For example, they may have access to drinking water but not clean, safe drinking water. They may have ahome to shelter themselves but it does not have power supply, a telephone or plumbing. The third kind of poverty is relative poverty. Relative poverty is generally considered to be a household income levelwhich is below a given proportion of average family income. The relatively poor live in high income countries but they do nothave a high income themselves. The method of calculating the poverty line is different from country to county but we can saythat basically a family living in relative poverty has less than a percentage of the average family income. For example, in theUnited States, a family can be considered poor if their income is less than 50 percent of the national average family income.They can meet their basic needs but they lack access to cultural goods, entertainment, and recreation. They also do not have access to quality health care or other prerequisites for upward social mobility. Well, I have briefly explained to you how poverty can be distinguished as extreme poverty, moderate poverty, and relativepoverty. We should keep these distinctions in mind when we research people‘s living conditions either in the developing or thedeveloped world. Q23: What does the speaker do? Q24: Where does the speaker say we can find extreme poverty? Q25: What do we learn about American people living in relative poverty?

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Half of your brain stays alert and prepared for danger when you sleep in a new place, a study has revealed. This phenomenon is often ___ to as the ―first-night-effect‖. Researchers from Brown University found that a network in the left hemisphereof the brain ―remained more active‖ than the network in the right side of the brain. Playing sounds into the right ears (stimulatingthe left hemisphere) of ___ was more likely to wake them up than if the noises were played into their left ears. It was ___ observed that the left side of the brain was more active during deep sleep. When the researchers repeated thelaboratory experiment on the second and third nights they found the left hemisphere could not be stimulated in the same wayduring deep sleep. The researchers explained that the study demonstrated when we are in a ___ environment the brain partlyremains alert so that humans can defend themselves against any ___ danger. The researchers believe this is the first time that the ―first-night-effect‖ of different brain states has been ___ in humans.It isn‘t, however, the first time it has ever been seen. Some animal ___ also display this phenomenon. For example, dolphins,as well as other ___ animals, shut down one hemisphere of the brain when they go to sleep. A previous study noted that dolphins always ___ control their breathing. Without keeping the brain active while sleeping, they would probably drown. But,as the human study suggests, another reason for dolphins keeping their eyes open during sleep is that they can look out for ___ while asleep. It also keeps their physiological processes working. ### (A) classified (B) consciously (C) dramatically (D) exotic (E) identified (F) inherent (G) marine (H) novel (I) potential (J) predators (K) referred (L) species (M) specifically (N) varieties (O) volunteers ### ###

26.K 27. O 28. M 29. H 30. I 31. E 32. L 33. G 34. B 35. J 脚本: Half of your brain stays alert and prepared for danger when you sleep in a new place, a study has revealed. This phenomenon is often referred to as the ―first-night-effect‖. Researchers from Brown University found that a network in the left hemisphereof the brain ―remained more active‖ than the network in the right side of the brain. Playing sounds into the right ears (stimulatingthe left hemisphere) of volunteerswas more likely to wake them up than if the noises were played into their left ears. It wasspecifically observed that the left side of the brain was more active during deep sleep. When the researchers repeated thelaboratory experiment on the second and third nights they found the left hemisphere could not be stimulated in the same wayduring deep sleep. The researchers explained that the study demonstrated when we are in anovel environment the brain partlyremains alert so that humans can defend themselves against any potential danger. The researchers believe this is the first time that the ―first-night-effect‖ of different brain states has been identified in humans.It isn‘t, however, the first time it has ever been seen. Some animal species also display this phenomenon. For example, dolphins,as well as other marine animals, shut down one hemisphere of the brain when they go to sleep. A previous study noted that dolphins always consciously control their breathing. Without keeping the brain active while sleeping, they would probably drown. But,as the human study suggests, another reason for dolphins keeping their eyes open during sleep is that they can look out for predatorswhile asleep. It also keeps their physiological processes working.

段落匹配
<b>Elite Math Competitions Struggle to Diversify Their Talent Pool</b> [A] Interest in elite high school math competitions has grown in recent years, and in light of last summer‘s U.S. win at theInternational Math Olympiad (IMO)—the first for an American team in more than two decades—the trend is likely to continue. [B] But will such contests, which are overwhelmingly dominated by Asian and white students from middle-class and affluent families, become any more diverse? Many social and cultural factors play roles in determining which promising studentsget on the path toward international math recognition. But efforts are in place to expose more black, Hispanic, and low-incomestudents to advanced math, in the hope that the demographic pool of high-level contenders will eventually begin to shift and become less exclusive. [C] ―The challenge is if certain types of people are doing something, it‘s difficult for other people to break into it,‖

saidPo-ShenLoh, the head coach of last year‘s winning U.S. Math Olympiad team. ―Participation grows through friends and networks and if you realize that‘s how they‘re growing, you can start to take action and bring in other students, ‖ he said. [D] Most of the training for advanced-math competitions happens outside the confines of the normal school day. Studentsattend after-school clubs, summer camps, online forums and classes, and university-based ―math circles,‖ to prepare for thecompetitions. [E] One of the largest feeders for high school math competitions—including those that eventually lead to the IMO—is amiddle school program called MathCounts. About 100,000 students around the country participate in the program‘s competitionseries, which culminates in a national game-show-style contest held each May. The most recent one took place last week inWashington, D. C. Students join a team through their schools, which provide a volunteer coach and pay a nominal fee to sendstudents to regional and state competitions. The 224 students who make it to the national competition get an all-expenses-paidtrip. [F] Nearly all members of last year‘s winning U.S. IMO team took part in MathCounts as middle school students, as didLoh, the coach. ―Middle school is an important age because students have enough math capability to solve advanced problems,but they haven‘t really decided what they want to do with their lives,‖ said Loh. ―They often get hooked then.‖ [G] Another influential feeder for advanced-math students is an online school called Art of Problem Solving, which beganabout 13 years ago and now has 15,000 users. Students use forums to chat, play games, and solve problems together at no cost,or they can pay a few hundred dollars to take courses with trained teachers. According to Richard Rusczyk, the company founder, the six U.S. team members who competed at the IMO last year collectively took more than 40 courses on the site. Parents ofadvanced-math students and MathCounts coaches say the children are on the website constantly. [H] There are also dozens of summer camps—many attached to universities—that aim to prepare elite math students.Some are pricey—a three-week intensive program can cost $ 4,500 or more—but most offer scholarships. The Math OlympiadSummer Training Program is a three-week math camp held by the Mathematical Association of America that leads straight tothe international championship and is free for those who make it. Only about 50 students are invited based on their performanceon written tests and at the USA Math Olympiad. [I] Students in university towns may also have access to another lever for involvement in accelerated math: math circles.In these groups, which came out of an Eastern European tradition of developing young talent, professors teach promising K-12students advanced mathematics for several hours after school or on weekends. The Los Angeles Math Circle, held at the University of California, Los Angeles, began in 2007 with 20 students and now has more than 250. ―These math circles cost nothing,or they‘re very cheap for students to get involved in, but you have to know about them,‖ said Rusczyk. ―Most people wouldlove to get studen ts from more underserved populations, but they just can‘t get them in the door. Part of it is communication;part of it is transportation.‖ [J] It‘s no secret in the advanced-math community that diversity is a problem. According to Mark Saul, the director ofcompetitions for the Mathematical Association of America, not a single African-American or Hispanic student—and only ahandful of girls—has ever made it to the Math Olympiad team in its 50 years of existence. Many schools simply don‘t prioritizeacademic competitions. ―Do you know who we have to beat?‖ asked Saul. ―The football team, the basketball team—that‘s ourcompetition for resources, student time, attention, school dollars, parent efforts, school enthusiasm.‖ [K] Teachers in low-income urban and rural areas with no history of participating in math competitions may not knowabout advanced-math opportunities like MathCounts—and those who do may not have support or feel trained to lead them. [L] But there are initiatives in place to try to get more underrepresented students involved in accelerated math. A

NewYork City-based nonprofit called Bridge to Enter Mathematics runs a residential summer program aimed at getting underservedstudents, mostly black and Hispanic, working toward math and science careers. The summer after 7th grade, students spendthree weeks on a college campus studying advanced math for seven hours a day. Over the next five years, the group helps thestudents get into other elite summer math programs, high-performing high schools, and eventually college. About 250 studentsso far have gone through the program, which receives funding from the Jack Kent Cooke Foundation. [M] ―If you look at a lot of low-income communities in the United States, there are programs that are serving them, butthey‘re primarily centered around ?Let‘s get these kids‘ grades up,‘ and not around ?Let‘s get these kids access to the same kindsof opportunities as more-affluent kids,‘ ‖ said Daniel Zaharopol, the founder and executive director of the program. ―We‘re trying to create that pathway.‖ Students apply to the program directly through their schools. ―We want to reach parents who are notplugged into the system,‖ said Zaharopol. [N] In the past few years, MathCounts added two new middle school programs to try to diversify its participant pool—theNational Math Club and the Math Video Challenge. Schools or teachers who sign up for the National Math Club receive a kitfull of activities and resources, but there‘s no special teacher training and no competition attached. [O] The Math Video Challenge is a competition, but a collaborative one. Teams of four students make a video illustratinga math problem and its real-world application. After the high-pressure Countdown round at this year‘s national MathCountscompetition, in which the top 12 students went head to head solving complex problems in rapid fire, the finalists for the MathVideo Challenge took the stage to show their videos. The demographics of that group looked quite different from those in thecompetition round —of the 16 video finalists, 13 were girls and eight were African-American students. The video challenge doesnot put individual students on the hot seat —so it‘s less intimidating by design. It also adds the element of artistic creativity toattract a new pool of students who may not see themselves as ―math people.‖ 36. Middle school is a crucial period when students may become keenly interested in advanced mathematics. ## F 37. Elite high school math competitions are attracting more interest throughout the United States. ##A 38. Math circles provide students with access to advanced-math training by university professors. ##I 39. Students may take advantage of online resources to learn to solve math problems. ##G 40. The summer program run by a nonprofit organization has helped many underserved students learn advanced math. ##L 41. Winners of local contests will participate in the national math competition for free. ##E 42. Many schools don‘t place academic competitions at the top of their priority list. ##J 43. Contestants of elite high school math competitions are mostly Asian and white students from well-off families. ##B 44. Some math training programs primaril y focus on raising students‘ math scores. ##M 45. Some intensive summer programs are very expensive but most of them provide scholarships.

##H

仔细阅读
Passage one
We live today indebted to McCardell, Cashin, Hawes, Wilkins, and Maxwell, and other women who liberated Americanfashion from the confines of Parisian design. Independence came in tying, wrapping, storing, harmonizing, and rationalizingthat wardrobe. These designers established the modern dress code, letting playsuits and other activewear outfits suffice for casual clothing, allowing pants to enter the wardrobe, and prizing rationalism and versatility in dress, in contradiction to dressingfor an occasion or allotment of the day. Fashion in America was logical and answerable to the will of the women who wore it.Implicitly or explicitly, American fashion addressed a democracy, whereas traditional Paris-based fashion was prescriptive andimposed on woman, willing or not. In an earlier time, American fashion had also followed the dictates of Paris, or even copied and pirated specific Frenchdesigns. Designer sportswear was not modeled on that of Europe, as ―modern art‖ would later be; it was genuinely invented anddeveloped in America. Its designers were not high-end with supplementary lines. The design objective and the business commitment were to sportswear, and the distinctive traits were problem-solving ingenuity and realistic lifestyle applications. Easeof care was most important: summer dresses and outfits, in particular, were chiefly cotton, readily capable of being washed andpressed at home. Closings were simple, practical, and accessible, as the modern woman depended on no personal maid to dressher. American designers prized resourcefulness and the freedom of women who wore the clothing. Many have argued that the women designers of this time were able to project their own clothing values into a new style.Of course, much of this argument in the 1930s – 40s was advanced because there was little or no experience in justifying apparel ( 服装) on the basis of utility. If Paris was cast aside, the tradition of beauty was also to some degree slighted. Designersportswear would have to be verified by a standard other than that of pure beauty; the emulation of a designer‘s life in designersportswear was a crude version of this relationship. The consumer was ultimately to be mentioned as well, especially by thelikes of Dorothy Shaver, who could point to the sales figures at Lord & Taylor. Could utility alone justify the new ideas of the American designers? Fashion is often regarded as a pursuit of beauty, andsome cherished fashion‘s trivial relationship to the fine arts. What the designers of American sportswear proved was that fashionis a genuine design art, answering to the demanding needs of service. Of course these practical, insightful designers have determined the course of late twentieth-century fashion. They were the pioneers of gender equity, in their useful, adaptable clothing,which was both made for the masses and capable of self-expression.

Passage two

Massive rubbish dumps and sprawling landfills constitute one of the more uncomfortable impacts that humans have onwildlife. They have led some birds to give up on migration. Instead of flying thousands of miles in search of food, they makethe waste sites their winter feeding grounds. Researchers in Germany used miniature GPS tags to track the migrations of 70 white storks ( 鹳) from different sitesacross Europe and Asia during the first five months of their lives. While many birds travelled along well-known routes to warmer climates, others stopped short and spent the winter on landfills, feeding on food

waste, and the multitudes of insects thatthrive on the dumps. In the short-term, the birds seem to benefit from overwintering (过冬) on rubbish dumps. Andrea Flack of the Max PlanckInstitute found that birds following traditional migration routes were more likely to die than German storks that flew only as faras northern Morocco, and spent the winter there on rubbish dumps. ―For the birds it‘s a very convenient way to get food. Thereare huge clusters of organic waste they can feed on,‖ said Flack. The meals are not particularlyappetising, or even safe. Muchof the waste is discarded rotten meat, mixed in with other human debris such as plastic bags and old toys. ―It‘s very risky. The birds can easily eat pieces of plastic or rubber bands and they can die,‖ said Flack. ―And we don‘tknow about the long-term consequences. They might eat something toxic and damage their health. We cannot estimate that yet.‖ The scientists tracked white storks from different colonies in Europe and Africa. The Russian, Greek and Polish storksflew as far as South Africa, while those from Spain, Tunisia and Germany flew only as far as the Sahel. Landfill sites on the Iberian peninsula have long attracted local white storks, but all of the Spanish birds tagged in thestudy flew across the Sahara desert to the western Sahel. Writing in the journal, the scientists describe how the storks from Germany were clearly affected by the presence of waste sites, with four out of six birds that survived for at least five months overwintering on rubbish dumps in northern Morocco, instead of migrating to the Sahel. Flack said it was too early to know whether the benefits of plentiful food outweighed the risks of feeding on landfills. Butthat‘s not the only uncertainty. Migrating birds affect ecosystems both at home and at their winter destinations, and disruptingthe traditional routes could have unexpected side effects. White storks feed on locusts (蝗虫) and other insects that can becomepests if their numbers get out of hand. ―They provide a useful service,‖ said Flack.

Passage one

46. What contribution did the women designers make to American fashion? A) They made some improvements on the traditional Parisian design. B) They formulated a dress code with distinctive American features. C) They came up with a brand-new set of design procedures. D) The made originality a top priority in their fashion design. ##B 47. What do we learn about American designer sportswear? A) It imitated the European model. B) It laid emphasis on women‘s beauty. C) It represented genuine American art. D) It was a completely new invention. ##D 48. What characterized American designer sportswear? A) Pursuit of beauty. B) Decorative closings. C) Ease of care. D) Fabric quality.

##C 49. What occurred in the design of women‘s apparel in America during the 1930s – 40s? A) A shift of emphasis from beauty to utility. B) The emulation of traditional Parisian design. C) A search for balance between tradition and novelty. D) The involvement of more women in fashion design. ##A 50. What do we learn about designers of American sportswear? A) They catered to the taste of the younger generation. B) They radically changed people‘s concept of beauty. C) They advocated equity between men and women. D) They became rivals of their Parisian counterparts. ##C

Passage two 51. What is the impact of rubbish dumps on wildlife? A) They have forced white storks to search for safer winter shelters. B) They have seriously polluted the places where birds spend winter. C) They have accelerated the reproduction of some harmful insects. D) They have changed the previous migration habits of certain birds. ##D 52. What do we learn about birds following the traditional migration routes? A) They can multiply at an accelerating rate. B) They can better pull through the winter. C) They help humans kill harmful insects. D) They are more likely to be at risk of dying. ##D 53. What does Andrea Flack say about the birds overwintering on rubbish dumps? A) They may end up staying there permanently. B) They may eat something harmful. C) The may evolve new feeding habits. D) They may have trouble getting adequate food. ##B 54. What can be inferred about the Spanish birds tagged in the study? A) They gradually lose the habit of migrating in winter. B) They prefer rubbish dumps far away to those at home.

C) They are not attracted to the rubbish dumps on their migration routes. D) They join the storks from Germany on rubbish dumps in Morocco. ##C 55. What is scientists‘ other concern about white storks feeding on landfills? A) The potential harm to the ecosystem. B) The genetic change in the stork species. C) The spread of epidemics to their homeland. D) The damaging effect on bio-diversity. ##A 空格所填词需能和后面的 to 构成固定搭配,结合空格前的 is 来看,此处可能是被动语态,需要填入 动词的过去分词。对比 classified、identified、referred 三个动词来看,只有 referred 可以与 to 搭配,refer to sb. /sth. as 意为“称??为??” ,文中指“把这种现象称为‘第一夜效应’ ” 。 || 空格前为 ears of, 故空格处应填名词。 从上文可知, 这里说的是大学通过实验研究人脑在睡眠时的状态, 因此判断,这里应该是指“人” ,名词选项中只有 volunteers 符合。 ||空格前后的内容为 It was observed that ...,句子成分完整,因此判断空格处应填入副词,再结合上下文内 容,本句承接上文,说的是研究中的进一步发现,而 consciously 和 dramatically 放在这里都不符合表达习 惯,因此填入 specifically,表示“还特别观察到??” 。 ||空格在 a 和 environment 之间,应填入形容词。这句话的意思是“当我们处于某种环境中时,大脑的一部 分仍保持警觉” ,而文章开头第一句就说 Half of your brain stays alert and prepared for danger when you sleep ina new place,所以空格应填入 new 的同义词 novel。 ||空格在 any 和 danger 之间,应填入形容词修饰 danger。句中 defend themselves against danger 意为“保护 自己抵御/ 防御危险” ,形容词选项中只有 potential 符合文意,指“潜在的危险” 。 || has been 后缺少谓语动词,classified 与句子意思不符,identified 指“识别、发现” ,符合上下文语境。|| 空格位于名词 animal 和谓语动词 display 之间,由此判断应该是和动物有关的复数名词。名词选项中只有 predators 和 species33. G) marine。 此处应填入形容词修饰 animal, 并且从 “dolphin, as well as other animals” 来看,这里说的是和海豚类似的动物,只能填入 marine,表示“海洋动物” 。 ||这句话句子成分完整,空格处应为副词修饰 control。副词选项中,dramatically 不符合文意。consciously control 指“有意识地控制” ,与后文“如果不保持大脑活跃就有可能溺亡”意思契合。 ||空格位于 look out for 后面,应填入名词。look out for 指“当心、提防、防备” ,结合上下文, “海豚睡觉 时也要睁着眼睛提防??” ,由此可知,predators 符合文意。

本题意为: 中学是学生可能会对高等数学产生浓厚兴趣的关键时期。 根据题干中的关键词 a crucialperiod 可 将答案定位至 F 段。 本段提到: Middle school is an important age because students have enough math capability to solve advanced problems, but they haven‘t really decided what they want to do with their lives (中学是一个重 要的时期,因为学生有足够的数学能力来解决高级问题,但他们确实还没决定自己想要做什么) 。题干中的 acrucial period 对应原文中的 an important age。 || 本题意为: 精英高中数学竞赛在全美引起了越来越多的兴趣。 文章第一句即提到: Interest in elitehigh school math competitions has grown in recent year(近年来,人们对精英高中数学竞赛的兴趣在逐渐增加) ,由此可 将答案定位至 A 段。 ||本题意为:数学圈使学生们有了向大学教授学习高等数学的机会。根据题干中的关键词 math circles 和 university professor 可将答案定位到 I 段。本段提到:Students in university towns may also have access to

anotherlever for involvement in accelerated math: math circles. In these groups, which came out of an Eastern European tradition of developing young talent, professors teach promising K-12 students advanced mathematics for several hours afterschool or on weekends(大学城里的学生也可以利用另一个工具“数学圈” ,参与到提高 数学的学习中。在这些团体中,主要源于东欧发展培养青年人才的传统,教授在放学后或周末为有前途的 从幼儿园到 12 年级的学生教授高等数学) 。 题干中的 provide … with access to 对应原文中的 have access to。 ||本题意为:学生们可以利用网络资源学习解决数学难题。根据题干中的关键词 online 和 solveproblems 可 将答案定位到 G 段。本段提到:Another influential feeder for advanced-math students is an online schoolcalled Art of Problem Solving …. Students use forums to chat, play games, and solve problems together …(另一个对培 养高等数学学生有影响力的组织是一个名为 “问题解决艺术” 的在线学校??学生使用论坛聊天、 玩游戏、 可以不花钱一起解决问题??) 。题干中的 take advantage of 对应原文中的 use。 ||本题意为:一个非营利性组织运营的暑期项目帮助很多原本不具备条件的学生学习了高等数学。根据题干 中的关键词 summer program 和 nonprofit 可将答案定位到 L 段。 本段提到: A New York City-based nonprofit called Bridge to Enter Mathematics runs a residential summer program aimed at getting underserved, mostly black andHispanic, working toward math and science careers (一家位于纽约市的非营利机构, 名为 “进入数学之桥” , 运营着一个寄宿式暑期课程,旨在让受教育不足的学生,大部分是黑人和拉美裔的,致力于数学和科学事 业) 。 ||本题意为:地方上的比赛优胜者可以免费参加全国数学竞赛。根据题干中的关键词 national 和 forfree 可 将 答 案 定 位 到 E 段 。 本 段 提 到 : The 224 students who make it to the national competition get an all-expenses-paid trip(获得参加全国赛的 224 名学生所需费用全额报销) 。题干中的 for free 对应原文中的 all-expenses-paid。 ||本题意为:很多学校并不优先考虑学术竞赛。根据题干中的关键词 academic competitions 和 priority 可将答案定位到 J 段。本段提到:Many schools simply don‘t prioritize academic competitions(许多学校根本 不把学术比赛放在优先考虑的范畴) 。题干中的 place… at the top of their priority 对应原文中的 prioritize。 || 本题意为:精英高中数学竞赛的选手大多数是来自富裕家庭的亚裔或是白人学生。根据题干中的 关键词 Asian and white students 可将答案定位到 B 段。本段开头就提到:But will such contests, which are overwhelmingly dominated by Asian and white students from middle-class and affluent families, become any more diverse? (但是, 这些以来自中产阶级和富裕家庭的亚裔和白人学生为主导的竞赛会变得越来越多元化吗?) 。 题干中的 well-off 对应原文中的 affluent。 ||本题意为:一些数学培训项目主要致力于提高学生的数学成绩。M 段提到:…they‘re primarily centered around ?Let‘s get these kids‘ grades up,‘ and not around ?Let‘s get these kids access to the same kinds of opportunities as more-affluent kids,‘ … (他们主要围绕着? 让我们提高这些孩子们的学习成绩‘, 而不是在? 让 我们使这些孩子获得与富裕孩子同等的机会‘ 上??) , 题干中的 focus on 对应原文中的 be centered around, 题干中的 raising students‘ math scores 对应原文中的 get these kids‘ grades up,故答案定位在 M 段。 ||本题意为:一些暑期的强化项目很贵,但大部分都提供奖学金。根据题干中的关键词 intensive summer programs 和 scholarships 可将答案定位到 H 段。本段提到: Some are pricey—a three-week intensive programcan cost $4,500 or more—but most offer scholarships (有些夏令营花费很昂贵的—— 一个三周的密集 型课程需要花费 4500 美元或更多,但大多数夏令营都提供奖学金) 。题干中的 expensive,


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