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(初升高)高一英语衔接班第4讲——非谓语动词



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——非谓语动词 (初升高)高一英语衔接班第 4 讲——非谓语动词 初升高) 一、学习目标: 学习目标: 了解非谓语动词的各种形式以及它们的基本用法。 二、学习要点: 学习要点: 非谓语动词的基本形式以及基本用法 动名词的完成式、被动式与过去分词的用法 不定式的进行式、完成式与被动式的用法 三、课程精讲: 课程精讲: (一)重点知识讲解 1、非谓语动词的基本形式:不定式、动名词、分词(现在分词,过去分词) 特点:不能作谓语,无人称变化和单复数变化,但有时态和语态的变化。 否定形式: 2. 非谓语动词的句法功能 具有哪些词的部分特征 名词 不定式 动名词 现在分词 过去分词 √ √ √ √ √ √ 形容词 √ 副词 √ 主 √ √ 宾 √ √ 可作哪些句子成分 表 √ √ √ √ 定 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ 状 √ 补 √

3. 不定式和动名词作主语的区别 (1) 动名词作主语通常表示抽象动作;而不定式作主语表示具体动作。 Smoking is allowed here. (抽象) It is not very good for you to smoke so much. (具体) (2) 动名词作主语时,通常用来表示一件已知的事或经验。 不定式短语作主语通常用来表示一件未完成的事或目的。 Climbing mountains is interesting. (经验) To climb mountains this weekend is what I’m expecting. (未发生) (3) 不定式作主语,一般用 it 当形式主语,把作主语的不定式短语后置。 It took me only five minutes to finish the job.

4. 分词作表语 分词作表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词作表语,一种是过去分词作表语。 interesting 令人感兴趣的 interested 感兴趣的 exciting 令人激动的 excited 感到激动的
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delighting 令人高兴的 练习

delighted 感到高兴的

1) pleasing____________________ pleased________________________ surprising_____________________ surprised________________________ worrying_____________________ worried________________________ 2) Travelling is ________________but ______________. 旅行是有趣的,但是使人疲劳。 3) They were very ____________________ at the news. 听到这个消息,他们非常激动。

5. 下列动词只能用不定式作宾语 决心学会想希望,拒绝设法愿假装; 主动答应选计划,同意请求帮一帮。

6. 下列动词只能用动名词作宾语 建议冒险去献身,忍受期待不停顿; 放弃延期悔失去,坚持欣赏实践成; 注意原谅避反对,考虑要求不自禁; 允许习惯不介意,价值开始想动名。

练习: 1) We agreed _______________(meet) here tomorrow morning. 2) I can hardly imagine Peter __________________(sail ) across the Atlantic Ocean in five days.

7. 不定式和分词作状语 (1)现在分词与过去分词作状语的区别。 1)现在分词作状语时,现在分词表示的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间的关系是 主动关系。 He went out shutting the door behind him. 2)过去分词作状语时,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之间的关系 是被动关系。 Given more attention, the trees could have grown better. (2) 动词不定式和分词作状语的区别 分词作状语一般表示伴随,而不定式作状语常表示目的。 They stood by the roadside talking about the plan. (伴随) They stood by the roadside to talk about the plan. (目的) 形式 to do doing 与主语关系 主谓/ 主动关系 主谓/ 主动关系
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与谓语动词关系 将要发生 同时发生或基本同时发生
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done 练习

动宾/ 被动关系

动作已完成

1) He got up early __________________(catch) the first bus. 2) _______________(cross) the street, you should be careful. 3) The teacher came into the classroom, __________________(follow) by some students. (二)解题方法总结 1. 有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差别 1)forget/ remember to do sth. 忘记/记得要去做某事(此事未做) forget/ remember doing sth. 忘记/记得做过某事(此事已做过或已发生) 2)stop to do sth. 停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一件事 stop doing sth. 停止正在做的事 3) regret to do sth. 对要做的事遗憾(未做) regret doing sth. 对做过的事感到后悔(已做) 4)try to do sth. 努力、企图做某事 try doing sth. 试验、试一试某种办法 5) mean to do 打算,有意要…… mean doing 意味着 6)go on to do sth. 继而(去做另外一件事情) go on doing sth. 继续(原先没有做完的事情) 练习 1) She didn’t remember _____________________(meet) him before. 2) We’ve always regretted ___________________(sell) the house. 3) I mean __________________(leave) for Beijing tomorrow.

2. 过去分词作表语与被动语态的区别 过去分词作表语,主要表示动作的完成和状态,相当于一个形容词。 Our classroom is very crowded. 被动语态的过去分词,动作意味强,句子主语为动作的承受者,后常接 by。 Our classroom is crowded by a number of students.

3. 非谓语动词的形式变化 不定式(to do) 主动 一般式 完成式 to do to have done 被动 to be done to have been done 动名词(doing) 主动 doing having done 被动 being done having been done 现在分词(doing) 主动 doing having done 被动 being done having been done

I am glad to visit the Great Wall. I am glad to have visited the Great Wall. The meeting held yesterday was important. The meeting being held now is important.
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The meeting to be held next Friday will be important. Having been told many times, he still repeated the same mistake. 总结各种形式所表达的含义:

(三)即学即练 1. ____________________(sleep) late in the afternoon, Bob turned off the alarm. 2. One learns a language by making mistakes and ______________(correct) them. 3. Do let your mother know all the truth. She appears ___________________(tell) everything. 4. Cleaning women in big cities usually get ________________(pay) by the hour. 5. He sent me an e-mail, ____________________(hope) to get some information. 6. When _______________(complete), the museum will be open to the public next year. (四)高考链接 1. _______ in the fields on a March afternoon, he could feel the warmth of spring. A. To walk B. Walking C. Walked D. Having walked 2. ______ in the queue for half an hour, the old man suddenly realized he had left the cheque in the car. A. Waiting B. To wait C. Having waited D. To have waited 3. The trees _____ in the storm have been moved off the road. A. being blown down B. blown down C. blowing down D. to blow down 4. _____ the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. A. Completing B. Complete C. Completed D. To complete 5. To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English ______ as much as we can. A. speak B. speaking C. spoken D. to speak 6. He was busy writing a story, only ______ once in a while to smoke a cigarette. A. to stop B. stopping C. to have stopped D. having stopped 四、下讲预告: 下讲预告: 下一节指导课将具体讲解完形填空在高中学习中的变化,以及做题技巧。 (答题时间:25 分钟) 【同步练习】 同步练习】 1. Helen had to shout ________ above the sound of the music. A. making herself hear B. to make herself hear C. making herself heard D. to make herself heard 2. The man insisted ________ a taxi for me even though I told him I lived nearby. A. find B. to find C. on finding D. in finding 3. The old man, ________ abroad for twenty years, is on the way back to his motherland. A. to work B. working C. to have worked D. having worked 4. You were silly not ________ your car. A. to lock B. to have locked C. locking D. having locked
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5. Don’t leave the water ________ while you brush your teeth. A. run B. running C. being run D. to run 6. When first ________ to the market, these products enjoyed great success. A. introducing B. introduced C. introduce D. being introduced 7. “We can’t go out in this weather,” said Bob, ________ out of the window. A. looking B. to look C. looked D. having looked 8. My advisor encouraged ________ a summer course to improve my writing skills. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take 9. ________ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home. A. To wait B. Have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited 10. Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, ________ as 3M. A. knowing B. known C. being known D. to be known 11. Sarah, hurry up. I’m afraid you can’t have time to ________ before the party. A. get changed B. get change C. get changing D. get to change 12. ________ by the beauty of nature, the girl from London decided to stay another two days on the farm. A. Attracting B. Attracted C. To be attracted D. Having attracted 13. The news reporters hurried to the airport, only ________ the film stars had left. A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told 14. ________ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean doesn’t seem big at all. A. Compare B. When comparing C. Comparing D. When compared 15. ________ the programme, they have to stay there for another two weeks. A. Not completing B. Not completed C. Not having completed D. Having not completed

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【试题答案】 试题答案】 1~5 DCDBB 6~10 BADCB 11~15 ABBDC

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