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Topic: Money
Money is regarded/ as the most powerful and very important thing in our life. In my opinion, most things in the world,such as luxurious cars, magnificent mansions and other beautiful and wonderful things can be bought with money. But there are certain things that cannot be bought with money. A millionaire who suffered from AIDS was willing to buy his health with all his property, but maybe at last, he died in despair. And money can’t buy true love, devoted friendship, real honor, a warm family life or skills. So money is far away from omnipotent.钱 并不是万能的。

Like everything else, money has two sides, positive and negative. It can bring happiness as well as ruin. Those people who make money /through their own mental or physical labor usually have a kind of happy life. But “money can talk” and it is the major cause of crime and violence in the world today. Robbery, thief, burglary, and even murder are most commonly for the sake of money. Money can also drive some powerful officials to corrupt.贪污 Discussions: 1. What’s your opinion on “money”? Do you think it is everything? 2. Can you give me some examples to support your idea? 3. As a coin has two sides, can you explain it from the positive sides and negative sides individually?

4. Which do you think is more important: wealth or health, why? 5. What kind of the things can be bought with money? 6. What kind of the things cannot be bought with money? 7. Do you think money is the major cause of crime and violence in the world today? (negative things) 8. Can you tell me the right use of money? How to use money correctly? 9. Should students take any pocket money with them? Why? If they should, how much do you think they should take? 10. Are there some special classes in you school to guide you guys how to spend or arrange your money properly? No,转 8 答案。 11. What do you usually spend money doing? 12. What’s money? What can we do with them? 13. Some students always take a great deal of money with them. How do you think of such behaviors? 14. Which do you think is more convenient: consuming with money or consuming with credit card? Why? (shopping) Which way is better, shopping by cash or credit card? 15. How do you spend your lucky money that you get on spring festival each year? If you have saved them, how will you spend them in the future? 16. How much do you spend on clothes/stationary/toys each month? 17. How much money can you get for your allowance each month? /each week? How do you spend them? Where does it come from?

18. Money means happiness. Do you agree? Why? 19. Have you ever given money to the people who beg in the streets? 20. Have you ever done any part-time job to earn money? 21. Have you ever earned money by yourself? How do you earn? 22. Have you paid money by credit cards? Has your mother..? 23. Why do people want more money, no matter how much they have got? 24. Why are poor people in many cases more generous than rich people? 25.How do people become rich and happy?/ How to earn money for people? 26.If you have got a large amount of money, how could you spend? 27.If your friends borrow some money, what would you like to do? 28. Have you ever lent money to others? 重点需背问题: 1. Would you like to manage money? How to manage then? I’d like to share my experience of managing money. First of all, I think if you make a money plan, it can help you get it worth. Also, I put my pocket money into the piggy bank, because I think it is a good way to develop good saving skills. Remember: You’d better not borrow money too often,or you can't save any, and you shouldn't spend money like water, or you must waste a lot. I believe these habits are gifts that can last a lifetime. 2. Have you ever earned money before? I have a few experiences of earning money. Last summer vacation, if I helped my mother do some housework, she would give me a card, you know, every card costs one Yuan, if I sweep the floor、wash dishes、clean the table、feed

the fish、 wash the dog、 polish the trees、 help the dinner and so on, I can get a card for every event. Within one month, I earned 50 Yuan, and saved it in my piggy bank. From that, I not only felt that I became an adult, but also enjoyed myself very much. Last month I earned a little money by selling used books and paper. I was encouraged to be independent by this. According to my experience, I have learned that earning money by ourselves is really rewarding. 3. Health and wealth, which one is more important? Some people insist that health is above wealth. They argue that, a strong person can work hard to make money and a weak people might lose his job. In contrast, some others see more advantages from wealth. They think that, wealthy people can buy more healthy food and poor people might suffer from starving. In my opinion, both of them are important to our life. We should try to strike a balance between them and gain wealth with a healthy body. 4. If you have great money, what will you do? If I have great money, I will divide it into three parts with equal amount. I will spend the first part on books so that I can learn more knowledge and get improved. To further my study abroad after high school, I will save another part in the bank for tuition in future. At last, I will buy a large house for my mother with the rest part, because that’s her dream for years and I want to show my love towards her. 5. Should students take money with them? Why?Do you think pocket money is necessary? Some parents seldom give their children pocket money because they are afraid that money might spoil children. As a student, I think pocket money is quite necessary. If I take some, I can buy friends gifts. Without any pence, I can neither buy meals nor pay for transport. I have to admit that children with too much money might be in danger. I think how much money a student take should match his age. To my part, 20 Yuan for a week is enough. 6. If someone turns to you for money, will you lend some to them?

When someone turns to me for money, I will think it over. If he wants great money, I might refuse to lend it. I will also take into account what the money is used for. If he spends it in a right way, I am likely to agree. Besides, to know when he plans to repay is important as well. But you know, it is always hard to refuse a close friend or relative. Anyway, lending money to others is always a risk. 7. When you want to buy something, would you like to use cash or pay with the credit card? You know, it depends what I buy and where I buy, if I buy something on-line, I prefer to pay with credit card, because it’s more convenient, if I go to a small shop, I’d like to use cash, because usually in small shops, there aren’t cash registers. But I’m always happy when I buy something, I like shopping, so anyone way is OK. I never mind.

a liter of milk 一升牛奶 a lot (lots of) 许多;大量的 all right 好;行;可以 all over the world 遍及全世界 at home at last 最后 at night 在夜间 at the same time 同时 Be careful. 小心 be born in… 出生于… 在家

be good at…擅长… bus stop 汽车站

by bus 乘公共汽车 by car 乘小汽车 candy bar 条形糖果 cheer for 为….加油 Children's Day 儿童节 come back 回来 come in 进来 corner kick 角球 cut the grass 割草 cycling shoes 自行车专用鞋 do chores 做家务 do homework 做家庭作业 doing karate 练空手道 Don’t litter.禁止乱丢垃圾。 Don’t touch.禁止触摸。 Don’t walk.禁止通行。 Don’t be late. 别迟到。 draw picture 画画

eat out 吃光 English corner 英语角 enough money 足够的钱 every day 每天

Excuse me. 请原谅;抱歉。 far away 远;遥远 feed the fish 喂鱼 feel cold 感觉冷 fill out 填写 fire station 消防站 French fries 炸薯条 fried rice get up 炒米饭


go away 走开 go home 回家 go shopping 去购物 go to a movie go to bed 去看电影


Good morning. 早上好。 good-bye 再见

happy birthday 生日快乐 hard disk 硬盘 hardly ever 几乎从不 high jump how many how much how old ice-cream 跳高 多少 多少

多大 冰淇淋 (名词)

ice-skating 滑冰 in front of in the end 在……前面 最后

Join us. 加入我们的行列中吧。 last night 昨天夜间 Let’s go. 走吧。 living room 客厅 (名词) look at 看 look out 小心 look after 照顾 make breakfast 做早餐 make my bed 整理床

Merry Christmas!圣诞节快乐! movie theater 电影院 neither 既不……又不

next to 在……旁边 next week 下周 No cameras. 禁止照相。 No food. 禁止吃东西。 No parking. 禁止停车。 No smoking. 禁止吸烟。 No swimming. 禁止游泳。 of course 当然 on Saturdays 在星期六 once a week 一周一次 once upon a time 从前…… one by one 一个个;依次

over here 在这 over there 在那 pencil box 铅笔盒 (名词)

pencil sharpener 铅笔刀 pick up 掘地, 捡起, 获得

play the piano 弹钢琴 play the violin 拉小提琴 play the drums 敲鼓 play the guitar 弹吉他 play football 踢足球 play basketball 打蓝球 play volleyball 打排球 play badminton 打羽毛球 play tennis 打网球 play table tennis 打乒乓球 police station 警察局 polish the shoes 擦鞋 post office 邮局 sports star 体育明星 Stop thief!抓贼! Super! 太棒了 swimming pool 游泳池 table tennis 网球 take out the trash talk about 谈论 把垃圾拿到外面(倒垃圾)

Teachers’ Day 教师节 teddy bear 泰迪熊 thank you 谢谢你 tin can train 饮料罐

station 火车站

trash bags 垃圾袋 trashcans 垃圾桶(名词) try out 尝试 turn on 打开

twice a week 一周两次 up and down 上下 walk through 经过 wash the dishes 洗餐具 watch TV 看电视

Well done!做得好! with 和……一起(介词) working out at the gym 在体育馆做运动 worry about 担心;着急

1)我的书包 My Backpack

I have

a backpack. It is large and it is blue. It is a birthday gift from my parents. I love it very much. It is very

"hard-working", because I keep all my school things in it. It is very heavy. It is with all the time during school days. It is a good friend of mine. (2)我的房子 My House I have a house. It is big and new. There are eight rooms in it. They are a living-room,a kitchen,three bedroom,one study and two bathrooms. I watch TV in the living-room. I do my homework in the study. I have dinner in the kitchen. This is my house. I like it. (3)今年暑假(This vacations) In this vacations Igo to travel in some famous places and i go to visit my grandparents in the village.i learn something difenrent.like example:Iknow people work in the village it is so hard and so tired,they are grow the vegetable,rice and something else it is very dificult. (4)小学的最后一个暑假(the last summer in my elementary school) the last summer in my elementary school is very unforgetable,i remember i will go to another school and have to leave my friends and teachers,i feel sad ,but i learned to get together with them to remember the friendship between us,we have a good time and swear to study hard in order to have a bright future. (5)今天的经历(Today's experience) It was a fine day today and the sun was bright . I visited Beijing Zoo with my classmate , Zhang Hong . The animals there were so interesting that allthe people loved them . When I saw a visitor throwing food to the monkeys , I went ran to stop him and said ,“ Animals are our good friends and we must take good care

of them .” (6)My Dog I have a dog. My dog name is DuDu. DuDu is 9 years. DuDu is fat. It wears a white coat. DuDu has two big eyes and two small ears. It has one short mouth. My dog is smart. I like my dog. Do you like it? (7)My Good Friend Zhang Ying is my good friend. She’s in Class1, Grade4 of Tianjiao Primary School. She’s a model student.

She’s clever and she’s helpful, too. She often helps teachers and young students at school. She is good at Chinese, maths, English, arts and crafts, music and so on. She has a lot of hobbies. She likes painting and drawing. And she likes listening to music, having picnics with her parents. Oh yeah, she likes fishing, too. But she doesn’t like playing basketball, football, table tennis or volleyball. Zhang Ying is the best friend of mine. I like playing with her. We always work together and help each other. (8)My new teacher My new teacher is science teacher. He’s very strong. He has a big mouth, two big ears, two big eyes and a not too big and not too small nose. He often wears a black new shirt and brown pants, with two big shoes。 My science teacher is very kind. And he is very smart, isn’t he? Today, we have science class. We are very happy. Because he is so funny. Who is he? He’s a Mr. Zhou . (9)Birthday My birthday is on Sunday. My parents are going to have a birthday party at home. I invite my friends to come to the party.

At the party. They give me many small presents. Such as cards, picture books, pens. They sing Happy Birthday to me. My mother makes a big cake for me. I cut the cake into small pieces and give them out. we sing and dance. We have a good time at the party. (10)Animals I like animals very much. I have a dog, It’s my favourite animal. It’s white, It looks like a snow ball. It has two big eyes and ears. But its nose and mouth are very small. It’s very naughty. It often stares at my food when I have a meal. When I’m home it follows me all the time. When I do my homework, it often sits beside quietly, but sometimes runs around me and shouts: wom wom. I like my dog very much. (11)My Study My study is big. It’s about 20㎡. The walls are white and the floor is dark yellow. The lights on the wall are very beautiful. There is a big window on the wall. The window curtains are yellow and light green. In front of the wall, there is my desk. There is a telephone, a globe and some books on the desk. There is a piano on the right of the desk. It’s my favorite present from my parents when I was nine years old. On the left of the desk, there is a bookshelf. There are many books on the shelf. Some are storybooks. Some are picture books. Some are cartoon books. Some are music books. There are some English books, too. On the shelf, there is a Snoopy and a Blue Cat. I like them very much!

In the evening or at the weekends, I do my homework and play the piano in my study. I can read all kinds of books, too. In my study, I can gain much knowledge. I like my study. What about you? (12)Learning Foreign Language I love learning foreign languages. Especially English because English is the most widely spoken language in the world, it is used by countries all over the world. For example, if you want to find a nice job, you probably need to be good at English, and when you surf on the Internet, you'll see many dialogues and keywords in English. If you don't know them, then you'll have to spend a lot of time looking them up in an English dictionary. Therefore we must try harder to learn English and improve our English, and we could learn more besides. Now, I'm a junior high student, I try to read magazine articles in English everyday. In fact, learning English is lots of fun. It's rather like learning Chinese. Just open your mouth and say something in English or read lots of achievement. All in all, it's useful for everyone to learn English. (13)My good habits In the morning. First, I get up. Next, I brush my teeth. Then, I wash my face. After that, I have breakfast. At last, I go to school. In the evening. First, I finish my homework. Next, I have dinner. Then, I pack my schoolbag. After that, hang up my clothes. At last, I go to bed. (14)I love my bedroom I have a bedroom .It is not big , but it is nice .There is a bed in my bedroom . A yellow dog is on the bed .Every night,I sleep with it . Next to the bed, there is a desk. A bear lamp is on the desk .I like the bear lamp. It's cute. I like

to do homework under the lamp every evening. I have a new computer in my bedroom .It is my best friend . Because I study at it, play at it . There are also several beautiful pictures on the wall. I like my bedroom. Do you like it? (15)Do you like me? Hello! Everyone. I’m a little rabbit. My name is Hanhan. Look! I’m very lovely. My eyes are red. My ears are long. My hair is white. My tail is short. I like carrots very much. I have a good friend. She’s my little master. Her name is Zhou Xun. We always play games together. I like her very much and she likes me, too. (16)My Pencil-box I have a good friend. Her name is Pencil-box. She is a very beautiful girl. Look! There is a picture on her face. It’s a picture of flowers. Her coat is blue and yellow. There are some pencils, a pen, a ruler, a rubber and a tape in her stomach. From Monday to Friday, I go to school with her. When I want to copy or write the new words, I open her mouth and take out the pencil from her stomach. She helps me a lot. And I like her very much. (17)Who am I? Hello! My name is Feifei. My mother is very beautiful. My father is very handsome. So I’m very lovely. Look! My coat is white. My eyes are blue. I have a long tail. Fish is my favorite food. I like mice too. Guess! Who am I? (18)My Mother(我的妈妈) My mother is a beautiful woman.She is 38 years old.She is an engineer.She likes singing and she can sing very well.She also likes reading,her favourite book is HARRY POTTER.Although she hasn't any money,I love her very much.Because she is my mother.And she loves me,too.This is my mother.

(19)我想成为校长(I want to be a headmaster) I want to be a headmaster when I grow up. I think that’s a good job. My school is in the forest. It’s very beautiful. I go to work by Benz at eight o’clock in the morning. The teachers in my school are kind and patient. The female teachers in my school are good looking and young. The male teachers are handsome and strong. They are all hardworking so they get good salary. The children in my school have three classes in the morning. In the afternoon, they play and pick up mushrooms or strawberries in the forest. They have no homework. They are very happy! At four o’clock in the afternoon, I go home with kinds of mushrooms and fruits in my Benz. They are for my dinner. (20)我最喜爱照片(My favourite photo) There is an Aoyu in the picture. The Aoyu has a green tail, two colorful horns and the silver skin. It’s a silver Aoyu. It looks beautiful and lively. Aoyu dance is a traditional dance in Shawan Piaose. It means it can always get the first. It’s a good symbol. Everyone likes it very much.


关于小升初的英语知识点小汇编 名词所有格的形式和用法。 (1)名词所有格一般是词尾加′s 构成,如:the boy’s bag;our teacher’s room 等。如果原词已经

有复数词尾-s,则仅仅加一个(′)即可,如 boys′ school 等。词尾无 s 的复数名词则仍要加′s,如: men’s clothes 等。 (2)表示无生命东西的名词的所有格不可用词尾加(′s)或(′),而是用 of 属格,如:the window of the room 等。但在表示时间、距离以及其他习惯用语中,则需用(′s)或(′)表示所有格,如: ten minutes′ walk 等。 (3)如果一样东西为两人共有,则只在后一个名词后加“'s”。 如:We visited Xiao Li and Xiao Zhang's room. 我们参观了小李和小张的房间。 (4)名词的双重所有格。(本部分只出现在教师版中) 物主代词不可与 a, an, this, that, these, those, some, any, several, no, each, every, such, another, which 等词一起修饰一个名词,而必须用双重所有格。 公式为:a, an, this, that +名词+of +名词性物主代词。 如:a friend of mine 我朋友中的一个 each brother of his 他的每个哥哥 名词 名词是人类认识事物所使用的基本词汇,它主要用来指人或各种事物具体的名称,也可以指抽象的概念。 名词在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、称呼语等。 名词可以分为专有名词和普通名词。专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的名称,如 Beijing,

China 等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名词,如:book,sadness 等。 名词有数的变化,从名词所表示的事物的性质看,可以分为两类:可数名词,如:car 汽车,army 军队等 ;不可数名词,如:milk 牛奶,water 水,love 爱等。 可数名词有单数和复数两种形式。复数名词的变化有规则变化和不规则变化两种。 规则变化 构成方法 语 音 你会读吗? 在词尾加-s 1. 在清辅音后读作/s/ 2. 在浊辅音后读作/z/ 1. desk-desks 2. dog-dogs 1. 以 s, x, sh, ch, z 等结尾的名词之后加-es 2. 如词尾为 e,只加-s -(e)s 读作/iz/ 1. class-classes buzz-buzzes 2. horse-horses page-pages 如词尾为-f 或-fe,则一般变为-ves -ves 读作/vz/ knife-knives 以辅音+y 结尾的名词,变 y 为 i,再加-es -ies 读作/iz/ family-families 以元音+y 结尾的名词,加-s -s 读作/z/ boy-boys

以辅音+o 结尾的名词,加-es -es 读作/z/ tomato-tomatoes (photo, piano 除外) 以元音+o 结尾的名词,加-s -s 读作/z/ radio-radios 以-th 结尾的名词,加-s 1. 在长元音后-ths 读作/ez/ 2. 在短元音或辅音后-ths 读作/θs/ 1.bath-baths 2.month-months 不规则变化 ①名词复数的特殊形式。 如:man – men tooth – teeth mouse – mice goose – geese Asian – Asians American – Americans German – Germans child – children deer – deer woman – women foot – feet

② 单复数形式相同。 如:sheep, deer, fish, Chinese, Japanese ③合成名词,只将其主体词变为复数形式。 如:girl student – girl students pencil-box – pencil-boxes

④由 man 和 woman 构成的合成词,全都变成复数。 如:man doctor – men doctors 不可数名词 不可数名词一般只有单数形式,没有复数形式。它不能和 a 或 an 及数词搭配使用。不可数名词表示数量可 以和 some, any, little, a little, much, a piece of, a pound of, a cup of, a lot of 等连用。 如:a piece of news four glasses of milk water 主要用法 例句 1)泛指的复数名词,表示一类人或事物时,可不用定冠词 They are teachers. 他们是教师。 2)抽象名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词 Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。 3)物质名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词,当表示特定的意思时,需要加定冠词 Man cannot live without water. 人离开水就无法生存。 4)在称呼或表示官衔,职位的名词前不加冠词 President Bush;Professor Smith 5)当两个或两个以上名词并用时,常省去冠词 I can't write wijthout pen or pencil. five bottles of woman teacher – women teachers

没有钢笔和铅笔,我就写不了字。oom. 形容词、副词 形容词 1. 形容词定义 形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征,在句中可作定语、表语、状语等成分。 如:This is a difficult problem to solve.(作定语) The weather here is very pleasant.(作表语) Maggie is very polite.(作表语) 2. 形容词的位置 形容词在句中的位置主要指作定语时与名词的排列位置。 1)作定语一般位于名词前。 如:I often have a joyful hear. 我通常都是心情愉快。 China has a peaceful environment. 2)形容词在修饰 someone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody, anything, nobody, nothing 等不 定代词时,需要置于其后。 如:I have something important to tell you all. 3)多个形容词修饰名词时的排列顺序(本部分只出现在教师版中)

多个形容词同时修饰一个名词时,其排列顺序通常如下: 限定词(包括冠词、人称代词、指示代词等)+大小+形状+性质或状态+颜色+年龄或新旧+材料或种类+来 源+名词 如:There are a few big round black new wooden French tables in the room. 形容词、副词等级用法 1. 形容词、副词的比较级和最高级 1)比较级和最高级的构成 构成 原级 比较级 最高级 一般在词尾加-er, -est great, hard greater, harder greatest, hardest 以字母 e 结尾只加-r,-st nice, wide nicer, wider nicest, widest 以一个辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节,双写这一辅音字母后再加-er, -est big, hot bigger, hotter biggest, hottest 以辅音字母+y 结尾的词,将 y 变为 i 再加-er, -est happy, early happier, earlier happiest, earliest 在双音节和多音节词前加 more 或 most difficult, difficultly more difficult, more difficultly most difficult,

most difficultly 2)形容词的不规则变化如下: 原级 比较级 最高级 good, well better best bad, ill, badly worse worst little less least much, many more most far farther/further farthest/furthest old older/elder oldest/eldest

牛津英语 5A 语法及练习 1 be 动词


Be 动词的用法: (1) Am--was Is --was Are--were 口诀:我用 am, 你用 are, is 用在他她它,复数全用 are。 (2) 肯定和否定句 I am (not) from London. He is(not) a teacher.

She is(not) in the dining room. My hair is(not) long. Her eyes are(not) small. (3) 一般疑问句 Am I a Chinese? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are they American? Yes, they are. No, they aren’t. Is the cat fat? Yes, it is. No, it isn’t.

语法及练习 2 人称代词和物主代词 人称代词和物主代词 1.人称代词主格和宾格的区别:主格通常位于句中第一个动词之前(有时候位于 than 之后),宾格一般位于动词或介词 之后。 2.物主代词形容词性与名词性的区别:形容词性用时后面一般要带上名词,名词性则单独使用,后面不带名词。

语法及练习 3 名词复数和动词三单 一、名词复数规则 1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds 2.以 s. x. sh. ch 结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches

3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变 y 为 i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries 4.以“f 或 fe”结尾,变 f 或 fe 为 v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives 5.不规则名词复数: man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children foot-feet,.tooth-teeth fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese 二.动词三单的变化规则 1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks 2.以 s. x. sh. ch. o 结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes 3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变 y 为 i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

语法及练习 4 一般现在时 一般现在时一般现在时基本用法介绍 一般现在时的功能 1. 表示事物或人物的特征、状态。 如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。 2. 表示经常性或习惯性的动作 如:I get up at six every day.我每天六点起床。 3. 表示客观现实。 如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。 一般现在时的构成

1. be 动词:主语+be(am,is,are)+其它。如:I am a boy.我是一个男孩。 2.行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。如:We study English.我们学习英语。 当主语为第三人称单数(he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。 一般现在时的变化 1. be 动词的变化。否定句:主语+ be + not +其它。如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。 一般疑问句:Be +主语+其它。如:-Are you a student? 特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike? 2.行为动词的变化。否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't ) +动词原形(+其它)。如:I don't like bread. 当主语为第三人称单数时,要用 doesn't 构成否定句。如:He doesn't often play. 一般疑问句:Do( Does ) +主语+动词原形+其它。 如:- Do you often play football? - Yes, I do. / No, I don't. 当主语为第三人称单数时,要用 does 构成一般疑问句。 如:- Does she go to work by bike? - Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't. 特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。 如:How does your father go to work? -Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.

语法及练习 5 现在进行时 现在进行时 1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。

2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为 be+动词 ing. 3.现在进行时的否定句在 be 后加 not。 4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把 be 动词调到句首。 5.现在进行时的特殊疑问的基本结构为:疑问词不达意 + be + 主语 + 动词 ing? 但疑问词当主语时其结构为: 疑问词不达意 + be + 动词 ing? 动词加 ing 的变化规则 1.一般情况下,直接加 ing,如:cook-cooking 2.以不发音的 e 结尾,去 e 加 ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting 3.如果末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加 ing,如:run-running, stop-stopping

语法及练习 6 将来时 将来时 一、概念: 表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。句中一般有以下时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, the day after tomorrow(后天)等。 二、基本结构:①be going to + do; ②will+ do. 三、否定句: 在 be 动词(am, is, are)l 后加 not 或情态动词 will 后加 not 成 won’t。 例如:I’m going to have a picnic this afternoon.

→ I’m not going to have a picnic this afternoon. 四、一般疑问句: be 或 will 提到句首,some 改为 any, and 改为 or,第一二人称互换。 例如:We are going to go on an outing this weekend. → Are you going to go on an outing this weekend? 五、对划线部分提问: 一般情况,一般将来时的对划线部分有三种情况。 1. 问人。Who 例如:I’m going to New York soon. →Who’s going to New York soon. 2. 问干什么。What … do. 例如: My father is going to watch a race with me this afternoon. →What is your father going to do with you this afternoon. 3. 问什么时候。When. 例如:She’s going to go to bed at nine. →When is she going to bed? 六、同义句:be going to = will I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.

语法及练习 7 一般过去时 一般过去时

1. 一般过去时 表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用。一般过去时也表示过去经常或反复发生的 动作感谢。 2.Be 动词在一般过去时中的变化: ⑴am 和 is 在一般过去时中变为 was。(was not=wasn’t) ⑵are 在一般过去时中变为 were。(were not=weren’t) ⑶带有 was 或 were 的句子,其否定、疑问的变化和 is, am, are 一样,即否定句在 was 或 were 后加 not,一般疑问句把 was 或 were 调到句首。 3.句中没有 be 动词的一般过去时的句子 否定句:didn’t +动词原形, 如:Jim didn’t go home yesterday. 一般疑问句:在句首加 did,句子中的动词过去式变回原形。 如:Did Jim go home yesterday? 特殊疑问句:⑴疑问词+did+主语+动词原形? 如: What did Jim do yesterday? ⑵疑问词当主语时:疑问词+动词过去式? 如:Who went to home yesterday? 动词过去式变化规则: 1.一般在动词末尾加-ed,如:pull-pulled, cook-cooked 2.结尾是 e 加 d,如:taste-tasted

3.末尾只有一个元音字母和一个辅音字母的重读闭音节,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加-ed,如:stop-stopped 4.以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,变 y 为 i, 再加-ed,如:study-studied 5.不规则动词过去式: am,is-was, are-were, do-did, see-saw, say-said, give-gave, get-got, go-went, come-came, have-had, eat-ate, take-took, run-ran, sing-sang, put-put, make-made, read-read, write-wrote, draw-drew, drink-drank, fly-flew, ride-rode, speak-spoke, sweep-swept, swim-swam, sit-sat

语法及练习 8 There be 句型与 have, has There be 句型与 have, has 的区别 1、There be 句型表示:在某地有某物(或人) 2、在 there be 句型中,主语是单数,be 动词用 is ; 主语是复数,be 动词用 are ; 如有几件物品,be 动词根据最*近 be 动词的那个名词决定。 3、there be 句型的否定句在 be 动词后加 not , 一般疑问句把 be 动词调到句首。 4、there be 句型与 have(has) 的区别:there be 表示在某地有某物(或人);have(has) 表示某人拥有某物。 5、 some 和 any 在 there be 句型中的运用: some 用于肯定句, any 用于否定句或疑问句。 6、 and 和 or 在 there be 句型中的运用:and 用于肯定句, or 用于否定句或疑问句。 7、针对数量提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是: How many + 名词复数 + are there + 介词短语? How much + 不可数 名词 + is there + 介词短语? 8、针对主语提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是: What’s + 介词短语?

PEP 小学英语重点句型语法总结与分析

三年级起点的人教版 PEP 教材在小学阶段共有 8 册书,其涉及的重要语法知识主要有 7 种:to be 句型、there be 句 型、一般现在时句型、现在进行时句型、一般过去时句型、情态动词 can 引导的句型、be going to 句型等。现以 5——8 册书为例,简要分析如下: [一] to be 句型:用于介绍个人情况如姓名、健康状况、身份、国籍、家庭成员、朋友、职业等,描述地点、颜色、四季、 日期、星期几等,该句型广泛分布于各册教材中,其中 5——8 册的句型主要有: 1. Who’s your English teacher? Mr. Carter.

2. What’s he like? He’s tall and strong. 3. Is she quiet? No, she isn’t. She is very active. 4. Is she strict? Yes, she is, but she’s very kind. 5. What day is it today? It’s Wednesday. 6. What’s your favourite fruit/food…? 7. They’re sweet/ sour/ salty/ healthy/… 8. When is your birthday? It’s in May. 9. My birthday is in June. Uncle Bill’s birthday is in June, too. 10. Is her birthday in June? Yes, it is. 11. What’s the date? 12.This is Zhang Peng.

13. Where is the cinema, please? It’s next to the hospital. 14. How tall are you? I’m 164 cm tall. 15. You are shorter than me. 16.You’re 4 cm taller than me. 17.How heavy are you? I’m 48 kg. 18. I’m thinner than you, and shorter. 19. What’s the matter with you? 20. How are you, Liu Yun / Sarah? [二] there be 句型:表示存在,即:“某处有某物”或“某时有某事”。句型基本结构为:There is+ 可数名词单数或不可 数名词+时间或地点。There are+可数名词复数+地点。该句型主要分布在第 5 册的 Unit 5 和 Unit 6 中,如: 1. There are two bedrooms, a kitchen, a bathroom and a living room. 2. There is a mirror, a bed and a big closet. 3. Is there a forest in the park? Yes, there is. 4. Is there a river? No, there isn’t. 5. Are there any pandas in the mountains? No, there aren’t. 6. Are there any fish in the rivers? Yes, there are. My throat is sore.

[三] 一般现在时句型:表示习惯性的动作或行为,或现在存在着的状况。句型基本结构为:主语+行为动词+其他。当主语 是第三人称单数时,要在动词原形后面加 s 或 es,其他人称作主语时则用动词原形,在问句及否定句中需要用助动词 do 或 does。这种句型通常有一些标志词,如:usually often sometimes never always 等。该句型主要分布在第 5 册

Unit2&3,第 6 册 Unit1&2, 第 7 册 Unit4,5,6, 第 8 册 Unit2 中。如:

Book5: 1. What do you have on Thursdays? We have English, math and science on Thursdays. 2. What do you do on Saturdays? I watch TV on Saturdays. 3. I do my homework. 4. What do you have for lunch on Mondays? We have tomatoes, tofu and fish. 5. I like fruit. But I don’t like grapes. Book6: 1. When do you eat dinner? I eat dinner at 7:00 in the evening. 2. When do you get up? I usually get up at 12:00 noon. 3. What do you do on the weekend? Usually I watch TV and go shopping. 4. Sometimes I visit my grandparents. I often play football. Sometimes I go hiking. 5. Which season do you like best? I like winter best. 6. Why do you like summer/winter? Book7: 1. How do you go to school, Sarah? 2. Usually I go to school on foot. Sometimes I go by bike. 3. I like collecting stamps. He likes collecting stamps, too. 4. Does she teach math? Yes, she does. 5. Does she teach English? No, she doesn’t. She teaches math. 6. What does your mother do? What does your father do?

7. Where does she work? She works in a car company. 8. How does she go to work? She goes to work by bus. 9. Where does the rain come from? It comes from the clouds. 10. Where does the cloud come from? It comes from the vapour. 11. Where does the vapour come from? It comes from the water in the river.

12. The sun shines and the water becomes vapour. 13. How do you do that? Book8: 1. My nose hurts. 2. How do you feel? I feel sick. How does Amy feel?

3. You look so happy. You look sad today. [四] 现在进行时句型:表示说话时正在进行的动作或事件,或在短期内正在进行的动作或存在的情况。标志词是:now 也 常用在 Look! Listen!等后面。句型主要结构为:be 动词(am, is, are)+动词现在分词(v. ing)。该句型主要分布在第 6 册 Unit4, 5, 6 中。如: 1. What are you doing? I’m doing the dishes. I’m reading a book.

2. Grandpa is writing a letter. Brother is doing homework. Mom is cooking dinner in the kitchen. 3. He is writing an e-mail in the study. 3. What is it doing ? It’s eating bananas. 4. What is she doing ? She’s jumping.

5. What are they doing ? They’re swimming. They’ re climbing trees.

6. Are you eating lunch?

No, we aren’t.

7. Are they eating the honey? Yes, they are. 8. Is he playing chess? Yes, he is. 9. Is she counting insects? No, she isn’t. [五] 一般过去时句型:表示过去发生的而现在已经结束的事件、动作或情况。句型基本结构为:主语+动词过去式+其他。 标志词通常是:yesterday, last week , last year 等,在问句与否定句中要用助动词 did。该句型分布在第 8 册 Unit3&4 中。如: 1.What did you do last weekend? I played football.

2. Did you help them clean their room? Yes, I did. 3.What did you do yesterday? 4. Did you read book? I went fishing.

Yes, I did.

5. Did you clean your room? No, I didn’t. 6.Where did you go on your holiday? I went to Xinjiang. 7. What did you do there? I sang and danced with my new friends. 8. How did you go there? I went by train. 此外,一般过去时也可用来表示客气的询问。如: Book3 Unit5, Book 5 Unit3 中的:What would you like for lunch? I’d like some… [六] 情态动词 can 引导的句型:表示有能力做某事,can 后面的动词要用原形。该句型主要分布在第 5 册 Unit4 和第 7 册 Unit1 中。如:

Book4: 1. What can you do? 2. I can water the flowers. 3. Can you make the bed? 4. Can you use a computer?

I can sweep the floor.

I can cook the meals.

No, I can’t. Yes, I can.

Book7: How can I get to Zhongshan Park? You can go by the No. 15 bus. [七] 将来时:我们的教材中出现过两种表示将来时的句型,即:will 和 be going to 句型,主要以 be going to 句型为主, 表示将要做某事或打算做某事。 句型主要结构: am/is/are + going to + v.原形。 标志词有: tomorrow next weekend this morning this weekend next…be going to Book7: 1. What are you going to do this weekend? 2. Where are you going? I am going to visit my grandparents.

I am going to the cinema. He is going to Beijing by plane. She is going to go there at 9:00 am.

3. How is he going to Beijing?

4. When is she going to Xiashan?

学英语简单吗?肯定会有许多学生说:“难死了”。为什么有好多学生对英语的学习都感到头疼呢?答案只有一个:“不得法。” 英语与汉语一样 都是一种语言,为什么你说汉语会如此流利?那是因为你置身于一个汉语环境中,如果你在伦敦呆上半年,保准说起英语来会非常流利。但很 多中学生没有很好的英语环境,那么你可以自己设置一个英语环境,坚持“多说”、“多听”、“多读”、“多写”,那么你的英语成绩肯定会很出色。 一、多“说”。 自己多创造机会与英语教师多讲英语,见了同学,尤其是和好朋友在一起时尽量用英语去问候,谈心情……这时候你需随身携带一个英汉互译 小词典,遇到生词时查一下这些生词,也不用刻意去记,用的多了,这个单词自然而然就会记住。千万别把学英语当成负担,始终把它当成一 件有趣的事情去做。 或许你有机会碰上外国人,你应大胆地上去跟他打招呼,和他谈天气、谈风景、谈学校……只是别问及他的年纪,婚史等私人问题。尽量用一 些你学过的词汇,句子去和他谈天说地。不久你会发现与老外聊天要比你与中国人谈英语容易的多。因为他和你交谈时会用许多简单词汇,而

且不太看重说法,你只要发音准确,准能顺利地交流下去。只是你必须要有信心,敢于表达自己的思想。 如果没有合适的伙伴也没关系,你可以拿过一本书或其它什么东西做假想对象,对它谈你一天的所见所闻,谈你的快乐,你的悲伤等等,长此 坚持下去你的口语肯定会有较大的提高。 二、多“听” 寻找一切可以听英语的机会。别人用英语交谈时,你应该大胆地去参与, 多听听各种各样人的发音,男女老少,节奏快的慢的你都应该接触到, 如果这样的机会少的话,你可以选择你不知内容的文章去听,这将会对你帮助很大,而你去听学过的课文的磁带,那将会对你的语言语调的学 习有很大的帮助。 三、多“读”。 “读”可以分为两种。一种是“默读”。每天给予一定时间的练习将会对你提高阅读速度有很大的好处,读的内容可以是你的课本,但最好是一些 有趣的小读物,因为现在的英语高考越来越重视阅读量和阅读速度。每道题的得分都与你的理解程度有很大关系,所以经过高中三年阅读的训 练后,你必定会在高考中胜券在握。 另一种是“朗读”这是学语言必不可少的一种学习途径。 四、多“写” 有的同学总是抱怨时间紧,根本没时间写作文。其实“写”的形式很多,不一定就写作文才提高写作能力。比如写下你一天中发生的一些重要的 事情,或当天学了某一个词组,你可以创设一个语境恰如其份地用上这个词。这样即可帮你记住这个词的用法,又可以锻炼你的写作能力,比 如学“wish”一词时,可写一小段如下: The teacher often asks us what we want to be in the future.My good friend Tom wishes to be a soldier.However,I'm different .I wish I were a teacher in the future.But my mother wishes me to be a doctor. 只几句话:但 wish 的几种用法已跃然纸上,这样写下来印象会深刻得多,这样比死记硬背 wish 的用法也有趣轻松的多。 学习英语不用花大块的时间,10 分钟的散步可以练"说",吃完饭后可以读一会儿英语小说,睡前听几分钟英语,可以使你得到更好地休息…… 只要你每天抽出一些时间来练英语,你的英语成绩肯定会很快提高的

想学好英语,首先要培养对英语的兴趣。“兴趣是最好的老师”,兴趣是学习英语的巨大动力,有了兴趣,学习就会事半功倍。我们都有这样的 经验:喜欢的事,就容易坚持下去;不喜欢的事,是很难坚持下去的。而兴趣不是与生俱来的,需要培养。有的同学说:“我一看到英语就头 疼,怎么能培养对英语的兴趣呢?”还有的同学说:“英语单词我今天记了明天忘,我太笨了,唉,我算没治了。”这都是缺乏信心的表现。初 学英语时,没有掌握正确的学习方法,没有树立必胜的信心,缺乏了克服困难的勇气,丧失了上进的动力,稍遇失败,就会向挫折缴枪,向困 难低头。你就会感到英语是一门枯燥无味的学科,学了一段时间之后,学习积极性也逐渐降低,自然也就不会取得好成绩。但是,只要在老师 的帮助下,认识到学英语的必要性,用正确的态度对待英语学习,用科学的方法指导学习。开始时多参加一些英语方面的活动,比如 ,唱英 文歌、做英语游戏、读英语幽默短文、练习口头对话等。时间长了,懂得多了,就有了兴趣,当然,学习起来就有了动力和欲望。然后,就要 像农民一样勤勤恳恳,不辞辛苦,付出辛勤的劳动和汗水,一定会取得成功,收获丰硕的成果。毕竟是 No pains, no gains 吗。 练好基本功是 学好英语的必要条件,没有扎实的英语基础,就谈不上继续学习,更谈不上有所成就。要想基本功扎实,必须全神贯注地认真听讲,上好每一 节课,提高课堂效率,脚踏实地、一步一个脚印地,做到以下“五到”: 一、“心到”。在课堂上应聚精会神,一刻也不能懈怠,大脑要始终处 于积极状态,思维要活跃、思路要开阔,心随老师走,听懂每一句话,抓住每一个环节,理解每一个知识点,多联想、多思考,做到心领神会。 二、“手到”。学英语,一定要做课堂笔记。因为人的记忆力是有限的,人不可能都过目不忘,记忆本身就是不断与遗忘作斗争的过程。常言说, “好脑筋不如烂笔头”。老师讲的知识可能在课堂上记住了,可是过了一段时间,就会忘记,所以,做好笔记很有必要。英语知识也是一点点积 累起来的,学到的每一个单词、词组以及句型结构,都记在笔记本上,甚至是书的空白处或字里行间,这对以后的复习巩固都是非常方便的。 三、“耳到”。在课堂上,认真听讲是十分必要的,不但要专心听老师对知识的讲解,而且要认真听老师说英语的语音、语调、重音、连读、失 去爆破、断句等发音要领,以便培养自己纯正地道的英语口语。听见听懂老师传授的每一个知识点,在头脑里形成反馈以帮助记忆;理解领会

老师提出的问题,以便迅速作答,对比同学对问题的回答,以加深对问题的理解而取别人之长补自己之短。 四、“眼到”。在认真听讲的同时, 还要双眼紧随老师观察老师的动作、口形、表情、板书、绘图、教具展示等。大脑里形成的视觉信息和听觉信息相结合,印象就会更加深刻。 五、“口到”。学习语言,不张嘴不动口是学不好的,同学们最大的毛病是读书不出声,害羞不敢张嘴。尤其是早读课,同学们只是用眼看或默 读,这样就只有视觉信息, 而没有听觉信息在大脑里的反馈,当然记忆也不会太深刻,口部肌肉也得不到锻炼,也就很难练就一口纯正的英语。 所以, 要充分利用早晨头脑清醒的时间, 大声朗读; 课堂上要勇跃回答老师提问、积极参与同学间讨论和辩论,课下对不清楚的问题及时提出, 要克服害羞心理,不耻下问。对学过的课文要多读、勤读、苦读,可以跟录音机读,竭力模仿其语音语调以纠正发音,要读得抑扬顿挫朗朗上 口,一些精典文章最好能背得滚爪烂熟。利用一切可能的机会,练习英语口语,比如,与外教交流、参加“英语角”活动、与同学进行对话、讲 英语故事、唱英文歌曲、演英语短剧、进行诗歌朗诵等。除了对课本中的范文要细读精读之外,还要多看些适合我们中学生的课外读物,既可 增长知识,又开阔了我们的视野,也提高了我们的阅读水平。 学英语,词汇的记忆是必不可少的,词汇是学好英语的基础,没有了词汇,也 就谈不上句子,更谈不上文章,所以记单词对我们就显得极其重要。记忆单词关键有二: 一是持之以恒:每天坚持记忆一定量的词汇,过几 天再回头复习一次,这样周期循环,反复记忆,经常使用,就会变短时记忆为长时记忆并牢固掌握。需要注意的是,一旦开始,就要坚持下来, 千万不能半途而废,切不可三天打鱼,两天晒网。 二是良好的记忆方法:记忆单词的方法很多,学无定法,但学有良法。我认为,张思中的“集 中识词,分类记忆”不失为一种适合中学生的好方法。把中学生应掌握的 3500 个单词集中汇总,分门别类,先过单词关,然后再学教材,在课 本中使用和巩固它们的用法。分类的方法有多种,同一元音或元音字母组合发音相同的单词归为一类;根据词形词性、同义词反义词等集中记 忆;把相同词根、前缀、后缀、合成、转化、派生等构词法相同的单词或词组列在一起集中识记印象比较深刻,记忆效果也比较明显。这样每 天记 40-80 个单词,坚持不懈,多联想,多思考,多使用,词汇问题不就解决了吗?在学习的过程中多注视单词的用法和词组的搭配,牢记 老师讲过的单词惯用法和句型,这样不仅有助于我们解题,而且在写作时也会信手拈来,运用自如。 把单词记住,了解词性、词义,掌握其 固定搭配与习惯用法,背会时态、从句的各种用法,工作只是完成了一半,我们还得将它们应用到实践中去。就像学游泳,光学理论,不下水 应用,不等于掌握了这门技术。不必要搞题海战术,但一定量的典型练习来巩固所学知识是必不可少的。先重视基础练习,如课后习题,单元 同步练习,这些是针对课堂知识的巩固性练习,不能好高骛远,光想着一口吃个胖子。基础知识掌握后,有的放失地做一些语法方面的专项练 习和考试题型的专题练习。特别提倡同学们准备一本“错题集”,把平时做错的具有代表性的试题或语言点记录下来,以备将来查漏补缺,这样 对知识的掌握可以达到事半功倍的效果。 英语是一种语言,不是记住了单词、词组、句型和语法项目就是把它学好了,关键在于使用语言, 所以在学习英语时一定要注意听、说、读、写、译全面发展。英语学习首先是一个记忆过程,然后才是实践过程。学习英语,无论如何,勤奋 是不可少的,它是一个日积月累的渐进过程,是没有任何捷径可走的,也没有所谓“速成”的灵丹妙方,急于求成,不做踏实工作,是学不好英 语的。任何成功的获得都要靠自己的努力,要踏踏实实、勤勤恳恳、兢兢业业、一步一个脚印地学习,端正态度,认真对待学习中的挫折和失 败。失败并不可怕,可怕的是对自己丧失信心而一蹶不振。对考试的失败,冷静分析,认真思考,只要对胜利充满信心,善于总结经验教训, 不断努力,不断追求,胜利一定是属于你们的

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