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grammar 不定式用法

Unit 1. living well
Revise the Infinitive

Do you believe I can fly like a bird?

How can you believe I can fly like a bird?

_______is to believe. To see It’s impossible for humans to fly like a bird _________________now.

否定) 一.结构 : to do;(否定 not to do 否定 二. 时态与语态 被动语态 主动语态 不定式 一般式 进行式 完成式
to do to be doing to be done

to have done to have been done to have been 完成进行式 ---------doing

(1).They pretended not to see us.
(一般式表示与谓语的动作同时/几乎/发生在 一般式表示与谓语的动作同时/几乎/ 它之后.) 它之后.)

(2). He pretended to be sleeping.
(在谓语动词发生的同时,不定式的动作也正在进行) 在谓语动词发生的同时,不定式的动作也正在进行)

(3).She pretended to have known it before.
(完成式表示动作发生在谓语动作之前) 完成式表示动作发生在谓语动作之前)

(4).We’re happy to have been working with you. (完成进行式表示谓语动作发生之前,不定式的 完成进行式表示谓语动作发生之前,
动作一直在进行而且可能之后也继续) 动作一直在进行而且可能之后也继续)

1. 作主语 2. 作宾语 3. 作宾语补足语 4. 作定语 5. 作状语 6. 作表语 7. 作独立成分 8. 与疑问词等连用

(1).不定式作主语时,往往放在谓语之后 不定式作主语 往往放在谓语之后 主语时 往往放在谓语之后,

作形式主语. 用it作形式主语 作形式主语

To see is to believe. It’s impossible for humans to fly like a bird now.

(2).不定式作表语 不定式作表语

My job is to________________. protect the world. Your task is to_____________ .

(3) 不定式作宾语

He likes to______________. I found it still necessary to ___________ if he want to win.

think/ consider/ find it + adj.+ to do
常用动词不定式作宾语的动词有: 常用动词不定式作宾语的动词有:

hope, refuse, learn, set out choose, decide, agree, manage, pretend, plan.

(4). 不定式作宾补 The teacher told me to_________. I expect you to____________.

warn, tell, allow, help, ask, force等 等


watch see look at observe notice



make have

一感觉: 一感觉 feel


listen to hear

I made him do his work. He was made to do his work (by me).

不定式用在介词but, except, besides 不定式用在介词 后时,如果这些介词前有行为动词 如果这些介词前有行为动词do的 后时 如果这些介词前有行为动词 的 各种形式,那么介词后的不定式不带 那么介词后的不定式不带to, 各种形式 那么介词后的不定式不带 相反则带to. 相反则带 (1). She could do nothing but cry. (2). I have no choice but to go. (3).What do you like to do besides sleep.

(5).不定式作定语 不定式作定语

I have something to say. But my brother has a lot of homework _____. So I am looking for someone __________.

1. 作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不 作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词 不及物动词, 定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点 相应的介词。 工具等,不定式后面须有相应的介词 工具等,不定式后面须有相应的介词。 He is looking for a room to live in. 2. 不定式所修饰的名词如果是 不定式所修饰的名词如果是time, place或way, 或 , 不定式后面的介词习惯上要省去 介词习惯上要省去。 不定式后面的介词习惯上要省去。 He had no money and no place to live.

3. something, anything, nothing, everything等 等 复合不定代词常用不定式做后置定语。 复合不定代词常用不定式做后置定语。 注意比较: 注意比较:
1) Have you anything to send? 你有什么东西要寄吗?(不定式to 你有什么东西要寄吗?(不定式 send的动作执 ?(不定式 的动作执 行者是you) 行者是 ) 2) Have you anything to be sent? 你有什么要(我或别人)寄的东西吗? 你有什么要(我或别人)寄的东西吗? 不定式to 的动作执行者是已被省略的me (不定式 be sent的动作执行者是已被省略的 的动作执行者是已被省略的 或someone else) )

(6) 不定式作状语
in order to , so as to , enough to , only to , too….to., catch the train I got up early to______________. I came here to___________.

(7).独立结构 独立结构
To tell the truth, I am not happy at the moment.

to be frank, to be honest, to tell the truth

8. 与疑问词等连用

He didn’t know ____________.

不定式与疑问词who,which, when, how, what 不定式与疑问词who,which, 不定式与疑问词 等连用,在句中起名词作用,可充当主语、 等连用,在句中起名词作用,可充当主语、表 宾语等。 语、宾语等。 He didn’t know what to say.(宾语) .(宾语 宾语) How to solve the problem is very important.(主语) .(主语 主语) My question is when to start. (表语) (表语 表语) 注意: 注意: 在与why连用时,只用于why或why not开头的简 在与why连用时,只用于why或 not开头的简 在与why连用时 why 短疑问句中,后面紧跟的动词不定式不带to to。 短疑问句中,后面紧跟的动词不定式不带to。

Why not have a rest?

(9) 固定句型: 固定句型: 1. had better/had best + (not) do sth. 最好( 最好(不)做某事 2. Why (not) do sth.? 3. …prefer to do/prefer doing 4. …prefer + n./doing A +to + n./doing B 5. …prefer + to do A rather than (to) do B 6. …would rather (not) do sth. 7. …would rather do A than (do) B 8. …would rather + 句子(过去式) 句子(过去式) 虚拟语气) 要做…… (虚拟语气) 要做

(10) 不定式的省略
(1).不定式中的动词上文已出现过 下文要 不定式中的动词上文已出现过,下文要 不定式中的动词上文已出现过 省略该动词. 省略该动词 e.g.: Would you like to go with me ? I’d like to . (2). 不定式是 be 结构 be 不可省 不定式是to 结构, 不可省. e.g.: Would you like to be a teacher? I’d like to be.

1. Robert is said ____ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in. A. to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying 2. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____ it more difficult. A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. don’t make 3. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ____ in my new job. A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects

4. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ____ whether they will enjoy it. A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. see 5. It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows ____. A. it what to do with B. what to do with it C. what to do it with D. to do what with it 6. The mother didn’t know ____ to blame for the broken glass as it happened while she was out. A. who B. when C. how D. why

7. Paul doesn’t have to be made ____. He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning 8. We agreed ____ here but so far she hasn’t turned up yet. A. having met B. meeting C. to meet D. to have met 9. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ____. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to

10. The patient was warned ____ oily food after the operation. A. to eat not B.eating not C. not to eat D.not eating 11. I would love ____ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone 12. Charles Babbage is generally considered ____the first computer. A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented

13. Little Jim should love ____ to the theatre this evening. A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking 14. ____ late in the afternoon, Bob turned off the alarm. A. To sleep B. Sleeping C. Sleep D. Having sleep 15. The teacher asked us ____ so much noise. A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make

Make up a story using the infinitive

I want to tell you something...


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