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Reading 1 WHAT IS STRESS? The term stress has been defined in several different ways. sometimes the term is applied to stimuli or events in our environment that make physical and emotional demands on us, and sometimes it is applied to our emotional and physical reactions to such stimuli. in this discussion, we will refer to the environmental stimuli or events as stressors and to the emotional and physical reactions as stress. 压力这个词已经有几种不同的定义。 有时候这个术语适用于我们环境中的刺激或事件, 这些 刺激或事件会对我们产生身体和情感方面的要求, 有时也适用于我们对这种刺激的情绪和身 体反应。 在这个讨论中,我们将环境刺激或事件称为压力,并将情绪和身体上的反应称为 压力。 Many sorts of events be stressors, including disasters, such as hurricanes or tornadoes; major life events, such as divorce or the loss of a job; and daily hassles, such as having to wait in line at the supermarket when you need to be somewhere else in 10 minutes. What all this events have in common is that they interfere with or threat our accustomed way of life. when we encounter such stressors, we must pull together our mental and physical resources in order to deal with the challenge. How well we succeed in doing so will determine how serious a toll the stress will take on our mental and physical well-being. 许多事件都是压力源,包括灾难,如飓风或龙卷风; 重大生活事件,如离婚或失业; 每天都 有麻烦, 比如当你要在 10 分钟内到别的地方去却不得不在超市排队等。 所有这些事件都有 共同之处,就是它们干涉或威胁我们习惯的生活方式。 当我们遇到这样的压力时,我们必 须整合我们的精神和物质资源来应对挑战。 我们如何成功地做到这一点将决定压力对我们身 心健康将产生多大的影响。 Reacting to stressors The Canadian physiologist Hans Seyle has been the most influential writer on stress.Seyle proposed that both humans and other animals react to any stressor in three stages, collectively known as the general adaptation syndrome. the first stage, when the person or animalbecomes aware of the stressor is the alarm reaction. In this stage the organism becomes highly alert and aroused, energized by a burst of epinephrine. After the alarm reaction comes the stage of resistance ,as the organism tries to adapt to the stressful stimulus or to escapefrom it. If these efforts are successful, the state of the organismreturns to normal. If the organism cannot adapt to thecontinuing stress, however, it enters a stage of exhaustionor collapse. 加拿大生理学家 Hans Seyle 在压力方面一直是最有影响力的作家。 塞尔提出, 人类和其他动 物在三个阶段对任何压力源作出反应,统称为一般适应综合症。第一阶段,当人或动物意识 到应激源时,就是警报反应。在这个阶段,机体变得高度警觉和激起,并被一阵肾上腺素所 激发。 当警报反应进入抵抗阶段后, 机体试图适应压力刺激或逃避压力。 如果这些努力成功, 机体的状态就会恢复正常。然而,如果生物体不能适应持续的压力,它就进入衰竭或崩溃的 阶段。

Seyle developed his model of the general adaptation syndrome as a result of research with rats and other animals. In rats, certain stressors, such as painful tail-pulling consistently led to the same sorts of stress reactions in humans, however, it is harder to predict what will be stressful to a particular person at a particular time. Whether a particular stimulus will be stressful depends on the person’s subjective appraisal of that stimulus. How threatening is it? How well have I handled this sort of thing in the past? how well will I be able to handle it this time? for one person, being called on to give a talk in front of a class is a highly stressful stimulus that will immediately produce such elements as a pounding heart and a dry mouth. for another person, being called on to give a talk is not threatening at all, but facing a deadline to complete a term paper is extremely stressful. in humans, moreover, the specific stress reaction is likely to vary widely; some stressful situations give rise predominantly to emotions of fear, some give rise to anger, and some give rise to helplessness and depression. 由于对老鼠和其他动物的研究,Seyle 开发了他的一般适应综合征模型。在老鼠身上,某些 压力因素,比如痛苦的尾巴拉扯,一直导致和人类出现同样的压力反应,然而,在特定的时 间很难预测什么会对某个人造成压力。 一个特定的刺激是否会产生压力取决于该人对该刺激 的主观评价。 这有多大威胁?我过去如何处理这类事情?这次我能处理多好?对于一个人来 说,在班级面前讲话是一种高度压力的刺激,会立即产生心跳和口干等元素。对另一个人来 说,讲话根本不是威胁,但是面对完成学期论文的期限是非常紧张的。此外,在人类中,特 定的应激反应可能差异很大;一些压力的情况主要是恐惧情绪,一些引起愤怒,一些引起无 助和沮丧。 Reading 2 COPING WITH STRESS 应对压力 It is Friday evening and two young lawyers get phone calls at home. The trial data for an important case has been moved up. Both of thelawyers will now have to prepare a report for the case by Mondaymorning. It is a threatening situation for both. Each must do extensive research and write a complex document of some 40 pages, all ina single weekend. furthermore, each knows that her work will beevaluated by the firm’s partners, and how well she does may greatlyin fluence her future in the firm. 现在是星期五晚上,两位年轻律师在家接到了电话。一个重要案件的审判数据已被公布。现 在两位律师都必须在星期一早上准备一份报告。 这对双方都是一种威胁。 每个人都必须进行 广泛的研究,并在一个周末内完成大约 40 页的复杂文档。此外,每个人都知道她的工作将 由公司的合作伙伴进行评估,而且她做得如何可能极大地影响她在公司的未来。

One of the lawyers finds the situation extremely stressful; she feelstremendous anxiety, experiences headaches and stomach upset, andhas difficulty working. she somehow manages to produce a report, but she is not at all happy with it. the other lawyer, although she toofeels the pressure of the situation, sees it not so much as a threat butas a challenge-an opportunity to show how good she is. she movesinto the firm’s offices for the weekend and sleeping only three hoursa night, completes a brilliant report with a clear mind and a surge ofenergy. as this example helps illustrate, stress is caused not so much by events themselves as by the ways in which people perceive and react to events. 其中一位律师认为情况极其紧张; 她感到非常焦虑,经历头痛,胃部不适,而且很难工作。 她以某种方式设法做出报告, 但她对此并不满意。 另一位律师虽然也感受到了这种情况的压 力,但并不认为这是一种威胁,而是一种挑战 - 一个显示她有多好的机会。她周末进入公 司办公室,每晚只睡三个小时,精神清醒,精力充沛,完成了一篇精彩的报告。正如这个有 力的例子说明的那样, 压力不是由事件本身引起的, 而是由人们对事件的感知和反应的方式 引起的。 Degree of control 控制程度 An important influence on people’s ability to cope with stressfulsituations is the degree of control that they feel they can exercise overthe situation. both animals and humans have been found to copebetter with painful or threatening stimuli when they feel they canexercise some degree of control rather than being passive and helplessvictims. such a sense of control can help minimize the negativeconsequences of stress, both psychological and physical. in one well-known experiment, Jay Weiss administered electric shocks to pairs ofrats.In each pair, one of the two animals was given a degree of controlover the situation; it could reach through a hole in the cage and press a panel that would turn off the shock both for itself and for its partner. Thus, the two rats received exactly the same number of shocks, but one was passive and helpless, and the other was in control. after acontinuous 21-hour session, the animals were sacrificed and theirstomachs examined for ulcers. those rats that could exert control hadmuch less ulceration than their helpless partners. 人们应对压力的能力的一个重要影响是他们觉得自己可以对局势进行控制的程度。 当动物和 人类觉得自己可以行使某种程度的控制权, 而不是被动和无助的受害者时, 动物和人类都能 更好地应对痛苦或威胁的刺激。 这种控制感可以帮助最大限度地减少心理和生理压力的负面 影响。在一个众所周知的实验中,杰伊·韦斯(Jay Weiss)对成对的老鼠进行电击。在每一 对中,两只动物中的一只受到一定程度的控制,它可以通过笼子里的一个洞,并按下一个面

板,可以为自己和它的伙伴关闭震动。因此,这两只老鼠受到的冲击数量完全相同,但是一 只被动无助,另一只控制住了。连续 21 小时后,将动物处死并检查其胃部是否溃疡。那些 可以控制的老鼠比他们无助的伴侣溃疡要少得多。 The ability to control painful stimuli often benefitshumans, too. For example, the loud music coming into your ears from your iPod is probably not stressful; in fact, it's quite enjoyable. but the same musiccoming from your neighbor's house can be terribly andstressful. merely knowing that one can control a noise makes it less bothersome.That’s one reason why your loud music does not botheryou-you know you can turn it off. 控制疼痛刺激的能力也经常使人类受益。例如,从你的 iPod 进入你的耳朵大声的音乐可能 没有压力, 事实上, 这是相当愉快的。 但是来自你邻居家的同样的音乐可能会让你非常紧张。 只知道一个人能控制噪音会减少麻烦。这就是为什么你的嘈杂音乐不会打扰你 - 你知道你 可以把它关掉。 Predictability 可预测性 Even when you cannot control them, unpleasant events tend to be lessstressful if they are predictable - if you at least know when they willoccur. This was demonstrated by Weiss in another study with rats. One group of rats heard a buzzer about 10 seconds before they wouldreceive a shock; although the animals could not escape the shock atleast they had a chance to prepare themselves for the expected pain. A second group of rats received no such warnings;The shocks came unpredictably. Weiss found that the rats that were forewarnedof theshocks developed fewer ulcers than the rats that were not forewarned. This finding has parallels in human life. the death of a loved one, forexample, is usually less traumatic when it is anticipated than when it isunexpected. On a less tragic level, many students find surprise quizzesto be more upsetting than scheduled quizzes that they can prepare for. 即使你无法控制他们,如果不愉快的事件是可预测的,那么往往会减轻压力 - 如果你至少 知道他们什么时候会发生。 Weiss 在另外一项关于老鼠的研究中证实了这一点。一组老鼠 在接到电击前约 10 秒钟听到蜂鸣声,虽然动物至少不能逃避震荡,但他们有机会为预期的 痛苦做好准备。第二组老鼠没有收到这样的警告; 冲击变得难以预料。 Weiss 发现,预先警 告的老鼠发生的溃疡比没有预先警告的老鼠要少。这一发现与人类生活相似。例如,所爱的 人的死亡在预期的时候通常没有比在意想不到的时候痛苦。 在不那么悲惨的水平上, 许多学 生发现突击测验比他们可以准备的定期测验更令人不安。

Personality factors 个性因素 Are some people generally better than others at coping with stress? Research suggests that the answer is yes -that there is a certainkind of person who has a relatively stress-resistant personality. The leading researcher in this field has been Suzanne Kobasa.Dr.Kobasa found that people who cope well with stress tend to have three characteristics: They are committed to what they are doing, they feel in control (ratherthan powerless), and they welcome moderate amounts of change and challenge. In studies of people facing stressful situations, Kobasa and her associates found that those with stress-resistant personalities- that is, those who are high in commitment,control, and challenge-experience fewer physical illnesses than thosewhose personalities are less hardly. 有些人一般比其他人更好地应付压力吗?研究表明答案是肯定的 - 有某种人具有相应对抗 压力的性格。这个领域的领先研究者是 Suzanne Kobasa。Kobasa 博士发现,处理压力的人 倾向于有三个特点:他们致力于他们正在做的事情,他们感到可控的(而不是无能为力) , 他们欢迎适度的变化和挑战。在面对压力情况的人们的研究中,Kobasa 和她的同事发现那 些有抗性的个性 - 即那些高度承诺,控制和挑战的人 - 比那些性格不那么强壮的人经历更 少的身体疾病。 Until quite recently, it was generally believed that to maintaingood health people should strive to avoid stressors in their lives. Such a strategy can be quite limiting, however. The desire to avoid stressmay also lead people to avoid potentially beneficial changes in theirlives, such as job changes or promotions. Moreover, the attempt toavoid stress is often unrealistic. How, for example, can a person avoidsuch shocks as a parents death? in fact, if people do not confront acertain amount of stress in their lives, they will end up being boredand unstimulated, which also can be physically harmful. In the lastanalysis, each person needs to come to terms with stress in his or herown way, sometimes trying to avoid it, but sometimes accepting it oreven seeking it out as a challenge to be mastered. 直到最近,人们普遍认为,要保持良好的健康,人们应该努力避免生活中的压力。然而,这 样的策略可能相当有限。 避免压力的愿望也可能导致人们避免潜在的有益的生活变化, 如工 作变动或晋升。而且,避免压力的尝试往往是不现实的。例如,一个人如何避免父母死亡这 样的冲击?事实上, 如果人们在生活中不面对一定的压力, 他们最终会感到无聊和没有受到 刺激, 这也会造成身体上的伤害。 在最后的分析中, 每个人都需要用自己的方式来应对压力, 有时试图避免压力,但有时候会接受压力,甚至把压力看作是一个挑战。 Reading 3

STRESS AND ILLNESS 压力和疾病 In many stressful situations, the body's responsecan improve our performance – we become more alert, and better able to take effective action.But when stress is encountered continually, the body's reactions are more likely to be harmful than helpful tous.As will be seen later in this unit, the production of stress-relatedhormones seems to make people more susceptible to heart disease.And stress reactions can reduce the disease-fighting effectiveness of the body's immune system, thereby increasing susceptibilityto illnesses, ranging from colds to cancer.Other diseases that canresult at least in part from stress include arthritis, asthma, migraine headaches, and ulcers. Workers who experience the greatest amount of job pressure have been found to be especially likely to suffer froma large number of illnesses. Moreover, many studies have shown thatpeople who have experienced major changes in their lives are at anunusually high risk for a variety of illnesses. 在许多紧张的情况下,身体的反应可以改善我们的表现 - 我们变得更加警觉,并且能够更 好地采取有效行动。但是当压力持续不断,身体的反应更有可能是有害的,而不是对我们有 帮助。正如本单元稍后将会看到的那样,压力相关激素的产生似乎使人们更易患心脏病。而 压力反应会降低人体免疫系统的抗病能力,从而增加感染疾病的可能性,从感冒到癌症。其 他可导致压力的疾病包括关节炎,哮喘,偏头痛和溃疡。发现工作压力最大的工作人员特别 容易患上大量的疾病。此外,许多研究表明,那些经历过重大变化的人,患上各种疾病的风 险非常高。 As an example of stress-induced illness, take thecase of stomach ulcers, small lesions in the stomachwall that afflict one out of every twenty people atsome point in their lives. Ulcers are a common disorder among people who work in occupations that make heavy psychological demands from assembly line workers to air-traffic controllers. In such cases, stress tends to be the culprit.Stress leads to increasedsecretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid normally helps to break down foods during digestion, but in excess amounts it caneat away at the stomach lining, producing ulcers. 以压力引起的疾病为例,以胃溃疡为例,胃壁中的小病灶在生命中某一时刻每 20 人中就有 一人受到折磨。 在人们的工作中, 从从事流水线工作人员到空中交通管制员都有强烈的心理 需求,他们中溃疡是一种常见的疾病。在这种情况下,压力往往是罪魁祸首。压力导致胃酸 分泌增加。盐酸通常有助于在消化过程中分解食物,但是过量的话,它可以在胃里吃掉,产 生溃疡。

Stress and cancer 压力与癌症 One of the least understood diseases, and partly for that reason oneof the most feared, is cancer, which is the second leading cause of death in America.Medical scientists and researchers are still trying tounderstand the biological mechanisms of cell behavior that underlie the onset and development of cancer. However, studies seem tosuggest that there may be links between emotions and cancer. 最不了解的、 部分由于这个原因最令人害怕的疾病之一是癌症, 这是美国的第二大死亡原因。 医学科学家和研究人员仍在试图了解细胞行为的生物学机制,这是癌症发病和发展的基础。 然而,研究似乎表明情绪和癌症之间可能有联系。 These links involve the functioning of the body’s immune system,a collection of billions of cells that travel through the bloodstreamand defend the body against invasion by foreign agents, including bacteria and viruses, and against cells that become cancerous.Psychological factors can influence immune functioning and the field of research on these influences is called psychoimmunology.It is believed that small cancers form frequently in everyone, but our immune system usually rejects them.However, prolonged stress may lead to elevated levels ofcorticosteroids and to lower levels ofthe neurotransmitter norepinephrine in the brain. These and other changes apparently make it harder for the immune system to reject cancer cells. When the organism copes with the stress in an active way,these changes in the immune system seem to be minimized whenthe organism reacts with helplessness and depression, the changes aremaximized. 这些环节涉及人体免疫系统的功能, 汇集在血液中的数十亿细胞, 保护机体免受包括细菌和 病毒在内的外来物质的侵袭,抵御癌细胞的侵袭。心理因素会影响免疫功能,对这些影响的 研究领域称为心理免疫学。 人们相信每个人都会经常形成小癌症, 但是我们的免疫系统通常 会排斥他们。然而,长时间的压力可能会导致皮质类固醇水平升高,并导致脑内神经递质去 甲肾上腺素水平降低。 这些和其他的变化显然使免疫系统更难排斥癌细胞。 当机体以一种积 极的方式应对压力时, 免疫系统中的这些变化似乎被最小化, 当机体以无助和抑郁症反应时, 这些变化会被最大化。 Animal studies These links between stress, helplessness, immune function, and cancer have been demonstrated experimentally in studies with animals. In one study, conducted bySklar and Anisman, three groups of mice were injected with the same number of cancer cells. One group was exposed to an electric shock that they could learn to escape by jumping over a barrier to safety. A second group was exposed to the same duration of shock, but had no means of actively coping with the stress. The third groupwas never shocked.The cancer grew the fastest and ledto the earliest death in the

animals that had no meansof coping with their stress. In contrast, the animals thatgrowth from those that had not been shocked at all. 压力,无助,免疫功能和癌症之间的这些联系已经在动物研究中得到了实验证明。在一项由 Sklar 和 Anisman 进行的研究中,三组小鼠注射了相同数量的癌细胞。一群人遭到电击,他 们可以通过跳过安全屏障学会逃离。第二组遭到相同的电击,但没有积极应对压力的手段。 第三组从未电击。无法应对压力的动物癌症增长最快,导致最早的死亡。相比之下,那些从 来没有被电击的动物长大了。 Human studies The link between stress, helplessness, and cancer has beendemonstrated in humans as well. In one dramatic study in1981, Richard Shekelle and his co-workers studied over 2, 000 men who had taken a psychological test that diagnoses depressionand other emotional states. Seventeen years later, the researcherfound that those men who had been highly depressed at the time of the testing had twice the chance of dying of cancer as men who had not been depressed since depressed people tend to drink more alcohol or smoke more cigarettes, which in turn increases their riskof cancer, Shekelle took this into account when he analyzed his data;the association between depression and cancer still held, regardless ofdrinking or smoking rates. in another study, widowed husbands werefound to have a decline in the function of their white blood cells -part of the immune system-within two months of their wives deaths. 压力,无助和癌症之间的联系也在人类中得到证明。理查德· 谢克尔(Richard Shekelle)和 他的同事在 1981 年的一个戏剧性的研究中, 研究了 2000 多名经过心理测试诊断出抑郁症和 其他情绪状态的男性。 十七年后, 研究人员发现那些在测试时高度抑郁的男性患癌症的机率 是没有抑郁的男性的两倍, 因为抑郁症患者往往喝更多的酒或者吸更多的香烟, 反过来又增 加了患癌症的风险,Shekelle 在分析他的数据时考虑到了这一点; 无论饮酒或吸烟率如何, 抑郁症和癌症之间的关系仍然存在。 在另一项研究中, 丧偶的丈夫在其妻子死亡的两个月内 被发现其白血细胞的功能下降 - 免疫系统的一部分。 There is also some evidence that people’s emotions are involvedin cancer once it has begun. in a study of women who underwentmastectomy for early-stage breast cancer, Greer found that women whoreacted to their diagnosis with either a fighting spirit or strong denials were more likely to be free of disease eight years later than were women who reacted with stoic acceptance or with feelings of helplessness. 还有一些证据表明,一旦癌症开始,人们的情绪就会与癌症有关。在对早期乳腺癌接受乳房

切除术的妇女进行的一项研究中, 格里尔发现, 那些女性对自己的诊断做出的反应要么是战 斗精神,要么坚决否认的比那些坚忍接受或感到无助的女性更可能没有疾病。 Recommendations for treatment 治疗建议 Findings on the links between emotional reactions to stress and theprogression of cancer have given rise to some recommendations forthe treatment of cancer patients. In particular, programsthat can helpgive cancer patients a greater feeling of control over their destinies andthat can help them adopt a “fighting spirit” might just increase theirodds of survival. Although there is no solid evidence as yet that such programs can in fact extend people’s lives, developing such programsremains an exciting frontier in health psychology. 关于情绪对压力的反应与癌症进展之间的联系的发现已经引起对于癌症患者治疗的一些建 议。特别是可以帮助癌症患者控制自己的命运,并可以帮助他们采取“战斗精神”的计划,可 能会增加他们的生存几率。 虽然目前还没有确凿的证据表明这种方案实际上可以延伸人们的 生活,但开发这样的方案仍然是健康心理学领域的一个激动人心的前沿。 Reading 1 Heart disease 心脏病 Heart disease is western society’s number-one killer. it is the leadingcause of death for both men and women, and accounts for morethan one in four of all deaths in America. Heart disease used to beconsidered a male disease, and among the middle-aged this is still true. However, since 1984, more women than men actuallydie from heartdisease in the United States each year. it is just that the onset of heartdisease starts later in women than in men. some good news, thoughfor both genders is that deaths from heart disease in the united stateshave been falling since the beginning of the twenty-fist century. Worldwide, however, the picture is not so good.Heart disease rates are climbing rapidly all around the globe as more andmore cultures adopt a Western Lifestyle-smoking more, exerciseless, and eating a diet higher in fats. 心脏病是西方社会的头号杀手。 它是男性和女性死亡的主要原因, 占美国死亡人数的四分之 一以上。心脏病以前被认为是一种男性疾病,在中年人当中,这仍然是事实。然而,自 1984 年以来,美国每年都有更多的女性死于心脏病。只是女性心脏病的发生晚于男性。有一个好 消息,不过对于男性女性来说,自二十一世纪初以来,美国心脏病的死亡人数一直在下降。 但是在全球范围内,情况并不是那么好。随着越来越多的文化采取西方生活方式,越来越多 的人吸烟,减少锻炼,并且在饮食中摄入更多的脂肪,心脏病发病率在全球迅速攀升。

Heart disease usually involves the formations of a fatty substance called plaque in the walls of the coronary arteries, which supply bloodto the heart. If the arteries become narrowed enough or blocked, the person may suffer a heart attack (death of a region of heart muscle tissue). Among the many factors that have been found to be related to the risk of developing heart disease are high blood pressure(or hypertension), a history or heart disease among one’s close relatives (indicating a possible genetic predisposition to the disease), cigarette smoking, being relatively overweigh, and a high level of a fatty substance called cholesterolin the blood. In addition to all of thesewell -established risk factors, it is now clear that stress can have a major impact on the development of heart disease. People who continually undergo a great deal of stress -and who lack the ability to controlit -are at significantly greater risk for heart disease than people who undergo less stress or who can manage stress successfully.Jobs that impose high psychological demands but that provide the worker withlittle control-such as a cook, a waiter, or a hospital orderly -seem tobreedheart disease. 心脏病通常是由为心脏供血的冠状动脉壁上形成称为斑块的脂肪物质形成的。 如果动脉变窄 或阻塞,则该人可能遭受心脏病发作(心脏肌肉组织区域的死亡) 。在已经被发现与开发心 脏疾病的风险的诸多因素中,高血压(或高血压) 、吸烟、血液中称为胆固醇的高水平脂肪 物质相对容易发生,高血压是一个历史及疾病或心脏疾病(表明可能的遗传倾向的疾病) 。 除了所有这些良好的风险因素外,现在很清楚,压力可能会对心脏病的发展产生重大影响。 那些持续承受巨大压力的人, 以及缺乏控制能力的人, 心脏病的风险明显高于那些压力较小 或能够成功应对压力的人。强加心理要求但给工人提供少量控制的工作 - 例如厨师,服务 员或医院有秩序的 - 似乎会滋生心脏病。 The type a behavior pattern 行为模式的类型 Whereas some jobs may make heavier psychological demands thanothers, certain sorts of people, regardless of their occupation, seem tomake heavy psychological demands on themselves-and, as a result, run a greater risk of heart disease. people with a particular personality style, called the coronary prone behavior pattern and commonly labeled type A, have been found to be especially susceptible to heart disease.Type A people are hard-driving, competitive, and aggressive. They experience great time urgency, always trying to do more and more in less and less time. people who have an opposite sort ofpersonality are termed Type B. others are categorized somewhere in between. 虽然有些工作可能比别人有更重的心理需求, 但某些人不论职业, 似乎都对自己有沉重的心 理要求,结果心脏病的风险就更大了。具有特殊个性风格的人们被称为“冠状动脉易感行为 模式”,通常被标记为“A 型”,已被发现特别容易患上心脏病。 A 型人开车难,好竞争,好

斗。他们经历着紧迫的时间,总是在越来越少的时间里越做越多。那些具有相反性格的人被 称为 B 型。其他人被归类在两者之间。 Many studies have confirmed that Type A people are more susceptible to heart disease than Type B People. One probable reason is that Type Apeopletend to make greater demands on themselves and to expose themselves to morestressful situations than do Type B people. One study of college football players found, for example,that Type A players were rated by their coaches as playing harder thanType B players when they were injured. Type A people also tend to have an unusually intense physiological reaction to the stress that theyencounter. When they are faced with a challenging situation, theytend to manifest higher blood pressure and greater increases in heartrate and in the level of epinephrine in their blood than Type B people. Some researchers believe that this greater physiological reactivity under stress-sometimes called hot reactivity-is the key to the linkbetween the type a pattern and heart disease. 许多研究证实 A 型人比 B 型人更容易患心脏病。 一个可能的原因是 A 型人比 B 型人更倾向 于对自己提出更高的要求,使自己面临更多的压力。例如,一项针对大学生足球运动员的研 究发现,A 型运动员被教练评为比受伤的 B 型运动员更努力。 A 型人也往往对他们遇到的 压力有非常强烈的生理反应。当他们面对具有挑战性的情况时,他们的血液中的血压比 B 型人更高,心率和血液中的肾上腺素水平更高。一些研究人员认为,压力下的这种更大的生 理反应性 - 有时被称为热反应性 - 是模式类型与心脏病之间关系的关键。 The bulk of the research on psychological factors in heart diseasehas focused on men rather than women. even among women who face highly stressful situations, whether at work or at home, the risk of heart disease remains considerably lower than for men. Manybiological and psychological factors may contribute to this difference. Among them is the consistent finding that although women tend toexpress their emotions more openly than men do, their physiological reactions to stress tend to be less intense. in terms of the risk of heartdisease, then it may be better to let ones emotions show outwardlythan to bury them inside, where they may eventually cause damage toone's body. 心脏病心理因素的研究大部分集中在男性而不是女性。 即使是在工作和家庭中都面临高度压 力的妇女中,心脏病的风险仍远低于男性。许多生理和心理因素可能导致这种差异。其中有 一致的发现, 尽管女性比男性更容易表达自己的情绪, 但对压力的生理反应往往不那么激烈。 就心脏病的风险而言,最好是让情绪表现出来,而不是埋在心里,最终会对身体造成伤害。 Because of the links between the type a behavior pattern andheart disease, various approaches have been taken to changing thispattern of behavior. for example, Type A people have been

taughtrelaxation exercises and other techniques to manage stress. Theyhave been encouraged to develop nonstressful hobbies and they havebeen given therapy sessions to help change their pressured view ofthe world. Some programs have had a degree of success in altering the behavioral and psychological reaction of Type Aindividuals. Sofar, however, the success has been limited. The Type A pattern seemsto be learned over the course of many years, and it is supported bysuch, it is not a simple matter to change this pattern. indeed, as JoanBorysenko notes, "one of the most stressful things for a Type Ais tobe told to relax.” 由于行为模式与心脏病之间的联系,已经采取了各种方法来改变这种行为模式。例如,A 型 人已经被教授放松练习和其他技术来管理压力。 他们被鼓励发展非压抑性的爱好, 他们接受 了治疗课程来帮助改变他们对世界的压力。一些项目在改变 A 型人的行为和心理反应方面 取得了一定程度的成功。但是到目前为止,成功是有限的。 A 型模式似乎是在多年的学习 过程中得到这样的支持, 改变这种模式不是一件简单的事情。 事实上, 正如琼· 博里森科 (Joan Borysenko)所指出的那样,“对 A 型来说,压力最大的事情之一就是放松。” Reading2 SMOKING The risks of smoking The risks of smoking are hardly a well-guarded secret. The"SmokingCan be Harmful to your health” warning is on every pack of cigarettessold in the united states, and 97 percent of adults and teens agreethat smoking is associated with lung cancer. Nearly as many peoplealso acknowledge smoking’s links with other respiratory ailments andheart disease. A teen-to-the-grave smoker has a 50 percent chance ofdying from the habit. according to the World Health Organization(WHO), the death rate from smoking will soon grow to 10 millionpeople in the world every year, meaning that half a billion people alivetoday will be killed by tobacco. Eliminating smoking would increaselife expectancy worldwide more than any other preventive measure.It is no wonder then that, because smoking is generally viewed asthe most important behavioral risk to health, it has become a centralconcern of health psychologists. 吸烟的危险几乎不是一个保守的秘密。在美国出售的每包香烟中,“吸烟对你的健康有害” 是警告的, 97%的成年人和青少年认为吸烟与肺癌有关, 几乎同样多的人也承认吸烟与其他 呼吸疾病和心脏病,青少年吸烟者有 50%的机会死于这种习惯,根据世界卫生组织(World Health Organization,WHO)的统计,吸烟的死亡率很快会增长到全球 1000 万人这意味着今 天活着的五亿人将会被吸烟所杀, 与其他任何预防措施相比, 消除吸烟将会增加全世界的预 期寿命,这也就不足为奇了,因为吸烟一般被认为是最重要的行为风险健康,已经成为健康

心理学家关注的重点。 Why do people start smoking? Smokingis a pediatric disease. It usually begins during early adolescence.It is especially common among those who get low grades schoolwho drop out of school, who feel less in control of their future,and whose friends, parents and siblings smoke. We learn behaviors through the models we imitate and the social rewards we receive, adolescents are self-conscious andoften think the world is watching their every move. so, they may begin smoking to imitate cool models, to get the socialrewardsof being accepted by other smokers, and to project amature image. Typically, teens who start smoking have friendsas who smoke and suggest its pleasures, and who offer themcigarettes among teens whose parents and best friends arenonsmokers, the rate is close to zero. 吸烟是一种儿科疾病。 它通常在青春期初期开始。 低年级学生辍学, 对自己的未来掌控不足, 朋友,父母和兄弟姐妹吸烟的情况尤其普遍。 我们通过模仿的模式学习行为,获得社会回报,青少年是自觉的,常常认为世界正在观察他 们的一举一动。那么他们可能会开始吸烟,模仿酷酷的模特,获得被其他吸烟者接受的社会 奖励,并且展示一个成熟的形象。通常情况下,开始吸烟的青少年有朋友抽烟,并建议他们 吸烟的快乐并提供他们香烟。在父母和最好的朋友是非吸烟的青少年中,率接近于零 Why do people not stop smoking? Onceaddictedto nicotine we find it very difficult to stop. Tobacco products are as addictiveas heroin and cocaine. Studies in Britain and the Unite States show that at least one in three of those who try cigarettes becomes hooked. This addiction to smoking is partlyphysiological;smokers becomes used to the effects of nicotine and experience painfulwithdrawal when they give it up. In addition, people become physiologically dependent onsmoking as a way of reducing anxiety and with particular situations. Because of these physiological and psychological forces ,quitting is difficult and the relapse rate is high. 一旦沉迷于尼古丁,我们发现很难停下来。烟草产品与海洛因和可卡因一样令人上瘾。英国 和美国的研究显示,至少有三分之一的香烟受到吸引。这种吸烟上瘾是部分生理上的; 吸烟 者习惯了尼古丁的效果,当他们放弃时会经历痛苦的戒烟。此外,人们在生理上依赖吸烟作 为减轻焦虑和特殊情况的一种方式。 由于这些生理和心理因素, 戒烟是困难的, 复发率很高。 Helping smokers quit Psychologists have helped develop a variety of behavior modificationtechniques to get people to stop smoking. These efforts include public warnings, counseling, drug treatments, hypnosis, aversive conditioning (e.g., making people smoke cigarette after cigarette untilthey feel sick), and

support groups. The good news isthat these treatments are often effective. the bad news is that all but one-fifth of the participants eventually succumb to the habit again. For those trying to quitby themselves, that is, without group support, the odds are even lower. 心理学家已经帮助开发了各种行为改变技术来让人们戒烟。这些努力包括公共警告,咨询, 药物治疗,催眠,厌恶的调理(例如,让人们在香烟后抽烟直到他们感到不舒服)和支持团 体。好消息是,这些治疗往往是有效的。坏消息是,只有五分之一的参与者最终再次屈服于 这种习惯。对于那些试图自行退出的人来说,没有群体的支持,这个可能性就更小了。 Better news comes from the Centers for Disease Control(CDC) which reports that half of Americanswho have ever smoked do manage to quit eventually after repeated attempts. Because so many people havestopped or not started smoking, the percentage ofAmerican, Canadian and British smokers has dropped sharply over the last 30 years. The drop has been most pronouncedin these countries in the male smoking rate, which now barely exceedsthat of women. Thanks in part to such trends, the death rate due tocoronary heart disease in these countries has declined by about 30percent since the mid-1960s smoking-related cancer deaths have alsobeen declining, especially among men. 据美国疾病控制中心(CDC)报道,有好消息称,有一半的美国人在反复尝试后终于戒掉 了烟。因为有那么多人戒烟或不吸烟,美国、加拿大和英国烟民的比例在过去 30 年里急剧 下降。在这些国家,男性吸烟率下降最为明显,目前吸烟率几乎不超过女性。部分由于这样 的趋势,冠心病在这些国家的死亡率已经下降了约 30%,自上世纪 60 年代开始吸烟有关的 癌症死亡人数也在下降,尤其是男性。 However, despite declining cigarette sales among educated. Western adults, per capita cigarette consumption is near an all-timehigh worldwide. smoking has skyrocketed in Asia. in china, wheremany men, but no more than 1 in 10 women smoke cigaretteconsumption soared from 100 billion cigarettes a year in the early 1950s to 1.6 trillion at the century’s end. In Japan, 35 percent (50 percent of men) are smokers. Today, cigarette companies aretargeting developing countries, such as Kenya and Zimbabwe, whererates of cigarette consumption have been historically low. the WHO therefore has predicted that in the next three decades, 70 percent of tobacco-related deaths will occur in developing countries, wherepeople tend to be less aware of the dangers of smoking. 然而, 尽管受过教育的卷烟销售下滑。 西方成年人的人均卷烟消费量接近全球历史最高水平。 吸烟在亚洲迅速蔓延。在中国,男人很多,但是在十几岁的女人中,每十年只有十分之一的 女人吸烟的消费量从五十年代初期的每年 1000 亿支, 到本世纪末的 1.6 万亿。 在日本, 35% (50%的男性)是吸烟者。今天,卷烟公司正在瞄准发展中国家,比如肯尼亚和津巴布韦,

那里的卷烟消费率历来都很低。 。世卫组织因此预测,在今后三十年中,70%与烟草有关的 死亡将发生在发展中国家,人们往往不太了解吸烟的危害。 Preventing smoking It is vastly easier to begin smoking than once addicted to stop.Socialand psychological analyses of why adolescents start smoking have helped generate educational programs that teachers can implement easily and inexpensively. According to the National Cancer Institute,The key ingredients of such programs are: Information about the effects of smoking Information about peer, parent, and media influences Training in refusal skills, through modeling and role-playing The informational ingredients can also be offered through massmedia. In 1998, Florida initiated a massive youth-oriented media campaign to reduce the allure of smoking, and by early 1999, the number of 12 to 14 year-olds who reported smoking had dropped by19 percent from the previous year. 开始吸烟比一旦沉迷于戒烟容易得多。 为什么青少年开始吸烟的社会和心理分析帮助制定教 育计划,教师可以轻松便宜地执行。根据国立癌症研究所的资料,这些项目的主要成分是: 有关吸烟影响的信息 关于同伴,父母和媒体影响的信息 通过建模和角色扮演训练拒绝技能 信息成分也可以通过大众媒体提供。 1998 年,佛罗里达发起了一场大规模青年导向的媒体 运动,以减少吸烟的吸引力,到 1999 年年初,报告吸烟的 12-14 岁的人数比上一年下降了 19%。 There is another way to discourage smoking: Make it moreimmediately costly. The most effective rewards and punishments areimmediate. When the delayed rewards of exercise compete with theimmediate discomfort of doing so, the immediate consequences winout. Likewise, even knowing that in the long run smoking is often suicidal behavior, many continue to smoke. If we could only raise theimmediate costs, consumption would surely go down. this is, in fact,what happened when the price of cigarettes in the united states wentup by 70 percent between 1997 and 2001. following this increase,teen smoking began declining, especially in states that also had strong smoking-prevention program. 还有另一种阻止吸烟的方法:使它立即更加昂贵。最有效的奖惩是立竿见影的。当运动的延 迟回报与立即的不适竞争时, 立即的结果会胜出。 同样, 即使知道长期吸烟往往是自杀行为,

许多人仍然吸烟。 如果我们只能提高眼前的成本, 消费肯定会下降。 事实上, 在 1997 到 2001 年间,美国的香烟价格上涨了 70%。随着这一增长,青少年吸烟开始下降,特别是在那些 也有强有力的吸烟预防计划的州。 Reading 3 HEALTHFUL BEHAVIOR In this section. we study two very different approaches to managing stress and thus the conditions for greater healthfulness:exercise and spirituality. 在这个部分。 我们研究两种截然不同的方法来管理压力, 从而增强健康的条件: 锻炼和灵性。 Exercise Many studies suggest that aerobic exercise thatis,exercisethatincreasesheart and lung fitness, such as jogging, swimming, and biking, can reducestress, depression and anxiety. In a 2002 survey, for example, non-exercisers were twice as likely as exercisers to reportbeing " not too happy.” but if we state thisobservation the other way around –thatstressed and depressed people exerciseless -cause and effect become unclear. 许多研究表明, 有氧运动, 即增加心肺功能的运动, 如慢跑, 游泳和骑自行车, 可减轻压力, 抑郁和焦虑。例如,在 2002 年的一项调查中,非锻炼者可能是锻炼者被报告“不太高兴”的 两倍。但是如果我们用相反的观点来表达这种观察 - 那些压力和抑郁的人们锻炼的次数减 少的原因和影响就不清楚了.. Experiments have resolved this ambiguity. In one experimentresearchers randomly, assignedone-third of mildly depressed female college students to a program ofaerobic exercise and another third to a treatment of relaxation exercises, theremaining third -the control group- received no treatment. AsFigure 2.3 shows, 10 weeks later, the women in the aerobic exercisegroup reported the greatest decrease in depression. 实验已经解决了这种模棱两可的说法。 在一项实验中, 研究人员随机分配了三分之一的轻度 抑郁的女大学生参加有氧运动, 另外三分之一接受了放松训练, 剩下的三分之一对照组没有 接受任何治疗。如图 2.3 所示,10 周后,有氧运动组的女性报告抑郁症的降幅最大。 More than 150 other studies confirm that exercise reduces depression and anxiety and can therefore be a useful addition to treatment that includes antidepressant drugs and psychotherapy. In fact, some research suggests that exercise is better than drugs in preventing symptom recurrence. 另有 150 多项研究证实, 运动可以减轻抑郁和焦虑, 因此可以成为包括抗抑郁药物和心理治 疗在内的治疗的有益补充。事实上,一些研究表明,运动在预防症状复发方面比药物好。

Researchers are now wondering why aerobic exercisealleviates negatives emotions.Researchers know that exercise releases certain chemicals in the body’s bloodstream that can affect of emotions. However, they also wonder whether the benefits of exercise are a side effect of the sound sleep that people experience after exercise, or perhaps a sense of accomplishment or the fact thatone’s improved physique may influence one’s emotional state and self-esteem. 研究人员现在想知道为什么有氧运动能够减轻负面情绪。 研究人员知道, 运动会释放身体血 液中可能影响情绪的某些化学物质。 然而, 他们也不知道运动的好处是否是人们在锻炼后所 经历的健全睡眠的副作用, 或者是成就感, 或者一个人的体质改善会影响他的情绪状态和自 尊。 Research certainly reveals that exercise not only boosts our mood, but also strengthens the heart, increases blood flow, keeps blood vessels open, and lowers both blood pressure and the blood pressure reaction to stress. Compared with inactive adults, people who exercisesuffer half as many heart attacks. One study that followed Finnishtwins for nearly 20 years showed that occasional exercise reduced the risk of death by 29 percent compared with no exercise.Daily exercisereduced death risk by 43 percent. By one estimates, moderate exercise adds two years to one’s expected life. 研究表明,锻炼不仅能增强我们的情绪,还能增强心脏,增加血液流动,保持血管通畅,同 时降低血压和血压对压力的反应。 与不运动的成年人相比, 运动者患心脏病的次数是为一半。 一项对芬兰双胞胎进行了近 20 年的研究表明,与不锻炼相比,偶尔锻炼能降低 29%的死亡 风险。每日锻炼减少 43%的死亡风险。据估计,适度的锻炼会使你的预期寿命延长两年。 Spirituality. Throughout history, religion and medicine have joined forcesin caring for the sick. Hospitals, which were first established inmonasteries, often carried the name of saints. However, as medical science matured, healing and religion diverged. Rather than askingGod toheal their sick children from smallpox, people were able to vaccinate them. Rather than seeking a spiritualhealer when burning with a fever, people were able to use antibiotics. Recently, however, religion and healing have been converging once again. 在整个历史上, 宗教和医学联手照顾病人。 最初在修道院建立的医院常常被称为圣人。 然而, 随着医学成熟,治疗和宗教分离。人们没有要求上帝医治他们的天花病患儿童,而是给他们 接种疫苗。人们在发烧时使用抗生素,而不是寻找精神治疗者。然而最近宗教和治疗又一次 聚合。 Of the United states' 135 medical schools, 101 offered spirituality andhealth courses in 2005, up

from five in 1992. Since 1995, Harvard Medical School has annually attracted 1,000 to2.000 health professionals to its Spirituality and Healing in Medicaine conferences. 在美国的 135 所医学院中,101 所在 2005 年提供了灵性和健康课程,1992 年为 5 所。 自 1995 年以来,哈佛医学院每年吸引 1000 至 2000 名卫生专业人员参加在医学院会议上的 灵性和治疗 Duke University has established a Center for Spirituality, Theology, and Health. A survey found that 99 percent of U.S. family physicians agreed that“personal prayer meditation, or other spiritual practices”can enhance medicaltreatment. 杜克大学建立了一个灵性,神学和健康中心。 一项调查发现, 99%的美国家庭医生认为“个人祷告冥想或其他精神疗法”可以提高医疗水平。 Is there fire underneath all this smoke? More than 1.000sudies have sought to correlate the faithfactor with health. A U.S. National Health Interview surveyin 1999 followed, 21,104 people over eight years. After controlling for age, sex, race and religion, researchers found that non-attendees of religious were 1.87 times more likely to have died than those attending more than weekly. This translated into a life expectancy at age 20 of 83 years for frequent attendees and 75 yearsfor infrequent attendees . 这烟雾下面有火吗?超过 1.000 个研究试图将信仰因素与健康联系起来。 1999 年美国全国 健康访问调查 8 年来有 21104 人。研究人员在控制了年龄,性别,种族和宗教信仰之后,发 现没有参加宗教活动的人比参加每周活动的人多 1.87 倍。这可以转化为 20 岁的经常参与者 的预期寿命为 83 岁和不频繁的参与者为 75 岁。 These findings indicate that, as apredictor of heath and longevity, religious involvement rivalsnonsmoking andexercise effects. Such findings demand explanation. Canyou imagine what might account for the correlation? Consider one obvious Possibility: Women are more religiously active than men, and women outlive men. So perhaps religious involvement is merely an expression of the gendereffect on longevity. Second, religiously active people have healthier lifestyles; forexample, they smoke and drink less. Third, social support is anothervariable that may help explain the faith factor.For all the majororganized religions in the world, faith is not solo spirituality, but acommunal experience support networks exist for people whenmisfortune strikes. Finally, in many very religious communities,divorce, which is highly stressful, is almost nonexistent. 这些发现表明, 宗教参与对手不吸烟和锻炼的影响可以作为健康长寿的一个预测因素。 这样 的发现需要解释。你能想象什么可能解释相关性?

考虑一个明显的可能性:女性比男性更具宗教积极性,女性比男性更活跃。也许宗教介入仅 仅是对长寿的性别影响的一种表现。 其次,宗教活跃的人有更健康的生活方式;例如,他们抽烟喝水较少。第三,社会支持是另 一个可能有助于解释信仰因素的变量。 对于世界上所有主要的有组织的宗教来说, 信仰并不 是单独的灵性,而是在遭遇不幸的时候有一个共同的经验支持网络。最后,在很多非常宗教 的社区里,很大压力的离婚几乎是不存在的。 But even after controlling for gender, unhealthful behaviors, socialties, and divorce, the mortality studies find much of the mortality reduction remaining, Researchers therefore speculate that a set ofvariables exist that may explain this. these variables include the well-being associated with a coherent worldview, a sense of hope for thelong-term future, feelings of ultimate acceptance, and the relaxedmeditation of prayer. these variables might also explain anotherrecentfinding among the religiously active healthier immune functioning and fewer hospital admissions. 但是,即使在控制了性别,不健康的行为,社会关系和离婚后,死亡率研究发现大部分死亡 率研究都发现大部分死亡率下降。 研究人员因此推测存在一组可以解释这一点的变量。 这些 变量包括与一个观点一致的幸福感, 对长期未来的希望感, 最终接受的感觉以及轻松的祈祷 冥想。 这些变量也可能解释了另一个近期发现的宗教活跃者健康的免疫功能和更少的住院病 例。 Although the religion -health correlation is yet to be fullyexplained, Harold Pincus, Deputy Medical Director of the American Psychiatry Association believes these findings"have made clear thatanyone involved in providing health care services, cannot ignorethe important connection between spirituality, religion, andhealth.” Let’s summarize the contents of this unit: sustained emotionalreactions to stressful events can lead to sickness. however, we cancope with stressors by problem solving or emotional coping, and we by making ourselves emotionally and physically stronger. 美国精神病学协会副主任医师哈罗德?平卡斯(Harold Pincus)认为,尽管宗教与健康之间的 相关性尚未得到充分解释,但这些研究结果“已经明确指出,任何参与提供医疗服务的人都 不能忽视精神,宗教,和健康“。 让我们总结一下这个单元的内容:对压力事件持续的情绪反应会导致疾病。然而,我们可以 通过解决问题或情绪应对来应对压力,而我们可以使自己在情绪上和身体上更强大。

Unit3 Reading1 GESTURAL COMMUNICATION 手势沟通 Introduction Nonverbalcommunication iscommunication without words. You communicate nonverbally when you gesture, smileor frown, widenyour eyes, move your chair closer tosomeone, wear jewelry, touch someone, or raise your vocal volume, even when you say nothing. Your ability to use nonverbal communicationeffectively can yield two major benefits. First, the greater your ability to send and receive nonverbal signals, the higher your attraction, popularity,and psychosocial well-being are likely to be. Second, thegreater your nonverbal kills, the more successful you are likely to be in a wide variety of interpersonal communicationsituations, including business communication,teacher student communication, intercultural communication, courtroom communication, and in close relationships, politics, and health care. In this unit, we will look at five different channels of nonverbalcommunication: (1)gestural communication, (2)facial communication(3)eye communication, (4) touch communication, and (5)spatialmessages. We begin our study of nonverbal messages by consideringgestural communication. 非语言沟通是无言的沟通。你会非语言交流,当你做手势,微笑或皱眉时,张开双眼,把你 的椅子靠近某个人,佩戴首饰,触摸某人,或者提高你的声音的音量,即使你什么都不说。 您有效地使用非语言沟通的能力可以产生两大好处。 首先, 发送和接收非语言信号的能力越 大,吸引力,受欢迎程度和社会心理健康水平就越高。其次,非言语性的攻击越多,在各种 人际交往情况下,包括商业交流,师生交流,跨文化交际,法庭交流,以及密切的关系,政 治和医疗保健中,你可能会越成功。 在这个单元中,我们将看五种不同的非语言交流渠道: (1)手势沟通, (2)面部交流, (3) 眼睛交流, (4)触摸交流, (5)空间信息。我们通过考虑手势沟通开始研究非语言信息。 Types of gestures An especially useful classification in kinesics, thestudy of communication through body movement,identifies five types of gestures: emblems illustrators, affect displays, regulators,and adaptors.运动学中一个特别有用的分类,通过身体运动进行交流的研究,确定了五种类型的 手势:象征插画家,情感的展示,监管和编剧。 Emblems

Emblems are substitutes for words; they are body movements that haverather specific translations, suchas the nonverbal signs for OK , Peace, Come here,"Go away,Who,me? ”“Be

quiet,”“I’mwarning you,” “I’m tired,” “andit's cold.”Emblems are as arbitrary as any words in any language. Consequently, your presentculture's emblems are not necessarily the same as your culture'semblems of 300 years ago or the same as the emblems of other cultures.For example, the sign made by forming a circle with the thumb andthe forefinger may mean “nothing” or “zero” in France, “money” inJapan, and something sexual in certain southern European cultures. But, just as the English language is spreading throughout the world, so too is the English nonverbal language. The American use of thisemblem to mean"OK"is spreading just as fast as, for example, Englishtechnical and scientific terms. 标志是文字的替代品; 他们指身体运动,有非常具体的翻译,如非语言符号 OK、和平、来 这里,“走开,谁,我?”“安静”,“我警告你”,“我累了, “”而且很冷“标志和任何一种语言 一样随心所欲, 因此, 你现在的文化标志不一定是你 300 年前的文化标志或者是其他文化的 象征,例如,用拇指和食指形成圆圈的标志可能意味着法国的“无”,“零”,日本的“金钱”, 以及某些南欧文化中的某种性的东西,但正如英语在整个世界传播,英语也是非语言的,例 如美国人使用这个标志的意思是“OK”,正如英语技术和科学术语一样快地传播。 Illustrators Illustrators accompany and literally illustrate verbal messages. Illustrators make your communications more. vivid and help tomaintain your listener's attention. They also help to clarify andintensify your verbal messages. In saying, "Let’s go up, for example.you probably move your head and perhaps your finger in an upwarddirection. In describing a circle or a square, you more than likemake circular or square movements with your hands. Research pointsto another advantage of illustrators: They increase your ability toremember. People who illustrated their verbal messages with gesturesremembered about 20 percent more than those who did not gesture. We are aware of illustrators only part of the time; at times they mayhave to be brought to our attention and our awareness. Illustrators aremore universal than emblems: they will be recognized and understoodby members of more cultures than will emblems. 插画家陪同和字面言语消息。插画使您的沟通更生动,有助于保持听众的注意力。他们也有 助于澄清和加强你的语言信息。比如说:比方说, “我们走吧” 。你可能会移动你的头,也许你 的手指向上。在描述一个圆形或方形时,你更喜欢用手做圆形或方形运动。研究指出插画的 优点: 他们增加了记忆的能力, 那些用手势表达口头信息的人比那些不表示手势的人记得多 20%,我们只知道插画的一部分时间,有时可能需要带上我们的注意力和我们的意识,插画

比标志更普遍:他们将会比标志被更多文化的成员所认可和理解。 Affect displays Affect displays are the movements of the facial area that convey emotionalmeaning-the expressions that show anger and fear, happiness andsurprise, and eagerness and fatigue. They are the facial expressions thatshow your true feelings when you are trying to present a false image and that lead people to say, "You look angry what's wrong?” however, consciously control affect displays, as actors do when the play a role. Affect displays may be unintentional (as when they show yourtrue feelings), or intentional (as when you want to show anger or love). 情感展示是是面部区域的运动,传达情绪的含义,表达愤怒和恐惧、快乐、惊喜、渴望和疲 劳的表情。 面部表情, 表达自己的真实感受,当你试图呈现一个虚假的形象, 并引导人们说: “你看起来生气,怎么了?”,然而,有意识地控制情感展示,就像演员在扮演角色时所做的 一样。情感展示可能是无意的(如当他们表现出你的真实感受时) ,或有意(当你想表现出 愤怒或爱) 。 Regulators Regulators monitor, maintain, or control the speaking of anotherindividual. When you listen to another, you are not passive; you nod your head, purse your lips, adjust your eye focus, and make various paralinguistic sounds, such as “mm-mm” or “tsk”. Regulators are culture-bound: Each culture develops its own rules for the regulationof conversation. Regulators also include such broad movements asshaking your head to show disbeliefto show that you want to hear more. 监管机构监督,维护或控制另一个人的言谈。当你听别人的时候,你不是被动的;你点头, 舔嘴唇,调整你的眼睛的焦点,并发出各种副语言声音,如“mm-mm”或“啧”。监管机构是 有文化约束的:每一种文化都有自己的规则来规范谈话。监管机构还包括如摇头晃脑,以显 示难以置信,以表明你想听到更多。 Regulators communicate what you expect or want speakersto do as they are talking: for example,"Keep going," “Tell me what happened,” "1 don't believe that. Are you sure?""Speed up, and" “Slowdown.”Speakers often receive these nonverbal behaviors withoutbeing consciously aware of them. Depending on their degree ofsensitivity, speakers modify their speaking behavior in accordancewith these regulators. 监管机构传达你期望的内容,或者要求发言者在发言时做的事情,例如“继续前进” , “告诉我 发生了什么事情” , “我不相信,你确定吗? “加快速度”和“放缓速度”。演讲者经常收到这些

非言语行为而没有意识到这些行为。 根据他们的敏感程度, 发言者根据这些监管者修改他们 的发言行为。 Adaptors Adaptors satisfy some need and usually occur withoutconscious awareness; they are unintentional movementsthat usually go unnoticed. Researchers identify three maintypes of adaptors based on their focus, direction, or target: self-adaptors, alter-adaptors, and object-adaptors. 适配器满足一些需求, 通常在没有意识的情况下发生。 它们是无意的运动, 通常不被人注意。 研究人员根据焦点,方向或目标确定三种主要类型的适配器:自适应器,变更适配器和对象 适配器。 Self-adaptors usually satisfy a physical need, generally serving to make you more comfortable; examples include scratching your head to relieve an itch, moistening your lips because theyfeel dry, orpushing your hair out ofyour eyes.When these adaptors occur in private, theyoccur in they entirety you scratch your headuntil the itchis gone. But in public theseadaptors usually occur in abbreviated form.When people are watching you, for example, Youmight put your fingers to your head and movethem around a bit but probably not scratch with thesame vigor as when in private. 自适配器通常满足生理需要,一般用来使你更舒适;例子包括刮你的头来止痒,滋润你的嘴 唇, 因为他们感到干燥, 或将你的头发从你的眼睛前拿开。 当这些适配器是私人发生的时候, 它们会发生在你整个头上,直到发痒消失。但在公开场合,这些适配器通常以简化的形式出 现。例如,当人们注视着你时,你可能会把手指放在头上,稍微移动一下,但可能不会像在 私密的时候一样搔痒。 Alter-adaptors are the body movements you makein response to your currentinteractions.Examples include crossing your arms over your chest when someone unpleasantapproaches moving closer to someone you like. 更改适配器是您为响应当前的交互而作出的身体动作。 例如, 当有人不愉快的方法靠近你喜 欢的人时,将双臂交叉在胸前。 Object-adaptors are movements involve your manipulation of some object. Frequently observed examples include punching holes in or drawing on a piece of paper, clicking a ballpoint pen, or chewing on a pencil. Object-adaptorsare usually signs of negative;for example, you emit more adaptors when you feel hostile than when you feel friendly. Further, as anxiety and uneasiness increase so doesfrequency of object-adaptors. 对象适配器是运动涉及你的某些对象的操纵。 经常观察到的例子包括在纸上打孔或在纸上画

图,点击圆珠笔或咀嚼铅笔。对象适配器通常是负面的迹象;例如,当你感到敌意比当你感 到友好时散发出更多的适配器。而且,随着焦虑和不安,对象适配器的频率也在增加。 2 FACIAL COMMUNICATION 面部交流 Facial expressions 面部表情 Throughoutyour interpersonal interactions yourface communicates, especiallysignalingyour emotions. In fact, facial movements alone seem to communicate the degree ofpleasantness, agreement and sympathy a Person feels; the rest of the body doesn’t provide any additional information. For other aspects, however-for example, the intensitywith which an emotion is felt -both facial and bodily cues are used. 在整个人际交往过程中,你的脸沟通,特别能表达你的情绪。事实上,面部表情似乎只是表 达一个人所感受到的愉悦,同意和同情的程度;身体的其余部分不提供任何额外的信息。然 而,对于其他方面,例如,情绪感受的强度 - 面部和身体暗示都被使用。 Some nonverbal-communication researchers claim that facialmovements may communicate at least the following eight emotionsto happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, contempt, andinterest. Otherspropose that, in addition, facial movements maycommunicate bewilderment and determination. 一些非语言交流的研究人员声称, 脸部运动至少可以传达以下八种情绪: 幸福, 惊奇, 恐惧, 愤怒, 悲伤, 厌恶, 蔑视和兴趣。 另一些人则建议, 此外, 面部运动可能会传达迷惑和决心。 of course, some emotions are easier to communicate than others. for example, in one study, happiness was judged with an accuracy ranging from 55 percent to 100 percent, surprise from 38 percent to86 percent, and sadness from 19 percent to 88 percent. Research findsthat women and girls are more accurate judgesof facial emotionalexpressions than men and boys.当然,有些情绪 比别人更容易沟通。例如,在一项研究中,快乐的判断准确率在 55%到 100%之间,惊奇从 38%到 86%,悲伤从 19%到 88%不等。研究发现,女性和女性比男性和男性对面部表情的 判断更准确。 As you have probably experienced, you may interpret the samefacial expressions differently depending on the context in whichthey occur. For example, in a classic study, when a smiling face waspresented looking at a glum face, the smiling face was judged to bevicious. But when the same smiling face was presented looking at afrowning face, it was judged to be peaceful and friendly. In general, notes surprisingly, people who smile are judged to be more likable and moreapproachable

than people who don't smile or people who pretend tosmile. And women perceive men who are smiled at by other womenas being more attractive than men who are not smiled at. But men -perhaps being more competitive-perceive men whom women smile at as being less attractive than men who are not smiled at. 正如你可能已经经历的那样, 你可以根据它们出现的环境来解释相同的面部表情的不同。 例 如,在一个经典的研究中,当笑容呈现在一张阴沉的脸上时,笑脸被判断为是恶毒的。但是 当看到一张皱着眉头的脸上露出同样的笑容时,被认为是和平友善的。一般而言,令人惊讶 的是,笑的人被认为比不笑的人或假装微笑的人更可爱,更平易近人。而女人则认为被其他 女人笑的男人比不被笑的男人更有吸引力。但是,男人 - 也许更具竞争力 - 认为女人所笑 的男人比不笑的男人更没有吸引力。 Facial management 面部管理 In the same way that you learned the nonverbal system ofcommunication unconsciously as a child, you also learned certain facialmanagement techniques that enable you to communicate yourfeelings to achieve the effect you want-for example, to hide certain emotions and to emphasize others. Consider your own use of suchfacial techniques. As you do so, think about when you might do thefollowing.就像你小时候无意识地学习了非语言沟通系统一样,你也学 习了一些面部管理技巧,使你能够表达自己的感受,达到你想要的效果 - 例如,隐藏某些 情绪,强调其他情绪。考虑你自己使用这种面部技术。当你这样做的时候,想想你什么时候 可以做下面的事情。 Intensify your facial expression, as when you exaggerate yoursurprise when friends throw you a surprise party.加强你的面部表情,就像你夸大你的惊喜,当朋友给你一个惊喜派对时

Deintensify your facial expression, as when you cover up yourown joy in the presence of a friend who didn't receive such goodnews.加强你的面部表情, 就像你在一个没有收到这样的好消息的 朋友面前掩饰自己的喜悦一样。 Neutralize your facial expression, as when you cover up yoursadness to keep from depressing others.中和你的面部表情,就像你掩饰自己的悲伤,以免压抑他人。 Mask your facial expression, as when you express happinessorder to cover up your disappointment at not receiving the giftyou expected.掩盖你的面部表情,就像当你表达快乐的

时候,为了掩饰你没有收到你所期待的礼物而失望 These facial management techniques help you display emotions insocially acceptable ways. For example, when someone gets bad news about which you secretly take pleasure, the display rules dictate thatyou frown and otherwise nonverbally signal your sorrow. If you placefirst in a race and your best friend barely finishes, the display rulesrequire that you minimize your expression of pleasure in winningand avoid signs of gloating. If you violate these display rules, you’ll be judged as insensitive. So, although facial management techniquesmay be deceptive, they are also expected -and, in fact, required by therules of polite interaction.这些面部管理技巧可以帮助你以 社会可接受的方式展示情感。例如,当有人得到你偷偷高兴的坏消息时,显示规则指示你皱 眉,否则非语言地表示你的悲伤。如果你第一次参加比赛,你最好的朋友几乎没有完成,显 示规则要求你最大限度地减少获胜的乐趣, 并避免出现幸灾乐祸的迹象。 如果您违反这些显 示规则,您将被判定为不敏感。所以,虽然面部管理技巧可能是欺骗性的,但它们也是可以 预料到的 - 事实上,礼貌互动的规则是必需的。 Facial feedback When you express emotions facially, a feedback effect is observed. Thisfinding has given rise to the facial feedback hypothesis, which holds that your facial expressions influence your own physiological arousal. For example, in one study, participants held a pen in their teeth tosimulate a sad expression and then rated a series of photographs. Results showed that mimicking a sad expression actually increasedthe degree of sadness the subjects reported when viewingthe photographs.当你表达情绪表面,反馈效果是观察。这一发现引起了面部反馈假说,认为你 的面部表情影响你自己的生理唤醒。例如,在一项研究中,参与者在他们的牙齿中拿着一支 笔来模拟悲伤的表情,然后对一系列照片进行评分。观看照片时,受试者报告的结果显示, 模仿悲伤表情实际上增加了悲伤程度。 Generally, research finds that facial expressions can produce orheighten feelings of sadness, fear, disgust, and anger. But this effectdoes not occur with all emotions; smiling, for example, won’t make youfeel happier. And if you're feeling sad, smiling is not likely to replace your sadness with happiness. A reasonable conclusion seems to be thatyour facial expressions can influence some feelings, but not others.一般来说,研究发现面部表情可以产生或增加悲伤,恐惧,厌恶和愤 怒的感觉。但是,这种效应并不是所有的情绪都会发生。例如,微笑不会让你感到更快乐。 如果你感到难过, 微笑不可能用快乐取代你的悲伤。 一个合理的结论似乎是你的面部表情可

以影响一些感觉,而不是其他的。

Reading 3 EYE COMMUNICATION Occulesis is the study of messages communicated by the eyes. These messages vary depending on the duration, direction, and quality ofthe eye behavior. For example, in every culture there are rather strict, though unstated, rules for proper duration of eye contact. In muchof England and the United States, for example, the average length of gaze is 2.95 seconds. The average length of mutual gaze(two personsgazing at each other)is 1. 18 seconds. When the duration of eye contactis shorter than 1. 18 seconds, you may think the person is uninterested,shy, or preoccupied. When the appropriate amount of time is exceeded, you may perceive this as showing high interest. In much of the United States, directeye contact Is considered an expression of honesty and forthrightness. But theJapaneseoften view eye contact as lack of respect. The Japanese will glance at theother person's face rarely and then only for very short periods. In many Hispaniccultures, direct eye contact signifies as Certain equality and so should be avoidedby, say, children when speaking to a personin authority. Try visualizing the potentialmisunderstanding that eye communicationalone could create when people fromTokyo, San Francisco, and San Juan try tocommunicate. Occulesis 是对眼睛传达的信息的研究。这些消息根据眼睛行为的持续时间,方向和质量而 变化。例如,在每一种文化中,对眼接触时间都有相当严格的,虽没有规定。例如在英国和 美国的大部分地区,平均注视时间是 2.95 秒。相互凝视的平均长度(两人相互凝视)是 1.18 秒。 当目光接触的持续时间短于 1.18 秒时, 你可能会认为这个人不感兴趣, 害羞或者专注。 当超过适当的时间时,您可能会认为这显示出高度的兴趣。在美国的很多地方,直接的目光 交流被认为是诚实和坦率的表现。 但日本人往往把目光接触视为缺乏尊重。 日本人很少会看 到他人的脸,只有很短的时间。在许多西班牙裔文化中,直接的目光接触表示为“一定的平 等” ,所以在与权威人士交谈时,孩子应避免这么做。试着想象一下当东京,旧金山和圣胡安 的人们试图沟通时,只有眼神交流会产生潜在误解。 The direction of the cye also communicates. Generally, whencommunicating with another person, you will glance alternativelyat the other persons face, then away then again at the face, and soon. When these directional rules are broken, different meanings are communicated -abnormally high or low interest, self-consciousness, nervousness over the interaction and so on. The quality of the gaze-how wide or narrow your eyes get during the interaction – alsocommunicates meaning, especially interest level and such emotions assurprise, fear, and disgust. 眼睛的方向也是一种交流。一般来说,在和别人交流的时候,你会看着其他人的脸,然后再

很快的看一次。当这些方向性规则被打破时,不同的意义被传达 - 通常高或低的兴趣,自 我意识,对交往的紧张等等。注视的质量 - 在交互过程中你的眼睛有多宽或多少 - 也传达 意义,尤其是兴趣水平和惊喜,恐惧和厌恶等情绪。 Studies also show that listeners gaze at speakers more than speakersgaze at listeners. The percentage of interaction time spent gazingwhile listening, for example, ranges from 62 Percent to 75 percent; the Percentage of time spent gazing while talking, however, rangesfrom 38 to 41 percent. When these percentages are reversed-when a speaker gazes at the listener for longer than" normal"periods or whenthe listener gazes at the speaker for shorter than"normal"periodsthe conversational interaction becomes awkward. 研究还表明, 听众凝视演讲者比听众更注重听众。 在聆听时所花费的互动时间的百分比例如 从 62%到 75%;然而,谈话时注视时间的百分比在 38%到 41%之间。-当说话者注视听众的 时间超过“正常”时间, 或者当听众凝视说话者的时间短于“正常”时间时, 会话交互变得尴尬。 这些百分比与前者相反 Eye contact serves several important functions.眼睛接触有几个重要的功能。 To monitor feedback. For example, when you talk with others, youlook at them intently and try to understand their reaction to whatyou are saying. You try to read their feedback and, on this basis,you adjust what you say. As you can imagine, successful readingsof feedback will help considerably in your overall effectiveness.监控反馈。例如,当你和别人交谈时,你要专心地看 着他们,试着理解他们对你所说的话的反应。您尝试阅读他们的反馈意见,并在此基础上调 整您的意见。正如你可以想象的,成功的反馈阅读将大大有助于你的整体效果。 To secure attention. When you speak with two or three other people, you maintain eye contact to secure the attention and interest of your listeners. When someone fails to pay you theattention that you want, you probably increase your eye contact, hoping that this increase attention.为了获得关 注。当你和其他两三个人说话时,你会保持目光接触,以保证听众的注意力和兴趣。当有人 不给你你期望的注意,你可能会增加你的目光接触,希望这可以增加注意力。 To regulate the conversation. Eye contact helps you regulate manage, and control the conversation. With eye movements, you can inform the other person that she or he should speak, Aclear example of this occurs in the college classroom, where theinstructor asks a question and then locks eyes with a student. This type of eye contact tells the student to answer the question. To signal the nature of the relationship. Eye communication alsocan serve as a"tie sign"to signal

the nature of the relationshipbetween two people-for example, to indicate positive or negativeregard. Depending on the culture, eye contact may communicate your romantic interest in another person, or eye avoidance may indicate respect. 来规范谈话。目光接触有助于您规范管理,并控制对话。通过眼球运动,你可以告诉对方他 或她应该说话。大学教室里就有一个明显的例子,教师提出一个问题,然后锁定一个学生的 眼睛。这种眼神接触告诉学生回答这个问题。 表明这种关系的性质。眼睛沟通也可以作为一个“领带标志”来表明两个人之间的关系的性质 - 例如,表示正面或负面的关注。根据不同的文化,目光接触可能会传达你对另一个人的浪 漫兴趣,或眼神的避免可能表示尊重。 To signal status. Eye contact is often used to signal status and aggression. Among younger people, prolonged eye contact from astranger is taken to signify aggressiveness and frequently promptsphysical violence- merely because one person looked perhapslittle longer than was considered normal in that specific culture.表示状态。目光接触往往用来表示状态和攻击。在年 轻人中,长时间的陌生人眼神交流被认为是攻击性的,常常会引起身体上的暴力 - 仅仅是 因为一个人看起来可能比那个特定文化中被认为是正常的时间稍长。 To compensate for Physical distance. Eye contact is often usedto compensate for increased physical distance. By making eyecontact, you overcome psychologically the physical distancebetween yourself and another Person. When you catch someone’s eye at a party, for example, youbecome psychologically close even though you may beseparated by a considerable physical distance.为了补偿身体的距离。眼睛接触通常用于补偿增加的物理距离。通过目光 接触,你在心理上克服了你和另一个人之间的身体距离。例如,当你在派对上吸引别人的注 意力时,即使你可能被相隔很远的物理距离,你也会在心理上接近。 The eyes, observed sociologist Erving Goffman inInteraction Ritual(1967)are “great intruders.” When youavoid eye contact or avert your glance, you allow others tomaintain their privacy: You probably do this when you see acouple arguing in the street or on a bus. You turn your eyesaway as if to say. "I don't mean to intrude; I respect yourprivacy: Goffman refers to this behavior as civil inattention. 社会学家欧文· 戈夫曼(Erving Goffman)在互动仪式(1967)说眼睛是“伟大的入侵者”。当 你避免目光接触或避免你的目光时, 你允许别人保持他们的隐私: 当你看到一对夫妇在街上 争吵时,或在公共汽车上。你转过头来,好像在说。 “我不打算干涉,我尊重你的隐私:戈

夫曼把这种行为称为公民不注意。 Eye avoidance also can signal a lack of interest in a person, aconversation, or some visual stimulus. At times, like the ostrichyou hide your eyes inan attempt to cut off unpleasant stimuli. Notice, for example, how quickly people close their eyes in the faceof some extreme unpleasantness. Interestingly enough, even if theunpleasantness is auditory, you tend to shut it out by closing your eyes. Sometimes you close your eyes to block out visual stimuli and thus toheighten your other senses; for example, we often listen to music with our eyes closed. Lovers often close their eyes while kissing and many prefer to make love in a dark or dimly lit room. 避免眼睛也可以表示对一个人, 一段谈话或一些视觉刺激缺乏兴趣。 有时候, 就像鸵鸟一样, 你会隐藏你的眼睛,企图切断不愉快的刺激。例如,注意面对一些极度不愉快的情况,人们 闭上眼睛的速度有多快。有趣的是,即使不愉快是听觉的,你也往往闭上眼睛关闭它。有时 你闭上眼睛阻挡视觉刺激,从而提高你的其他感官; 例如,我们经常闭着眼睛听音乐。恋人 在亲吻的时候经常闭上眼睛,许多人喜欢在黑暗或昏暗的房间里做爱。 Pupil dilation 瞳孔扩张 In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Italy, women used to putdrops of belladonna (which literally means "beautiful woman")into their eyes to enlarge their pupils so that they would look moreattractive. Research in the field of pupillometrics supports the intuitivelogic of these women: Dilated pupils are in fact judged to be moreattractive than constricted ones.在意大利的十五世纪 和十六世纪, 妇女往往把颠茄 (从字面上来说意为“美丽的女人” ) 的眼睛, 放大他们的瞳孔, 使他们看起来更有吸引力。 在瞳孔测量学领域的研究支持这些女性的直觉逻辑: 扩大的学生 实际上被认为比收缩的学生更具有吸引力。 In one study, photographsofwomen were retouched. In one set ofphotographs, the pupilswere enlarged and in another, they were madesmaller. Men were then asked to judge thewomen’s personalities from the photographs. The photos of women with small pupils drewresponses such as cold, hard, and selfish; those with dilated pupils drew responses such as feminineand soft. However, the male observers could not verbalize the reasons for the different perceptions. Both pupil dilation itself and people’sreactions to changes in the pupil size of othersseem to function below the level of consciousawareness.在一项研究中,女性的照片被修饰。在一组照片中,瞳 孔扩大了,另一组缩小了。然后要求男性从照片中判断女性的个性。小学生女生的照片反应 冷,硬,自私;那些散瞳的学生画了女性柔和的反应。然而,男性观察者不能用语言来表达

不同认知的原因。 瞳孔扩张本身和人们对其他人的瞳孔大小变化的反应似乎都低于自觉意识 的水平。 Pupil size is also indicative of your interestand level of emotional arousal。 Your pupilsenlarge when you are interested in something or when you emotionally aroused. Perhaps we find dilatedpupils moreattractive because wejudge them as indicative of an interest in us.瞳孔大小也 代表了你的兴趣和情绪唤起的水平。 当你对某事感兴趣或者当你情绪激动时, 你的瞳孔扩大。 也许我们发现扩大的瞳孔更有吸引力,因为我们把他们判断为对我们有兴趣。 Although belladonna is no longer used, the cosmetics industry has made millions selling eyeenhancers such as eye shadow, eyeliner, false eyelashes and tintedcontact lenses that change eye color.Theseitems function (ideally, at least)to draw attention to these powerfulcommunicators. 尽管颠茄不再使用, 但化妆品行业已经制造了数以百万计的销售眼部促进剂, 如眼影, 眼线, 假睫毛和改变眼睛颜色的有色隐形眼镜。这些项目的功能(理想情况下,至少)吸引这些强 大的传播者注意。 Reading1 THE MEANINGS OF TOUCH Tactile communication, or communication by touch, also referred to as haptics is perhaps the most primitive form of communication. Developmentally, touch is Probably the first sense to be used; even inthe womb the child is stimulated by touch. Soon after birth. the childis caressed, patted, and stroked. In turn, the child explores its worldthrough touch. In a very short time, the child learns to communicate awide variety of meanings through touch. Not surprisingly, touch also varies with your relationship stage. In the early stages of a relationship, you touch little; in intermediate stages (involvement and intimacy), you touch a great deal; and at stable or deterioratingstages, you again touch little. Touch may communicate five major meanings. 触觉通信或触摸通信也被称为触觉,也许是最原始的通信形式。在发展方面,触摸可能是第 一个被使用的感觉; 即使在子宫里,孩子也会被触摸刺激。出生后不久。孩子被抚摸,拍打 着,抚摸着。反过来,孩子通过触摸来探索它的世界。在很短的时间内,孩子学会通过触摸 来传达各种各样的意思。毫不奇怪,触摸也随着你的关系阶段而变化。在一段关系的早期阶 段,你几乎没有触及; 在中间阶段(参与和亲密) ,你触摸很大,在稳定或恶化的阶段,你 再次触摸一点。

触摸可以传达五个主要含义。 Positive emotions Touch may communicate positiveemotions mainly between intimates or other who have a relatively closerelationship. Among themost important of these positiveemotions are support, appreciation, inclusion, sexual interest or intent, and affection.触摸可能主要是在亲密关系或其 他相对亲密的人之间传递正面情绪。这些积极情绪中最重要的是支持,欣赏,包容,性兴趣 或意向和情感。 Playfulness Touch often communicates ourintention to play, either affectionatelyor aggressively. When touch is usedin this manner, the playfulnessde-emphasizes the emotion and tells the other person that it is no to be taken seriously. Playful touches serve to lighten an interaction.触摸往往传达我们的意 图,亲热地或积极地。 以这种方式使用触摸时, 嬉戏性会降低情绪, 告诉对方这是不重视的。 俏皮的接触会减轻互动。 Control Touch also may control the behaviors, attitudes, or feelings of theother person. Such control may communicate various messageas. To ask forcompliance, for example, we touch the other person to communicate “Move over,” “Hurry,” “stay here,” and “Do it.” Touching to control may also communicate status and dominance. The higher-status and dominant person, for example, initiates touch. In fact, it would be a breach of etiquette for the lower-status person to touch the person ofhigher status.触摸也可以控制对方的行为,态度或感受。这种控制可以传达各种消息。为 了要求遵守,例如,我们触摸另一个人沟通“移动”,“快点”,“留在这里”和“这样做”。触摸 控制也可以传达地位和主导地位。举例来说,地位较高的人和主导人触发。事实上,地位较 低的人触及较高地位的人是违反礼仪的。 Ritual Ritualistic touching centers on greetings and departures. Shakinghands to say “hello” or “goodbye” is perhaps the clearest exampleof ritualistic touching, but we might also bug, kiss, or put ourarm around another ’s shoulder.仪式的接触集中在问候和离开。握手说“你好”或“再见”也许 是仪式性触摸的最明显的例子,但我们也可能会错误,亲吻,或把我们的胳膊放在另一个肩 上。 task-relatedness

task-related touching is associated with the performance of function such as removing a speck of dust from another person’s face, helping someone out of a car, or checkingsomeone’s forehead for a fever. task-related touchingseems generally to be regarded positively. In studies on thesubject, for example, book borrowers had a more positives attitude toward the library and librarian when touchedlightly, and customers gave larger tips when lightly touchedby the waitress. Similarly, diners who were touched on the shoulder or hand when given their change in a restauranttipped more than diners who were not touched.与任务有关的触摸与功能的执行相关联,例如从另一 个人的脸上除去一点灰尘,帮助某人出车,或检查某人的额头发烧。与任务有关的感动似乎 一般被认为是积极的。在这方面的研究中,例如借书人轻轻一碰,对图书馆和图书管理员的 态度就会比较积极,顾客在服务员轻轻一点的时候就会给出较大的提示。同样,在餐厅换衣 服的时候,用餐者的肩膀或手上的食物比没有碰到的用餐者多。 As you can imagine, touching also can get you into trouble. For example, touching that is too positive(or too intimate)tooearly in a relationship may send the wrong signals. Similarly, playingtoo roughly or holding someone’s arm to control their movements may be resented. Using ritualistic touching incorrectly or in ways that may be culturally insensitive may likewise get you into difficulty.你可以想象, 触摸也可以让你陷入困境。 例如, 在关系中过早地接触太正面 (或 太贴切)可能会发出错误的信号。同样,玩得太粗暴或握住某人的手臂来控制他们的动作可 能会受到憎恶。使用不正确的仪式或以文化不敏感的方式接触也可能使你陷入困境。 Touch avoidance As much as we have a need and desire to touch and to be touched byothers, we also have a tendency to avoid touch from certain peopleor in certain circumstances. Among the important findings is that touch avoidance is positively related to communication apprehension,or fear or anxiety about communicating: People who fear oralcommunication also score high on touch avoidance. Touch avoidancealso is high among those who self-disclose little: touch and self-disclosure are intimate forms of communication, and people who are reluctant to get close to another person by self-disclosure also seemreluctant to get close through touch.尽管我们有需要 和欲望去接触他人, 我们也倾向于避免某些人或某些情况下的接触。 其中重要的发现是避免 接触与沟通的忧虑, 或对沟通的恐惧或焦虑有正相关: 害怕口语交际的人在避免接触方面也 得分高。在自我表露的人之中,触觉回避也是很高的:触摸和自我表露是交流的亲密形式, 而不愿意靠自我表露与他人接近的人也似乎不愿意亲密接触。 Older people have higher touch avoidance scores for opposite-sex persons than do younger people.

Apparently, as we get older, weare touched less by members of the opposite sex and this decreasedfrequency of touching may lead us to avoid touching. Males scorehigher than females on same-sex touch avoidance. This accords well with our stereotypes.Men avoid touchingother men,but women may and do touch other women.ns found, have higher touchand do touch other women. Women, it is found, have touch avoidance scores for opposite-sex touching than do men. 与年轻人相比,老年人对异性恋者的避免接触评分更高。显然,随着年龄的增长,我们对异 性的接触会减少, 这种减少的频率可能会导致我们避免接触。 避免同性接触的男性得分高于 女性。这与我们的陈规相符。男人不要碰其他男人,但是女人可能会碰触其他女人。 ns 发 现,有更高的触摸,并触摸其他女性。据发现,与男性相比,女性对于异性恋的接触已经避 免了分数。

SPATIAL MESSAGES Space is an especially important factor in interpersonal communication, although we seldom think about it. Edward T. Hall, who pioneered thestudyof spatial communication, called this area proxemics. We canexamine this broad area by looking at proxemic distances. Four proxemic distances correspond closely to the major types ofrelationships. They are intimate, personal, social, and public distances.空间是人际交往中一个特别重要的因素,尽管我们很少 去思考。开拓空间通信研究的爱德华· T· 霍尔(Edward T. Hall)称这一领域为近似。我们可 以通过查看最近的距离来检查这个广阔的区域。 四个近似距离对应于主要类型的关系。他们是亲密的,个人的,社交的和公众的距离。 Intimate distance In intimate distance, ranging from the close phase of actual touching to the far phase of 6 to 18 inches, the presence of the other individualis unmistakable. Each individual experiences the sound, smell, and feel of the other's breath The close phase is used for lovemaking andwrestling, for comforting and protecting In the close phase,the muscles and the skin communicate, while actual wordsplay a minor role. The far phase allows people to touch eachother by extending their hands. The individuals are so close that this distance is not considered proper for strangers in public. Because of the feeling of inappropriateness anddiscomfort (at least for some Americans), the eyes seldommeet but remain fixed on some remote object.在亲密的距离,从实际的接触阶段到 6 到 18 英寸的相位,其他人的存在是明显的。每个人都体验对方气息的声音,气味和感觉。关 闭阶段用于做爱和摔跤,用于安慰和保护。在关闭阶段,肌肉和皮肤交流,而实际的话语起 到次要作用。遥远的阶段允许人们伸出双手互相碰触。个人如此密切,以至于这个距离在公

共场合对于陌生人来说并不合适。由于不适当和不适的感觉(至少对于一些美国人) ,眼睛 很少见面,而是固定在一些遥远的物体上。 Personal distance We carry a protective bubble defining our personal distance,which allows us to stay protected and untouched by others.Personal distance ranges from 18 inches to about 4 feet. Inthe close phase, people can still hold or grasp each other, but only by extending their arms. We can then take into our protective bubble certain individuals -for example, loved ones. In the far phase, you can touch another person onlyif you both extend your arms This far phase is the extent towhich you can physically get your handson things; hence, it defines in one sense the limits of your physical control overothers. At times, we may detect breath odor, but generally atthis distance etiquette demands that we direct our breath tosome neutral corner so as not to offend. 我们有一个保护性的泡沫来定义我们的个人距离,这使我们能够保持和不受其他人的影响。 个人距离范围从 18 英寸到大约 4 英尺。 在紧密的阶段, 人们仍然可以相互握住或抓住对方, 只能伸出双臂。然后,我们可以将我们的保护泡沫带入某些人,例如亲人。在遥远的阶段, 只有当你们伸出双臂时,你才能碰到另一个人。这个阶段是你可以亲手操作的地方; 因此, 它在某种意义上定义了你对别人的物质控制的限制。有时,我们可能会检测到呼吸气味,但 通常在这个距离礼仪要求,我们呼吸到一个中立的角落,以免冒犯。 Social distance At the social distance, ranging from 4 to 12 feet. you lose the visualpeopledetail you had in the personal distance. The close phase is the distanceat which you conduct impersonal business or interact at a socialgathering. The far phase is the distance at which you stand whensomeone says, "Stand away so I can look at you "At this distance,business transactions have a more formal tone than when conductedin the close phase. In offices of high-ranking officials, the deskand the visitors chair are often positioned so that client are kept at least this distance away. Unlike the intimate distance, where eye contact isawkward,the far phase of the social distance makes eye contact essential-otherwise, communication is lost. The voice is generally louder thannormal at this level. The distance enables you to avoid constantinteraction with those with whom you work without seeming rude. 在社交距离,从 4 到 12 英尺不等。你在个人距离上失去了视觉上的细节。关闭阶段是您进 行非个人业务或在社交聚会中进行交互的距离。远期是指某人说:“站起来,我可以看着你” 的距离,在这个距离上,商业交易比在紧密阶段进行时更为正式。在高级官员的办公室里, 办公桌和访客座椅通常是这样定位的,以便客户至少保持这个距离。与亲密距离不同的是,

目光接触是尴尬的,社交距离的远距离使得眼睛接触至关重要,否则,交流就失去了。这个 级别的声音通常比正常的声音大。 距离可以让你避免与你工作的人不断的互动, 而不会显得 粗鲁。 Public distance Public distance ranges from 12 to no more than 25 feet In the closephase, a person seems protected by space. At this distance, you're ableto take defensive action should you feel threatened. On a public bus ortrain, for example, you might keep at least this distance from a drunk. Although you lose the fine details of the face and eyes, you're still closeso enough to see what is happening. At the far phase, you see others not as separate individuals but aspart of the whole setting. People automatically establish a space ofapproximately 30 feet around important public figures and they seemto do this whether or not there are guards preventing their comings closer. This far phase is the distance by which actors on stage are separated from their audience;consequentlytheir actions and voiceshave to be somewhat exaggerated. 公共距离从 12 到不超过 25 英尺在关闭阶段,一个人似乎受到空间的保护。在这个距离,你 可以采取防御行动,如果你感到受到威胁。例如,在公共汽车或火车上,您可能至少与醉酒 者保持这样的距离。尽管你失去了面部和眼睛的细节,但你仍然可以看到发生的事情。在远 期阶段,你会看到别人不是独立的个体,而是整个环境的一部分。人们自动在重要的公众人 物周围建立了大约 30 英尺的空间,他们似乎是这样做的,不管有没有防卫措施阻止他们靠 近。这个阶段是舞台上的演员与观众分开的距离。因此他们的行为和声音必须有所夸大。 The specific distance that you'll maintain between yourself and anygiven person depends on a wide variety of factors. Among the mostsignificant are gender (women sit and stand closer to each other thando men in same-sex dyads, and people approach women more closelythan they approach men), age (people maintain closer distances withsimilarly aged others than they do with those much older or muchyounger), and personality (introverts and highly anxious peoplemaintain greater distances than do extroverts). Not surprisingly,than with maintain shorter distances with people you're familiar withthan with strangers, and with people you like thanwith those you don’t like. 您在自己和任何特定人员之间保持的具体距离取决于多种因素。 其中最重要的是性别 (女性 坐在一起比男性更接近彼此,人与人之间的关系比男性更接近女性) ,年龄(与其他年龄相 似的人保持更近的距离)那些年纪大得多或年轻得多的人)和性格(内向者和高度焦虑的人 比外向者保持更远的距离) 。毫不奇怪的是,与陌生人相比,你与陌生人保持较短的距离,

与你喜欢的人保持较短的距离,而不是与你不喜欢的人相比。 Reading 3 NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE Throughout this unit, we’ve seen a few cultural and gender differencesin nonverbal communication. Cultural variations in certain channelsof communication. however, have become the focus of sustainedresearch. Here, we consider just a sampling of the relationships between culture and nonverbal communication expressed throughgestures, facial expressions, eye communication, and touch.在整个单位中,我们看到了非语言交际中的一些文化和性别差异。 某些沟通渠道的文化差异。然而,已成为持续研究的重点。在这里,我们只考虑通过手势, 面部表情,眼睛交流和触觉表达的文化和非言语交流之间的关系。 Culture and gesture There is much variation in gestures and their meanings amongdifferent cultures. Consider a few common gestures, such as the onesbelow, that you may use often without thinking, but that could easilyno get you into trouble if you used them in another culture.不同文化之间的手势和意义有 很大的差异。考虑一些常见的手势,比如下面的手势,你可能经常不用思考,但是如果你在 另一种文化中使用它们,很容易不会让你陷入麻烦。 Folding your arms over your chest would be considered defiantand disrespectful in Fiji. Waving your hand would be rude in Nigeria and Greece. Gesturing with your thumb would be rude in Australia. Tapping your two index fingers together would be considered an invitation to sleep together in Egypt. Pointing with your index finger would be impolite in manyMiddle Eastern countries. Bowing to a lesser degree than your host would be considered astatement of your superiority in Japan. Inserting your thumb between your index and middle finger ina clenched fist would be viewed as a wish that evil would befall a person in some African countries. Resting your feet on a table or a chair would be insulting and disrespectful in some Middle Eastern countries. 在斐济将双臂折叠在胸前将被认为是无礼和不敬的。 在奈及利亚和希腊挥舞你的手将是无礼的。 用拇指打手势在澳大利亚是无礼的。 将你的两根食指放在一起将被认为是在埃及一起睡觉的邀请。 指着你的食指在许多中东国家是不礼貌的。

鞠躬比你的东道国稍低的程度将被视为你在日本的优越性的声明。 将你的拇指插在你的食指和中指之间握紧拳头, 将会被视为一个非洲国家人们希望邪恶降临 的愿望。 在一些中东国家,把脚放在桌子或椅子上会是侮辱和不尊重的。 Culture and facial expression The wide variations in facial communication that we observe indifferent cultures seems to reflect which reactions are publicly permissible rather than a fundamental difference in the way emotionsare facially expressed. For example, it is considered “forward,” or inappropriate, for Japanese women to reveal broad smiles; therefore,many Japanese women will hide their smiles, sometimes with theirhands. Women in the United States, on the other hand, have no suchrestrictions and so are more likely to smile openly. Thus, the differencemay not be in the way different cultures express emotions but rather in the societies display rules, or rules about the appropriate display ofemotions in public. The well-documented finding that women smilemore than men, for example, is likely due, in part, to display rules thatallow women to smile more than men. 我们观察到不同文化的面部交流的广泛变化似乎反映了哪些反应是公开允许的, 而不是表达 情绪的方式的根本差异。例如,对于日本女性来说,它被认为是“向前”或不适当的,表现出 宽广的笑容; 因此,许多日本女性会隐藏自己的笑容,有时甚至会用手。另一方面,美国的 女性没有这种限制,所以更可能公开地微笑。因此,这种差异可能不在于不同文化表达情感 的方式,而在于社会表达规则或关于在公共场合适当表现情绪的规则。例如,记录充分的文 件显示,女性比男性笑得更多,部分原因可能是由于规则允许女性比男性笑得更多。 Culture and eye communication Not surprisingly, eye messages vary with both culture and gender.ao For example, Americans consider direct eye contact an expressionof honesty and forthrightness, but the Japanese often view this asshowing a lack of respect. A Japanese person will glance at the otherperson's face rarely, and then only for very short periods. Therefore,interpreting another ’s eye contact messages according to one’s own cultural rules is a risky undertaking, eye movements that you mayinterpret as insulting may have been intended to show respect. 毫不奇怪,眼睛的信息会随着文化和性别的不同而变化。例如,美国人认为直接的目光接触 是一种诚实和坦率的表达, 但日本人往往认为这表现为缺乏尊重。 一个日本人很少会看对方 的脸,然后很短的时间。因此,根据自己的文化规则来解释他人的目光接触信息是一项冒险

的事情,你可能会认为这种侮辱的眼动可能是为了表示尊重。 Women make eye contact more and maintain it longer(both inspeaking and in listening)than men. This holds true whether womenare interacting with other women or with men. This difference in eye behavior may result from women’s great tendency to display emotions. When women interact with other women, they display affiliative andsupportive eye contact, whereas when men interact with other men, they avert their gazes. 女性更多的目光接触,并保持更长的时间(在说话和听力)比男性。无论女性是与其他女性 还是男性互动, 都是如此。 这种眼睛行为上的差异可能是由于女性表现情绪的高度倾向造成 的。当女性与其他女性互动时,她们表现出亲切和支持性的眼神接触,而当男性与其他男性 互动时,他们避免了注视。 Cultural differences also exist in the ways People decode themeaning of facial expressions. For example, American and Japanesestudents judged the meaning of a smiling and a neutral facialexpression. The Americans rated the smiling face as more attractive,more intelligent, and more sociable than the neutral face. In contrast,the Japanese rated the smiling face as more sociable, but not asso attractive-and they rated the neutral face as more intelligent. 文化差异也存在于人们解读面部表情的意义上。 例如, 美国和日本学生判断微笑和中性面部 表情的含义。美国人认为笑脸比中性脸更具吸引力,更聪明,更有社交性。相比之下,日本 人则认为笑脸更具社交性,但却不那么有吸引力 - 而且他们认为中性面孔更聪明。 Culture and touch The several functions and examples of touching discussed earlierin this chapter were based on studies in North America; in othercultures, these functions are not served in the same way. In somecultures, for example, some task-related touching is viewed negatively and is to be avoided. Among Koreans, it is considered disrespectfulfor a store owner to touch a customer when, say, handing backchange, it is considered too intimate a gesture. A member of anotherculture, however, who is used to touching may consider the Korean'sbehavior cold and aloof. Muslim children are socialized not to touchchildren of the opposite sex; consequently, their behavior can easilybe interpreted as unfriendly by American children who are used touching one another. 本章前面讨论的几个触及的功能和例子是基于北美的研究;在其他文化中,这些功能不是以 相同的方式服务的。 例如在某些文化中, 某些与任务相关的动作被认为是消极的, 应该避免。 在韩国人当中,当店主接触顾客时,被认为不尊重顾客,这被认为是太贴心。然而,习惯于 接触的另一种文化的成员可能会认为韩国人的行为冷淡超然。 穆斯林儿童社交不要接触异性 的孩子;因此,他们的行为很容易被美国的儿童相互接触而被解释为不友好的。

Some cultures -including many in southern Europe and theMiddle East- are contact cultures; others are noncontact cultures,such as those of northern Europe and Japan. Members of contactmaintain close distances, touch one another in conversation,face each other more directly, and maintain longer and more focusedcontact. Members of noncontact cultures maintain greaterdistances in their interactions, touch each other rarely(if at all), avoid facing each other directly, and maintain much less direct eye contact.As aresult of these differences, problems may occur. Forexample, northern Europeans and Japanese may be perceived as cold, distant, and uninvolved by southern Europeans -who may in turn beperceived as pushy, aggressive, and inappropriately intimate 一些文化 - 包括南欧和中东的许多文化 - 接触文化;另一些是非接触的文化, 如北欧和日本 的文化。联络员保持近距离,交谈互相接触,直接面对面,保持更长时间和更有针对性的联 系。 非接触文化的成员在他们的相互作用中保持更远的距离, 很少接触彼此 (如果有的话) , 避免直接面对对方,并保持较少的直接目光接触。由于这些差异,可能会出现问题。例如, 北欧人和日本人可能被认为是冷漠的,遥远的,并且不受南欧人的影响,而南欧人又可能被 认为是有力的,侵略性的和不适当的亲密关系



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