Astronomy：the science of the stars 基础落实
Ⅰ.词汇与派生 1．astronomer [?′str?n?m?] n．天文学家→
2．billion [′bIlI?n] pron，n.& adj.(美)十亿；(英)万亿
3．violent [′vaI?l?nt] adj.猛烈的；强暴的→
4．atmosphere [′?tm?sfI?] n．大气层；气氛 5．dinosaur [′daIn?s??] n．恐龙
6．thus [? adv.因此；于是 ?s] 7．satellite [′s?t?laIt] n．卫星；人造卫星 8．climate [′klaImIt] n．气候 9．spaceship [′speIs?Ip] n．宇宙飞船 10．lessen [′lesn] v．减少；减轻 11．religion [rI′lId??n] n．宗教；宗教信仰→ religious adj.宗教的；宗教信仰的 12． theory [′θI?rI] n．学说，理论 13． globe [ɡl??b] n．球体，地球仪；地球
14．fundamental [ f?nd?′mentl] adj.基本的；基础的 15．multiply [′m?ltIplaI] v．乘；增加
16．oxygen [′?ksId??n] n．氧 17． gravity [′ɡr?v?tI] n．万有引力；重力 18． extinct [Ik′stI?kt] adj.灭绝的，绝种的 19．crash [kr??] v．碰撞；坠落 20．development [dI′vel?pm?nt] n．发展→
语境助记——词不离句，句不离段 With the development of astronomy，people know more about the fundamental theory of climate，atmosphere and the globe.Now more and more satellites and spaceships are sent into space where there’s no oxygen and gravity.
Ⅱ.短语与拓展 1．cheer up 高兴起来；振作起来
2．now that 既然 3．break out 突发；爆发 4．give birth to产生；分娩 5． lay eggs下蛋
7．watch out 当心；密切注视 look out 9．block out 当心 挡住(光线) 8．get the hang of熟悉；掌握 10．in one’s turn 轮到某人；接着 11．depend on 依靠 12．make up one’s mind 决心
Ⅲ.句式与运用 1．Each religion and culture has its own ideas about how life began on earth.What do you know？每种宗教和文 化都有它自己关于地球上生命起源的看法。你了解些什 么呢？ 句式分析 语。 句式仿写 我们不知道这件事情是怎么形成的。 We have no idea about how it came into being . how life began on earth作介词about的宾
2．No one knows exactly how the earth began，as it happened so long ago.没有人准确地知道地球是怎样开 始的，因为那发生在很久以前。 句式分析 as引导的从句表示原因。 句式仿写 他未能及时做好准备，我们没等他就走了。 As he wasn’t ready in time，we went without waiting for him.
3．This produced a chain reaction，which made it possible for life to develop.这样产生的连锁反应，使生命发展成 为可能。 句式分析 句式仿写 make it＋adj./n. for sb./sth.to do sth.。 你应把随时说英语当成一种习惯。
You should make it a rule to speak English whenever possible.
4．Last month I was lucky enough to have a chance to make a trip into space with my friend Li Yanping ， an astronomer.上个月我有幸得到一个机会同我的朋友李彦 平一道去太空旅行，他是一位宇航员。 句式分析 chance。 句式仿写 我知道那里也有许多有趣可看的东西。 I know there are lots of interesting things to see to make a trip...为不定式作定语，修饰
there , too .
5．...，but it will not be as strong a pull as the earth’s.??，但它不如地球的引力那么强。 句式分析 句式仿写 as...as...比较结构。 约翰与鲍勃一样聪明。
John is as bright as Bob. 6．...，I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over.??(当我向前迈步的时候)我发现我所走的距 离是在地球上的两倍，我跌倒了。 句式分析 句式仿写 ...times as...as...是??的几倍。 亚洲的大小是欧洲的四倍。
Asia is four times as large as Europe.
Ⅳ.高考源于教材 ...，I found I was carried twice as far as on earth and fell over. (教材原句) Peter’s jacket looked just the same as Jack’s，but it cost ________ his. B A．as much twice as (2009· 辽宁，33) B．twice as much as
C．much as twice as D．as twice much as 解析 句意为：彼得的夹克衫看上去与杰克的相同，但价
Ⅴ.单元知识活用 翻译句子 1．我们地理老师为了鼓励我们学习天文学而开了一个班 会。(encourage sb.to do sth.)
Our teacher of geography held a class meeting in order to encourage us to study astronomy.
2．他给我们提了一些有用的建议，他说，战胜困难得靠 我们自己。(depend on)
He gave us some useful advice， saying that we depend on it that we defeat the difficulties by ourselves.
Meantime，the geography monitor also made a speech，which cheered us up.
4．我们都下定决心，更加努力学习。(make up one’s mind)
Every one of us made up our minds to
5．只要我们熟悉了学习天文学的方法，就能学好它。(get the hang of)
As long as we get the hang of the ways of learning astronomy，we can learn it well.
连句成篇——用适当的关联词或句将上述句子连接成文 Our teacher of geography held a class meeting in order to encourage us to study astronomy.He gave us some useful advice，saying that we depend on it that we defeat the difficulties by ourselves.Meantime，the geography monitor also made a speech，which cheered us up.After the meeting，every one of us made up our minds to study harder.We think that as long as we get the hang of the ways of learning astronomy，we can learn it well.
考点探究 重点单词 1．puzzle n．谜；疑问；v.迷惑；使困惑
(1)She stared at him，puzzled at first，then angry and finally a look of helplessness came over her. (2008· 江西，阅读理解C) 她盯着他，先是不解，然后是愤怒，最后脸上是无助的 表情。 (2)Scientists have been trying to solve this puzzle for years. 多年来科学家们一直试图解决这一谜团。 (3)The police are still puzzling about/over how the accident happened. 警察仍然在苦思冥想，事故是如何发生的。
语境活用 Mary was reading a poem with a puzzled expression on her face.Its deeper meaning remained a puzzle for her. When I asked what she thought of the poem，she looked at me in puzzlement and said it was indeed puzzling .
2．mass n．质量；团；块；大量；群众(pl)；adj . .民众的； 大规模的
a massof ＝masses of大量的；许多的 the mass of＝most of ??的大部分，??的主要部分 be a mass of满是??；遍布着?? in the mass大体上；大致上 the masses (as a whole)大众；民众 the mass of...大部分?? mass production批量生产
注意：a mass of和masses of可以后接可数或不可数名词，作主 语时谓语动词的单复数与of后名词的单复数保持一致。 (1)Few of the people in mass introductions expect you to remember their names. 名字。 (2)Her garden is a mass of flowers. 她的花园里种满了花。 (3)I don’t like children in the mass . 大体而论，我不喜欢儿童。 (4) The mass of people in that country are Christians. 那个国家的大部分人是基督徒。 (2009· 安徽，阅读理解A) 在大批人员的介绍引见中，没有几个人希望你记住他们的
3．lay v．产；搁；放；布置 lay off解雇；停止工作 lay aside储存(某物)待用/备用 lay down lay out 放下(工具、武器等)；规定；制定；放弃 铺开，展开；布置，设计(建筑物等) lay down one’s life (for sth.)(为??)牺牲生命 lay sth.on sb.把(责任或难题)推给(某人)；把??加于
(1)Sometimes，they might be laid off if business for the employers is slow. (2010· 湖南，阅读填空) 有时，如果老板们的生意不好，他们可能会下岗。 (2)She was laid off along with many others when the company moved to California. 当公司迁往加利福尼亚时，她和许多工人失业了。 (3)They laid some money aside for their daughter’s marriage. 他们存了些钱以备女儿结婚用。
注意：lay—laid—laid—laying放置；产卵 lie—lay—lain—lying躺；位于 lie—lied—lied—lying撒谎 语境活用——运用上述词汇完成下面的情景 One day while we were lying on the grass，he lied to me that he laid the eggs that the hen had just laid on the table.I knew he was telling a lie .
对点训练 Ⅰ.语境填词 1．The temple is supported by massive (巨大的) columns. 2．The teacher’s explanation clarified the puzzling (令人迷惑的) problems. 3．The surface of our earth is covered with masses of (大量 )water. 4．The living room is clean and tidy，with a dining table already laid (摆好) for a meal to be cooked. 5．It’s a puzzle (疑问)where all my money goes each week.
Ⅱ.单项填空 1．________ work has been done to prevent the water in the C lake being polluted. A．A plenty of B．A number of C．A mass of D．A great many 解析 a mass of可用来修饰不可数名词；B和D只能用来
B 2． The present situation is________， and we are all________
about what will happen in the days to come. A．puzzled；puzzling C．puzzling；puzzling B．puzzling；puzzled D．puzzled；puzzled
be puzzling??是令人迷惑的；be puzzled about
3．The car manufacturer has________ 1,000 workers D because of the drop in sales. A．picked out B．given up C．dealt with D．laid off 解析 由句意可知，此处应表示“解雇”，故选D项。 4．I have got________ things to see this morning，so I C
wasn’t able to go to the flower exhibit. A．a great deal of B．a large amount of C．masses of D．a great many of 解析 A和B不可接可数名词；D项应去掉of。
5．The man________ under the tree said that he didn’t like the people who always________ to others. B A．lying；lay C．laying；laid B．lying；lied D．lied；lied
重点短语与句型 1．in time及时；最后
in no time立即；马上 at a time一次；每次 at one time曾经；一度 at times有时
ahead of time提前
for the time being暂时
take one’s time别着急；慢慢来
at the same time同时；然而；不过
(1)To complete the project in time，the staff were working at weekends. (2009· 天津，4) 为了按时完成工程，全体员工周末都在上班。 (2)The flowers were so lovely that they were sold in no time . (2007· 宁夏，35) 这些花是如此可爱以致于它们很快就被卖光了。 (3)He can be really badtempered at times . 他有的时候脾气可真坏。
prevent sb.(from) doing sth. stop sb.(from) doing sth. keep sb. from doing sth. keep sb. doing sth. 使某人一直做某事 protect sb.from...保护某人不受??的侵袭；挡住；防御
注意：被动语态中上述搭配中的from都不可省略。 (1)These gases act like the glass of a greenhouse in that they allow energy from the sun to enter but
from leaving .
这些气体起到像温室玻璃一样的作用，它们允许来自太 阳的能量进入却阻止能量离开。 (2)They would prevent/stop/keep the rich from robbing the poor. 他们要制止富人掠夺穷人。
(3)He raised his arm to protect his child from being hurt. 他伸出手臂去保护他的孩子免受伤害。 (4)Prevention is better than cure. 治病不如防病。
写作句组——满分作文之佳句 a．Don’t forget to bring a hat and a pair of gloves，which can prevent you from sunlight and help to pick up apples quickly. rewarding him with cash. (2009· 辽宁) (2010· 广东) b．Ethan’s mother failed to keep Ethan from watching by c．In addition，while working there，you’d better wear a hat and gloves to protect your face from being exposed to the strong sunlight and your hands from being hurt. (2009· 辽宁) d． is necessary to stop the tourists from taking photos with It animals. (2009· 广东)
3．watch out 密切注意；当心；提防 (1)watch for 期待，等待 watch over 照顾；监督；保护 watch out for 留意，留心，密切注意 (2) on watch 守望；放哨 off watch 不值班 keep watch 守望，值班 be on the watch (for sb./sth.)小心提防；警戒
(1)I advised them to watch out for slick spots on the sidewalk. 我建议他们当心人行道上路滑的地方。 (2)You’ll have to watch for the right moment. 你得等候适当的时机。
4．...，I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over.??(当我向前迈步的时候)我发现我所走的距离是在地 球上的两倍，我跌倒了。 句式提取：...twice as far as... 倍数的表达方式： (1)“A＋倍数＋形容词或副词的比较级＋than＋B”，表示 “A 比 B 大(长、高、宽等)多少倍”。 (2)“A＋倍数＋as＋形容词或副词的原级＋as＋B”，表示 “A 是 B 的多少倍”。 (3)“A＋倍数＋the size/height/length/width，etc.＋of＋B”， 表示“A 是 B 的多少倍”。 (4)A＋倍数＋what 从句。
(1)There are five times more books in our library than in yours. 我们图书馆里的书比你们图书馆里的书多五倍。 (2)They have three times as many cows as we have. 他们的牛是我们的三倍。 (3)My house is twice the size of my parents’． 我的房子是我父母的两倍大。
5．“Oh，dear，” I cried，“walking does need a bit of practice now that gravity has changed.”我大声地说： “天啊，既然引力改变了，走路也需要练一练了。” 句式提取：now that引导原因状语从句
now that 既然，由于，是连词词组，引导原因状语从句，表示 明显的原因或即成的事实。口语中 that 常可省略。 其他引导原因状语从句的连接词； because 因为(语气较重，常用于回答 why 的提问) since 因为，既然，由于(可与 now that 互换) as 因为(语气较弱) for 因为(并列连词，引导一个分句，不能置 于句首，表示进一步补充说明) (1)It must have rained last night，for the ground is wet. 昨天晚上一定下雨了，因为地是湿的。 (2)Now that you have finished your work，you’d better have a rest. 既然你的工作已经做完了，最好休息一下。
对点训练 Ⅰ.选词填空 in time，watch over，prevent...from，at a time 1．Nothing can prevent their plans from being carried out. 2．The doctor came in time to save her life. 3．The police’s responsibility is to watch over the safety of the community. 4．Don’t recite all together；one at a time .
Ⅱ.翻译句子 1．现在的产量是十年前的三倍。 The production now is three times what
it was ten years ago.
Now that everyone is here，let’s begin our class.
Since you have come，why not just stay?
Ⅲ.单项填空 1．People will thank the firefighters for the things they do to
B prevent fires________ the environment safer.
A．make B．to make C．from making D．making 解析 此处为不定式表目的，即“由于他们的防火工作
2．What a strange man！He loves his wife，but ________ he D often beats her. A．at a time C．in time B．at one time D．at the same time
A 3．Our city has experienced________ this year as it did last
year. A．twice as much rain C．as twice much rain B．rain twice as much D．twice rain as much
twice as much...as“是??的两倍”，为固定结
4．He minds so much about his position in the office that he________ any chance to be promoted. D A．watches out C．points out B．looks up D．watches out for
密切关注任何被提升的机会。watch out for sth.密切注意 某事，符合句意。
5．________ you’ve got a chance，you might as well make A full use of it. A．Now that C．Although B．After D．As soon as
解析 主句与从句之间存在因果关系，且“you’ve got a chance”表示一个显而易见的原因，因此应选用表原 因的now that。
将下列要点扩展成一篇文章 ①100 families and 500 people ②used to be very poor/change a lot/richer than before/take on a new look ③was very small/have been rebuilt ④newlybuilt/have 4 storeys/most beautiful building ⑤school- children/enjoy free education age
Ladies and gentlemen， Welcome to our village！This village is a small one with/which has nearly 100 families and about 500 people.It used to be very poor.However，it has changed a lot since 1978 and has been developing very fast.People here have/live a much better life than before.Now it has taken on a new look.
In the past，the school here was very small and most children couldn’t afford to go to school.But now it has been rebuilt and the newlybuilt teaching building which has 4 storeys is the most beautiful one in the village.All the school- children can age study here.What’s more/Also，they enjoy free education. May you enjoy your stay here/May you have a pleasant time here！Thank you！
这篇文章要点齐全，表达也没语法错误，但语言平 淡，句式单一，多为简单句，逻辑性也差，因此很难在考 试的评分中得到较高档次。如果使用一些恰当的连接词， 并尽量使用较高级的词汇和较复杂的语法结构，这个平淡 的文章就会有很大的改观，甚至会变得更精彩。
Ladies and gentlemen， Welcome to our village！This village is a small one with/which has nearly 100 families and about 500 people.It used to be very poor.However，it has changed a lot since 1978 and has been developing very fast.People here have/live a much better life than before.Now it has taken on a new look. In the past，the school here was very small and most children couldn’t afford to go to school.But now it has been rebuilt and the newlybuilt teaching building which has 4 storeys is the most beautiful one in the village.All the school- children can age study here.What’s more/Also，they enjoy free education. May you enjoy your stay here/May you have a pleasant time here！Thank you！ 返回