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Unit 4 Earthquakes-Grammar



The Attributive Clause 1

There was an earthquake which happened in Tangshan in 1976.

Before the earthquake, there were many strange things which happened in the countr

yside.

But the people in the city, who thought little of these events, went to sleep as usual that night.

It was heard in Beijing, which is more than 200 kilometers away.

A huge crack that was eight kilometers long and thirty meters wide cut across houses, roads and canals.

The number of people who killed or injured reached more than 400,000.

What are the underlined(划线 的) sentences called?

Attributive clause (定语从句)

定语从句的相关概念

1.定语从句定义:
在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句,
放在所修饰的名词或代词的后面。

2.先行词:

被定语从句修饰的名词或代词

3.引导词/关系词:
连接先行词和定语从句的词

先行词 定语从句两个必备因素: 引导词

? He is a famous singer who is from Taiwan.
引导词 或关系词 引导词的功能: 引导定语从句 代替先行词充当从句中的成分 先行词

关系词
关系代词 that,who, which, whom, whose 等 关系副词 when, where, why等

在从句中做 主语、宾语 或定语

在从句中 做状语

1、关系代词who: 指人,在定语从句中做主语或宾语, 做宾语时可省略 The boy is handsome. The boy is Harry Potter. brave clever
? The boy who is handsome is Harry Potter. ? The boy who is brave is Harry Potter.

? The boy who is clever is Harry potter.

在从句中当主语

The singer

(who)

I like is Taylor Swift.

The girl (who) I met in the Times Square two days ago is Taylor Swift.
在从句中当宾语

2、关系代词 whom: 指人,在定语从句中做宾语,可省.

e.g. 你认识昨天我们看见的那个人吗? Do you know the man (whom/who) we ________________________________ saw yesterday? _____ ___________________________ e.g.昨天我们看到的那个人是我老板。 The man (whom/who) we saw yesterday is my ________________________________ boss. ___________________________ _____

3、关系代词which:
指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时可省略
China is a country. It has a long history.
(在从句中当主语)

China is a country which has a long history.

中国是一个历史悠久的国家。 This is the book (which) you need for the exam. 这是你考试需要的书。
(在从句中当宾语)

This is a book. You need it for the exam.

4、关系代词that:
指人、物,在定语从句常做主语或宾语,做宾语时可省.
The man is Zhang Yimou.
He has made some good movies. (在从句中当主语,指人) The man that has made some good movies is Zhang Yimou. 这位已出品一些好电影的男士是张艺谋。

The noodles were delicious. I cooked the noodles.
The noodles (that) I cooked were delicious.
(在从句中当宾语,指物)

我煮的面条美味。

I bought a book. The book is written by Jobs. I bought the book that is written by Jobs.
(在从句中当主语,指物)

我买了一本乔布斯写的书。

5、关系代词 whose: 指人、物,在从句中做定语
Do you know the girl?
Her bag is red.
(在从句中当定语,指人)

Do you know the girl whose bag is red. 你认识那个背的袋子是红色的女孩吗? This is the new machine. The parts of it (its parts) are too small to see.

This is the new machine whose parts are too small to see. 这是台零部件太小看而不清的新机器。

(在从句中当定语,指物)

关系代词在从句中可以充当: 何时可以省略?
关系 代词

做宾语时可以省略
attribute (定语)

先行词 指人 指物

subject (主语)

object (宾语)

that
which who whom










√ √ √ √





√ √ √

whose

who, that came to our 1.The man _________
school is Mr. Wang.

who,whom, that, / I 2.The girl _________________
met is Lucy. whose parents are dead 3.A child _______

is called Tom.

that, which, / you 4.I like the book ____________ bought yesterday. 5. We shall never forget the days that, which, / ____________we spent together. to whom you 6.I like the person ________ just talked. whose 7. I have a room ________ window faces south.

看图连句

who ran fastest The man _________________ is Liu Xiang. Liu Xiang is the man ________________. who ran fastest
跑得最快的人是刘翔。

a boy, has a scar, forehead

Harry Porter is a boy ____________ who/that _______________________. has a scar on his forehead

Changzhou

develop fast

a city

Changzhou is a city _________ which /that ___________. develops fast

Which house is mine?
My house

whose roof is brown The house _________________ is mine.

房顶是棕色的房子是我的。

the city host(举办) Winter Olympic Games

2022 Beijing

which will host the 2022 Winter The city ________________________ Olympic Games _______________________ is Beijing.

一、that和which用法的区别

1、只能用that不用which的情况
(1) 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something,
anything, little, much 等不定代词时。

(that) you ? I am sure she has something _____ can borrow.
? Do you have anything _____ that you don’t understand?

(2)先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much 等修饰时。

? I’ve read all the books _____ that you lend me.

that ? Please send us any information _____ you have about the subject.

(3)先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。 ? This is the first book _____ (that) he has read. ? It is the most beautiful city _____ that I’ve ever seen.

(4)先行词被the only, the very, the same,
the last 修饰时。 that belongs ? This is the very book _____ to him.

? He is the only person _____ that was present at the time.

(5)先行词既有人又有物时。

that ? The famous writer and his works _____ the radio broadcast are popular to the students.
(6)先行词是who或which引导的主句。 that drove the car? Who is the girl _____

that broke the window will be punished. Who _____

2、只用which不用that的情况
(1) 关系代词在限制性定语从句中紧跟介词作宾语 (介词提前)。 under which they There are many trees __________ can have a rest. on which This is the ring __________ she spent 1000 dollars.

(2) 在非限制性定语从句中。 which is a very popular game, Football, ______ is played all over the world.

二、只能用who的情况

who has nothing to fear dares to tell One ____ the truth. who laugh at the disabled are The ones ____ not good students. Anyone ____ who fails to finish the task should be punished. Those ____ who want to go to The Great Wall sigh up here.

先行词是one, ones, anyone, those时用who.

Let me try!

1. Here are my neighbours whose home was destroyed by the earthquake.
2.The terrible shaking of the building woke up all the people who were asleep. 3. Several days later most of the buildings which/that had been damaged were repaired.

4.This frightened boy whose mother was lost in the disaster is looking for her now. 5.We went to see our teacher whose husband lost his life in the earthquake. 6."Is this the young man who saved several people trapped under buildings ?' she asked.

7. A number of children whose parents had died in the quake were sent to live with families in other cities.

改错
1. Under the big tree are 34 students, many of ______ them come from class two. whom 2. My mother has a good book, which ______ whose cover looks terrible. that 3. Who are the young girls ______ who are having dinner in the restaurant?

改错
4. She is one of the girls who ____ is very are interested in maths. 5. Tom is the only one of the boys who ______ like playing football. likes 6. Who is the girl that you talked to her just now? 7. There is an old woman, that ______ is who holding a stick.



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