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语法讲解(五)-定语从句疑难分析


一、that 和 which 的专用场合 【疑难点睛】关系代词 that 与 which 均可指物,作主语或宾语, 一般情况下可互换,但又有各自的专用场合: 1. 在下列情况下,只能用 that 引导定语从句:

(1) 被定语从句修饰的词语前面有:①形容词最高级或序数词; ② all, every, no, some, any, little, much, the only, the very, the same, the last, just 等。如: The park is the cleanest park that you can imagine. 这个 公园是你能想象到的最干净的公园。 (2) 被定语从句修饰的词是不定代词 all, anything, everything, something, nothing 等。如:All that can be done has been done. 能做的都已经做了。 (3) 一个定语从句同时修饰指人的词和指物的词。如: Can you tell me the persons and places that you’d like to visit? 能告诉我你想拜访的人和想参观的地方吗? (4) 由 which 和 who 等疑问词引导的疑问句中定语从句用 that 引 导。如: Which is the computer that you want to use? 哪一台电脑是 你想用的? Who is the student that is on duty today? 哪个学生今天值 日? 2. 在下列情况下,只能用 which 引导定语从句:

(1) 非限制性定语从句。如: Tom won the game, which made him very happy. 汤姆赢了比赛, 这让他很高兴。 (2) 作介词的宾语并与介词一起置于定语从句前面。如: The house in front of which stands a big tree is hers. 前 面有一棵大树的房子是她的。 (3) 在由 that 引导的定语从句中, 若还有一个定语从句修饰指物 的名词,用 which 引导。如: He gave me a gift that had been bought from the shop which belongs to his uncle. 他送给我一件礼物,这件礼物是从他叔叔的 店里买的。 (4) 修饰指物的代词 that 和 those。如: What were those which he refused to accept? 他拒绝接受的 是什么? 【高考链接】 1. As a child, Jack studied in a village school, named after his grandfather. (2010 全国卷 I) A. which C. what B. where D. that 【A】 is

【温馨提示】当关系代词作定语从句中系动词 be 的表语时,一般 用 that 引导。但若定语从句有逗号隔开(为非限制性定语从句)时, 要用 which 引导。

【高考链接】 2. Her sister has become a lawyer, (2005 湖北卷) A. who C. what B. that D. Which 【D】 she wanted to be.

二、“介词 + which/whom”中介词的确定方法 【疑难点睛】在关系代词 which 和 whom 前面常常出现介词,可按 照下面的办法判断用什么介词: 1. 根据定语从句中及物动词的基本句式可知惯用搭配的介词。 若 被修饰的词语能作该句式中介词的宾语时,介词即可确定。如: This is my friend for whom I want to buy a nice gift. (句 式“buy sth. for sb.”,sb.为 friend) The pen with which I wrote a letter yesterday is lost now. (句式“write sth. with +工具”,工具为 pen) 2. 根据定语从句中不及物动词的基本句式可知惯用搭配的介词。 若被修饰的词语能作该句式中介词的宾语时,介词即可确定。如: I want to see the person to whom you spoke a minute ago. (句 式“speak to sb.”) 3. 根据定语从句中形容词的基本句式可知惯用搭配的介词。 若被 修饰的词语能作该句式中介词的宾语时,介词即可确定。如: In the bookshop,he saw a book in which he was interested.(句 式“be interested in sth.”)

4. 定语从句所修饰的词语前面加上某一介词后若能作定语从句 中所需要的时间状语、地点状语、原因状语或方式状语时,介词即可 确定。如: I still remember my childhood, during which I often swam in the lake. (during my childhood 作时间状语) That is the table on which he did the experiments. (on the table 作地点状语) I don’t know the reason for which he didn’t tell me the truth. (for the reason 作原因状语) They told us a good way in which we are able to finish the work. (in the way 作方式状语) 【高考链接】 1. Gun control is a subject a long time. (2009 陕西卷) A. of which C. about which B. with which D. into which 【C】 Americans have argued for

2. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us, (2006 湖南卷) A. to which C. with whom B. to whom D. with which 【B】 we gave some bells and glasses.

3. We went through a period very difficult in the rural areas.

commu-nications were

(2008 上海卷) A. which C. in which B. whose D. with which 【C】

【温馨提示 1】关系代词 which/whom 前面常出现“名词 + of” 表示“所属关系”或“部分词 + of”表示“部分与总体关系”的情 况。如: The old man lives in the house the window of which was broken last night. 这位老人住的房子的窗户玻璃昨天晚上被打破了。 David has two children, the younger of whom is a daughter. 大卫有两个孩子,较小的那个是个女儿。 There are five people in the room, all of whom are fans of that star. 房间里有五个人,他们都是那个明星的粉丝。 【高考链接】 4. The man pulled out a gold watch, diamonds. (2008 陕西卷) A. the hands of whom B. whom the hands of C. which the hands of D. the hands of which 【D】 were made of small

5. The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people, many of left their village homes for a better life in the city. (2010 浙江卷) A. whom C. them B. which D. those 【A】

【温馨提示 2】当“部分词 + of + which/whom”表示“部分与 整体关系”时,部分词可置于“of which/whom”后面。如: In Barcelona, the Chinese team got 16 gold medals, of which 12 were won by women. 在巴塞罗那,中国队获得了 16 枚金牌,其 中 12 枚是女子获得的。 三、关系代词的省略与保留 【疑难点睛】关系代词的省略与保留要注意以下几点: 1. 关系代词作定语从句中动词的宾语时可以省;作介词的宾语, 且该介词在定语从句前面时不可省,在定语从句中时可省。如: He is the person (that/whom) I need most. 他是我最需要的 人。 Jenny is the only person to whom I can turn. 詹妮是唯一我 可以求助的人。 The man (whom) I talked with just now was Jim. 刚才和我谈 话的那人是吉姆。 2. 在非限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词不能省略。如:

Mr. Green, whom you know, is the best teacher in our school. 格林先生,你认识他,是我们学校最好的老师。 3. 在 the same ...as, the same...that 中,as, that 即使作 宾语,也不能省。如: I have bought the same bicycle as you have (bought). 我买 了一辆和你的一样的单车。 This is the same book that I read yesterday. 这和我昨天读 的书是同一本书。 4. 当由 and, but, or 等连词连接两个或两个以上的定语从句修 饰同一个先行词且关系代词在从句中作宾语时,第一个关系代词可 省,但第二个及以后的不可省略。如: This is the book (which) I read yesterday and which I find very interesting. 这是我昨天读的那本书,我觉得很有趣。 5. 在 there be 结构中出现定语从句, 或在定语从句中出现 there be 结构时,用作主语的关系代词也可省略。如: There is a man downstairs (who) wants to see you. 楼下有 个人想见你。 This is the best dictionary (that) there is in the library. 这是图书室里最好的词典。 6. 当先行词是 way,且在定语从句中作方式状语,从句不缺主语 时,关系代词可用 in which 或 that, 也可以不用。如:

That was the way (in which/that) she worked out the problem. 那就是她解决那个问题的方法。 7. 当先行词是 time 时,关系代词可用 when 或 that,也可省略。 如: The second time (that) I saw him was in 1980. 我第二次见 到他是在 1980 年。 I don’t know the exact time (when/that) the sports meeting will take place. 我不知道运动会举行的准确时间。 【高考链接】 1. — Why does she always ask you for help? — There is no one else A. who to turn to , is there? (2005 北京卷) B. she can turn to 【B】 he said

C. for whom to turn D. for her to turn 2. What surprised me was not what he said but it. (2004 湖北卷) A. the way C. in the way B. in the way D. the way which

【A】



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