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高二英语科组

王春城

Unit 1 A land of diversity
Teaching goals:
1. Ability goals Enable the students to talk about the history of California. 2. Learning ability goals Enable the students learn how to talk about the history of California.

Teaching important points
Enable the students learn how to talk about the important events in Californian history.

Teaching difficult points
Enable the students to explain the reasons why California is such a multicultural community in the 21st century.

Teaching methods
Skimming, scanning and discussion.

Teaching aids
a computer, a projector

Teaching procedures
Step 1: Lead-in Introduce some knowledge about the USA 1. The American flag is known as ―the Stars and Stripes‖. 50 stars —— each representing one state 13 stripes —— the original 13 states Red —— courage White —— freedom Blue —— loyalty and justice 2. Which city is known as the ―Big Apple‖? A. New York B. Chicago C. Los Angeles 3. When is American Independence Day? A. June 4th B. July 4th C. August 14th 4. Which state is the largest one in the US? A. New York B. Texas C. California D. Florida 5. ____ has the largest population in the USA. A. California B. Alaska C. Washington D. Texas 6. ____ is the first president of the USA. A. Thomas Jefferson B. John Adams C. George Washington D. Abraham Lincoln 7. The USA lies in the south of North America. It is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. The northern land neighbor is Canada, and south of it is Mexico.

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8. some cities in the USA Step 2: Reading 1. Native Americans Time: 15,000 years ago Where they came from: from Asia (by means of) What happened to them in the sixteenth century? They were killed by Europeans / were forced into slavery / died from the disease / survived the terrible times 2. Spanish Fill in the form: (an important even) 16th century: Spanish soldiers arrived, fought and took their land 18th century: California was ruled by Spain in 1821: California became part of Mexico in 1846: the United States declared war on Mexico 3. Russians & Gold miners Do some T or F questions: In the early 1800s, Russian hunters began settling in California. In 1848, before the American-Mexican war, gold was discovered in California. A lot of adventurers achieved their dream of becoming rich. California become the thirty-first state of the United states of American in 1850 4. Later arrivals
Later arrivals ★ Chinese began to arrive during the 11. __________ Period, and even more came in the 1860s. ★ Italians, mainly 12. _________ but also wine makers, arrived in the late 19th century. ★ In 1911 immigrants from 13. _________ established a town of their own. ★ In the 1920s the film industry boom attracted many Europeans including many 14. ________ people. ★ Japanese 15. ________ began arriving in California in the early 20th century, and a lot more have settled there since the 1980s. ★ Africans have been living in California since the 16. _____, and more arrived between 1942 and 1945 to work in the 17. _____ and aircraft industries.

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5. Recent arrivals

★ In recent decades, more people have come to California from 18. _____, including Koreans, Cambodians, Vietnamese and Laotians. ★ Since the 1970s, 19. _______ and Pakistanis have been attracted to California by its 20. _________ industry.

Step 3: Discussion Why is California such a multicultural community? What problems do you think might arise? Step 4: Homework 1. Underline the useful expressions 2. workbook

Unit 2 Cloning

The First Period

Warming Up, Pre-reading and Reading
a. 重点词汇和短语 clone,commercial,producer,undertake,arbitrary,object,forbid, accumulate,cast b. 重点句子 It is a way of…. The fact is that…. The question that occurred is…. 1. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to describe cloning: What is the advantages of cloning? What is the problems or dangers of cloning?What is your opinion of cloning? Teaching important points 教学重点 How to describe cloning. Teaching difficult point 教学难点 Help the students analyze the writing techniques of the article. Teaching methods 教学方法 Skimming, task-based method and debate method. Teaching aids 教具准备 A recorder, a projector and some slides. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式 down, object to,the media,in favour of

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Step I Lead-in This topic is difficult for students. So teacher should help the students learn more about it. Do this in the way of asking and answering questions. T: You can imagine how rapidly the modern science and technology develop. I think most of you must know something about space traveling, submarine exploration, robot, maglev train, gene engineering etc. But in recent years, a hot topic, cloning is often mentioned, especially when the cloning Dolly the sheep appeared. You may have first heard of cloning when Dolly the Sheep showed up on the scene in 1997. Cloning technologies have been around for much longer than

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Dolly, though. First things first, what is cloning and a clone? The dictionary says cloning is the technique of producing a genetically identical duplicate of an organism. A clone is said to be all descendants derived asexually from a single individual, as by cuttings, bulbs, by fission, by mitosis, or by parthenogenesis reproduction. It sounds very different and complicated to us. In fact, I mean, in our daily life, this happens often. For example, gardeners take cuttings from growing plants to make new ones. You often see that your mother picks a small branch from a growing plant to make a new one. If she likes this kind of flowers, she can do cloning. Cloning also happens in animals or human beings when twins identical in sex and appearance are produced from the same original egg. The fact is that cloning plants is straightforward but the cloning of animals is more complicated. The possibility of human cloning, raised when Scottish scientists at Roslin Institute created the much-celebrated sheep "Dolly", aroused worldwide interest and concern because of its scientific and ethical implications. You can give your questions if you are interested in this topic. I am here today one of the scientists who work in this field. I am ready to answer any of your questions.

S: Now we know what is cloning. Are there different types of cloning? T: When the media report on cloning in the news, they are usually talking about only one type called reproductive cloning. There are different types of cloning however, and cloning technologies can be used for other purposes besides producing the genetic twin of another organism. A basic understanding of the different types of cloning is key to taking an informed stance on current public policy issues and making the best possible personal decisions. The following three types of cloning technologies will be discussed: (1) recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning, (2) reproductive cloning, and (3) therapeutic cloning. S: Was Dolly created by what cloning? And why was Dolly so important? T: Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. Dolly was created by reproductive cloning technology. She was the first mammal to be cloned from adult DNA taken from an adult cell. Previously, animals had only been cloned using embryo cells which already have the potential to become a complete embryo in its own right. The big breakthrough with Dolly was to

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make a clone from an ordinary, adult cell ? in this case from a female goat‘s udder. S: Have you seen Jurassic Park? In this feature film, scientists use DNA preserved for tens of millions of years to clone dinosaurs. They find trouble, however, when they realize that the cloned creatures are smarter and fiercer than expected. Could we really clone dinosaurs. T: In theory? Yes. What would you need to do this? A well-preserved source of DNA from the extinct dinosaur, and a could serve as a surrogate mother. In reality? Probably not. It‘s not likely

that dinosaur DNA could survive undamaged for such a long time. However, scientists have tried to clone species that became extinct more recently, using DNA from well-preserved tissue samples. More questions about cloning are given in the appendix. The information above is for reference only. Or you can choose several students and ask them to act out a short play whose main topic is as follows: An old man who was dying left all his fortune to his own son. But the did not know that his son was cloned. So two same young men both claimed that they were the old man‘s son. They quarreled and fought with each other; at last they went to the judge. The judge let them check DNA. The result was that their DNA was the same. Now even the judge did not know what to do. In this part the teacher can give the students some advice to act out. According to this play teacher ask the students several questions:

1. Do you want to be cloned or not? Why? 2. If you are the judge what will you do? 3. Can you tell me the advantages of cloning? 4. And what is the disadvantage? Look at pictures T: Look at the pictures and discuss which ones are natural clones and which ones are man – made. Then explain how they differ. S: I think the twins are natural clones and the Dolly sheep is man-made. T: You are right! Can you explain how they differ? S: The twins were born at the same time, but the Dolly sheep is man-made. T: Anything else? Who want have a try? S: I think the identical dog is man-made. T:
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Good Job

Step II Pre-reading Before class, ask the students to search for some information about this topic. Now show your questions on the screen, and then let them discuss with each other. T: Now please work in pairs and discuss about cloning. Then list the questions you want to find out. Share your list with your partner. Ss: Yes, sir / madam. Questions about cloning: 1. What is a clone? 2. How is a clone produced? 3. What benefits can humans gain from cloning? 4. What problems may arise when humans are cloned? Should we clone human? 5. Could cloning replace sex as the means of creating new human life? 6.Could a parent clone a child who is dying of a terminal illness? After a few minutes. T: Do you have other questions? Volunteer! S: I have! What is the writer‘s opinion? T: Good job! I think many of you have questions, now let us read the article with the questions. Step III While- reading Get the students to comprehend the passage quickly and accurately and meanwhile help the students form a good habit of reading. T: Have you not the answers of your questions? Now please skim the passage fast to obtain a general understanding of the whole passage into several parts and find out the main idea of each part. Show the following. Para. 1 Cloning is a way of making an exact copy of another animal and plant. Para. 2 Cloning has two major uses.

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Para. 3 The problems of Dolly. Para. 4 The effect of Dolly. Para. 5 It is forbidden to clone human being. Step IV Post-reading Ask the students to read the passage again to finish three tasks. T: Now let‘s listen to them. While listening, pay more attention to the correct pronunciation and tone. Then read the text by yourselves to get the answers to the three tasks. You can work in groups. T: First, What are the problems or dangers of cloning? S: Let me have a try! First, the cloned animals have the same illness of old animals and the same goes with the other species. Second, the cloned animals have short life and can cause moral questions. T: You are right! And what are the advantages of cloning? S: I know! Firstly, gardeners use it all the time to produce commercial quantities of plants. Secondly, it is valuable for research on new plant species and for medical research on animals. Thirdly, it suddenly opens everyone‘s eyes to the possibility of using cloning to cure serious illnesses, and even producing human beings. T: What is the writer‘s opinion? What do you think is the writer‘s point of view in this reading passage? Is it in favour of cloning or against is? S1: I think the writer is in favour of it, because there are many advantages of cloning. It can help people solve many problems in our daily life. T: Good job! Yes, if we our human beings use the scientific technology properly it can bring many advantages to us! S: Why did Dolly‘s appearance raise a storm of objections and have a great impact on the media and public imagination? T: Because nothing really prepared the world for the 1997 announcement that a group of Scottish scientists had created a cloned sheep named Dolly. Many folks believe that within the next decade, we will hear a more shocking announcement of the first cloned human. Scientists in South Korea have already created human embryonic stem cells through cloning. Until now, the idea of human cloning has only been possible through movie magic, but the natural progression of science is making human cloning a true possibility. We‘ve cloned sheep, mice and cows, so why not humans?
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Explanation T: Now let‘s deal with some language points. Turn to page 11. Let‘s look at the sentence: It is a way of making an exact copy of another animal and plant. 全句汉语意思:它是一种精确复制另 个动物或植物的方式。Here a way of means a manner of 一种……的方式。 T: Turn to page 12. Look at the 8th line. Dolly‘s appearance raised a storm of objections and had a great impact on the media and public imagination. In this sentence, raise means lead. (引起/导 意思是:多利的出现引起一场反对风暴,并且对媒体和公众思想产生了很大的冲 致)。全句 击。 一

T: Turn to page 12. Look at the sentence: However, scientists still wonder whether cloning will help or harm us and where it is leading us. ―whether cloning will help or harm us‖, ―where it is leading us‖ is the objects of the word ―wonder‖ 全句意思是:科学家一直致力于研究克隆到底 于我们还是会伤害我们,它们将我们引向何方。 会有助

Step V Homework Ask the students to do the following. 1. Complete the exercises on page 13. 2. Recite the key sentences in the text. 3. What is Cloning? You might not believe it, but there are human clones among us right now. Have you ever wished you could have a clone of yourself to do homework while you hit the skate park or went out with your friends? Imagine if you could really do that. Where would you start?

Unit

2

Cloning

Vocabulary and Useful Expressions
Aims: 1. Enable the Ss to grasp the words of cloning. 2. Get the Ss to master some useful expressions. Contents: 1. differ v. 1) ―To be dissimilar or unlike in nature, quality, amount, or form‖ eg:Ambition differs from greed. 2) ―To be of a different opinion; disagree‖ eg:The critic differed with the author on several facts. 2. exact adj. ―Strictly and completely in accord with fact; not deviating from truth or reality‖ eg:an exact account; an exact replica; your exact words. 3. commercial adj. 1) ―Of or relating to commerce‖ 2) ―Engaged in commerce‘ eg:a commercial loan; a commercial attaché ; a commercial trucker. 4. straightforward adj. 1) ―honest‘ 2) ―easy to understand‖ eg: a ~ explanation; written in ~ language; a ~ problem in algebra 5. procedure n.
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1) ?A manner of proceeding; a way of performing or effecting something‘ eg:complained to the manager, and by this procedure got the money back.

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3. Get the Ss to master some useful expressions. Contents: 6. differ v. 3) ―To be dissimilar or unlike in nature, quality, amount, or form‖ eg:Ambition differs from greed. 4) ―To be of a different opinion; disagree‖ eg:The critic differed with the author on several facts. 7. exact adj. ―Strictly and completely in accord with fact; not deviating from truth or reality‖ eg:an exact account; an exact replica; your exact words. 8. commercial adj. 1) ―Of or relating to commerce‖ 2) ―Engaged in commerce‘ eg:a commercial loan; a commercial attaché ; a commercial trucker. 9. straightforward adj. 1) ―honest‘ 2) ―easy to understand‖ eg: a ~ explanation; written in ~ language; a ~ problem in algebra 10. procedure n. 1) ?A manner of proceeding; a way of performing or effecting something‘ eg:complained to the manager, and by this procedure got the money back. 2) ―A series of steps taken to accomplish an end‖ 11. undertake v. 1) ―To take upon oneself; decide or agree to do‖ eg:undertake a task. 2) ―To pledge or commit (oneself) to‘ eg: undertake oneself to care for an elderly relative. 12. breakthrough n. 1) ―An act of overcoming or penetrating an obstacle or restriction.‖ 2) ?A military offensive that penetrates an enemy's lines of defense‘ eg: a ~ in cancer research 13. disturb v. ―break the quiet, calm and peace‘ eg: She opened the door quietly so as not to disturb the sleeping boy. Don‘t ~ the papers on my desk. 14. arbitrary adj. 1) ―Determined by chance, whim, or impulse, and not by necessity, reason‖ eg:stopped at the first motel we passed, an arbitrary choice; arbitrary division of the group into halves. 2) ―Based on or subject to individual judgment or preference‖ eg:The diet imposes overall calorie limits, but daily menus are arbitrary. 15. altogether adv. 1) ―Entirely; completely; utterly‖ eg:lost the TV picture altogether; an altogether new approach. 2) ―With all included or counted; all told‖ eg: There were altogether 20 people at the dinner. 16. objection n. ―The act of objecting‖ eg: He has a strong ~ to getting up early. ~s to the plan will be listened to sympathetically. 17. media n. 媒体

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eg: The running for president drew the ~‘s attention. Now the press is an useful media. 18. moral adj. 1) ―Of or concerned with the judgment of the goodness or badness‖ eg:moral scrutiny; a moral quandary. 2) ―Teaching or exhibiting goodness or correctness of character‖ eg:a moral lesson. 19. accumulate v. ―To gather or pile up‖ eg: By buying ten books every month, he soon ~d a library. Dust soon ~s if the room is not swept. 20. forbid v. 1) ―To command (someone) not to do something‖ eg:I forbid you to go. 2) ―To command against the doing or use of (something); prohibit‖ eg:forbid smoking on trains.

Unit 2 Cloning Listening, Speaking and Writing
Teaching Goals: 1.Activate the Ss to show their opinions about the cloning 2. Enable the Ss to write an article on this debate. 3.Let the Ss focus on the different attitude towards cloning technology 4. Teach Ss how to get specific information.

Unit 3 Inventors and Inventions
Warming Up Pre-reading, Reading

Teaching Procedures: Step1. Warming Up
Purpose: To arouse Ss‘ interest in learning about the difference between a discovery and an invention Get Ss t to guess what the invention is or who the inventor is in groups

Question 1:
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It`s made of plastics and metal. It looks like a small box. The invention can contact someone while you are on the move. Suggested Answer: Mobile phone.

Question 2:
The inventor is from America. He is one of the father of inventions. The inventor invented the bulb. Suggested Answer: Edison 1. Get Ss to tell as many the inventions they know as possible in groups.

2. Ask Ss to look at the pictures on P19 and answer the following questions. (1) Which of the pictures is an invention? (2) Which of the pictures is a discovery? 3. Get Ss to discuss the difference between the inventions and a discovery and give a definition of them and give some examples of each category.Suggested Answer: An invention is something produced for the first time through the use of imagination or ingenious thinking and experimentation. A discovery merely makes known something that already exists in nature.

Step 2. Pre-reading
Purpose : To get Ss to be aware of the connection between inventing and the scientific process. 1. Let Ss work in pairs and decided what the first and most important stage is to make an invention. 2. Ask Ss to finish the exercise of Pre-reading on P19 and then check the answer in pairs.

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Step 3. Leading-in
Purpose: Arouse Ss‘ interest in the text and encourage Ss to imagine the content of the text. Ask Ss to predict in pairs the content of the text based on the title and pictures.

Step 4. Fast reading
Purpose: To get Ss to have a brief understanding of the text

1. Ask Ss to read the text quickly and try to get the main idea of the whole text.

Suggested Answer:
The text narrates the problem of the snakes and presents the procedures of catching them and applying for a patent

2. Get Ss to divide the passage and work out the main idea for each part. Part I (Para 1): Part II (Para 2~3): Part III (Para 4~6): The discovery of the problem of the snakes. The research on the approaches to solve the problem. The attempts to catch the snakes. The requirement of getting a patent.

Part IV (Para 7~8):

Step 5. Intensive reading
1. Ask Ss to read the text carefully and find out which paragraph or paragraphs deal with each inventing process in the passage and find the examples:

Suggested Answer:

Stage Paragraph

Example in this story

1 2 3

Find a problem Do research Think of a creative solution

The snake must be

removed_ but not_

hurt

Look for _ways_ of removal; the habitat of snakes Identify last one_ three_ possible approaches: choose _the

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4,5,6

Test

the solution Try three_ times to make it work _successfully_
This means the solution is efficiently

several times
7 Apply for a patent

2. Ask Ss to work in pairs and try to tell which of the following statements are true and which are false. (1) When the writer called up her mother in the country on the phone she was very excited. (2) The writer felt very proud that she had a chance to distinguish herself by inventing something that would catch snakes but not harm them. (3) The first thing the writer tried to do was to catch the snakes. (4) The writer decided to remove the snakes` habitat. (5) The writer used an ice-maker、 a bowl、 some jelly、 ice-cubes、 a bucket and a net to catch the snakes. (6) After three attempts, the writer finally caught the snakes and sent them into the wild. (7) The writer himself decided to send her invention to the patent office to get recognition for her successful idea. (8) The criteria are so strict that it is difficult for new ideas to be accepted unless they are truly novel and are really different from everybody else`s.

Suggested Answers:
(1) F (2) T (3) F (4) F (5) T (6) T (7) F (8) T

3. Ask Ss to take the quiz below and see whether Ss can grasp the details of the text. (1) Why did the writer do so much trap the snakes but not hurt them ? A. Because she wanted to eat the snakes. B. Because she planned to apply for a patent. C. Because she obeyed her parents and wanted to test her new idea. D. Because they were poisonous snakes. (2) The writer set about researching the habits of snakes in order to A. know how to drive them off.
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B. kill them in the easiest way. C. trap them in the easiest way. D. get on well with snakes. (3) The writer placed a frozen bowl over the snakes` habitats because A. The snakes were small. B. She knew the snakes were cold-blooded animals. C. She didn`t want to be bitten. D. She wanted to make the snakes passive and caught them easily. (4) Which statement is true according to the text? A. The writer decided to send her invention to the patent office the moment she succeeded catching the snakes. B. The snakes were still as active as before in the first attempt. C. The writer could make a lot of money if she succeed. D. If an application for your product proves to be valid, you can get a patent immediately. . (5) According to the text, which subject do you think can be given a patent? A. A new kind of flower found by a botanist.. B. A new way to make dirty .air clean C. A new poem written by Mr. Li. D.A .new star discovered by a scientist. .

Suggested Answers:
(1) C (2) C (3) D (4) C (5) B

4. Ask Ss to read the text carefully and try to get more details from the text and then fill in the form.

. Why the writer tried a new approach

There only seemed to be parents would not like her to Firstly, (3)_ (4)_

(1)_ _(2)_

designed to kill snakes but her these living creatures.

their habitat -them into a trap (5) male or female

Three possible approaches

Secondly,

perfume or food;

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Thirdly,

_(6)

_the snakes so that they became

(7)__

and could be easily caught ① She placed the_ (9)_ thing with Time: (11) (12) active, but were still too fast _(8) bowl over the snakes` habitat and the

on top of the bowl and finally covered the whole (10)_ .

Result: The snakes were and (13)_

into a hole in the wall. (14) them. Then

② She froze the bowl and ice-cubes again and she covered the bowl with the Three attempt Time: (16) (15)_

Result: The snakes were they tried to ③ She repeated the earlier (20) _carefully. Time: (21)_ Result: She collected the _them all back into the The of patent steps receiving a ① Fill in Patent Office. ② Being

_(17) sleepy, but once picked up, (18)_ (19) her and used a small net and

(22)_ (24)_

snakes and

(23)

_(25) and file the patent

(26)_

with the

(27)_

. (28)_ months.

③ Application will be published

Suggested Answers
(1) powers (7) sleepy (2) hurt (8) frozen .(3)removing (9) ice-cubes (4) attracting (5) using (6)cooling (12) less (18) bite

(10) a large bucket

(11) two hours (17) very

(13) disappeared (19) procedure (25) form

(14) placed (20) monitored

(15) bucket

(16) Overnight;

(21) Overnight (27) examined

(22) passive (28) 18

(23) released

(26) application

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5. According to the form above, get Ss to retell the text.

Step 6. Extension
Purpose: To develop Ss`s ability to discover and solve the problems and cultivate Ss creativity and imagination. To provide a chance for Ss to apply their creative skills to real tasks. 1. Ask Ss to work in groups and answer the following questions. (1) What‘s the writing purpose of the writer?

Suggested Answer:
The writer wants to inform us of the scientific methods to solve present problems so that we students can not only broaden the horizons but become more skilled in discovering and considering carefully the problems in daily life. We are also encouraged by the writer to be creative and hardworking as well as thinking independently. (2) What should we learn from this text? Suggested Answer:We can learn from the text the way of doing scientific researches and how to apply for a patent. We can also learn that it takes an inventor great determination persistence to achieve his or her ambition and persistence to achieve his or her ambition in life.

2. Get Ss formed in groups of four and discuss some inconveniences they‘ve met in their life. They must imagine an invention to solve these inconveniences. After discussion, fill in the following form. Here are some problems for Ss to choose from and Ss can choose their own problem. Remember to include one change to your invention in case it doesn‘t work the first time. (This class.) Problem 1: the apples growing on your apple tree are too high for you to reach them. What can you invent to pick your apples in comfort? Problem 2: You need to make a house but you only have fishing nets and many plastic bottles. How can you solve it? Problem 3: You want to catch fish but not hurt them when you do so. Design a fishing rod that will solve this problem. can be done after

Patent Application Question Form
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Name of invention Inventors How do you get the idea? Can you describe your

invention?(appearance/ material /cost/manual, etc.) What is its use? Other information (if necessary ) Picture of invention (if necessary) Step 7. Homework 1. Ask Ss to go over the reading text. 2. Ask Ss to preview Learning about Language.

Vocabulary and Useful Expressions Teaching Goals:
1. To enable Ss to master key phrases and expressions 2. To enable Ss to learn how to use these words and expressions

Teaching Procedures: Step 1. Language study
Purpose: To train Ss‘ listening ability and language capacity. 1. Ask Ss to read the text and match Column A with Column B. Column A (1) upset (2) distinguish Column B A. standard of judgment B. substance that has been crushed, rubbed, or worn to dust
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(3) powders (4) approach

C. having force in law D. trouble; cause( sb )to be disturbed

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(5) abruptly (6) valid (7) criteria

E. make (oneself) well known; see or recognize the difference F. way; path, road G. suddenly; unexpectedly

Suggested Answers:
(1) D (2) E (3) B (4) F (5) G (6) C (7) A

2. Ss are divided into small groups and have a discussion. Find out difficult words and expressions and write the words and expressions found on a piece of paper. 3. Get students to display their papers by projector, and tick out the most useful words and expressions.

call up according to

now and then in addition

get rid of

set about fill in

at the same time file sth with sb

be different from

4.Explain some important sentences

(1) Here was a chance for me to distinguish myself by inventing something that would catch snakes but not harm them. (2) The first thing I tried to do was to see if there were Products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes.. (3) Only after you have had that recognition can you say that you are truly an inventor. (4) The criteria are so strict that it is difficult for new ideas to be accepted unless they are truly novel (5) Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everybody else`s. 5. Explain some important points

(1) call up : ring up 打电话,使…回忆起
call back 召唤某人回来;再访;回电话 call in call on 邀请;请来 拜访(人) ; call for 需要,要求,接(人或物)

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call at

拜访(某地)

call off 取消
Ask Ss to use the above phrases to fill in the following blanks: ① Let‘s go to the meeting together ,and I‘ll A. call on B. call at C. call up you. D. call for

② The football match was A. call back B. call off

on account of the weather. C. call in D. call for

③ As soon as he got home, he A. call on ④ The old photo A. call in B. call at B. call at C. call up

Mr. Wang. D. call for

memories of his childhood. C. call up D. call for

Suggested Answers:
①A ②B ③C ④ C (2) now and then :sometimes; at times; from time to time; once a while 时而;不时 I see films now and then, but not often. I like to go on a trip now and then.(3) distinguish vt.

& vi.
① 辨别;辨认 In spite of the haze he can distinguish the hill fairly. ②(常与from, between 连用) 区别; 区分 你 能区分那两个物体吗? Can you distinguish between those two objects 应当教育孩子分辨好坏。Children should be taught to distinguish right from wrong

③ distinguish oneself

使杰出;使显出特色

这个人因智慧而扬名。 The man distinguish himself by his wisdom (4) sleepy 指具有“瞌睡的”,“困乏的”,“贪睡的”,一般用作表语

sleep 睡着的,入睡的,一般放在名词前用作定语,强调睡着不 动的状态,可能睡着了, 也可能没有。
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Asleep 睡着的, 睡熟的 该词的意思是fall asleep,表示入睡, 表示睡着的状态, 一般用作 表 语,有时也可作补语。 Ask Ss to use the above phrases to fill in the following blanks: ① He was fast ② The that I couldn`t wake him up. man is like the dead. ; his head was nodding.

③ The child was so

Suggested Answers:
① asleep ② sleeping ③ sleepy (5) abruptly adv.突然地,唐突地

● 拓展:abrupt adj.突然的;意外的
The road is full of abrupt turns. 这路有很多急转弯。 The meeting came to an abrupt. 这会议突然结束了。 Our discussion was abruptly curtailed. 我们的讨论突然给缩短了。

(6) convenient adj. 便利的,方便的 (不能用人作 主语)
Will 5 o‘clock be convenient for you?三点钟对你方便吗? I think it is not convenient for you right now.我想这个时候见你恐怕不大合适。 (7) in

the expectation that :in expectation of 预料要/会有。 。 。 倒装句型

They closed the windows in expectation of rain.预料会下雨,他们关上了窗户。 (8) Only

only 修饰状语, 置于句首时, 主句要部分倒装;如果only 修饰句子的主语, 则不用倒 装。 Only in this way can you solve the problem. Only then did he realize his mistakes. Only when the war was over, did I return to my hometown. (9) Nor,

not never, seldom, hardly, neither, little 等否定词置于句 首,表示强调也引起倒装。

Nor was this all, and this was not all. Never have I been to Beijing.

Step 2. Consolidation
Purpose: To consolidate the words and phrases in the text.
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1. Ask Ss to finish Ex1 and ex2 of Discovering useful words and expressions on P23.

24

Listening , Speaking and Writing Teaching Procedures:
Step 1. Listening and speaking (2) (Using Language) 1. Do some preparations for Writing. Teacher may say, ―Do you remember the expressions related to making telephone?‖

Hello, may I speak to …? Sorry. He/ she is out. Hold the line, please./ Hold on, please. Wait a minute, please./ speaking. I‘ll ring him/ her up again. Just a moment, please. I can‘t get through.

2. Do more preparations for Writing. Teacher may say, ― Do you remember the expressions related to answering telephone?‖

Some useful expressions: Hold the line, please. please. Just a moment, please. I‘m sorry, but this phone is out of order. I can‘t get through. Sorry. He/ she isn‘t here right now. Can I ring back later? I‘ll ring him/ her up again. I must ring off now because…

/

Hang on,

3. Get Ss to form groups of three to practise speaking. One is a receptionist, another an engineer, and the third a student. situation: A student wants to apply for a job in James Dyson`s company. So he brings up one of
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engineers to ask what kind of person he needs and the engineer answers the questions honestly

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Step 2. Writing (Using Language)
1. Ask Ss to discuss the following question in groups of four. Suppose you are going to apply for a job in a company, what skills will you tell the interviewer to qualify you?2. Get Ss to write to James Dyson and begin the letter with the address and the date. The beginning and the ending of the letter:

Dear Mr. Dyson, I would like to apply to become an assistant in your company. I`d be grateful if you would consider employing me in your company. Yours sincerely, (your name)

3. Get Ss to know what they should pay attention to.
(1)Use the list of skills to make new paragraphs in your letter. (2) For each skill set down any experience you have had, which shows that you are a suitable person. You may be creative in this part of the letter. (3) Finish the letter by mentioning again the skills that you have. (4) End the letter. 4. Get Ss to write the letter and exchange their articles and correct the mistakes. They are expected to assess the writing. First , students are supposed to give a general mark with their general impression of the writing. Then they are expected to assess the writing in the three aspects, content language, and organization. Ss have to correct the mistakes or point out the mistakes by underlining the words, phrase or sentences with"_____". Students are also expected to underline the beautiful words, phrases or sentences with ― groups will discuss how to correct the mistakes. ‖. After the assessment, the

5. The writings with the high levels will be shown on the projector so that the whole class can appreciate them.
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Step 3. Homework

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1. Ask Ss to sum up what has been learned in this unit. 2. Ask Ss to preview the next unit.

Grammar and Useful Structures Teaching Goals:
1.To get Ss to have knowledge of this grammar point: the past participle used as attribute, predicative and object complement. 2. To enable Ss to know the differences between the past participle and v–ing form

Teac hing Proce dures: Step 1. Prese ntatio n
Introduce information about some inventions and discoveries using sentences in passive participle. Guide Ss to say the words which are highlighted .Show some related pictures. 1.This is the telephone designed in the early time. 2.Stephenson‘s ―Rocket‖ was the engine designed for the railways by George Stephenson

Step 2. Individual work
Get Ss to find out the past participle used as attribute, predicative and object complement in the reading text.
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Part1 Line 1: When I called up my mother in the countryside on the telephone she was very upset. Part2 Line 1: The first thing I tried to do was to see if there were Products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes.. Part4 Line 1: I placed the frozen bowl over the snakes habitat and the ice-cubes on top of the bowl from the machine. Part6 Line 1: The next morning I carried in my hand a small net used for catching fish.

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Step 3. Grammar point
Purpose: To get Ss to know about the past participle. 1. Get Ss to complete the sentences and know about the past participle (1) The thrown at once.. (2) The books_ last week (上周买的书 )are of high quality. (.破损的碗)will be thrown at once..= The bottle which was broken will be will be

= the books which were bought yesterday are of high quality.。 (3) I‘m interested in reading novels (4) by luxun (.鲁迅写的).

(污染的)air and water are harmful to people‘s health. (在会议上讨论的)yesterday was very difficult to solve. _ (很兴奋)when he heard he had won the first place in the English –spoken

(5) The problem (6) He contest. (7) He found

(他的家乡变了很多)(8) What made (在会上讨论).

(这只狗这样害怕)?

(9) He won‘t like such questions

Suggested Answers:
(1) broken bowl (2) bought (3) written. (4) Polluted (5) discussed at the meeting (6) became excited_ (7) hometown greatly changed(8) the dog so frightened (9) discussed at the meeting

Unit 4

Pygmalion

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1)An expert in phonetics, convinced that the quality of a person’s English

decides his/her position in society. 2) The English that will condemn her to the gutter to the end of her days. 3) officer, Perhaps I could even find her employment as a lady’s maid or a shop hesitate , assistant, which requires better English. outcome, Enable the Ss to talk bout the play and use the play to work out the classify, characteristics of each social group. dismiss , 2. Learning ability goals 学能目标 betray, Help the Ss learn how to talk about the play and use the play to work out condemn, the characteristics of each social group. acquaintanc 4.Moral goals 德育目标:要勇于改变自我,不能满足于现状,充分挖掘 e, handful, 自己的潜力。 fortune, Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 make How to talk about the role of the play and work out the characteristics of one’s each social group acquaintanc Teaching methods 教学方法 e, Listening, reading and discussion Task based activities ( 任务型活动 ) Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer and a projector, a recorder Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方法

强调的重点 单 词 :

STEP I Warming up(热身)
Review the story Pygmalion T : Last period, we learned something about the Greek story Pygmalion and the play version by Shaw. Of all Shaw’s plays, Pygmalion is without the doubt the most beloved and popularly received. Several film versions have been made of the play, and it has even been adapted into a musical. In fact, the film version of 1963 helped Shaw to become the first and only man ever to win the double prize: the Nobel Prize for literature and an Academy Award. Do you still remember the story? Now who can tell it to all of us? Ask the Ss whether they know the Greek story of Pygmalion. If they know, tell the story. Picture 1 . Picture 2 . Picture 3 . 请学生展示他们或她们的组为warming up 部分的希腊神话故事《皮格马 立翁》查余额的的资料,小组派出一名学生表述该剧本的大意。 并且说 明本单元的《窈窕淑女》就是由萧伯纳根据该故事改编而来。

One reports his work : Pygmalion was a gifted artist. One day, he decided to make a stone statue

32

of

a

Further question: Will Pygmalion and his statue-wife be happy? Give your opinion.

STEP 2. Pre-reading and Lead-in(导入)
Have you seen the film “My Fair Lady”(《窈窕淑女》)?

beautiful woman. He worked day and night and at last he finished. Then he clothed the girl, decorated it and even with named jewellery, it the Sleeping Love. The work was so beautiful that he

imagined that if the statue could be 心理学家莫顿(Robert Merton)将此现象名之为“自我实现的预言”。这 brought to 也就是在萧伯纳名剧 《窈窕淑女》 (My Fair Lady)中为人所熟知的“皮格马 life, he’d 利翁效应( ” Pygmalion effect) 。 该剧取材自希腊与罗马神话中的一个角色 皮 like it to be 格马利翁, 这名神话中的主角深信他所刻的雕像非常美丽, 终于使雕像 变成 his wife. So 有生命的人。 he asked the Greek Goddess A brief introduction to George Bernard alive. The to Goddess help make it Shaw: was moved by his

Born

In 1856 in Ireland
Nobel Prize for Literature in1925 Irish dramatist, literary critic, a

sincerity. His wish was realized and Pygmalion threw himself to his feet, the girl smelt

Achievement

socialist spokesman

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Works

Arms and the Man(1894) The Devil’s Disciple(1897) Superman(1905)

down

at

him. Afterwards, they fell love in each with and other married. Any volunteer!

Androcles and the Lion (1912) Pygmalion(1913), play My Fair Lady in 1956

One stands up and tells us the play was Personality Humorous and witty adapted from the Greek story Death In 1950 of <Pygmalion > and was shot into a film named <My fair lady>by the STEP3. Fast reading(泛读) famous playwright Let students listen to the tape and especially pay attention to the girls’ George pronunciation and tone. Bernard 1 What is the weather like when the play begins? Shaw.

2 Why did Professor Higgins want to make notes of what Eliza said? 3 What’ the meaning of the newly rich?
After listening to the tape, ask students to answer the questions.

One reports to us the STEP 4 Careful Reading(精读) information This Time lat students go through the text again and find the answers to about the following five questions. George 1.what is the main idea of the play? Bernard A. The poor flower girl, Eliza, found Higgins to buy some flowers for her.
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B. A person’s language and behavior decides on his/her position in society. C. Colonel Pickering found Higgins outside a theatre of London. D. Higgins made his acquaintance with Pickering. 2. The flower girl was worried because . A. she thought she did something wrong. B. she didn’t have the right to sell flowers. C. she didn’t want Higgins to write down what he said. D. she thought Higgins was a policeman in disguise. 3. Why did Higgins make notes while he was watching the flower girl? A. He thought it was interesting. B. He wanted to know what the girl wanted to do. C. He wanted to study something about phonetics from the girl. D. He was a policeman in disguise. 4.From , Higgins got to the girl know west A. London. her clothes B. her language came from

Shaw.

Listen to the tape and with the questions and try to find the idea the

main the end of about text.

D. her job of selling flowers C. her look 5.According to Higgins, if the flower girl was educated well speak properly, she canto do the following EXCEPT . A. pass herself off in three months as a duchess at an ambassador’s garden party B. serve as a lady’s maid C. become a shop assistant D. sell more flowers

Answer the three questions using as simple English as possible.

STEP 5 Analysis(人物及关系分析)
To make students know well about the in persons play, teacher ask them to read the lines with different parts. the

Let students discuss the four persons’ character. 在让学生分角色阅读的过 程中, 请他们注意剧中人物的语音语调, 而其他 的同学也要注意伊丽莎白在 语言中的语法错误和语音错误, 并且判断这几 个人物的性格和由此判断的原 因,如他们的语言和行为是判断的最佳依 据。 让学生完成以下表格:

Character

Position play

Evidence in the

Go through the text again and try find to the answers to the five questions.

35

upper

Behaviour: generally confident and polite; but ignores Eliza prepared to Language: begin a conversation with Henry, whom he does not know; generous with praise

Colonel Pickering

to him

Middle

Behaviour: rude (and patronizing) to lower class; polite to same or upper class Language: calls Eliza “you silly girl” and Pickering “my dear man” (an equal and friend) Read with different parts and the others pay attention to and the the phrases pronunciati on and the

Higgins Behaviour: respectful to people of higher class Language: calls gentleman “sir” and “cap’in” (or captain) which is a compliment

Lower

Eliza Make out the relationship among the three persons Relationships between characters Eliza: Attitude to Henry Higgins (H) Attitude to Colonel Pickering (H) Is the statement true? 1 Yes Evidence from the play 1 anxious; eager not to do the wrong thing; ambitious to improve herself; respectful and curious about Henry’s expertise 2 resents not being included in the conversation when talked about.

persons’ character. 互 相 讨 论 并 完成表格

36

Relationships between characters Colonel Pickering: 1 Attitude to Henry Higgins (L) 2 Attitude to Eliza (L) Is the statement true? 1 Yes; Relationships between characters

Evidence from the play 1 appreciates his expertise; praises him; asks his opinion; happy to be friends 2 ignores her; does not stop Henry when he talks about Eliza in front of her (which is very rude)

Evidence from the play

1 respects his professional work as a Henry Higgins: 1 Attitude to phonetician; calls him sir and my dear Pickering man Colonel (H) 2 Attitude (L) Is the true? 1 Yes; Sum up the three persons’ characteristics: to Eliza statement 2 watches her; notes her reactions; talks about her in front of her; calls her silly girl 找 清 关 系 并 发 现 各 个 人 物特点 及 目 的。

anxious,

eager, 弄 请 这 三 个 人 之 间 的 关 系和在 文中 所能 发现的 表 现 他 们 特 点的证据。

emotional, ambitious, unsure

kind, polite, generous, enthusiastic, eager,

37

Impatient,

rude,

confident , superior, self-important

学 生 之 间 以 小 组 的 形 式 完成生 生互 动, 生组互 动 环 节 , 在 限 定 时 间 内 完成旁 边 的 表格。

STEP 6 Language points(语言点)
1. Professor Higgins (H): an expert in phonetics, convinced that the quality of a person’s English decides his/her position in society. 希金斯教授是一位语音学专家 , 他认为一个人的英语水平决定了他 (她 ) 的 社会地位。 convince vt. to cause to believe or feel certain; to persuade 说服; 使相 信; 说(某人) ① We convinced him to go by train rather than plane. 我们说服了他坐火车去,不要搭飞机 ② I tried to convince my wife that we can’t afford a new car. 我试图说服我妻子我们买不起新车。 convinced adj. 坚信的;意志坚定的 convincing adj. 令人心服的 2 While watching, he makes notes. 他一边观察, 一边做笔记。 ▲ while watching 为while he was watching 省略句。 在以when, while, if, unless 等引导的状语从句中 ,如果从句中的主语与主句主语一致且从句 谓 语动词含有 be 动词的形式,往往将从句中的主语及 be 动词省略,而以 动词 的 -ing 形式或过去分词形式来代替。 完成工作后他就回家了。 ①After finishing the work, he went home. ② After being the plan should be out at carried once. discussed, 计划讨论后, 应立即实施。 street, look out for cars passing by. ③ While crossing the 过马路时, 小心过路车辆。 例如:When help, one often says “Thank you.” or “It’s kind of you.” A. offering B. to offer C. to be offered80 D. offered Then with join

STEP7 Retell(复述)

another pair. Share your ideas and the ones choose that are the

most The text is a play adapted from a Greek story Pygmalion by Bernard useful for this Shaw, and it was shot into a film named My Fair Lady. In this play, Eliza task. is a flower girl; she wants to get a job as a maid or shop assistant. But her Prepare to English is bad. One day she met Higgins, a professor convinced that a present person’s pronunciation decides his or her position in society. His friend, your ideas

38

Pickering made a bet with him. If he can educate Eliza into a fair lady and pass herself off as a duchess at an ambassador’s garden party. Higgins tries his beat to teach Eliza and at last she really attend the party without anyone else knowing she is from the gutter. She changed into a real fair lady, many young fellows want to marry her. The text is a play from a Greek story Pygmalion by Bernard Shaw,

to the whole class. You must all take part in the presentatio n.

and it was shot into a film My Fair Lady. In this play, Eliza is a girl; she wants to get a job as a maid or shop . But her English is bad. One day she met Higgins, a professor that a person’s decides his or her position in society. His friend, Pickering made a with him. If he can educate Eliza into a fair lady and pass herself a duchess at an garden party. Higgins tries his beat to teach Eliza and at last she really attend the party without anyone else knowing she is from the gutter. She into a real fair lady, many young fellows want to marry her.

STEP 8 Discussion (讨论)
Ask Ss to do part 5 on page 31. T: Suppose you have a chance to help Eliza improve her use of the English language. Look at the sentences on page31 in Part 5 and help her correct all these sentences in terms of grammar, spelling, etc, so that she can use them properly. In pairs try to think of some new ideas to help Professor Higgins teach Eliza better. Write them down in a list. Get into fours and discuss the lists. Choose the two best ideas and then share them with the class. Find the similarities and differences between The story of Pygmalion and the play Pygmalion Similarities : 1 They are both about a man who “makes” a perfect woman. 2 Both the women benefit: Galatea by becoming Eliza by learning how to behave in polite society. Differences : alive and

1 In the story the artist admits that he has fallen in love with the statue, but in the play Henry does not admit that he loves Eliza. 2 In the story the artist and the statue get married and live happily together, but in the play they do not get married and appear to part. 3 In the story the artist changes from not liking women to loving one, but in the play Henry does not appear to change as much as Eliza. Now in pairs discuss how the characters change in the play?
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Example: Galatea changes from stone into a real person. Eliza changes from 1 . Pygmalion changes from 2 .

STEP 9 Homework(家庭作业)
1 Read the play repeatedly and try to act out the play. 2 Find out some difficult words and expressions in the play.

参 照 课 文 浓 缩 再 次 理 清 文章脉 络。

以 填 空 形 式 反复复述。

40

学 生 讨 论 参 考答案: 1 a rough, dirty flower girl spoke bad who English into a beautiful and accomplishe d lady 2 a man who dislikes women into one who loves one particular woman

Unit 5 Meeting your ancestors Warming Up, Pre-reading and Reading
1. Ability

goals 能力目标

Enable the Ss to tell the differences between modern people and Peking man and learn how Peking man lived their lives. 2. Learning

ability goals 学能目标

Help the Ss learn to tell the differences between modern people and Peking man and learn how Peking man lived their lives.

Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点
Talk about Peking man in Zhoukoudian Caves.
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Teaching Listening,

methods reading

教 学 方 法 and discussion

Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer and a projector, a recorder

Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方法
Step I Revision and Lead-in Check the homework. The Ss will how their information about Zhoukoudian Caves in the following steps.

Step II Lead in
1. Ask the Ss to identify the picture in the pre-reading part. (skullcap) 2. Ask Ss to assume what Peking man might have done and use thousands of years ago. 3. Then by showing the table following to show whether their assumptions are right or wrong

42

Step III Reading
1. Play the tape once, and ask the Ss what they have learned about Zhoukoudian Caves 2. Skimming (What is the text about? And three stages of the archaeologist‘s part of the dialogue: An archeologist is showing a group of students from England around the Zhoukoudian Caves and telling them something about the caves.) 3. Scanning (Ask them to write down the three ways in which the life of early people differs from modern ones. Ask them to work in pairs and discuss the questions. Homes: Peking man lived in Zhoukoudian Caves of rocks and trees. Tools: They used needle that was made of bone sharpened stone tools and scraper made by stones. Dress: They wore clothes form animal skins and they also wore necklace made from seashells or animal teeth. 4. Careful reading Let the Ss read the passage again and answer the following questions. Show the questions on the Screen.

How did the keep warm? 1. What animals were their most dangerous enemies? 2. How did they make clothes? 3. What can we learn from the necklace they wore?

Step IV Post-reading
Ask Ss to fill in the chart on the life and habits of Peking man on page 37 and compare it with the list they made in the pre-reading. What differences are there? And then to clarify Ss‘ difficult points in the text.

Step V Homework
1. Go over the text. 2. Write a brief introduction to the Zhoukoudian Cave.

43

Unit

5

Meeting

your

ancestors

Vocabulary and Useful Expressions

Aims:
Teaching aims 教学目标 1.Ability aims 能力目标 Enable the students to use the Present Perfect Continuous tense. 2. Learning ability aims 学能目标 Help the students learn how to use the Present Perfect Continuous tense.

Content 教学内容
1. identify vt. 确认,识别,鉴别 (1)~ sb. /sth. as sb./ sth.确认,证明某人/某物系某人/某物 e.g. She identified the man as her attacker. (2)~ sth. with sth.认为某事物与另一事物等同 e.g. One can‘t ~ happiness with wealth. 扩展:identification n. identification card 身份证 2. alternative adj. 供选择的,其他的 e.g. The way was blocked ,so we had to go by ~ road. 这条路阻塞,我们只能走其他路。 3. interrupt vt. 1) 打断,中断,阻碍 The war ~ed the trade between the 2 countries. e.g. 战争打断了两国间的贸易。 ②Sorry to interrupt you, but I have something to say. 打断某人的话 ~ sb. /sth. with sth. 用……打扰/打断…… e.g.他用一个问题打断了他的老师。 He interrupted his teacher with a question. (2) interrupt sb. 打扰某人 e.g. ①Don‘t interrupt me. I am very busy. 打扰某人 4. assume vt. 假定,设想;担任,承担 (1)assume 后多跟 1) 名词,2)宾语+ to be + n. / adj., 3) that 从句 e.g. 1. The scientist ~ that there no animals on the moon. 科学家设想月球上没有动物. 2. I ~d the responsibility. 我来承担责任。 3. He assumed a great man. 他假装是伟人. (2) assuming 放在句首,表一种猜测。 e.g. Assuming it rains tomorrow, what shall we do? 扩 展: assumption n. make an assumption 5. regardless of 不管;不顾;不注意 e.g. He went ~ the risk. 他不顾危险地去了。 He is ~ his appearance. 他不注意自己的外表。 6. preserve vt.(1) 保存;保护;收藏
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e.g. You can ~ meat or fish in salt. 你可以用盐来保存肉或鱼。 (2) 保持;维持 e.g. It is one of the duties of the police to ~ public order

45

7.sharpen. vt /vi 使变锐利 锋利 、磨快刀 sharpen a pencil with a knife. Sharpen a knife. Sharpene stone tools. n. sharpener 磨快的用具 adj. Sharp 锐利的、陡峭的、激烈的、凛冽的 8.Preserve vt 保存、保护 、保管 The city should take steps to preserve the old temple. Preserve… from..保护使免于 Oil preserves metal from rust. Vt. 保存 、储藏 , 维持、保护 Preserve fruit in sugar cans. Preserve one‘s strength. 9.I‘m sorry to interrupt you, but how could they live here? I‘m sorry, but …… Excuse me , but…. 10.We have been excavating layers of ash almost six meters thick, which suggest that they might have kept the fire burning all winter. six meters thick six years old

Listening, Speaking and Writing
Teaching goals 教学目标
1. Target language 目标语

言: 重点词汇和短语 archeology, accurate, radioactivity, chronological, excavation, identity, alternative, household, date back to I think that we should… because… I suggest we…
2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to talk about the archaeological evidence and knowledge and learn to describe people and practice giving opinions. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to give opinion and describe objects Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 Learn how to give opinion and describe objects Teaching methods 教学方法
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Listening and cooperative learning

Teaching aids 教具准备

47

A computer, a tape recorder and a projector.

Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方法
Step I Lead-in Lead in by talking about the ancient civilization. 1. Ask them the four Great Ancient Civilizations. 2. Ask them to give some account of each great civilization, for example, speaking China, they can talk about China‘s brilliant civilization, like four great inventions (papermaking, printing, gunpowder, compass)

Step II Warming-up
Deal with the Warming-up part. 1. Ask Ss to identify each picture in this part. 2. Ask them to have a discussion to complete the task listed in Activity 2 ( to complete the table), What is it made of? What‘s its use? And today‘s alternatives? 3. Then make a summary of this and show the PPT of the table list on the screen. S3. The Greek Goddess agreed to help and his wish was granted.

Step III Speaking
Talk about Sanxindui Ruins with Ss. 1. Show the pictures on page 44. Tell the Ss they were found during an excavation in Sanxindui Ruins. 2. Ask them if they know anything about SanXindui Ruins. 3. Introduce some background information to them. 4. Show a series of objects to them and ask them to complete the tasks shown on the screen. 1. Guess what they are. 2. Discuss what these objects wre possibly used for 3. Describe these objects (including appearance, shape and a guess about the material, what can we learn from these objects, etc.)

Step Ⅳ Listening
Do the Listening task on page 81.
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Step V writing on page 85

49

1 turn to page 85 and look at the pictures and the questions below them. Discuss the questions 2 several minutes later, check the discussions 3 ask the students t write two paragraphs giving their own ideas as the information tells them to do 4 ask the students to read out their articles

Step VI Homework
Ask the students to find some information about Zhoukoudian.

Unit 5 Meeting your ancestors Grammar and Useful Structures Teaching goals 教学目标
1. Target language 目标语言: Grammar: Present Perfect Continuous Tense 2. Ability

goals 能力目标 ability goals 学能目标 Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点

Enable the students to use the Present Perfect Continuous tense. 3. Learning

Help the students learn how to use the Present Perfect Continuous tense.

How to use the Present Perfect Continuous tense. Teaching methods 教 学 方 法 Explanation and practice

Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer and a projector, a blackboard Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方法 Step I Revision Check the students‘ homework and let one read their work.

Step II Lead-in
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Ask the Ss to point out the sentences that contain the structure as ―We have been excavating here

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for many years‖ in the text.

Step III Explanation
一、结构形式

现在完成进行时是由―助动词have(has) + been+动词的现在分词‖构成。 二、基本用 法

1. 表示从过去某时开始一直延续到说话时还在进行,或可能还要继续下去的动作。它通常 和―for+段时间‖或―since+点时间(也可以是从句)‖的时间状语连用。例如:

I have been waiting for a letter from my parents. It has been raining for three hours. 雨已经下了三个小时了。 We have been studying here since 2004. 自从2004 年 以 来 , 我 们 一 直 在 这 里 学 习 。

我一直在等我父母的来信。

2. 表示从过去某时开始,一直延续到说话时刻,可能刚刚结束的动作。例如:

She has been sweeping the street all day. She is too tired. 她一整天都在扫大街。她太累了。 We have been waiting for you for two hours. We don't want to wait any longer. 我们已 经 等你 两个 小 时了 。 不想 再 等了 。 三、常

用句型

1. 肯定句:―主语+have(has) been+动词的现在分词+其他.‖例如: I have been sitting here all the afternoon. 我在这儿坐了一下午。

He has been collecting all kinds of stamps since he was ten years old. 自十 岁 起 他 就 开 始 收 集 各 式 各 样 的 邮 票 。

2. 否定句:―主语+have(has) not been+动词的现在分词+其他.‖例如:
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They haven't been meeting each other for five years. 他们有五年没见面了。 He hasn't been teaching here these years. 这些年他并没有一直在这儿教书。

3. 一般疑问句:―Have(Has) + 主语 + been + 动词的现在分词?‖其肯定回答:―Yes, 主语 + have(has).‖ 否定回答:―No, 主语 + haven't (hasn't).‖

【例如】:

— Have you been studying for the English test today? 你今天一直在准备英语测试吗? — Yes, I have. / No, I haven't. 是的。 / 不,我没有。 — Has Daniel been skating for two years? — Yes, he has. / No, he hasn't. 是的。/ 不,他没有。 4. 特殊疑问句:― 特殊疑问词+ 一般疑问句?‖ 【例如】: 丹尼尔滑冰已经有两年了吗?

What book have you been reading recently? 最近你在看什么书? How has your uncle been getting on with his work? 你 叔 叔 的 工 作 进 展 得 怎 么 样 ?

四、注意事项

有些不能用现在进行时的动词, 如be, have, like, love, know, see, hear 等, 同样也不能用现在 完成进行时,而应用现在完成时。例如:

The poor woman has been ill for a long time. 那可怜的妇人已经病了好久了。 Have you seen her parents these days? 时态对比 这些天你看见她的父母了吗?

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1. 现在完成进行时与现在进行时比较:

现在完成进行时强调某一动作从过去一直延续到现在; 而现在进行时只指目前正在发生的 动 作。试比较:

Susan has been reading that storybook since last night. 从昨晚 开 始苏 珊就 一 直在 看 那本 故 事书 。 Susan is reading a storybook now. 苏珊正在看一 本故事书。

2. 现在完成进行时和现在完成时比较: ⑴有些动词(如:work, study, live, teach 等)用现在完成进行时与现在完成时表达的意思差不多。试 比 较: The teacher has been teaching at this school for ten years. 十年来,那位老师一直在这所学校教书。 The teacher has taught at this school for ten years. 那位老 师 在这 所学 校 已经 教 了十 年 书了 。 ⑵英语中的多数动词在这两种时态中表示不同的含义。 现在完成时如果不带表示一段时间的 状语,就只能表示动作的完成,而现在完成进行时则表示动作的延续。试比较:

Homework
Ask the students finish Exercise in Word Study Part.

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