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2004 年 6 月四级试题
Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Passage One Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage. A is for always getting to work on time. B is for being extremely busy. C is for the conscientious (勤勤恳恳的) way you do your job. You may be all these things at the office, and more. But when it comes to getting ahead, experts say, the ABCs of business should include a P, for politics, as in office politics. Dale Carnegie suggested as much more than 50 years ago hard work alone doesn’t ensure career advancement. You have to be able to sell yourself and your ideas, both publicly and behind the scenes. Yet, despite the obvious rewards of engaging in office politics—a better job, a raise, praise—many people are still unable—or unwilling—to play the game. People assume that office politics involves some manipulative (工于心计的) behavior, says Deborah Comer, an assistant professor of management at Hofstra University. But politics derives from the word “polite”. It can mean lobbying and forming associations. It can mean being kind and helpful, or even trying to please your superior, and then expecting something in return. In fact, today, experts define office politics as proper behavior used to pursue one’s own self-interest in the workplace. In many cases, this involves some form of socializing within the office environment—not just in large companies, but in small workplaces as well. The first thing people are usually judged on is their ability to perform well on a consistent basis, says Neil P. Lewis, a management psychologist. But if two or three candidates are up for a promotion, each of whom has reasonably similar ability, a manager is going to promote the person he or she likes best. It’s simple human nature. Yet, psychologists say, many employees and employers have trouble with the concept of politics in the office. Some people, they say, have an idealistic vision of work and what it takes to succeed. Still others associate politics with flattery (奉承), fearful that, if they speak up for themselves, they may appear to be flattering their boss for favors. Experts suggest altering this negative picture by recognizing the need for some self-promotion. 11. Office politics (Line 2, Para. 4) is used in the passage to refer to ________. A) the code of behavior for company staff B) the political views and beliefs of office workers C) the interpersonal relationships within a company D) the various qualities required for a successful career 12. To get promoted, one must not only be competent but ______. A) give his boss a good impression B) honest and loyal to his company C) get along well with his colleagues D) avoid being too outstanding 13. Why are many people unwilling to “play the game” (Line 4, Para. 5) ? A) They believe that doing so is impractical. B) They feel that such behavior is unprincipled. C) They are not good at manipulating colleagues.

D) They think the effort will get them nowhere. 14. The author considers office politics to be ________. A) unwelcome at the workplace B) bad for interpersonal relationships C) indispensable to the development of company culture D) an important factor for personal advancement 15. It is the author’s view that __________. A) speaking up for oneself is part of human nature B) self-promotion does not necessarily mean flattery C) hard work contributes very little to one’s promotion D) many employees fail to recognize the need of flattery Passage Two Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage. As soon as it was revealed that a reporter for Progressive magazine had discovered how to make a hydrogen bomb, a group of firearm (火器) fans formed the National Hydrogen Bomb Association, and they are now lobbying against any legislation to stop Americans from owning one. The Constitution, said the association’s spokesman, gives everyone the right to own arms. It doesn’t spell out what kind of arms. But since anyone can now make a hydrogen bomb, the public should be able to buy it to protect themselves. Don’t you think it’s dangerous to have one in the house, particularly where there are children around? The National Hydrogen Bomb Association hopes to educate people in the safe handling of this type of weapon. We are instructing owners to keep the bomb in a locked cabinet and the fuse (导火索) separately in a drawer. Some people consider the hydrogen bomb a very fatal weapon which could kill somebody. The spokesman said, Hydrogen bombs don’t kill people—people kill people. The bomb is for self-protection and it also has a deterrent effect. If somebody knows you have a nuclear weapon in your house, they’re going to think twice about breaking in. But those who want to ban the bomb for American citizens claim that if you have one locked in the cabinet, with the fuse in a drawer, you would never be able to assemble it in time to stop an intruder (侵入 者). Another argument against allowing people to own a bomb is that at the moment it is very expensive to build one. So what your association is backing is a program which would allow the middle and upper classes to acquire a bomb while poor people will be left defenseless with just handguns. 16. According to the passage, some people started a national association so as to ______. A) block any legislation to ban the private possession of the bomb B) coordinate the mass production of the destructive weapon C) instruct people how to keep the bomb safe at home D) promote the large-scale sale of this newly invented weapon 17. Some people oppose the ownership of H-bombs by individuals on the grounds that _____. A) the size of the bomb makes it difficult to keep in a drawer B) most people don’t know how to handle the weapon C) people’s lives will be threatened by the weapon D) they may fall into the hands of criminals 18. By saying that the bomb also has a deterrent effect the spokesman means that it _____. A) will frighten away any possible intruders B) can show the special status of its owners

C) will threaten the safety of the owners as well D) can kill those entering others’ houses by force 19. According to the passage, opponents of the private ownership of H-bombs are very much worried that _____. A) the influence of the association is too powerful for the less privileged to overcome B) poorly-educated Americans will find it difficult to make use of the weapon C) the wide use of the weapon will push up living expenses tremendously D) the cost of the weapon will put citizens on an unequal basis 20. From the tone of the passage we know that the author is _______. A) doubtful about the necessity of keeping H-bombs at home for safety B) unhappy with those who vote ;against the ownership of H-bombs C) not serious about the private ownership of H-bombs D) concerned about the spread of nuclear weapons Passage Three Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. Sign has become a scientific hot button. Only in the past 20 years have specialists in language study realized that signed languages are unique—a speech of the hand. They offer a new way to probe how the brain generates and understands language, and throw new light on an old scientific controversy whether language, complete with grammar, is something that we are born with, or whether it is a learned behavior. The current interest in sign language has roots in the pioneering work of one rebel teacher at Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C., the world’s only liberal arts university for deaf people. When Bill Stokoe went to Gallaudet to teach English, the school enrolled him in a course in signing. But Stokoe noticed something odd among themselves, students signed differently from his classroom teacher. Stokoe had been taught a sort of gestural code, each movement of the hands representing a word in English. At the time, American Sign Language (ASL) was thought to be no more than a form of pidgin English (混杂英语). But Stokoe believed the hand talk his students used looked richer. He wondered might deaf people actually have a genuine language and could that language be unlike any other on Earth It was 1955, when even deaf people dismissed their signing as substandard. Stokoe’s idea was academic heresy (异端邪说). It is 37 years later. Stokoe—now devoting his time to writing and editing books and journals and to producing video materials on ASL and the deaf culture—is having lunch at a café near the Gallaudet campus and explaining how he started a revolution. For decades educators fought his idea that signed languages are natural languages like English, French and Japanese. They assumed language must be based on speech, the modulation (调节) of sound. But sign language is based on the movement of hands, the modulation of space. What I said, Stokoe explains, is that language is not mouth stuff—it’s brain stuff. 21. The study of sign language is thought to be ________. A) a new way to look at the learning of language B) a challenge to traditional views on the nature of language C) an approach to simplifying the grammatical structure of a language D) an attempt to clarify misunderstanding about the origin of language 22. The present growing interest in sign language was stimulated by _______. A) a famous scholar in the study of the human brain B) a leading specialist in the study of liberal arts C) an English teacher in a university for the deaf D) some senior experts in American Sign Language

23. According to Stokoe, sign language is ________. A) a substandard language B) a genuine language C) an artificial language D) an international language 24. Most educators objected to Stokoe’s idea because they thought _______. A) sign language was not extensively used even by deaf people B) sign language was too artificial to be widely accepted C) a language should be easy to use and understand D) a language could only exist in the form of speech sounds 25. Stokoe’s argument is based on his belief that _________. A) sign language is as efficient as any other language B) sign language is derived from natural language C) language is a system of meaningful codes D) language is a product of the brain Passage Four Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. It came as something of a surprise when Diana, Princess of Wales, made a trip to Angola in 1997, to support the Red Cross’s campaign for a total ban on all anti-personnel landmines. Within hours of arriving in Angola, television screens around the world were filled with images of her comforting victims injured in explosions caused by landmines. “I knew the statistics”, she said. “But putting a face to those figures brought the reality home to me; like when I met Sandra, a 13- year-old girl who had lost her leg, and people like her.” The Princess concluded with a simple message: “We must stop landmines”. And she used every opportunity during her visit to repeat this message. But, back in London, her views were not shared by some members of the British government, which refused to support a ban on these weapons. Angry politicians launched an attack on the Princess in the press. They described her as very ill-informed and a loose cannon (乱放炮的人).” he Princess responded by brushing aside the criticisms. “This is a distraction (干扰) we do not need. All I’m trying to do is help.” Opposition parties, the media and the public immediately voiced their support for the Princess. To make matters worse for the government, it soon emerged that the Princess’s trip had been approved by the Foreign Office, and that she was in fact very well-informed about both the situation in Angola and the British government’s policy regarding landmines. The result was a severe embarrassment for the government. To try and limit the damage, the Foreign Secretary, Malcolm Rifkidnd, claimed that the Princess’s views on landmines were not very different from government policy, and that it was working towards a worldwide ban. The Defense Secretary, Michael Portillo, claimed the matter was a misinterpretation or misunderstanding. For the Princess, the trip to this war-torn country was an excellent opportunity to use her popularity to show the world how much destruction and suffering landmines can cause. She said that the experience had also given her the chance to get closer to people and their problems. 26. Princess Diana paid a visit to Angola in 1997 ________. A) to voice her support for a total ban of landmines B) to clarify the British government’s stand on landmines C) to investigate the sufferings of landmine victims there

D) to establish her image as a friend of landmine victims 27. What did Diana mean when she said “ ... putting a face to those figures brought the reality home to me (Line 5, Para.1)” ? A) She just couldn’t bear to meet the landmine victims face to face. B) The actual situation in Angola made her feel like going back home. C) Meeting the landmine victims in person made her believe the statistics. D) Seeing the pain of the victims made her realize the seriousness of the situation. 28. Some members of the British government criticized Diana because ______. A) she was ill-informed of the government’s policy B) they were actually opposed to banning landmines C) she had not consulted the government before the visit D) they believed that she had misinterpreted the situation in Angola 29. How did Diana respond to the criticisms? A) She paid no attention to them. B) She made more appearances on TV. C) She met the 13-year-old girl as planned. D) She rose to argue with her opponents. 30. What did Princess Diana think of her visit to Angola? A) It had caused embarrassment to the British government. B) It had brought her closer to the ordinary people. C) It had greatly promoted her popularity. D) It had affected her relations with the British government.

Part III


(20 minutes)

31. I went along thinking of nothing ______, only looking at things around me. A) in particular B) in harmony C) in doubt D) in brief 32. Critics believe that the control of television by mass advertising has ______ the quality of the programs. A) lessened B) declined C) affected D) effected 33. I must congratulate you ______ the excellent design of the new bridge. A) with B) of C) at D) on 34. There is a fully ______ health center on the ground floor of the main office building. A) installed B) equipped C) provided D) projected 35. For more than 20 years, we’ve been supporting educational programs that _____ from kindergartens to colleges. A) move B) shift C) range D) spread 36. The ______ at the military academy is so rigid that students can hardly bear it. A) convention B) confinement C) principle D) discipline 37. The test results are beyond______; they have been repeated in labs all over the world. A) negotiation B) conflict C) bargain D) dispute 38. I was so ______in today’s history lesson. I didn’t understand a thing. A) amazed B) neglected C) confused D) amused 39. It ____ you to at least 50% off the regular price of either frames or lenses when you buy both. A) presents B) entitles C) credits D) tips 40. Deserts and high mountains have always been a ______ to the movement of people from place to place. A) barrier B) fence C) prevention D) jam 41. In order to make things convenient for the people, the department is planning to set up some ______ shops in the residential area.

A) flowing B) drifting C) mobile D) unstable 42. Mr. Smith says the media are very good at sensing a mood and then ______ it. A) overtaking B) enlarging C) widening D) exaggerating 43. This is not an economical way to get more water; ______, it is very expensive. A) on the other hand B) on the contrary C) in short D) or else 44. It was the first time that such a ______had to be taken at a British nuclear power station. A) presentation B) precaution C) preparation D) prediction 45. ______ that he wasn’t happy with the arrangements, I tried to book a different hotel. A) Perceiving B) Penetrating C) Puzzling D) Preserving 46. The board of the company has decided to ______ its operations to include all aspects of the clothing business. A) multiply B) lengthen C) expand D) stretch 47. His business was very successful, but it was at the ______ of his family life. A) consumption B) credit C) exhaustion D) expense 48. First published in 1927, the charts remain an ______ source for researchers. A) identical B) indispensable C) intelligent D) inevitable 49. Joe is not good at sports, but when it______mathematics, he is the best in the class. A) comes to B) comes up to C) comes on to D) comes around to 50. Doctors warned against chewing tobacco as a ______ for smoking. A) relief B) revival C) substitute D) succession 51. When carbon is added to iron in proper ______the result is steel. A) rates B) thicknesses C) proportions D) densities 52. You should try to ______ your ambition and be more realistic. A) reserve B) restrain C) retain D) replace 53. Nancy is only a sort of ______ of her husband’s opinion and has no ideas of her own. A) sample B) reproduction C) shadow D) echo 54. Now that spring is here, you can ______ these fur coats till you need them again next winter. A) put over B) put away C) put off D) put down 55. There is a _____ of impatience in the tone of his voice. A) hint B) notion C) dot D) phrase 56. Please ______dictionaries when you are not sure of word spelling or meaning. A) seek B) inquire C) search D) consult 57. At yesterday’s party, Elizabeth’s boyfriend amused us by ______ Charlie Chaplin. A) copying B) following C) imitating D) modeling 58. She keeps a supply of candles in the house in case of power ______. A) failure B) lack C) absence D) drop 59. The group of technicians are engaged in a study which ______ all aspects of urban planning. A) inserts B) grips C) performs D) embraces 60. The lecture which lasted about three hours was so ______ that the audience couldn’t help yawning. A) tedious B) bored C) clumsy D) tired

Part IV


(15 minutes)

Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Historians tend to tell the same joke when they are describing history education in America. It’s the one 61 the teacher standing in the schoolroom door 62 goodbye to students for the summer and

calling 63 them, By the way, we won World War II. The problem with the joke, of course, is that it’s 64 funny. The recent surveys on 65 illiteracy (无知) are beginning to numb (令人震惊) nearly one third of American 17-year-olds cannot even 66 which countries the United States 67 against in that war. One third have no 68 when the Declaration of Independence was 69 . One third thought Columbus reached the New World after 1750. Two thirds cannot correctly 70 the Civil War between 1850 and 1900. 71 when they get the answers right, some are 72 guessing. Unlike math or science, ignorance of history cannot be 73 connected to loss of international 74 . But it does affect our future 75 a democratic nation and as individuals. The 76 news is that there is growing agreement 77 what is wrong with the 78 of history and what needs to be 79 to fix it. The steps are tentative (尝试性的) 80 ; yet to be felt in most classrooms. 61. A) about B) in C) for D) by 62. A) shaking B) waving C) nodding D) speaking 63. A) in B) after C) for D) up 64. A) rarely B) so C) too D) not 65. A) historical B) educational C) cultural D) political 66. A) distinguish B) acknowledge C) identify D) convey 67. A) defeated B) attacked C) fought D) struck 68. A) sense B) doubt C) reason D) idea 69. A) printed B) signed C) marked D) edited 70. A) place B) judge C) get D) lock 71. A) Even B) Though C) Thus D) So 72. A) hardly B) just C) still D) ever 73. A) exclusively B) practically C) shortly D) directly 74. A) competitiveness B) comprehension C) community D) commitment 75. A) of B) for C) with D) as 76. A) fine B) nice C) surprising D) good 77. A) to B) with C) on D) of 78. A) consulting B) coaching C) teaching D) instructing 79. A) done B) dealt C) met D) reached 80. A) therefore B) or C) and D) as

Part V


(30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition entitled A Brief Introduction to a Tourist Attraction. You should write at least 120 words according to the following guidelines: Your role: a tour guide Your audience: a group of foreign tourists Your introduction should include: 1. some welcoming words 2. the schedule for the day 3. a description of the place the tourists will be visiting (e.g. a scenic spot or a historical site, etc.) You should make the introduction interesting and the arrangements for the day clear to everybody. 解析: Passage 1 全文翻译 A. 总是准时上班 B. 总是非常忙碌

C. 勤勤恳恳做自己的工作 也许在办公室里你符合上述的所有情况,甚至有过之而无不及。但是当谈及获得成功时,专家 们认为,在事业上除了要做到 ABC 三条以外,还应该具备一个 P,即是政治,也就是办公室政治学。 戴尔·卡内基早在 50 多年前,就提出只靠努力工作并不能确保事业上的进步。你必须能够公开地和 私下地推销自己和自己的观点,然而,尽管采用办公室政治策略所得到的好处是显而易见的——好 的工作,升职,奖励——许多人还是不能或不愿去“玩这场游戏” 。 “人们认为办公室政治是一种工于心计的行为, ”德勃拉·卡门——霍夫斯特拉大学管理学的一 名助教——这样说。 “但事实上政治起源于‘礼貌’ 。这个词它可以意味着游说和形成联合,也能代 表善良和有益,甚至力图取悦你的上司,然后期望一定回报。 ”事实上,现如今,专家们将办公室政 治学定义为在工作场合为追求个人利益而采取的适当行为。大多数情况下,这一行为包括在办公环 境里的某种社会化的形式——不仅在大公司里是这样,在小公司里也不例外。 “通常评价一个人时,首先看的是他们在同样的基础上是否能够表现出色, ”尼尔·刘易斯,一 位管理心理学家这样说。 “但是当一次晋升的机会有两三个候选人,每一个都有相当的能力时,经理 自然会选择他最喜欢的那个人。这是人之常情。 ” 然而,心理学家说,许多老板与员工之间就办公室政治学的概念的理解有所不同。有些人认为, 对工作充满理想就能成功。而另外一些人则将政治联想为阿谀奉承。他们担心如果大声为自己说话, 可能表现得像是在刻意取悦老板以求欢心。 专家建议通过认识自我完善的需求来改变这些负面描述。 试题详解 11.D)。推断题。依据第四段第二句话。该句指出:专家说,要想在事业上取得成功,除了具 有 A (按时上班)、B (勤奋)、C (踏实) 等品质外,还应该包括 P (权术 polities)。文章后面的部分就是 对“office politics”的进一步解释说明。由此可知,office politics 指的就是事业成功所需要的各种品 质,故选项 D) 正确。 12.A)。推断题。依据第八段内容。在该段中,管理心理学家 Neil P. Lewis 说: “通常情况下, 首先衡量人们的标准就是在相同的情况下看他们完成工作的能力。但是,如果提升的候选人有两个 或者三个,其能力又相同,经理通常会提升他所喜欢的人。这是一般的人性。 ”由此可以推断出:得 到老板的喜欢,给老板留下一个好的印象,这也是提升所必须的一个方面。故选项 A) 正确。 13.B)。语义题。从第五段内容可知,play the game 指的就是“玩权术” ,善于“玩权术”的人 可能会得到提升、加薪、表扬等,但是很多人仍然不能够或不愿意这么做。第六段解释了许多人不 愿 “玩权术” 的原因。 首先通过构词法可知, 选项 B) 中的 unprincipled 是由 “un- (不, 不会) + principled (讲究原则的)”构成,故该词的意思应为“不讲究原则的,不讲道德的;不正直的” ,这与文章中的 manipulative (工于心计的) 相对应,故 B) 项为正确答案。另外,也可用排除法;A)项 (他们认为玩 权术不切实际) 与文中内容相悖;C) 项 (不擅长操纵支配同事) 文中并没提到;D) 项 (这种努力使 他们一无所获) 与文中作者表达的意思相反。所以,A),C),D)都可排除。 14.D)。推断题。实际上作者在第四段就说明了 polities 在个人事业成功中的重要性。在第八段 中,作者又引用管理心理学家 Neil 只 Lewis 的话,说明 “office politics” 在个人升职当中的重要性。 由此可见,选项 D)正确。 15.B)。主旨题。倒数第二段说:许多人不能够很好地领会权术的概念,有些人太理想化,认 为付出很多就会成功 (what takes to succeed),而另一些人却把权术与奉承联系起来,担心如果为自 己讲话,好像他们是为了得到恩惠在奉承老板。接着在最后一段作者指出:通过认识到自我推荐是 个人发展所必须的这一事实来改变这种消极的看法。显然,作者认为自我推荐并不意味着奉承。故 B) 项为正确答案。 11. C the interpersonal relationships within a company 12. A give his boss a good impression 13. B They feel that such behavior is unprincipled 14. D an important factor for personal advancement

15. B self-promotion does not necessarily mean flattery Passage 2 全文翻译 一个杂志记者发现制造氢弹的方法的消息一经披露,一群火器迷就组成了国家氢弹协会并为反 对禁止公民拥有氢弹的立法而游说。 这一协会的发言人说: “议会给予每个人拥有武器的权利,它并没指出是何种武器,但由于现在 每个人都可以制造氢弹,公众应该可以购买氢弹用来防身。 ” “你不认为把氢弹放在家里很危险吗?尤其是有孩子的家庭?” “国际轻弹协会希望教育人们安全使用氢弹,我们告诉使用者把它锁在柜子里,导火索单独放 在抽屉里。 ” “有人认为氢弹是一种极度危险的可以杀死人的武器。 ” 发言人说: “氢弹不会杀人——人才会杀人。氢弹是用来自我保护的,同时它还有威慑作用,当 别人知道你家里有氢弹时,在强行闯入前会仔细考虑。 ” “但是那些反对公民拥有炸弹的人认为如果氢弹锁在柜子里而导火索在抽屉里,就不可能有足 够的时间阻止入侵者。 ” “另一种反对的观点认为眼下制造氢弹的费用还很昂贵,因此你们协会促成的是中上阶层拥有 氢弹,而只买得起手枪的贫民则完全不能自卫。 ” 试题详解 16.A)。细节题.依据文章第一段。该文指出:进步杂志的一名记者发现如何制造氢弹的消息 一经披露,一批爱好者就形成了全国氢弹协会,他们现在正在游说反对形成这样的立法,即阻止美 国人拥有氢弹。由此可知,选项 A) 为正确答案。 17.C)。细节题。依据文章第三段和第五段内容,尤其是第五段内容,即“Some people consider the hydrogen bomb a very fatal weapon which could kill somebody.。由此可知,选项 C) 为正确答案。 ” 18.A)。推断题。依据第六段第三句话。该句指出:如果有人知道你家有一核武器,在破门而 人的时候,他会三思的。也就是说这会吓跑闯入者。故选项 A) 为正确答案。 ” 19.D)。推断题。依据文章最后一段。该段指出:反对私人拥有氢弹的人认为氢弹造价高,支 持这样的计划也就等于让中产阶级和上层阶级拥有氢弹,而穷人则没有防卫能力,只能依靠手枪。 这也就是说,氢弹昂贵的价格使得人们处于不平等的地位。故选项 D)为正确答案。 20.A)。主旨题.作者在本文中陈述了支持私人拥有氢弹和反对私人拥有氢弹的两种观点。但 针对协会发育人的每一种观点,作者都提出了疑点。显然作者对靠拥有氢弹来保证家庭安全的做法 是持怀疑态度的。故选项 A)为正确答案。 16. A block any legislation to ban the private possession of the bomb 17. C people’s lives will be threatened by the weapon 18. A will frighten away any possible intruders 19. D the cost of the weapon will put citizens on an unequal basis 20. D concerned about the spread of nuclear weapons Passage 3 全文翻译 符号已经成为科学的一个热点。仅仅是在过去的 20 年里,致力于语言学研究的专家才意识 到符号语言的独特性——一种手语。他们提供了一条新的途径来探究大脑如何产生与领悟语言,并 就一个长期以来存在争议的科学问题阐明了新的观点:任何一种语言,连同它的语法,究竟是我们 与生俱来的,还是一种后天学习的结果。当前对符号语言的兴趣始于华盛顿哥罗地大学 (世界上惟 一一所专为聋哑人开设的文科院校) 一位叛逆老师的首创。 最初比尔·斯托克去哥罗地大学教英语时,学校给他登记开设的课程是符号学。但是斯托克注 意到一些奇怪的现象:学生们画的符号跟课堂上老师所教授的符号有所不同。 斯托克学习过一种手语,手的每一个动作都代表了英语的一个单词。那时,美国符号语言被认

为只是一种混杂的英语。但是斯托克认为他的学生们所使用的手语更为丰富。他很奇怪:难道聋哑 人实际上有一种天生的语言,而这种语言跟地球上的其他语言都不相同?在 1955 年,即使聋哑人们 也认为自己使用的语言不符合标准而废弃不用,斯托克的这一想法被认为是异端邪说。 37 年后的今天,斯托克正投人大量的时间就美国符号语言和聋哑文化编写书籍和杂志,并制作影音 材料。他一边在哥罗地校园附近的一家小饭馆里享用午餐,一边描述自己如何发动了一场革命。数 十年来,他认为符号语言像英语、法语、日语一样是自然语言的观点广直遭到教育家们的攻击。这 些教育家们认为语言必须以言语和声调的调节为基础。但符号语言确是以手的动作和在空间的调节 为基础。 “我想说的是” ,斯托克解释道: “语言不是关于嘴巴的东西——它是关于大脑的产物。 试题详解 21.B)。推断题。依据第一段第三句话.该句指出:手势语提供了一种新的方法来探讨大脑是 如何产生语言和理解语言的,并对—个古老的科学争论提供了新的线索:人的语言连同语法到底是 生来就有的还是后天习得的,由此可知,这是对传统的语言性质的观点的挑战,故选项 B)为正确答 案。 22.C)。细节题.根据第—段倒数第一句“The current interest in sign language has roots in the pioneering work of one rebel teacher at Gallaudet University in Washington,DC,the world's only liberal arts university for deaf people. ”可知,选项 C)为正确答案。 23.B)。细节题.依据第三段第二、第三以及第四句内容“At the time,American Sign Language (ASL) was thought to be no more than a form of pidgin English (混杂英语) 。But Stokoe believed the “hand talk”his students used looked richer。He wondered;Might deaf people usually have a genuine language?”可知,手势语是一种真正的语言。故选项 B)为正确答案。 24,D)。细节题。依据最后一段第三、第四句内容。该文指出:几十年来,教育家都在与手势 语盲就像英语、法语和日语一样是自然语言这样的观点进行着斗争,他们认为语言必须以言语(即声 音的调节)为基础。由此可知,选项 D)为正确答案。 25.D)。细节题。依据最后一段最后一句话 (“What is aid, ”Stokoe explains, that language is “is not mouth stuff—it’s brain stuff”)。由此可知,选项 D)为正确答案。 21. B a challenge to traditional views on the nature of language 22. C an English teacher in a university for the deaf 23. B a genuine language 24. D a language could only exist in the form of speech sounds 25. D language is a product of the brain Passage 4 全文翻译 1997 年,英国戴安娜王妃访问了安哥拉,以此来支持红十字会的全面禁止杀伤性地雷的活动。 这可算是惊人之举。在她到达安哥拉后的数小时之内,全世界的电视屏幕都播出了她安抚在地雷爆 炸中受伤的受害者的情形。她说: “我知道一些数字,但是看到受害者所遭受的痛苦,就像我遇到的 在地雷爆炸中失去一条腿的叫桑德拉的十三岁女孩以及同她有相似遭遇的人使我意识到事态的严 峻。 ” “我们必须禁止使用地雷。 ”王妃用简短的话总结说,并且利用她访问中的每个机会来重申这一 观点。 · 但当她回到伦敦时,一些不支持禁止武器的英国政府成员不赞成她的主张。愤怒的政治家们在 媒体上大肆攻击戴安娜王妃,他们形容她“孤陋寡闻”“到处乱跑”· 、 。 王妃对这些批评不屑一顾: “这是没有必要的干扰,我想做的全部事情就是去帮助别人。 ” 反对党、媒体和公众立即宣布支持王妃。对政府更加不利的是,很快一些事实都浮出水面—— 王妃此次访问是得到外交部的同意的,而且她对安哥拉和英国政府对地雷事件的政策两方面的情况 都很了解。英国政府因此陷入尴尬的境地。 为了试着减少造成的损害,外交部长马尔柯姆·里夫克顿德宣称王妃的观点并非与英国政府的

政策大相径庭, 英国政府要朝着全球禁雷的目标 “努力” 国防部长迈克尔· 。 波提罗说这一事件是 “曲 解和误会” 。 对于王妃来说,对这一饱受战争之苦的国家的访问是利用她的影响力向全世界展示地雷引起的危害 的绝好机会。她说这次访问也给了她接触民众、了解民生的机会。 试题详解 26.A)。细节题。依据第一段第一句话。该句指出:??戴安娜王妃于 1997 年去安哥拉的目的 是为了支持红十字会发起的一场全面禁止使用杀伤性地雷的运动 (..Princess of Wales,made a trip . to Angola in l997,to support the red Cross's campaign for a total ban on all anti-personnel landmines)。由 此可知选项 A) 为正确答案。 27.D)。推断题.依据第一段最后一句话。该句引用戴安娜的话说:仔细看看这些数字使我充 分认识到现实的严重性。在第二段又讲到:在她访问期间反复说,我们必须停止使用地雷。由此可 知,选项 D) 为正确答案。 28.B)。推断题。依据第三段内容。该段指出:在戴安娜 (Diana) 回到伦敦后,英国政府内的 部分成员不赞成戴安娜的观点,他们拒绝支持禁止使用地雷这项运动。这些愤怒的政客开始在媒体 上向 Diana 发起攻击。由此可见,这些政客实际是反对禁止使用地雷。故选项 B)为正确答案。 29.A)。细节题。依据第四段第一句话的内容“The Princess responded by brushing aside the criticisms (王妃不理睬这些批评)” 可知, 选项 A)正确。 句中的 brush aside 意思为 “无视(反对意见等), 对??置之不理” ,和选项 A)中的 pay no attention 同义。 30.B)。细节题。依据文章最后一句话“She said that the experience had also given her the chance to get closer to people and their problems”可知,选项 B)为正确答案。 26. A to voice her support for a total ban of landmines 27. D Seeing the pain of the victims made her realize the seriousness of the situation 28. B they were actually opposed to banning landmines 29. A She paid no attention to them 30. B It had brought her closer to the ordinary people Part Ⅲ Vocabulary and Structure 词汇 31. A in particular 32. C affected 33. D on 34. B equipped 35. C range 36. D discipline 37. D dispute 38.C confused 39. B entitles 40. A barrier 41.C mobile 42.D exaggerating 43.B on the contrary 44.B precaution 45.A Perceiving 46.C expand 47. D expense 48.B indispensable 49.A comes to 50.C substitute 51.C proportions 52.B restrain 53.D echo 54.B put away 55.A hint 56 D consult 57. C imitating 58.A failure 59.D embraces 60.A tedious 31.A)。(译) 我一边往前走,没想什么特别的东西,只是随便看看周围的事物。 (解) 测试固定搭配的用法。In particular 意为 “特别;尤其” ;in harmony (with) 意为“与?协 调一致; 与?和睦相处” 如, , Since the end of the war, two peoples have been living in harmony with the each other.自从战争结束后,这两个民族—直和睦地生活在一起。in doubt 意为“不能肯定的,可 怀疑的” ,如,He is still in some doubt about what to do。他还拿不定怎么办。in brief 意为“简言之, 简单地说” ,如,In brief,I don’t want to do it. 32. C)。(译) 批评家认为电视上大量的广告影响了电视节目的质量。 (解) 测试动词近义词的辨析。 affect 意为 “影响”如: rise in the price of raw materials will affect , The the market 原材料的价格上涨会影响市场。lessen 意为“减少;减轻” ,如:lessen the speed 减低速度 decline 意为“下降,减少;衰退,衰落;谢绝,拒绝” ,如:They asked me to their party,but I declined the invitation。他们邀请我参加宴会,但是我婉拒了。effect 意为“实现,使生效,引起” ,如:He did

it himself,thereby effecting a considerable saving in time and money。他亲自动手,从而省下了不少时 间和金钱。 33. D)。(译) 我必须祝贺你出色地设计了这座新桥。 (解) 考查动词与介词的搭配用法。congratulate 意为“祝贺,向??道喜” ,通常接介词 on 或者 upon。 34.B)。(译) 主办公楼一楼有一个设备齐全的健康中心。 (解)测试动词近义词辨析。equip 意思为“配备,装备,(智力、体力上) 使有准备” ,指为特 殊目的而提供装备。如: The factory is equipped with modern machines。这个工厂装备有现代化的机 器。install 意为“安装,设置,使就职,任命,如:Three computers have been installed in the office。办 公室里已经安装了三台电脑。provide 意为“提供,供给” ,如:The drawing provides us with one of the earliest examples of the use of perspective。这幅画给我们提供了采用透视画法的最早范例。project 意 为“投射,发射,放映,(使) 突出” ,如:We are projecting a visit to Europe。我们正在计划到欧洲旅 游。 35.C)。(译) 二十多年来,我们一直支持从幼儿园到大学范围内的很多教育项目。 (解) 测试固定搭配的用法。Range (from..to) 意为“变动,变化” . ;move 意为“移动,搬动, 迁移:提议” ,如:I move that a special committee (should) be formed for this matter。我提议设立一个 特别委员会来处理这件事。shift 意为“转变,转换,转移;变速,调(档)” ,如:The wind has shifted from north to south。风从北风转成南风。spread 意为 “展开,伸开;散布, 蔓延, 传播” 如: , The news spread through the school very quickly.那消息很快传遍了整个学校。 Cloze 61.A about 62. B waving 63.B after 64.D not 65.A historical 66.C identify 67.C fought 68.D idea 69.B signed 70.A place 71. A Even 72.B just 73. D directly 74. A competitiveness 75.D as 76. D good 77.C on 78. C teaching 79. A done 80.C and 作文: [参考范文] A brief introduction to a tourist attraction Good morning, ladies and gentleman, welcome to Beijing. To begin with, I would like to introduce myself: I am the tourist guide from China Travel Service and it’s great honor to stay here with all of you for a whole day. Just as the old saying goes, “It is always a pleasure to greet a friend from afar”, I wish all of you to enjoy yourselves during this trip. The following is schedule of the day. The first spot we are going to visit is the Great Wall, the grandest fortification in ancient China. The next sight to look around is the Ming Tombs, which is one of the best-preserved tombs for 13 emperors in Ming Dynasty more than one thousand years ago. In the afternoon, we will go for the Summer Palace, the royal park for Chinese ancient emperors. Currently we are on the way to the Great Wall. Dating back to the seven century B.C., the Great Wall is constructed by respective states for fortifying against invasion of neighboring states. By the reasons of long history and its length, it becomes one of the eight wonders in the world and represents the highest wisdom and crafts. From the top of the Great Wall, we can enjoy a magnificent view of continuous mountains, green trees and blooming wild flowers. It is no doubt that one says, “He who has never been to the Great Wall is not a true man”. Above is my introduction to the Great Wall. If any of you have questions, please feel free to ask me at any time.


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