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Design and Testing of an Adult Age-Independent Online Needs Assessment Tool and Development



Design and Testing of an Adult Age-Independent Online Needs Assessment Tool and Development of Adult Age-Independent Design Guidelines
Tolga Durak

Thesis submitted to the Facu

lty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Industrial and Systems Engineering Tonya L. Smith-Jackson, Ph.D., Chair Maury A. Nussbaum, Ph.D. Karen A. Roberto, Ph.D.

April 24, 2003 Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: Adult Age-Independent, Online Needs Assessment, Design Guidelines, Prototype Heuristic Evaluation Copyright 2003, Tolga Durak

Design and Testing of an Adult Age-Independent Online Needs Assessment Tool and Development of Adult Age-Independent Design Guidelines Tolga Durak (Abstract)
This thesis addressed the following research activities: (1) Developing and evaluating the usability of an adult age-independent online assessment tool that includes health care related content and is centered on the needs and capabilities of both older and younger users and, (2) Developing adult age-independent design guidelines. An online tool, which was developed for a previous study, was revised according to the results of the previous study and preliminary development activities based upon the user requirements of older adults (50 years or older). The online assessment tool was also tested with younger adults (between 18 and 35 years of age) to determine the differences between younger and older adults. Subsequent to these activities, a final tool that captured the needs of both older and younger adults was developed and evaluated for usability. According to the usability testing results, a design guideline set for an adult age-independent Online Needs Assessment Tool was developed and revisions were conducted in order to develop the final Online Needs Assessment Tool. The results of these studies, along with the tools developed, provide online survey and interface designers information on older and younger adult user requirements. They provide a knowledge resource for older and younger user healthcare information needs and information about the usability of one online assessment tool to accommodate both older and younger adult users. They also assist interface designers to proliferate and to facilitate more rapid application development.

Tolga Durak

Table of Contents
1. Introduction ................................................................................................................. 1 2. Literature Review ........................................................................................................ 8 2.1 Gerontology and Gerontechnology...................................................................... 10 2.1.1 Aging and Capabilities .................................................................................. 11 2.1.2 Design Applications for Older Users ............................................................. 12 2.1.3 Younger Users versus Older Users............................................................... 16 2.2 Summary of Literature Review – Research Purpose ........................................... 20 2.3 Research Objective ............................................................................................. 23 3. Methods .................................................................................................................... 24 3.1 Study 1 ................................................................................................................ 26 3.1.1 Participants ................................................................................................... 26 3.1.2 Equipment / Questionnaire............................................................................ 26 3.1.3 Research Design and Procedures ................................................................ 30 3.1.4 Statistical Analysis ........................................................................................ 37 3.1.5 Results .......................................................................................................... 43 3.2 Study 2 ................................................................................................................ 57 3.2.1 Participants ................................................................................................... 57 3.2.2 Equipment / Questionnaire............................................................................ 58 3.2.3 Research Design and Procedures ................................................................ 58 3.2.4 Statistical Analysis ........................................................................................ 60 3.2.5 Results .......................................................................................................... 61 3.3 Discussion ........................................................................................................... 75 3.3.1 Summary of Results...................................................................................... 75 3.3.2 Interpretation of Findings............................................................................... 78 3.3.3 Recommendations ........................................................................................ 83 APPENDIX A................................................................................................................. 91 APPENDIX B................................................................................................................. 92 APPENDIX C ................................................................................................................ 93 APPENDIX D ................................................................................................................ 98 APPENDIX E............................................................................................................... 101 APPENDIX F ............................................................................................................... 110 APPENDIX G .............................................................................................................. 111 APPENDIX H .............................................................................................................. 113 APPENDIX I ................................................................................................................ 115 APPENDIX J ............................................................................................................... 118 APPENDIX K............................................................................................................... 127 APPENDIX L ............................................................................................................... 131 APPENDIX M .............................................................................................................. 134 APPENDIX N .............................................................................................................. 137 APPENDIX O .............................................................................................................. 141 APPENDIX P............................................................................................................... 143 APPENDIX Q .............................................................................................................. 148 APPENDIX R .............................................................................................................. 150 APPENDIX S............................................................................................................... 182
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Tolga Durak

Table of Figures
Figure 1: The overall flow of studies.............................................................................. 25 Figure 2: 9-Point Likert-Type Scale ............................................................................... 28 Figure 3: The overall flow of events for Study 1. ........................................................... 31 Figure 4: Rating Distribution Chart for the Task Difficult Levels .................................... 44 Figure 5: Rating Distribution Chart for the General Usability Statements...................... 45 Figure 6: Rating Distribution Chart for Agreement Scale............................................... 49 Figure 7: Rating Distribution Chart for Importance Scale .............................................. 51 Figure 8: The overall flow of events for Study 2 ............................................................ 58 Figure 9: Rating Distribution Chart for the Task Difficulty Levels .................................. 62 Figure 10: Rating Distribution Charts for General Usability Statements ........................ 63 Figure 11: Rating Distribution Chart for Agreement Scale............................................. 69 Figure 12: Rating Distribution Chart for Importance Scale ............................................ 71

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Tolga Durak

Table of Tables
Table 1: The Table of Classification Categories. ........................................................... 39 Table 2: The Internet Use............................................................................................ 118 Table 3: Important Content Items ................................................................................ 119 Table 4: FAQ Format................................................................................................... 120 Table 5: Healthcare Contents and Features................................................................ 121 Table 6: The Table of Classification Criterion.............................................................. 100 Table 7: Summary of Computer Problems .................................................................. 124 Table 8: Summary of Internet Problems...................................................................... 125 Table 9: Qualitative Responses .................................................................................... 73 Table 10: Task Difficulty ................................................................................................ 45 Table 11: Usability Statements...................................................................................... 46 Table 12: Importance Scale Mean Ratings and Overall Rating Distribution .................. 71 Table 13: Qualitative Responses .................................................................................. 48 Table 14: Agreement Scale Mean Ratings and Overall Rating Distribution .................. 49 Table 15: Importance Scale Mean Ratings and Overall Rating Distribution .................. 51 Table 16: Agreement Scale Mean Ratings and Overall Rating Distribution .................. 70 Table 17: Qualitative Responses (Dislikes)................................................................... 68 Table 18: The Internet Use.......................................................................................... 182 Table 19: Important Content Items .............................................................................. 183 Table 20: FAQ Format................................................................................................. 184 Table 21: Healthcare Contents and Features.............................................................. 185 Table 22: Usability Statements...................................................................................... 64 Table 23: Summary of Computer Problems ................................................................ 188 Table 24: Summary of Internet Problems.................................................................... 189 Table 25: Summary of Additional Content................................................................... 190 Table 26: Qualitative Responses (Likes)....................................................................... 68 Table 27: Task Difficulty ................................................................................................ 63

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Dedication
This paper is dedicated to my grandfather, Mehmet Saim Yilmaz (as known as “Saim Hoca”), who would have been proud.

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Tolga Durak