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黎守翠,第18周,复合句


会考即将到来,但是有一些同学竟然 没有一点紧张感,作为教师,我都替 他们着急,还有几天的时间,我会在 没有讲完知识点的基础上,做好复习 工作。

英语复合句

教学目标: 1.复习英语复合从句 教学重点:主语从句表语从句 宾语从句同位语从句 状语从句定语从句 教学难点: 使用各种从句; 定语从句的用法。

Period 1:主语从句、表语从句 Period 2:宾语从句 Period 3:同位语从句 Period 4-5:状语从句 Period 6-7:定语从句 Period 8: 周清评讲

根据结构分
简单句 并列句 复合句→ 主语从句 表语从句 宾语从句 同位语从句 状语从句 定语从句

Please read the dialogues and recognize the functions of the Noun Clause
(A) Tom: What are you doing? Jack: I’m thinking about what I should do? Tom: What do you mean? Jack: I’ve got a message that my girl friend will come this afternoon. A party was hold here last night, so I must clean the room before she comes. Tom: Take it easy. I’d like to help you. Tell me what I can do. Jack: Good guy. It’s great that I have a friend like you. Tom: Then, let’s begin.

在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词性从句 。
主语从句

subject clause
宾语从句

名词性从句 noun clause

object clause
表语从句

predicative clause
同位语从句

appositive clause

1. That he will succeed is certain . 2. Whether he will go there is not known . 3. What he said is not true . 4. Where he hid the money is to be found out . 5. Whoever comes is welcome.

请思考?

主语从句
在句中充当主语的从句叫做主语从句。

主语从句
主语从句是在复合句中作主语的从句。通常放在主句 谓语动词之前或由形式主语it代替,而本身放在句末。 主语从句引导词有: 连词:that, whether, if;

代词:who(ever), what(ever) , which(ever),
whom(ever);副词:when(ever) ,where(ever),

how(ever), why等.

1.连接词: 1)从属连词:that, whether等. that 引导主语从句只起引导作用,本身 无实际意义,在主语从句中不充当任何 成分,但不能省略。 That she left him cut him to the heart.
That he will come is certain.

由whether及其他连词引导的主语从句 放在句首,句后都可。
Whether it will please them is not easy to say.

2)连接代词who ,what ,which, whatever, whichever, whoever
What seems easy to some people seems difficult to others. Which side will win is not clear.

3)连接副词when,where, how, why等

Why he did it remains a mystery. When they will start is not known yet. How he became a great scientist is known to us all.

主语从句后置!
为了避免主语冗长,句子头重脚轻,经常用it作 形式主语,主语从句放在后面作真正的主语. 例:

That we shall be late is certain. -- It’s certain that we shall be late. 1. That the earth is round is known to all.
-- It’s known to all that the earth is round.

2. That you missed the chance is a pity. -- It is a pity that you missed the chance.

It 作形式主语
?

It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平 衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。

? ?

That he is a famous singer is known to us. (It is known to us that he is a famous singer.)

? ?

When he will go to America is not yet fixed. (It is not yet fixed when he will go to America.)

1.It + be + 形容词 + that从句
It is necessary / important/ obvious that…

It is believed that… 人们相信… It is known to us all that …. 众所周知… It has been decided that…… 已经决定……

2.It + be + -ed分词 + that从句

3.It + be + 名词 + that从句
It is common knowledge that… …是常识 It is a surprise that …. 令人惊奇的是… It is a fact that…… 事实是…… It appears that… 似乎… It happens that …. 碰巧… It occurred to me that…… 我突然想起……

4.It + 不及物动词 + that从句

注意

主语从句中语序与that的省略:

1).主语从句一律用陈述句语序,即主语在前,谓语在后. 例: 误: When will he come is not known.

正: When he will come is not known.
2).连接词that在主语从句中无实际意义,但不能省略. 例: 误: He will not come to the meeting this evening is true.

正: That he will not come to the meeting this evening is true.

注意

主语从句中的“主谓一致”:

3).主语从句通常被看作一个整体, 主句的谓语动词用单 数形式. is That they will come _______certain. 4). What 引导主语从句时, 主句谓语动词的单复数由表 语的单复数决定. are What he wants ______these books. What he wants ______some water. is

Translation
问题是我们是否可以信任他。 The question is whether we can rely on him.

我建议买台大电脑。 My suggestion is that we( should)buy a big computer.

她看起来要哭了。 He looked as if he was going to cry.

请思考?

表语从句
表语从句是在复合句中作表语的从句,位于联系动词之 后。一般结构是“主语+连系动词+表语从句”。可接 表语从句的连系动词有be, look, remain, seem等。另 外,

常用的还有the reason is that… 和It is because 等结
构。

引导表语从句的关联词与引导主语从句的关联词大致一

?

The question is whether/how _________ we can make good
preparation in such a short time.

? ?

why we can’t get the support of the people. This is ____

But the fact remains that ___ we are behind the other

classes.
?

The reason ______ ____ he why he is late for school is that

missed the early bus.

用适当的连接词填空
why you were so angry. 1. I wondered _______ 2. It all depends on whether _______ they will support us . 3. I can’t imagine _______made him act like that. what 4 . I’m delighted _______I that have passed the exam. 5. I find it necessary _______ that we should do the homework.

请思考?

宾语从句
宾语从句是在复合句中作宾语的从句,通常放在主句谓 语动词 (及物动词) 或介词之后。

宾语从句的连接词与引导主语从句的连接词相同。
?

She did not know what had happened. (作动词的

宾语)
?

Our success depends upon how well we can

cooperate with one another. (作介词的宾语)
?

I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake.

It 作形式宾语
?

it 不仅可以作为形式主语,还可以作为形式 宾语,而真正的宾语that 从句则放在句尾, 特别是在带复合宾语的句子中。

?

We thought it good news that the fog had finally gone.

? ?

We think it our duty that we should help others.
I find it impossible that he can finish the work

in two days.

Exercises
A when people talk with their mouths full. 1.I hate ____ A. it B. that C. these D. them

B strange that he should be so careless. 2. I feel ____ A. / B. it C. that D. how

B her hair was turning grey. 3. It worried her a bit ____ A.while B. that C.if D.for

4 Will you see to ____ C that the luggage is brought back? A. we B. yourself C. it D. them

宾语从句中的“时态呼应”
1、当主句动词是现在时或将来时,从句根据自 身的句子情况,而使用不同时态。 I know (that) he studies English every day.

I know (that) he studied English last term.
I know (that) he will study English next year. I know (that) he has studied English since

宾语从句中的 “否定转移”
若主句谓语动词为: think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine等, 其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否 定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定式。 I don’t think he will come here.

I don’t think the dress fits you well。

注意

宾语从句注意事项

1) 宾语从句一律用陈述句的语序。

2) whether和if都可以引导宾语从句,但:
(1) 当whether后紧跟or not时, 不用if;
whether will stay or not. 例: I don’t know _______I

(2) 介词后面的宾语从句不能用if .
whether I hurt her feeling. 例: I worry about __________

注意

宾语从句注意事项

3) 引导宾语从句的连词that也无实际意义,多数情况下 可以省略。但部分情况不可省略。 (1).在主+谓+it(形式宾语)+宾补+that从句中 (真正宾语) 的句型中不省略: We must make it clear that we mean what we say.

(2).由连词and连接的两个由that引导的宾语从句中,
that 不省略.

He told me that he would come and that he would come
on time.

1)The king’s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people. 2)The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general. 3)He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off.

Summary:名词news,information, belief,fact,order,hope,idea, answer,doubt,thought,question 等后可跟同位语从句

同位语从句
同位语从句是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词 性从句,一般放在名词之后,用以说明或解释前

面的名词。可接同位语从句的名词通常是概括性、

抽象名词,少为复数,且通常带冠词,常见者有:

fact , news , idea , promise, thought , answer, hope, demand, doubt, decision, explanation, suggestion, order, problem, question, remark reply, report, belief, truth, wish等。

Review Noun clause
? 1.Translation.

1)It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film. 2)Mother asked his son what he had for lunch at school 3)The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time. 4)We heard the news that our team had won the game!

That he said so made us angry . 1. _______ What he said at the meeting made us angry. _______ what you have 2. A computer can only do_________
instructed it to do.

3. 中国不再是过去的样子了。

China is no longer ______ what it used to be .
4. A modern city has been set up in ______ was a
wasteland ten years ago.

A. what



B. which

C. that

D. where

I.语序问题
B (1) They want to know _____ do to help us. A. what can they B. what they can C. how they can D. how can they (2) Can you make sure _____ C the gold ring? A. where Alice had put B. where had Alice put C. where Alice has put D. where has Alice put (3) Someone is ringing Mary. Go and see _____. D A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is

归纳

在名词性从句中,除了 关联词在从句之首 外, 陈述 其它部分应用________ 的语序。

II. If / whether问题
1. I don’t know _______ whether/if I’ll be free tomorrow. ? 2. I don’t know _______ whether or not I’ll be free tomorrow. ? 3. The question is whether ______ this book is worth writing. whether we will have enough ? 4. It depends on ______ money. ? 5. ______ Whether they can do it matters little to us. 归纳 ? 6.___ you are not free tomorrow , I’ll go without a. 主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、介词后 you. whether ,不能用if ; 面的宾语从句只能用________
?

If

whether b.后面紧跟 or not 时, 用___________.

III. that 与whether / if 的选择
(1) _____ knowledge comes from practice is known to all. A.What B. Where C. If D. That (2) It makes no difference _____ our sports meet will be held this week or next week. A. that B. either C. whether D. when
hen

whether / if he will come soon. (3) I doubt _____________ that (4) I do not doubt _____________ he will come soon. that (5) Do you doubt ____________ he will come soon?
归纳

表示是否时用_________, ___。 whether /if 表示肯定时用that

高考链接
1.(09四川8 ). News came from the school office _____ Xiao Lin had been admitted to Beijing University. 同位语从句 A. which B. what C. that D. where 2.(09天津9 ). It is obvious to the students ______ they should get well prepared for their future. A. as B. which C. whether D. that 主语从句 3.(06上海)One advantage of playing the guitar is ______ it can give you a great deal of pleasure. A. how B. why C. that D. when表语从句

4.(上海01年春季)What the doctors really doubt is ____ my mother will recover from the serious 表语从句 disease soon. A. when B. how C whether D. why

5.(2006江苏) We haven't settled the question of_____ it is necessary for him to study abroad. A if B where C whether D that 宾语从句
6.(96 NMET ) _______we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. 主语从句 A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where

状语从句的分类
1. While I was wondering at this, our schoolmaster took his place. ( 时间 ) 2. Where there is a will, there is a way. ( 地点 ) 3. Now that/Since everybody is here, let’s begin our meeting. ( 原因 ) 4. I’ll speak slowly so that you can understand me. (目的) 5. So clever was he a student that he was able to work out all the difficult problems. ( 结果 ) 6. As long as you don’t lose heart, you’ll succeed. (条件 ) 7. Try as he might, he could not find a job. ( 让步 ) 8. The old lady treats the boy as if he were his own son. ( 方式 )

时间状语从句
九 种 常 用 的 状 语 从 句 及 其 常 用 的 连 接 词

when, while, as, before, after, as soon as till, until, not…until, the first/second…/last time, the momen the minute, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly, hardly…when, scarcely…when, no sooner…than where, wherever because, since, as, now that, seeing that, considering that

地点状语从句
原因状语从句 条件状语从句

if, unless, now (that), as(so) long as, in case, on condition that, suppose/supposing, provided/providing

让步状语从句

although, though, even though/if, as, while, no matter which/what/when/where/who/how, whichever, wherever, whatever, whoever, whenever, however, whether…or;

九 种 常 用 的 状 语 从 句 及 其 常 用 的 连 接 词

结果状语从句
目的状语从句

so that, so…that, such…that

so that, in case, for fear that, lest

方式状语从句

how, as, as if/as though

比较状语从句 than, as…as, not so/as…as, the +比
较级…, the +比较级…

时间状语从句 地点状语从句

状语从句有九种, 时地原因条状补, 目比结果方让步, 连词引导各不同; 主句通常前面走, 连词引导紧随后,

九 种 常 用 的 状 语 从 句

原因状语从句
条件状语从句

让步状语从句
结果状语从句

目的状语从句
方式状语从句 比较状语从句

从句若在主前头,
主从之间有个逗。

考 点 难 点

1、各种从属连词的含义及用法 比较; 2、no matter wh- 与 wh-ever 引 导的从句的区别; 3、状语从句的时态问题;
4、状语从句倒装及紧缩问题;

5、状语从句与其它从句的区别。

1. 时间状语从句

问题1:
1. (04北京春) We were swimming in the lake ______ A suddenly the storm started. A. when B. while C. until D. before 2. (02上海) He was about to tell me the secret ______ D someone patted him on the shoulder. A. as B. until C. while D. when 3. (05上海) He transplanted the little tree to the garden ______ B it was the best time for it. A. where B. when C. that D. until 4. (05福建) -Did Jack come back early last night? -Yes. It was not yet eight o’clock ____ B he arrived home. A. Before B. when C. that D. until 5. (06辽宁) He was about halfway through his meal ______ C a familiar voice came to his ears. A. why B. where C. when D. while

问题2:
6. (06天津) The cost of living in Glasgow is among the lowest in Britain, ______ D the quality of life is probably one of the highest. A. since B. when C. as D. while

7. (04年江苏) ______ A I accept that he is not perfect, I do actually like the person. A. While B. Since C. Before D. Unless

连接词while的用法小结
1. while引导的动作必须是持续性的,侧重主句动作和从 句动作相对比。如: Please don’t talk so loud while others are working. 2. while作为并列连词,意为“而,却”,表示对比。 3. while可表示尽管,相当于although。

2、条件状语从句

问题1:
1、The WTO cannot live up to its name ____ C it does not include a country that is home to one fifth of mankind. (2000全国)

A.as long as

B.while

C.if

D.even though

2、 It is known to all that _____ A you exercise regularly, you won’t keep good health. (05重庆卷)

A. unless

B. whenever

C. although

D. if

unless 相当于 if not,意思是“除非…”“如果不…就…”。这 也是高考的热点之一。复习时也应给予高度重视。

问题2:
1、_____ B I can see, there is only one possible way to keep away from the danger. (04北京春季) A. As long as B. As far as C. Just as D. Even if 2、I always take something to read when I go to the doctor’s ________ A I have to wait. (05全国卷3) A.in case B.so that C.in order D.as if

as long as 与 as far as 都可引导条件状语从句,as long as 表示“只要…”,as far as 表示“就…而论(而言)”。

题1根据题意应该选用B。in case 表示“以防”,根据题
2的句意,不难作出选择。

3、让步状语从句

问题1:
1、 _____ A I accept that he is not perfect, I do actually like the person. (04江苏) A. While B. Since C. Before D. Unless 2、Allow children the space to voice their opinions, ____they B are different from your own. (05湖南卷) A. until B. even if C. unless D. as though

while 是高考中的高频词,它既可引导时间状语从句,又可 引导并列句,还可引导让步状语从句,表示“尽管”。 even if 等于 even though,表示“即使、尽管”。as though 等于 as if,引导方式状语从句,表示“好像、似 乎”。

问题2:
1、 He tried his best to solve the problem, ___ A difficult it was.
(05天津卷) A. however B. no matter C. whatever D although 2、The old tower must be saved, ______the cost. (05浙江) B A.however B.whatever C.whichever D.wherever no matter wh- 与 wh-ever 的联系及区别: no matter wh- 只引导让步状语从句,此时与 wh-ever通用。 如: No matter when / Whenever he comes back, he should be invited to the party. wh-ever又可引导名词性从句, No matter wh-不能。如: Whatever I can do for you will be nothing but paying a debt. Whoever can help us will be welcome.

4. 状语从句的时态问题

问题1:
1、The house could fall down soon if no one______ C some quick repair work. (04全国IV) A has done B is doing C does D had done 2、It is almost five years _______ B we saw each other last time. (05北京春季) A. before B. since C. after D. when

在条件,时间和让步从句中,用一般现在时表示一般将 来时,用现在完成时表将来完成时,用一般过去时表过去将 来时。在 since 引导的时间状语从句中,动词一般都用一般 过去时,而主句常用现在完成时。

5、状语从句的倒装问题

问题1:
1、So difficult _____ D it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English. (01 上海) A. I have felt B. have I felt C. I did feel D. did I feel 2、Not until all the fish died in the river _____ how serious the

pollution was. (95 NMET)

A

A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized C. the villagers did realize D. didn’t the villagers realize

状语从句的倒装一般有下面几种情况:① 否定词开头; ② so 加 adj. 开头;③ as / though引导的让步状语从句。

特别注意:
Hardly … when …
No sooner … than …

Child as he is, …
Hardly had he got to the station when the train left. No sooner had he got to the station than the train left.

Child as he is, he can speak seven foreign languages.

6、状语从句与并列句的区别

问题1:
1、Though he is in his sixties, ______ A he works as hard as a young man A. yet B. but C. and D. and yet 2、 Excuse me for breaking in, _________ C I have some news for you. (NMET02) A. so B. and C. but D. yet

题1是主从复合句,所以中间不能使用并列连词 and; or; but; so 等。yet 是副词,只有 yet 可以与 though 连用。题2为 并列句,而“Excuse …, but …”为一固定搭配。在复习中需 要 细心的分析句子结构和成分。

对比训练 1 A he heard this, he got very 1. ____ angry. B I was walking 2. I met Lucy____ along the river. C a child, he lived in the 3. ____ countryside. A. when B. while C. as

对比训练 2 A it began to 1. We were about to leave____ rain. 2. She thought I was talking about her son, B in fact, I was talking about my son. ____, 3. Hardly had I finished my composition A the bell rang. ____ A. when B. while C. as D. during

对比训练 3 B she is, she know a lot. 1. Child ____ B he was told. 2. He did the experient ____ 3. The pianos in the other shop will be E good. cheaper, but not ____ A. during B. as E. both B and C C. so D. though

对比训练 4 1. He would have a look at the bookstores A he went to town. ____ C 2. We decide to finish the work on time, ____ happens. 3. If we work with a strong will, we overcome D great it is. any difficulty, ____ B likes English. 4. I’ll give the book to ____ A. whenever B. whoever C. whatever D. however

对比训练 5 C we meet again. 1. It will be years ____ D I came to this town. 2. It is ten years ____ B I came to this town. 3. It is ten years ago ____

A. when

B. that

C. before

D. since

对比训练 6 D it rains, the game will be played on 1. ____

time.
B I was twenty, I had never been away 2. ____

from my hometown.
A he were there, he couldn’t help us. 3. ____ A. Even if B. Untill C. Till D. Unless

对比训练 7 B you left it. 1.Go and get your coat. It is ____ C you like. 2. You are free to go ____ A. there C. wherever B. where D. when

对比训练 8 1. The article is written in such easy English
A A ____ all of us can read it.

2. The article is written in such easy English C all of us can read. ____ A. that B. which C. as D. so that

对比训练 9

1. If we work hard, we can overcome any B great it is. difficulty, no matter ____ 2. If we work hard, we can overcome any C great it is. difficulty, ____ 3. If we work hard, we can overcome any D difficulty it is. difficulty, ____ 4. If we work hard, we can overcome any difficulty, no matter ____ A difficulty it is.
A. what B. how C. however D. whatever

定语
? 杨杰是一个男孩 ? 杨杰是一个帅气的男孩 ? 杨杰是一个瘦瘦的男孩 ? 杨杰是一个高高的男孩 Yangjie is a boy. Yangjie is a handsome boy. Yangjie is a thin boy. Yangjie is a tall boy.

① 常修饰名词,把名词“限定”,“固定” ② 句中翻译为”…的” ③ 常常用形容词作定语,handsome,thin,tall叫定语

定语:

定语.定语从句
? 杨杰是一个总穿着白衬衣的男孩
① 杨杰是一个男孩。 Yangjie is a boy. ② 这个男孩总穿着白衬衣 The boy always wears a white shirt.

可以只用一个 句子来表达吗?

Yangjie is a boy who always wears a

white shirt.

定语从句:句子充当定语



写两个句子,一个主干部分,一个定语部分。 连 找 找句子中相同的成分 换 把定语部分相同词替换 ? 杨杰是一个总穿着白衬衣的男孩

怎么换? Yangjie is a boy. ① 杨杰是一个男孩 换哪个? ② 这个男孩总穿着白衬衣 The boy always wears a white shirt. Yangjie is a boy

先行词 关系词
关系副词 when,where, why

wh wears a white shirt). (who always o 先行词:被定从修饰的名
关系代词 that,which,wh o whom,whose 词,常出现在定从前面,故 称为“先行词”
关系词:引导定语从句,在从 句中充当先行词的“替身”,起 到连接,代替的作用。



黄金规律:关系词由先行词决定 先行词为 “物” 先行词为 “人” 所属关系
That /which

That/who/ (whom)

whose

TIPS:多用that

Yangjie is a boy who always wears a white shirt.









? 杨杰是一个总穿着白衬衣的男孩 怎么换? Yangjie is a boy. ① 杨杰是一个男孩 ② 这个男孩总穿着白衬衣 The boy always wears a white shirt. Yangjie is a boy

(who always wears a white shirt).
先行词:被定从修饰的名

who

先行词 关系词
关系副词 when,where, why 关系代词 that,which,who whom,whose

词,常出现在定从前面,故 称为“先行词”
关系词:引导定语从句,在从 句中充当先行词的“替身”,起 到连接,代替的作用。

考点一:that和which
以下情况,引导词用that,不用which。 1. 先行词为不定代词everything,little,much, all,anything,nothing。 e.g. Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen. 2.先行词被 all, any ,no ,little, much, some ,every 修饰时 3. 先行词前有形容词最高级、序数词修饰时, 用that。 e.g. This is the best book (that) I’ve ever read.

考点一:that和which
4. 先行词被the only,the very,the last 修饰时,用that。 . only thing that we could do was ( to) The wait. You can take any seat that is free. That's the very word that is wrongly used. This is one of the presents that my boy friend gave me on my birthday.

5. 先行词同时指人和指物时,用that。 e.g. We talked about the things and persons that we saw then. 6、被修饰词为数词时。 Yesterday I caught two fish and them in a basin of water. Now you can see the two that are still alive. 7、如有两个从句,其中一个关系代词已 which,另一个关系代词则宜用that,以 避免语言的单调或重复。

考点二:介词+关系代词
**** “of + which/whom”可用来限定名词、代 词、分数词、数词等。 e.g. 1. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ____________ she could turn for help. A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom 2. He paid the boy $10 for washing the windows, most of ________ hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. A. these B. those C. that D. which

(1)找出先行词及关系词,并说明为什么用这个关系词 ?>

练习

A rich person is not one who has the mos

? >I

don't like the story which has an unhapp

? 我有一个爱打篮球的朋友 ? 这是一座有漂亮花园的房子

? > Be careful of (2doesn’t )尝试翻译以下句子 bark.

the person who doesn’t spea
? I have a friend who likes playing basketball. ? This is a house which has a beautiful garden.

复习
①定语的特点 ②什么叫定语从句,什么叫先行词,什么叫关 系词? ③如何选择关系词?Who 和which有什么区别 ④定语从句造句四步?

复习
四步曲

写两句 找相同

写 找 换

主干、定语

先行词
看人、物 连接主句 从句

换(定语)连词
连主从





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