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IBT托福阅读词汇真题(有答案)



TOEFL 词汇题精选 440 题

001. Most of these leaders were involved in public life as reformers, activists working for women's right to vote, or authors, and were not representative at all of the great of ordinary women. The word "representative" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) typical (B) satisfied (C) supportive (D) distinctive 002. In the United States, Louis Comfort Tiffany (1843-1933) was the most noted exponent of this style, producing a great variety of glass forms and surfaces, which were widely copied in their time and are highly prized today. The word "prized" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) valued (B) universal (C) uncommon (D) preserved 003. The Art Nouveau style was a major force in the decorative arts from 1895 until 1915, although its influence continued throughout the mid-1920's. It was eventually to be overtaken by a new school of thought known as Functionalism that had been present since the turn of the century. The word "overtaken" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) surpassed (B) inclined (C) expressed (D) applied 004. During most of their lives, surge glaciers behave like normal glaciers, traveling perhaps only a couple of inches per day. However, at intervals of 10 to 100 years, these glaciers move forward up to 100 times faster than usual. The word "intervals" is closest in meaning to which of following?

(A) records (B) speeds (C) distances (D) periods 005. The increasing water pressure under the glacier might lift it off its bed, overcoming the friction between ice and rock, thus freeing the glacier, which rapidly sliders downhill surge glaciers also might be influenced by the climate, volcanic heat, or earthquakes. The word "freeing" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) pushing (B) releasing (C) strengthening (D) draining 006. A flood of ice would then surge into the Southern Sea. With the continued rise in sea level, more ice would plunge into the ocean, causing sea levels to rise even higher, which in turn would release more ice and set in motion a vicious cycle. The word "plunge" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) drop (B) extend (C) melt (D) drift 007. Group members look to instrumental leaders to "get things done." Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the collective well-being of a social group's members. The word "collective" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) necessary (B) typical (C) group (D) particular 008. They offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties or is subjected to discipline, are quick to lighten a serious 1

moment with humor, and try to resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. The word "resolve" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) avoid repeating (B) talk about (C) avoid thinking about (D) find a solution for 009. Thousands of tons were extracted before 1875, when it was first noticed that the tar contained fossil remains. Major excavations were undertaken that established the significance of this remarkable site. The word "noticed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) predicted (B) announced (C) corrected (D) observed 010. Since then, over 100 tons of fossils, 1.5 million from vertebrates, 2.5 million from invertebrates, have been recovered, often in densely concentrated tangled masses. The word "tangled" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) buried beneath (B) twisted together (C) quickly formed (D) easily dated 011. The asphalt at La Brea seeps to the surface, especially in the summer, and forms shallow puddles that would often have been concealed by leaves and dust. The word "concealed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) highlighted (B) covered (C) transformed (D) contaminated 012. The ocean bottom --- a region nearly 2. 5 times greater than the total land area of the Earth --- is a vast frontier that even today is largely unexplored and uncharted, until about a century ago, the deep-ocean floor was completely inaccessible, hidden beneath waters averaging over 3,600 meters deep.

The word "inaccessible" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) unrecognizable (B) unreachable (C) unusable (D) unsafe 013. The DSDP's drill ship, the Glomar Challenger, was able to maintain a steady position on the ocean's surface and drill in very deep waters, extracting samples of sediments and rock from the ocean floor. The word "extracting" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) breaking (B) locating (C) removing (D) analyzing 014. Today, largely on the strength of evidence gathered during the Glomar Challenger's voyages, nearly all earth scientists agree on the theories of plate tectonics and continental drift that explain many of the geological processes that shape the Earth. The word "strength" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) basis (B) purpose (C) discovery (D) endurance 015. For every three Canadians in 1945, there were over five in 1966. In September 1966 Canada's population passed the 20 million mark. Most of this surging growth came from natural increase. The word "surging" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) new (B) extra (C) accelerating (D) surprising 016. When the prairies were being settled, undoubtedly, the good economic conditions of the 1950's supported a growth in the population, but the expansion also derived from a trend toward earlier marriages and an increase in the average size of families. 2

The word "trend" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) tendency (B) aim (C) growth (D) directive 017. After the peak year of 1957, the birth rate in Canada began to decline. It continued falling until in 1966, it stood at the lowest level in 25 years. The word "peak" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) pointed (B) dismal (C) mountain (D) maximum 018. Although the growth in Canada's population had slowed down by 1966 (the increase the first half of the 1960's was only nine percent) , another large population wave was coming over the horizon. It would be composed of the children who were born during the period of the high birth rate prior to 1957. The phrase "prior to" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) behind (B) since (C) during (D) preceding 019. Advocates of organic foods --- a term whose meaning varies greatly --- frequently proclaim that such products are safer and more nutritious than others. The word "Advocates" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) Proponents (B) Merchants (C) Inspectors (D) Consumers 020. There are numerous unsubstantiated reports that natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones, that fertilized eggs are nutritionally superior to unfertilized eggs, that untreated grains are better than fumigated grains, and the like.

The word "unsubstantiated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) unbelievable (B) uncontested (C) unpopular (D) unverified 021. But in many cases consumers are misled if they believe organic foods can maintain health and provide better nutritional quality than conventionally grown foods. So there is real cause for concern if consumers, particularly those with limited incomes, distrust the regular food supply and buy only expensive organic foods instead. The word "maintain" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) improve (B) monitor (C) preserve (D) restore 022. In addition, there were performers and since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task. The word "considerable" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) thoughtful (B) substantial (C) relational (D) ceremonial 023. In addition, there were performers and since considerable importance was attached to avoiding mistakes in the enactment of rites, religious leaders usually assumed that task. The word "enactment" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) establishment (B) performance (C) authorization (D) season 024. Staggering tasks confronted the people of the United States, North and South, when the Civil War ended. About a million and a half soldiers from both sides had to be demobilized, readjusted to civilian life, and reabsorbed by the devastated economy. 3

The word "Staggering" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) specialized (B) confusing (C) various (D) overwhelming 025. About a million and a half soldiers from both sides had to be demobilized, readjusted to civilian life, and reabsorbed by the devastated economy. The word "devastated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) developing (B) ruined (C) complicated (D) fragile 026. Some botanists hypothesized that the living cells of plants acted as pumps. But many experiments demonstrated that the stems of plants in which all the cells are killed can still move water to appreciable heights. The word "demonstrated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) ignored (B) showed (C) disguised (D) distinguished 027. As water is lost from the surface of the leaves, a negative pressure, or tension, is created. The evaporated water is replaced by water moving from inside the plant in unbroken columns that extend from the top of a plant to its roots. The same forces that create surface tension in any sample of water are responsible for the maintenance of these unbroken columns of water. The word "extend" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) stretch (B) branch (C) increase (D) rotate 028. By opening vast areas of unoccupied land for residential expansion, the omnibuses, horse railways, commuter trains, and electric trolleys pulled settled regions outward two to four

times more distant from city centers than they were in the premodern era. The word "vast" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) large (B) basic (C) new (D) urban 029. The new accessibility of land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estate development and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl. Between 1890 and 1920, for example, some 250,000 new residential lots were recorded within the borders of Chicago, most of them located in outlying areas. The word "sparked" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) brought about (B) surrounded (C) sent out (D) followed 030. Anxious to take advantage of the possibilities of commuting, real estate developers added 800,000 potential building sites to the Chicago region in just thirty yearslots that could have housed five to six million people. The word "potential" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) certain (B) popular (C) improved (D) possible 031. The quality of preservation is outstanding, but what is even more impressive is the number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved embryos. The word "outstanding" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) extensive (B) surprising (C) vertical (D) excellent 032. Ichthyosaurs with embryos have been reported from 6 different levels of the shale in a 4

small area around Holzamden, suggesting that a specific site was used by large numbers of ichthyosaurs repeatedly over time. The word "site" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) example (B) location (C) development (D) characteristic 033. The quality of preservation is almost unmatched, and quarry operations have been carried out carefully with an awareness of the value of the fossils. But these factors do not account for the interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of giving birth. The phrase "account for " is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) record (B) describe (C) equal (D) explain 034. In the seventeenth century the organ, the clavichord, and the harpsichord became the chief instruments of the keyboard group, a supremacy they maintained until the piano supplanted them at the end of the eighteenth century. The words "a supremacy" in line 9 are closest in meaning to (A) a suggestion (B) an improvement (C) a dominance (D) a development 035. A series of mechanical improvements continuing well into the nineteenth century, including the introduction of pedals to sustain tone or to soften it, the perfection of a metal frame, and steel wire of the finest quality, finally produced an instrument capable of myriad tonal effects from the most delicate harmonies to an almost orchestral fullness of sound, from a liquid, singing tone to a ship, percussive brilliance. The word "myriad" is closest in meaning to which of following?

(A) noticeable (B) many (C) loud (D) unusual 036. Each one was virtually a stone town, which is why the Spanish would later call them pueblos, the Spanish word for towns. These pueblos represent one of the Anasazis' supreme achievements. At least a dozen large stone houses took shape below the bluffs of Chiaco Canyon in northwest New Mexico. The word "supreme" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) most common (B) most outstanding (C) most expensive (D) most convenient 037. They functioned as sanctuaries where the elders met to plan festivals, perform ritual dances, settle pueblo affairs, and impart tribal lore to the younger generation. The word "settle" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) sink (B) decide (C) clarify (D) locate 038. Then, to connect the pueblos and to give access to the surrounding tableland, the architects laid out a system of public roads with stone staircases for ascending cliff faces. The word "ascending" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) arriving at (B) carving (C) connecting (D) climbing 039. Within a very short time, however, the incongruity of playing lively music to a solemn film became apparent, and film pianists began to take some care in matching their pieces to the mood of the film. The word "solemn" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) simple (B) serious 5

(C) short (D) silent 040. Certain films had music especially composed for them. The most famous of these early special scores was that composed and arranged for D. W. Griffith's film Birth of a Nation, which was released in 1915. The word "composed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) selected (B) combined (C) played (D) created The word "scores" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) totals (B) successes (C) musical compositions (D) groups of musicians c 041. The Earth comprises three principal layers: the dense, iron-rich core, the mantle made of silicate rocks that are semimolten at depth, and the thin, solid-surface crust. The word "comprises" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) adapts to (B) benefits from (C) consists of (D) focuses on d 042. These plates move over the semimolten lower mantle to produce all of the major topographical features of the Earth. Active zones where intense deformation occurs are confined to the narrow, interconnecting boundaries of contact of the plates. The word "intense" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) surface (B) sudden (C) rare (D) extreme a 043. New oceanic crust is formed along one or more margins of each plate by material issuing from deeper layers of the Earth's crust, for example, by volcanic eruptions of lava at midocean ridges.

The word "margins" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) edges (B) peaks (C) interiors (D) distances d 044. If at such a spreading contact the two plates support continents, a rift is formed that will gradually widen and become flooded by the sea. The Atlantic Ocean formed like this as the American and Afro-European plates move in opposite directions. The word "support" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) separate (B) create (C) reduce (D) hold d 045. Coincident with concerns about the accelerating loss of species and habitats has been a growing appreciation of the importance of biological diversity, the number of species in a particular ecosystem, to the health of the Earth and human well-being. The word "appreciation" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) ignorance (B) recognition (C) tolerance (D) forgiveness d 046. An alien exploring Earth would probably give priority to the planet's dominant, mostdistinctive feature-the ocean. Humans have a bias toward land that sometimes gets in the way of truly examining global issues. The word "bias" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) concern (B) disadvantage (C) attitude (D) prejudice 047. The prevailing winds in the Great Basin are from the west. Warm, moist air from the Pacific Ocean is forced upward as it crosses the Sierra Nevada. The word "prevailing" is closest in meaning to 6

which of following? (A) most frequent (B) occasional (C) gentle (D) most dangerous 048. There seem to have been several periods within the last tens of thousands of years when water accumulated in these basins. The rise and fall of the lakes were undoubtedly linked to the advances and retreats of the great ice sheets that covered much of the northern part of the North American continent during those times. The word "accumulated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) dried (B) flooded (C) collected (D) evaporated 049. All living creature, especially human beings, have their peculiarities, but everything about the little sea cucumber seems unusual. What else can be said about a bizarre animal that, among other eccentricities, eats mud, feeds almost continuously day and night but can live without eating for long periods, and can be poisonous but is considered supremely edible by gourmets? The phrase "bizarre" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) odd (B) marine (C) simple (D) rare 050. Its major enemies are fish and crabs, when attacked, it squirts all its internal organs into the water. It also casts off attached structures such as tentacles. The sea cucumber will eviscerate and regenerate itself if it is attacked or even touched; it will do the same if the surrounding water temperature is too high or if the water becomes too polluted. The phrase "casts off" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) grows again (B) grabs (C) gets rid of (D) uses as a weapon

051. A folk culture is small, isolated, cohesive, conservative, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous in custom and race, with a strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals. The word "homogeneous" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) uniform (B) general (C) primitive (D) traditional 052. Unaltered folk cultures no longer exist in industrialized countries such as the United States and Canada. Perhaps the nearest modern equivalent in Anglo-America is the Amish, a German American farming sect that largely renounces the products and labor saving devices of the industrial age. The phrase "largely renounces" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) generally rejects (B) greatly modifies (C) loudly declares (D) often criticizes 053. Secular institutions, of control such as the police and army take the place of religion and family in maintaining order, and a moneybased economy prevails. Because of these contrasts, "popular" may be viewed as clearly different from "folk". The word "prevails" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) dominates (B) provides (C) develops (D) invests 054. Conventional computer models of the atmosphere have limited value in predicting short-lived local storms like the Edmonton tornado, because the available weather data are generally not detailed enough to allow computers to discern the subtle atmospheric changes that precede these storms. The word "subtle" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) complex 7

(B) regular (C) imagined (D) slight 055. Communications satellites can transmit data around the world cheaply and instantaneously, and modern computers can quickly compile and analyzing this large volume of weather information. The word "compile" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) put together (B) look up (C) pile high (D) work over 056. Meteorologists and computer scientists now work together to design computer programs and video equipment capable of transforming raw weather data into words, symbols, and vivid graphic displays that forecasters can interpret easily and quickly. The word "raw" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) stormy (B) inaccurate (C) uncooked (D) unprocessed 057. People in the United States in the nineteenth century were haunted by the prospect that unprecedented change in the nation's economy would bring social chaos. The word "Prospect" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) regret (B) possibility (C) theory (D) circumstance 058. Although the birth rate continued to decline from its high level of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, the population roughly doubled every generation during the rest of the nineteenth centuries. As the population grew, its makeup also changed. The word "roughly" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) harshly (B) surprisingly

(C) slowly (D) approximately 059. Rapid industrialization and increased geographic mobility in the nineteenth century had special implications for women because these changes tended to magnify social distinctions. As the roles men and women played in society became more rigidly defined, so did the roles they played in the home. The word "magnify" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) solve (B) explain (C) analyze (D) increase The word "distinctions" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) differences (B) classes (C) accomplishments (D) characteristics 060. In science, a theory is a reasonable explanation of observed events that are related. A theory often involves an imaginary model that helps scientists picture the way an observed event could be produced. The word "related" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) connected (B) described (C) completed (D) identified 061. If observations confirm the scientists' predictions, the theory is supported. The word "supported" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) finished (B) adjusted (C) investigated (D) upheld 062. The ice trade grew with the growth of cities. Ice was used in hotels, taverns, and hospitals, and by some forward-looking city dealers in fresh meat, fresh fish, and butter. The phrase "forward-looking" is closest in 8

meaning to which of following? (A) progressive (B) popular (C) thrifty (D) well-established 063. Making an efficient icebox was not as easy as we might now suppose. In the early nineteenth century, the knowledge of the physics of heat, which was essential to a science of refrigeration, was rudimentary. The word "rudimentary" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) growing (B) undeveloped (C) necessary (D) uninteresting 064. Aside from perpetuating itself, the sole purpose of the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters is to "foster, assist and sustain an interest" in literature, music, and art. The word "sole" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) only (B) honorable (C) common (D) official 065. One award subsidizes a promising American writer's visit to Rome. There is even an award for a very good work of fiction that failed commercially-once won by the young John Updike for The Poorhouse Fair and, more recently, by Alice Walker for In Love and Trouble. The word "subsidizes" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) assures (B) finances (C) schedules (D) publishes 066. Committee membership rotates every year, so that new voices and opinions are constantly heard. The word "rotates" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) alternates

(B) participates (C) decides (D) meets 067. One important line of evidence comes from flaking patterns of stone cores used in tool making: implements flaked with a clockwise motion (indicating a right-handed toolmaker) can be distinguished from hose flaked with a counter-clockwise rotation (indicating a left-handed toolmaker) . The word "implements" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) tools (B) designs (C) examples (D) pieces 068. Even scratches found on fossil human teeth offer clues. Ancient humans are thought to have cut meat into strips by holding it between their teeth and slicing it with stone knives, as do the present-day Inuit. The word "clues" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) solutions (B) details (C) damage (D) information 069. The variation between the hemispheres corresponds to which side of the body is used to perform specific activities. Such studies, as well as studies of tool use, indicate that right-or left-sided dominance is not exclusive to modern Homo sapiens. The word "hemispheres" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) differences (B) sides (C) activities (D) studies 070. Plants are subject to attack and infection by a remarkable variety of symbiotic species and have evolved a diverse array of mechanisms designed to frustrate the potential colonists. The phrase "subject to" is closest in meaning to which of following? 9

(A) susceptible to (B) classified by (C) attractive to (D) strengthened by 071. The external surfaces of plants, in addition to being covered by an epidermis and a waxy cuticle, often carry spiky hairs known as trichomes, which either prevent feeding by insects or may even puncture and kill insect larvae. The word "puncture" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) pierce (B) pinch (C) surround (D) cover 072. Orchids are unique in having the most highly developed of all blossoms, in which the usual male and female reproductive organs are fused in a single structure called the column. The word "fused" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) combined (B) hidden (C) fertilized (D) produced 073. To lure their pollinators from afar, orchids use appropriately intriguing shapes, colors, and scents. At least 50 different aromatic compounds have been analyzed in the orchid family, each blended to attract one, or at most a few, species of insects or birds. The word "lure" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) attract (B) recognize (C) follow (D) help 074. Once the right insect has been attracted, some orchids present all sorts of one-way obstacle courses to make sure it does not leave until pollen has been accurately placed or removed. The word "placed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) estimated

(B) measured (C) deposited (D) identified 075. By such ingenious adaptations to specific pollinators, orchids have avoided the hazards of rampant crossbreeding in the wild, assuring the survival of species as discrete identities. At the same time they have made themselves irresistible to collectors. The word "discrete" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) complicated (B) separate (C) inoffensive (D) functional 076. The public school system suddenly found itself overtaxed. While the number of schoolchildren rose because of wartime and postwar conditions, these same conditions made the schools even less prepared to cope with the flood. The word "overtaxed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) well prepared (B) plentifully supplied (C) heavily burdened (D) charged too much 077. Therefore, in the 1950's and 1960's, the baby boom hit an antiquated and inadequate school system. Consequently, the "custodial rhetoric" of the 1930's and early 1940's no longer made sense; that is, keeping youths aged sixteen and older out of the labor market by keeping them in school could no longer be a high priority for an institution unable to find space and staff to teach younger children aged five to sixteen. The word "inadequate" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) deficient (B) expanded (C) innovative (D) specialized 078. With the baby boom, the focus of educators and of laymen interested in education inevitably turned toward the lower 10

grades and back to basic academic skills and discipline. The word "inevitably" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) unwillingly (B) impartially (C) irrationally (D) unavoidably 079. Deeply philosophical historians such as Henry Adams lamented the role that the new frenzy for business was playing in eroding traditional values. A distrust of industry and business continued among writers throughout the rest of the nineteenth century and into the twentieth. The word "lamented" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) complained about (B) analyzed (C) explained (D) reflected on 080. One thinks of melodramas, boys' books, thrillers, romances, and the like rather than novels of the first rank. The phrase "first rank" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) largest category (B) highest quality (C) earliest writers (D) most difficult language 081. These writers, who can genuinely be said to have created a genre, the "railroad novel," are now mostly forgotten, their names having faded from memory. The words "faded from" in line 21 are closest in meaning to (A) grew in (B) disappeared from (C) remained in (D) developed from 082. The engine that became standard on western steamboats was of a different and novel design. It was the work primarily of an unsung hero of American industrial progress, Oliver Evans (1755-1819) . The word "novel" is closest in meaning to

which of following? (A) fictional (B) intricate (C) innovative (D) powerful 083. The self-educated son of a Delaware farmer, Evans early became obsessed by the possibilities of mechanized production and steam power. As early as 1802 he was using a stationary steam engine of high-pressure design in his mill. Engines of this type were not unknown, but before Evans they were generally considered impractical and dangerous. The word "stationary" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) single (B) fixed (C) locomotive (D) modified 084. In shallow western rivers the weight of vessel and engine was important; a heavy engine added to the problem of navigation. The word "vessel" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) fuel (B) crew (C) cargo (D) craft 085. The key concepts emerged about 1957. Townes and Arthur Schawlow, then at Bell Telephone Laboratories, wrote a long paper outlining the conditions needed to amplify stimulated emission of visible light waves. The word "emerged" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) increased (B) concluded (C) succeeded (D) appeared The word "outlining" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) assigning (B) studying (C) checking (D) summarizing 086. On this perfect surface, the artist would 11

sketch a composition with chalk, refine it with inks, and then begin the deliberate process of applying thin layers of egg tempera paint (egg yolk in which pigments are suspended) with small brushes. The word "deliberate" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) decisive (B) careful (C) natural (D) unusual 087. The quick-drying tempera demanded that the artist know exactly where each stroke be placed before the brush met the panel, and it required the use of fine brushes. The word "demanded" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) ordered (B) reported (C) required (D) questioned 088. The painter or master who is credited with having created the painting may have designed the work and overseen its production, but it is highly unlikely that the artist's hand applied every stroke of the brush. More likely, numerous assistants, who had been trained to imitate the artist's style, applied the paint. The word "imitate" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) copy (B) illustrate (C) promote (D) believe in 089. On the other hand, when it comes to substantive-particularly behavioralinformation, crows are less well known than many comparably common species and, for that matter, not a few quite uncommon ones: the endangered California condor, to cite one obvious example. There are practical reasons for this. The word "comparably" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) interestingly (B) similarly (C) otherwise

(D) sometimes 090. Being so educable, individual birds have markedly different interests and inclinations, strategies and scams. The word "inclination" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) tricks (B) opportunities (C) preferences (D) experiences 091. The confusion and congestion of individual citizens looking for their letters was itself enough to discourage use of the mail. It is no wonder that, during the years of these cumbersome arrangements, private lettercarrying and express businesses developed. The word "cumbersome" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) burdensome (B) handsome (C) loathsome (D) quarrelsome 092. But this delivery service was at first confined to cities, and free home delivery became a mark of urbanism. As late as 1887, a town had to have 10,000 people to be eligible for free home delivery. The word "Confined" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) granted (B) scheduled (C) limited (D) recommended 093. They were, by training, social scientists, not historians, and their work tended to reflect this bias. The questions they framed and the techniques they used were designed to help them understand, as scientists, how people behaved. The word "framed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (B) read (C) avoided (D) posed 12

094. In Kingston, New York, for example, evidence has been uncovered that indicates that English goods were being smuggled into that city at a time when the Dutch supposedly controlled trading in the area. The word "supposedly" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) ruthlessly (B) tightly (C) barely (D) seemingly 095. And in Sacramento an excavation at the site of a fashionable nineteenth-century hotel revealed that garbage had been stashed in the building's basement despite sanitation laws to the contrary. The word "sanitation" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) city (B) housing (C) health (D) trade 096. When Jules Verne wrote Journey to the Center of the Earth in 1864, there were many conflicting theories about the nature of the Earth's interior. Some geologists thought that it contained a highly compressed ball of incandescent gas, while others suspected that it consisted of separate shells, each made of a different material. The word "conflicting" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) controlling (B) outdated (C) opposing (D) important 097. Beyond a depth of around 2,900 kilometers, a great change takes place and the mantle gives way to the core. Some seismic waves cannot pass through the core and others are bent by it. From this and other evidence, geologists conclude that the outer core is probably liquid, with a solid center. It is almost certainly made of iron, mixed with smaller amount of other elements such as nickel. The phrase "gives way to" is closest in meaning to which of following?

(A) runs along (B) rubs against (C) turns into (D) floats on 098. Although scientists can speculate about its nature, neither humans nor machines will ever be able to visit it. The word "speculate" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) report (B) learn (C) worry (D) hypothesize 099. Farmers could get better prices for their crops if the alternative existed of sending them directly eastward to market, and merchants could sell larger quantities of their manufactured goods if these could be transported more directly and more economically to the west. The word "alternative" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) option (B) transition (C) intention (D) authorization 100. The distance was more than 350 miles, and there were ridges to cross and a wilderness of woods and swamps to penetrate. The word "penetrate" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) cut down (B) go through (C) fill up (D) take over 101. The range of the New York canal system was still further extended when the states of Ohio and Indiana, inspired by the success of the Erie Canal, provided water connections between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. The word "extended" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) increased (B) constructed (C) deepened 13

(D) measured 106. New England still favored wood, though brick houses became common in Boston and other towns, where the danger of fire gave an impetus to the use of more durable material. A few houses in New England were built of stone, but only in Pennsylvania and adjacent areas was stone widely used in dwellings. The word "durable" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) attractive (B) expensive (C) refined (D) long-lasting The word "dwelling" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) houses (B) towns (C) outbuildings (D) rural areas 107. Doorways were larger and more decorative. Fireplaces became decorative features of rooms. Walls were made of plaster or wood, sometimes elaborately paneled. The word "elaborately" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) done in great detail (B) put together carefully (C) using many colors (D) reinforced structurally 108. Whereas schooling has a certain predictability, education quite often produces surprises. A chance conversation with stranger may lead a person to discover how little is known of other religions. People are engaged in education from infancy on. The word "chance" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) unplanned (B) unusual (C) lengthy (D) lively 109. Education, then, is a very broad, inclusive term. It is should be an integral part of one's entire life. The word "integral" is closest in meaning to 14

102. The answer lay in a resource that unknowing Americans had trampled underfoot in their haste to cross the "Great American Desert" to reach lands that sometimes proved barren. In the eastern parts of the United States, the preferred grass for forage was a cultivated plant. The word "barren" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) lonely (B) dangerous (C) uncomfortable (D) infertile 103. In the eastern parts of the United States, the preferred grass for forage was a cultivated plant. It grew well with enough rain, then when cut and stored it would cure and become nourishing hay for winter feed. The word "preferred" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) ordinary (B) available (C) required (D) favored 104. They were not juicy like the cultivated eastern grasses, but had short, hard stems. The word "hard" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) firm (B) severe (C) difficult (D) bitter 105. Nevertheless, most domestic architecture of the first three-quarters of the eighteenth century displays a wide divergence of taste and freedom of application of the rules laid down in these books. The word "divergence" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) description (B) development (C) difference (D) display

which of following? (A) an equitable (B) a profitable (C) a pleasant (D) an essential 110. For example, the edge of the Pacific Ocean has been called the "Ring of Fire" because so many volcanic eruptions and earthquakes happen there. Before the 1960's, geologists could not explain why active volcanoes and strong earthquakes were concentrated in that region. The word "concentrated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) allowed (B)clustered (C) exploded (D) strengthened 111. In the United States in the early 1800's, individual state governments had more effect on the economy than did the federal government. States chartered manufacturing, banking, mining, and transportation firms and participated in the construction of various internal improvements such as canals, turnpikes, and railroads. The word "effect" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) value (B) argument (C) influence (D) restraint 112. The states encouraged internal improvements in two distinct ways: first, by actually establishing state companies to build such improvements; second, by providing part of the capital for mixed public-private companies setting out to make a profit. The word "distinct" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) separate (B) innovative (C) alarming (D) provocative 113. Finally, state governments experimented with direct labor and business regulation

designed to help the individual laborer or consumer, including setting maximum limits on hours of work and restrictions on pricefixing by businesses. The word "setting" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) discussing (B) analyzing (C) establishing (D) avoiding 114. Although the states dominated economic activity during this period, the federal government was not inactive. Its goals were the facilitation of western settlement and the development of native industries. Toward these ends the federal government pursued several courses of action. The word "ends" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) benefits (B) decisions (C) services (D) goals 115. What forms of life were able to make such a drastic change in lifestyle? The traditional view of the first terrestrial organisms is based on mega fossils-relatively large specimens of essentially whole plants and animals. The word "drastic" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) widespread (B) radical (C) progressive (D) risky 116. It turns out that some fossils can be extracted from these sediments by putting the rocks in an acid bath. The technique has uncovered new evidence from sediments that were deposited near the shores of the ancient oceans-plant microfossils and microscopic pieces of small animals. The word "extracted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) located (B) preserved (C) removed (D) studied 15

117. The technique has uncovered new evidence from sediments that were deposited near the shores of the ancient oceans-plant microfossils and microscopic pieces of small animals. In many instances the specimens are less than one-tenth of a millimeter in diameter. The word "instances" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) methods (B) processes (C) cases (D) reasons 118. In many instances the specimens are less than one-tenth of a millimeter in diameter. Although they were entombed in the rocks for hundreds of millions of years, many of the fossils consist of the organic remains of the organism. The word "entombed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) crushed (B) trapped (C) produced (D) excavated 119. Citizens of prosperous, essentially middleclass republics --- whether ancient Romans, seventeenth-century Dutch burghers, or nineteenth-century Americans --- have always shown a marked taste for portraiture. The word "marked" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) pronounced (B) fortunate (C) understandable (D) mysterious 120. In 1839 the daguerreotype was introduced to America, ushering in the age of photography, and within a generation the new invention put an end to the popularity of painted portraits. Once again an original portrait became a luxury, commissioned by the wealthy and executed by the professional. The phrase "ushering in" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) beginning (B) demanding

(C) publishing (D) increasing The word "executed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) sold (B) requested (C) admired (D) created 121. Local crafts people-sign, coach, and house painters-began to paint portraits as a profitable sideline; sometimes a talented man or woman who began by sketching family members gained a local reputation and was besieged with requests for portraits; artists found it worth their while to pack their paints, canvases, and brushes and to travel the countryside, often combining house decorating with portrait painting. The word "sketching" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) drawing (B) hiring (C) helping (D) discussing 122. Both the number and the percentage of people in the United States involved in nonagricultural pursuits expanded rapidly during the half century following the Civil War, with some of the most dramatic increases occurring in the domains of transportation, manufacturing, and trade and distribution. The word "domains" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) fields (B) locations (C) organizations (D) occupations 123. The development of the railroad and telegraph systems during the middle third of the nineteenth century led to significant improvements in the speed, volume, and regularity of shipments and communications, making possible a fundamental transformation in the production and distribution of goods. The word "fundamental" is closest in meaning 16

to which of following? (A) possible (B) basic (C) gradual (D) unique 124. To be sure, there were still small workshops, where skilled craftspeople manufactured products ranging from newspapers to cabinets to plumbing fixtures. The word "skilled" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) hardworking (B) expert (C) well-paid (D) industrial 125. And there were factories in occupations such as metalwork where individual contractors presided over what were essentially handicraft proprietorships that coexisted within a single building. The words "presided over" in line 20 are closest in meaning to (A) managed (B) led to (C) worked in (D) produced 126. Objects in the universe show a variety of shapes: round planets (some with rings) , tailed comets, wispy cosmic gas and dust clouds, ringed nebulae, pinwheel-shaped spiral galaxies, and so on. But none of the shapes on this list describes the largest single entities in the universe. The word "entities" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) factors (B) processes (C) objects (D) puzzles 127. Stone carvers engraved their motifs of skulls and crossbones and other religious icons of death into the gray slabs that we still see standing today in old burial grounds. The word "motifs" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) tools

(B) prints (C) signatures (D) designs 128. Although they often achieved expression and formal excellence in their generally primitive style, they remained artisans skilled in the craft of carving and constituted a group distinct from what we normally think of as "sculptors" in today's use of the word. The word "distinct" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) separate (B) assembled (C) notable (D) inferior 129. On the rare occasion when a fine piece of sculpture was desired, Americans turned to foreign sculptors, as in the 1770's when the cities of New York and Charleston, South Carolina, commissioned the Englishman Joseph Wilton to make marble statues of William Pill. The word "rare" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) festive (B) infrequent (C) delightful (D) unexpected 130. Desert mammals also depart from the normal mammalian practice of maintaining a constant body temperature. Instead of trying to keep down the body temperature deep inside the body, which would involve the expenditure of water and energy, desert mammals allow their temperatures to rise to what would normally be fever height, and temperatures as high as 46 degrees Celsius have been measured in Grant's gazelles. The word "maintaining" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) measuring (B) inheriting (C) preserving (D) delaying 131. Another strategy of large desert animals is to tolerate the loss of body water to a point 17

that would be fatal for nonadapted animals. The camel can lose up to 30 percent of its body weight as water without harm to itself, whereas human beings die after losing only 12 to 13 percent of their body weight. The word "tolerate" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) endure (B) replace (C) compensate (D) reduce 132. The tolerance of water loss is of obvious advantage in the desert, as animals do not have to remain near a water hole but can obtain food from grazing sparse and far-flung pastures. The word "obtain" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) digest (B) carry (C) save (D) get 133. In 1979 Santa Monica's municipal government ordered landlords to roll back their rents to the levels charged in 1978. Future rents could only go up by two thirds as much as any increase in the overall price level. The phrase "roll back" in lines 11-12 is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) credit (B) measure (C) vary (D) reduce 134. In any housing market, rental prices perform three functions: (1) promoting the efficient maintenance of existing housing and stimulating the construction of new housing. The word "stimulating" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) experimenting with (B) identifying (C) estimating (D) encouraging 135. One result of rent control is a decrease in the construction of new rental units. Rent

Controls have artificially depressed the most important long-term determinant of profitability-rents. The word "depressed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) saddened (B) created (C) lowered (D) defeated 136. In the same year, in San Francisco, California, only 2,000 units were built. San Francisco has only a 1. 6 percent vacancy rate but stringent rent control laws. The word "stringent" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) straightforward (B) strict (C) expanded (D) efficient 137. For example, sometimes the shape or veining in a piece of stone or wood suggests, perhaps even dictates, not only the ultimate form, but even the subject matter. The word "dictates" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) reads aloud (B) determines (C) includes (D) records 138. In 1905 he was sent to Paris as an apprentice to an art dealer, and in the years that followed he witnessed the birth of Cubism, discovered primitive art, and learned the techniques of woodcarving from a frame maker. The word "witnessed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) influenced (B) studied (C) validated (D) observed 139. The plank's form dictated the rigidly frontal view and the low relief. Even its irregular shape must have appealed to Laurent as a break with a long-standing tradition that required a sculptor to work within a perfect 18

rectangle or square. The phrase "a break with" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) a destruction of (B) a departure from (C) a collapse of (D) a solution to 140. In winter especially, it is important for birds to keep warm at night and conserve precious food reserves. The word "conserve" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) retain (B) watch (C) locate (D) share 141. One way to do this is to find a sheltered roost. Solitary roosters shelter in dense vegetation or enter a cavity-horned larks dig holes in the ground and ptarmigan burrow into snow banks-but the effect of sheltering is magnified by several birds huddling together in the roosts, as wrens, swifts, brown creepers, bluebirds, and anis do. The word "magnified" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) caused (B) modified (C) intensified (D) combined 142. The second possible benefit of communal roots is that they act as "information centers." During the day, parties of birds will have spread out to forage over a very large area. When they return in the evening some will have fed well, but others may have found little to eat. The word "forage" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) fly (B) assemble (C) feed (D) rest 143. Finally, there is safety in numbers at communal roosts since there will always be a few birds awake at any given moment to give the alarm. But this increased protection is

partially counteracted by the fact that mass roosts attract predators and are especially vulnerable if they are on the ground. The word "counteracted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) suggested (B) negated (C) measured (D) shielded 144. Drying, smoking, and salting could preserve meat for a short time, but the availability of fresh meat, like that of fresh milk, was very limited; there was no way to prevent spoilage. The word "prevent" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) estimate (B) avoid (C) correct (D) confine 145. The icebox became a fixture in most homes and remained so until the mechanized refrigerator replaced it in the 1920's and 1930's. Almost everyone now had a more diversified diet. The word "fixture" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) luxury item (B) substance (C) commonplace object (D) mechanical device 146. Some people continued to eat mainly foods that were heavy in starches or carbohydrates, and not everyone could afford meat. Nevertheless, many families could take advantage of previously unavailable fruits, vegetables, and dairy products to achieve more varied fare. The word "Nevertheless" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) therefore (B) because (C) occasionally (D) however readily change its orientation, or phase. Cats know this instinctively, but scientists could not 19

be sure how it happened until they increased the speed of their perceptions a thousand fold. The word "readily" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) only (B) easily (C) slowly (D) certainly 147. The changing profile of a city in the United States is apparent in the shifting definitions used by the United States Bureau of the Census. In 1870 the census officially distinguished the nation's "urban" from its "rural" population for the first time. The word "distinguished" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) differentiated (B) removed (C) honored (D) protected 148. Each SMSA would contain at least (a) one central city with 50,000 inhabitant or more or (b) two cities having shared boundaries and constituting, for general economic and social purposes, a single community with a combined population of at least 50,000, the smaller of which must have a population of at least 15,000. The word "constituting" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) located near (B) determined by (C) calling for (D) making up 149. The Anasazi lived in houses constructed of adobe and wood. Anasazi houses were originally built in pits and were entered from the roof. The word "pits" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) stages (B) scars (C) seeds (D) holes 150. Each kiva had a fire pit and hole that was believed to lead to the underworld. The largest

pueblos had five stories and more than 800 rooms. The word "stories" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) articles (B) tales (C) levels (D) rumors 151. The village chief dealt with land disputes and religious affairs. The war chief led the men in fighting during occasional conflicts that broke out with neighboring villages and directed the men in community building projects. The word "disputes" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) discussions (B) arguments (C) developments (D) purchases 152. This had a considerable effect on cattle ranching, since the herds no longer had unrestricted use of the plains for grazing, and the fencing led to conflict between the farmers and the cattle ranchers. The word "unrestricted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) unsatisfactory (B) difficult (C) considerable (D) unlimited 153. The steel wires used are galvanized-coated with zinc to make them rustproof. The two wires that make up the line wire or cable are fed separately into a machine at one end. They leave it at the other end twisted together and barbed. The word "fed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) put (B) eaten (C) bitten (D) nourished 154. The pressure exerted on the human body increases by 1 atmosphere for every 10 meters of depth in seawater, so that at 30 meters in 20

seawater a diver is exposed to a pressure of about 4 atmospheres. The words "exposed to" in line 6 are closest in meaning to (A) leaving behind (B) prepared for (C) propelled by (D) subjected to 155. Deep dives are less dangerous if helium is substituted for nitrogen, because under these pressures helium does not exert a similar narcotic effect. The word "exert" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) cause (B) permit (C) need (D) change 156. As a scuba diver descends, the pressure of nitrogen in the lungs increases. Nitrogen then diffuses from the lungs to the blood, and from the blood to body tissues. The word "diffuses" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) yields (B) starts (C) surfaces (D) travels 157. During ascent from a depth of 10 meters, the volume of air in the lungs will double because the air pressure at the surface is only half of what it was at 10 meters. This change in volume may cause the lungs to distend and even rupture. The word "rupture" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) hurt (B) shrink (C) burst (D) stop 158. In the twentieth century, electron microscopes have provided direct views of viruses and minuscule surface structures. The word "minuscule" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) circular

(B) dangerous (C) complex (D) tiny 159. Unlike conventional electron microscopy, x-ray microscopy enables specimens to be kept in air and in water, which means that biological samples can be studied under conditions similar to their natural state. The word "enables" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) constitutes (B) specifies (C) expands (D) allows 160. Because of the wavelength of the x-rays used, soft x-ray microscopes will never match the highest resolution possible with electron microscopes. Rather, their special properties will make possible investigations that will complement those performed with light-and electron-based instruments. The word "Rather" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) significantly (B) preferably (C) somewhat (D) instead 161. What they do is look at familiar conditions from a perspective that makes these conditions seem foolish, harmful, or affected. Satire jars us out of complacence into a pleasantly shocked realization that many of the values we unquestioningly accept are false. The word "realization" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) certainty (B) awareness (C) surprise (D) confusion 162. It was the manner of expression, the satiric method, that made them interesting and entertaining, satires are read because they are aesthetically satisfying works of art, not because they are morally wholesome or ethically instructive. The word "aesthetically" is closest in meaning 21

to which of following? (A) artistically (B) exceptionally (C) realistically (D) dependably 163. They are stimulating and refreshing because with commonsense briskness they brush away illusions and secondhand opinions. The word "refreshing" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) popular (B) ridiculous (C) meaningful (D) unusual 164. Soldiers rarely hold the ideals that movies attribute to them, nor do ordinary citizens devote their lives to unselfish service of humanity. The word "devote" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) distinguish (B) feel affection (C) prefer (D) dedicate 165. Hotels were among the earliest facilities that bound the United States together. They were both creations and creators of communities, as well as symptoms of the frenetic quest for community. The word "bound" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) led (B) protected (C) tied (D) strengthened 166. The growing custom of regularly assembling from afar the representatives of all kinds of groups, not only for political conventions, but also for commercial, professional, learned, and avocational ones... in turn supported the multiplying hotels. The word "assembling" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) announcing (B) motivating (C) gathering

(D) contracting 167. In the past, as today, men, women, and children adorned themselves with beads. In some cultures still, certain beads are often worn from birth until death, and then are buried with their owners for the afterlife. The word "adorned" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) protected (B) decorated (C) purchased (D) enjoyed 168. Besides their wear ability, either as jewelry or incorporated into articles of attire, beads possess the desirable characteristics of every collectible: they are durable, portable, available in infinite variety, and often valuable in their original cultural context as well as in today's market. The word "attire" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) ritual (B) importance (C) clothing (D) history 169. Beads are miniature bundles of secrets waiting to be revealed: their history, manufacture, cultural context, economic role, and ornamental use are all points of information one hopes to unravel. The word "unravel" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) communicate (B) transport (C) improve (D) discover 170. Even the most mundane beads may have traveled great distances and been exposed to many human experiences. The word "mundane" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) carved (B) beautiful (C) ordinary (D) heavy 22

171. The crossed mandibles enable the birds to exert a powerful biting force at the bill tips, which is critical for maneuvering them between the scales and spreading the scales apart. Next, the crossbill snakes its long tongue into the gap and draws out the seed. The word "gap" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) opening (B) flower (C) mouth (D) tree 172. Next, the crossbill snakes its long tongue into the gap and draws out the seed. Using the combined action of the bill and tongue, the birds cracks open and discards the woody seed covering and swallows the nutritious inner kernel. The word "discards" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) eats (B) breaks (C) finds out (D) gets rid of 173. As a rule, large billed crossbills are better at seeming seeds from large cones while small billed crossbills are more deft at removing the seeds from small, thin scaled cones. The word "deft" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) hungry (B) skilled (C) tired (D) pleasant 174. This bird has a large, robust bill, yet most of Newfoundland's conifers have small cones, the same kind of cones that the slender-billed white-wings rely on. The word "robust" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) strong (B) colorful (C) unusual (D) sharp 175. It was she, a Baltimore printer, who published the first official copies of the

Declaration, the first copies that included the names of its signers and therefore heralded the support of all thirteen colonies. The word "heralded" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) influenced (B) announced (C) rejected (D) ignored 176. She was also the city's postmaster from 1775 to 1789 --- appointed by Benjamin Franklin --- and is considered to be the first woman to hold a federal position. The word "position" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) job (B) election (C) document (D) location 177. Galaxies are the major building blocks of the universe. A galaxy is a giant family of many millions of stars, and it is held together by its own gravitational field. The word "major" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) intense (B) principal (C) lunge (D) unique 178. The elliptical galaxies have a symmetrical elliptical or spheroidal shape with no obvious structure. Most of their member stars are very old and since elliptical are devoid of interstellar gas, no new stars are forming in them. The word "symmetrical" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) proportionally balanced (B) commonly seen (C) typically large (D) steadily growing The word "obvious" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) discovered (B) apparent (C) understood 23

(D) simplistic 179. Their light was already halfway here before the Earth even formed. The light from the nearby Virgo galaxy set out when reptiles still dominated the animal world. The word "dominated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) threatened (B) replaced (C) were developing in (D) were prevalent in 180. This meant that wagon freighting, stage coaching and steam boating did not come to an end when the first train appeared; rather they became supplements or feeders. The word "supplements" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) extensions (B) reformers (C) dependents (D) influences 181. Wagon freighters continued operating throughout the 1870's and 1880's and into the 1890's,although over constantly shrinking routes, and coaches and wagons continued to crisscross the West wherever the rails had not yet been laid. The word "crisscross" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) lead the way (B) separate (C) move back and forth (D) uncover 182. The primary reason was skepticism that a railroad built through so challenging and thinly settled a stretch of desert, mountain, and semiarid plain could pay a profit. The word "skepticism" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) doubt (B) amazement (C) urgency (D) determination 183. In discussing the Pacific Railroad bill, the chair of the congressional committee bluntly

stated that without government subsidy no one would undertake so unpromising a venture; yet it was a national necessity to link East and West together. The word "subsidy" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) persuasion (B) financing (C) explanation (D) penalty 184. However, the concept of number and the counting process developed so long before the time of recorded history (there is chaeological evidence that counting was employed by humans as far back as 50,000 years ago) that the manner of this development is largely conjectural. The word "conjectural" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) complex (B) based on guessing (C) unbelievable (D) supported by careful research 185. Probably the earliest way of keeping a count was by some simple tally method, employing the principle of one-to-one correspondence. In keeping a count of sheep, for example, one finger per sheep could be turned under. The word "employing" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) using (B) paying (C) focusing (D) hiring 186. Counts could also be maintained by making scratches in the dirt or on a stone, by cutting notches in a piece of wood, or by tying knots in a string. The word "maintained" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) justified (B) asserted (C) located (D) kept 187. Then, perhaps later, an assortment of 24

vocal sounds was developed as a word tally against the number of objects in a small group. The word "assortment" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) instrument (B) variety (C) surplus (D) symbol 188. Their products, primarily silver plates and bowls, reflected their exalted status and testified to their customers' prominence. The word "exalted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) unusual (B) uncertain (C) surprising (D) superior 189. Colonial coppersmithing also came of age in the early eighteenth century and prospered in northern cities. The phrase "came of age" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) established itself (B) declined (C) became less expensive (D) was studied 190. Fossils are the remains and traces (such as footprints or other marks ) of ancient plant and animal life that are more than 10,000 years old. The word "traces" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) structures (B) importance (C) skeletons (D) imprints 191. The woolly mammoth, a long-haired rhinoceros, and other mammals have been periodically exposed in the tundra of Siberia, the hair and red flesh still frozen in cold storage. The word "exposed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) photographed (B) uncovered (C) located (D) preserved

192. A useful definition of an air pollutant is a compound added directly or indirectly by humans to the atmosphere in such quantities as to affect humans, animals, vegetation, or materials adversely. The word "adversely" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) negatively (B) quickly (C) admittedly (D) considerably 193. As the Earth developed, the concentrations of these pollutants were altered by various chemical reactions; they became components in biogeochemical cycles. The word "altered" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) eliminated (B) caused (C) slowed (D) changed 194. The result is an increased concentration of noxious chemicals in the air. The concentrations at which the adverse effects appear will be greater than the concentrations that the pollutants would have in the absence of human activities. The word "noxious" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) harmful (B) noticeable (C) extensive (D) weak 195. The actual concentration need not be large for a substance to be a pollutant; in fact the numerical value tells us little until we know how much of an increase this represents over the concentration that would occur naturally in the area. For example, sulfur dioxide has detectable health effects at 0. 08 parts per million (ppm) , which is about 400 times its natural level. The word "detectable" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) beneficial (B) special 25

(C) measurable (D) separable 196. The acute, growing public awareness of the social changes that had been taking place for some time was tied to tremendous growth in popular journalism in the late nineteenth century, including growth in quantity and circulation of both magazines and newspapers. The word "acute" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) useful (B) intense (C) genuine (D) controversial 197. Furthermore, the introduction in 1890 of the first successful linotype machine promised even further growth. In 1872 only two daily newspapers could claim a circulation of over 100,000, but by 1892 seven more newspapers exceeded that figure. A world beyond the immediate community was rapidly becoming visible. The word "exceeded" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) controlled (B) surpassed (C) affected (D) equaled 198. Magazines as they are known today began publication around 1882, and, in fact, the circulation of weekly magazines exceeded that of newspapers in the period which followed. By 1892, for example, the circulation of the Ladies' Home Journal had reached an astounding 700,000. The word "astounding" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) surprising (B) estimated (C) encouraging (D) sudden 199. It is lightweight, impermeable to liquids, readily cleaned and reused, durable yet fragile, and often very beautiful. The word "durable" is closest in meaning to which of following?

(A) lasting (B) delicate (C) heavy (D) plain 200. In effect, as molten glass cools, it progressively stiffens until rigid, but does so without setting up a network of interlocking crystals customarily associated with that process. The word "customarily" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) naturally (B) necessarily (C) usually (D) certainly 201. This is why glass shatters so easily when dealt a blow, why glass deteriorates over time, especially when exposed to moisture, and why glassware must be slowly reheated and uniformly cooled after manufacture to release internal stresses induced by uneven cooling. The words "exposed to" in line 19 are closest in meaning to (A) hardened by (B) chilled with (C) subjected to (D) deprived of 202. This is why glass shatters so easily when dealt a blow, why glass deteriorates over time, especially when exposed to moisture, and why glassware must be slowly reheated and uniformly cooled after manufacture to release internal stresses induced by uneven cooling. The word "induced" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) joined (B) missed (C) caused (D) lost 203. The best-known specimens are the remarkable tracks discovered at Lactoli, Tanzania, by Mary Leakey. The word "remarkable" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) extraordinary (B) enormous 26

(C) various (D) orderly 204. The pressures exerted along the foot, together with the length of stride, which averaged 87 centimeters, indicated that the hominids had been walking slowly. In short, all the detectable morphological features implied that the feet that left the footprints were very little different from those of contemporary humans. The word "exerted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) influenced (B) applied (C) returned (D) lessened 205. The study of fossil footprints is not restricted to examples from such remote periods. Hundreds of prints are known, for example, in French caves dating from the end of the last ice age, approximately 10, 000 years ago. The word "restricted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) limited (B) improved (C) continued (D) succeeded 206. The livelihood of each species in the vast and intricate assemblage of living things depends on the existence of other organisms. The word "intricate" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) difficult (B) widespread (C) critical (D) complex 207. A multitude of microorganisms (including viruses and bacteria) and an army of invertebrates --The expression "an army" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) an illness (B) an attack (C) a large number (D) a distinct type

208. Members of the animal kingdom have developed a variety of defense mechanisms for dealing with parasites. Although these mechanisms vary considerably, all major groups of animals are capable of detecting and reacting to the presence of "foreign" cells. The word "vary" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) differ (B) endure (C) balance (D) contribute 209. Unimprovised, completely structured jazz does exist, but the ability of the best jazz musicians to create music of great cohesion and beauty during a performance has been a hallmark of the music and its major source of inspiration and change. The word "cohesion" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) sorrow (B) fame (C) unity (D) vibration 210. The second distinguishing characteristic of jazz is a rhythmic drive that was initially called "hot" and later "swing." The word "initially" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) at first (B) shortly (C) alphabetically (D) in fact 211. In playing hot, a musician consciously departs from strict meter to create a relaxed sense of phrasing that also emphasizes the underlying rhythms. The word "consciously" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) carelessly (B) easily (C) periodically (D) purposely 212. Not all jazz is hot, however; many early bands played unadorned published 27

arrangements of popular songs. The word "unadorned" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) lovely (B) plain (C) disorganized (D) inexpensive 213. The tight arrangement enabled the Mandans to protect themselves more easily from the attacks of others who might seek to obtain some of the food these highly capable farmers stored from one years to the next. The word "enabled" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) covered (B) reminded (C) helped (D) isolated 214. They had to exercise considerable skill to produce the desired results, for their northern location meant fleeting growing seasons. The word "considerable" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) planning (B) much (C) physical (D) new 215. This green corn was boiled, dried, and shelled, with some of the maize slated for immediate consumption and the rest stored in animal-skin bags. The word "consumption" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) decay (B) planting (C) eating (D) conversion 216. With appropriate banking of the extrafood, the Mandans protected themselves against the disaster of crop failure and accompanying hunger. The word "disaster" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) control (B) catastrophe

(C) avoidance (D) history 217. Helium nuclei have also been found to be constituents of cosmic rays that fall on the earth (cosmic "rays" are not really a form of radiation; they consist of rapidly moving particles of numerous different kinds) . The word "constituents" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) relatives (B) causes (C) components (D) targets 218. Its relative abundance never seems to vary much. In some places, there may be slightly more of it; in others, slightly less, but the ratio of helium to hydrogen nucleial ways remains about the same. The word "vary" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) mean (B) stretch (C) change (D) include 219. However, the amount of helium that could have been produced in this manner can be calculated, and it turns out to be no more than a few percent. The word "calculated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) ignored (B) converted (C) increased (D) determined 220. By the time the universe was a few minutes old, helium production has effectively ceased. The word "ceased" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) extended (B) performed (C) taken hold (D) stopped 221. Wealthy and socially prominent settlers made quilts of the English type, cut from large 28

lengths of cloth of the same color and texture rather than stitched together from smaller pieces. The word " prominent" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) isolated (B) concerned (C) generous (D) distinguished 222. This term was usually applied to a fabric of wool and linen used in heavy clothing and quilted petticoats worn in the wintertime. The phrase "applied to" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) sewn onto (B) compared to (C) used for (D) written down on 223. Rather, they were made of a top layer of woolen or glazed worsted wool fabric, consisting of smooth, compact yarn from long wool fibers, dyed dark blue, green, or brown with a bottom layer of a coarser woolen material, either natural or a shade of yellow. The word "coarser" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) older (B) less heavy (C) more attractive (D) rougher 224. The linsey-woolsey covering was found in the colder regions of the country because of the warmth it afforded. The word "afforded" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) provided (B) spent (C) avoided (D) absorbed 225. Growing tightly packed together and collectively weaving a dense canopy of branches, a stand of red alder trees can totally dominate a site to the exclusion of almost everything else. The word "dense" is closest in meaning to which of following?

(A) dark (B) tall (C) thick (D) broad 226. Farm dwellers in their isolation not only found it harder to locate companions in play but also, thanks to the unending demands and pressures of their work, felt it necessary to combine fun with purpose. The phrase "thanks to " is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) grateful for (B) help with (C) because of (D) machines for 227. The most eagerly anticipated social events were the rural fairs. Hundreds of men, women, and children attended from far and near. The phrase "eagerly anticipated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) well organized (B) old-fashioned (C) strongly opposed (D) looked forward to 228. Although the phlogiston theory was selfconsistent, it was awkward because it required that imaginative, even mysterious, properties be ascribed to phlogiston. The word "properties" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) interpretations (B) locations (C) characteristics (D) virtues 229. Although the phlogiston theory was selfconsistent, it was awkward because it required that imaginative, even mysterious, properties be ascribed to phlogiston. The phrase "ascribed to" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) analyzed and isolated in (B) returned to their original condition in (C) assumed to be true of (E) diagrammed with 29

230. In the eighteenth century, Antoine Lavoisier, on the basis of careful experimentation was led to propose a different theory of burning, one that required a constituent of air-later shown to be oxygenfor combustion. The word "constituent" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) component (B) opposite (C) principle (D) temperature 231. Since the weight of the oxygen is always added, the weight of the products of combustion, including the evolved gases, would always be greater than the weight of the starting material. The word "Since" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) later (B) because (C) during (D) although 232. Iron production was revolutionized in the early eighteenth century when coke was first used instead of charcoal for refining iron ore. The word "revolutionized" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) quickly started (B) gradually opened (C) dramatically changed (D) carefully examined 233. Apart from its low cost, the appeal of iron as a building material lay in its strength, its resistance to fire, and its potential to span vast areas. The word "appeal" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) adjustment (B) assignment (C) attraction (D) attempt 234. Significantly, the use of exposed iron occurred mainly in the new building types spawned by the Industrial Revolution: in

factories, warehouses, commercial offices, exhibition halls, and railroad stations, where its practical advantages far outweighed its lack of status. The word "spawned" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) created (B) maintained (C) rejected (D) exposed 235. Designers of the railroad stations of the new age explored the potential of iron, covering huge areas with spans that surpassed the great vaults of medieval hurches and cathedrals. The word "surpassed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) imitated (B) exceeded (C) approached (D) included 236. Their composition is thought to be similar to that of Earth's iron core, and indeed they might have once made up the core of a large planetoid that disintegrated long ago. The word "core" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) center (B) surface (C) mineral (D) field 237. When meteorites fall on the continent, they are embedded in the moving ice sheets. At places where the glaciers move upward against mountain ranges, meteorites are left exposed on the surface. The word "embedded" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) isolated (B) encased (C) enhanced (D) enlarged 238. The pale, smooth desert plain provides a perfect backdrop for spotting meteorites, which are usually dark brown of black. The word "spotting" is closest in meaning to which of following? 30

(A) removing (B) identifying (C) cooling (D) falling 239. A pioneering set of experiments has been important in the revolution in our understanding of animal behavior-a revolution that eroded the behaviorist dogma that only humans have minds. The word "dogma" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) evaluation (B) proof (C) intention (D) belief 240. These experiments were designed to detect consciousness --The word "detect" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) imitate the behavior of (B) provide a reason for (C) discover the presence of (D) report a need for 241. The scientific investigation of an experience as private as consciousness is frustratingly beyond the usual tools of the experimental psychologist. This may be one reason that many researchers have shied away from the notion of mind and consciousness in nonhuman animals. The phrase "shied away from" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) approached (B) avoided (C) respected (D) allowed 242. Gallup' report of the experiment, published in a 1970 article, was a milestone in our understanding of animal minds, and psychologists wondered how widespread selfrecognition would prove to be. The word "milestone" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) significant development (B) initial step (C) universal concept

(D) obstruction to progress 243. Biological diversity has become widely recognized as a critical conservation issue only in the past two decades. The word "critical" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) negative (B) essential (C) interesting (D) complicated 244. The high rate of species extinctions in these environments is jolting, but it is important to recognize the significance of biological diversity in all ecosystems. The word "jolting" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) predicted (B) shocking (C) unknown (D) illuminating 245. However, nothing has ever equaled the magnitude and speed with which the human species is altering the physical and chemical world and demolishing the environment. The word "magnitude" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) concern (B) determination (C) carelessness (E) extent 246. The conservatism of the early English colonists in North American, their strong attachment to the English way of doing things, would play a major part in the furniture that was made in New England. The phrase "attachment to " is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) control of (B) distance from (C) curiosity about (D) preference for 247. The mortise is the hole chiseled and cut into one piece of wood, while the tenon is the tongue of protruding element shaped from another piece of wood so that it fits into the mortise; and another small hole is then drilled 31

(with the auger) through the mortised end and the tenon so that a whittled peg can secure the joint-thus the term "joiner.鈥?br /> The word "protruding" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) parallel (B) simple (C) projecting (D) important 248. Locks and escutcheon plates-the latter to shield the wood from the metal key-would often be imported. The word "shield" in line 23 closest in meaning to (A) decorate (B) copy (C) shape (D) protect 249. The establishment of these posts opened new roads and provided for the protection of daring adventurers and expeditions as well as established settlers. The word "daring" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) lost (B) bold (C) lively (D) foolish 250. Throughout the wilderness, post bands provided entertainment and boosted morale. The word "boosted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) influenced (B) established (C) raised (D) maintained 251. It slowed construction of forts and inhibited their military function. The word "inhibited" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) involved (B) exploited (C) united (D) hindered 252. Anyone who has handled a fossilized bone

knows that it is usually not exactly like its modern counterpart, the most obvious difference being that it is often much heavier. The word "counterpart' is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) species (B) version (C) change (D) material 253. But it is a wrong interpretation; fossils are frequently so dense because the pores and other spaces in the bone have become filled with minerals taken up from the surrounding sediments. The word "pores" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) joints (B) tissues (C) lines (D) holes 254. Although nothing remains of the original collagen, some of its component amino acids are usually still detectable, together with amino acids of the noncollagen proteins of bone. The word "detectable" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) sizable (B) active (C) moist (D) apparent 255. In spite of Hunt's inviting facade, the living space was awkwardly arranged. Those who could afford them were quite content to reunion in the more sumptuous, single-family homes, leaving the Stuyvesant to young married couples and bachelors. The word "inviting" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) open (B) encouraging (C) attractive (D) asking 256. Those who could afford them were quite content to reunion in the more sumptuous, single-family homes, leaving the Stuyvesant to 32

young married couples and bachelors. The word "sumptuous" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) luxurious (B) unique (C) modern (D) distant 257. The lot could also accommodate a rectangular tenement, though it could not yield the square, well-lighted, and logically arranged rooms that great apartment buildings require. The word "yield" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) harvest (B) surrender (C) amount (D) provide 258. A snowfall consists of myriads of minute ice crystals that fall to the ground in the form of frozen precipitation. The word "minute" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) tiny (B) quick (C) clear (D) sharp 259. The process can be very rapid, quickly creating sizable ice crystals, some of which adhere to each other to create a cluster of ice crystals or a snowflake. The word "adhere" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) belong (B) relate (C) stick (D) speed 260. In addition, mountainous sections or rising terrain can initiate snowfalls by the geographical lifting of a moist airstream. The word "initiate" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) enhance (B) alter (C) increase (D) begin

261. It dissolves, transports, and precipitates many chemical compounds and is constantly modifying the face of the Earth. Evaporated from the oceans, water vapor forms clouds, some of which are transported by wind over the continents. The word "modifying" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) changing (B) traveling (C) describing (D) destroying 262. This last figure shows the importance of the ocean as the principal reservoir of the hydrosphere but also the rapidity of water transport on the continents. The word "rapidity" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) significance (B) method (C) swiftness (D) reliability 263. The erosion of the continents thus results from two closely linked and interdependent processes, chemical erosion and mechanical erosion. Their respective interactions and efficiency depend on different factors. The word "efficiency" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) relationship (B) growth (C) influence (D) effectiveness 264. Among the species of seabirds that use the windswept cliffs of the Atlantic coast of Canada in the summer to mate, lay eggs, and rear their young are common murres, Atlantic puffins, black-legged kittiwakes, and northern gannets. The word "rear" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) visit (B) watch (C) reverse (D) raise 265. The advantage of nesting on cliffs is the 33

immunity it gives from foxes, which cannot scale the sheer rocks, and from ravens and other species of gulls, which have difficulty in landing on narrow ledges to steal eggs. The word "scale" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) climb (B) avoid (C) approach (D) measure 266. This immunity has been followed by a relaxation of the defenses, and kittiwakes do not react to predators nearly as fiercely as do ground-nesting gulls. The word "immunity" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) distance (B) transition (C) protection (D) reminder 267. Kittiwakes defecate over the edge of the nest, which keeps it clean, but this practice, as well as their tendency to leave the nest littered with eggshells, makes its location very conspicuous. The word "conspicuous" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) disordered (B) suspicious (C) noticeable (D) appealing 268. On the other hand, nesting on a narrow ledge has its own peculiar problems, and kittiwake behavior has become adapted to overcome them. The phrase "On the other hand " is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) therefore (B) however (C) for example (D) by no means 269. Throughout the nineteenth century and into the twentieth, citizens of the United States maintained a bias against big cities. The word "bias" is closest in meaning to which of following?

(A) diagonal (B) slope (C) distortion (D) prejudice 270. These new urbanites, already convinced that cities were overwhelmed with great problems, eagerly embraced the progressive reforms that promised to bring order out of the chaos of the city. The word "embraced" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) suggested (B) overestimated (C) demanded (D) welcomed 271. Reformers feared that the privately owned utility companies would charge exorbitant rates for these essential services and deliver them only to people who could afford them. The word "exorbitant" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) additional (B) expensive (C) various (D) modified 272. Proponents of these reforms argued that public ownership and regulation would insure widespread access to these utilities and guarantee a fair price. The word "Proponents" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) Experts (B) Pioneers (C) Reviewers (D) Supporters 273. By 1776 the fine art of painting as it had developed in western Europe up to this time had been introduced into the American colonies through books and prints, European visitors and immigrants, and traveling colonists who brought back copies of old master paintings and acquaintance with European art institutions. By the outbreak of the Revolution against British rule in 1776, the status of the artist had already undergone change. 34

The word "outbreak" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) cause (B) beginning (C) position (D) explanation The word "undergone" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) led to (B) transformed (C) preferred (D) experienced 274. Some colonial urban portraitist, such as John Singleton Copley, Benjamin West, and Charles Willson Peale, consorted with affluent patrons. The word "consorted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) made decisions (B) studied (C) agreed (D) associated 275. Although subject to fluctuations in their economic status, all three enjoyed sufficient patronage to allow them to maintain an image of themselves as professional artists, an image indicated by their custom of signing their paintings. The word "sufficient" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) adequate (B) temporary (C) friendly (D) expensive 276. The railroad simultaneously stripped the landscape of the natural resources, made velocity of transport and economy of scale necessary parts of industrial production, and carried consumer goods to households;it dispatched immigrants to unsettled places, drew emigrants away from farms and villages to cities, and sent men and guns to battle. The word "drew" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) obliged (B) designed

(C) helped (D ) attracted 277. It standardized time and travel, seeking to annihilate distance and space by allowing movement at any time and in any season or type of weather. The word "annihilate" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) conquer (B) utilize (C) separate (D) mechanize 278. Moreover, in addition to its being a transportation pathway equipped with a mammoth physical plant of tracks signals, crossings, bridges, and junctions, plus telegraph and telephone lines the railroad nurtured factory complexes, coat piles, warehouses, and generating stations, forming along its right-of-way what has aptly been called "the metropolitan corridor" of the American landscape. The word "Moreover" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) consequently (B) furthermore (C) although (D) because The word "aptly" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) appropriately (B) virtually (C) consistently (D) incessantly 279. The Native Americans of northern California were highly skilled at basketry, using the reeds, grasses, barks, and roots they found around them to fashion articles of all sorts and sizes-not only trays, containers, and cooking pots, but hats, boats, fish traps, baby carriers, and ceremonial objects. The word "fashion" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) maintain (B) organize (C) trade 35

(D) create 280. In addition, they made used of four distinct variations on the basic twining process, often employing more than one of them in a single article. The word "article" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) decoration (B) shape (C) design (D) object 281. Though other materials were sometimes used, these four were the staples in their finest basketry. The word "staples" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) combinations (B) limitations (C) accessories (D) basic elements 282. Every Pomo basket maker knew how to produce from fifteen to twenty distinct patterns that could be combined in a number of different ways. The word "distinct" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) systematic (B) beautiful (C) different (D) compatible 283. Periodically, molten material wells out of the Earth's interior to invade the surface layers or to flow onto the surface itself. The word "invade" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) move into (B) neutralize (C) cover (D) deposit 284. Granite may be found on the surface of the contemporary landscape, but from its coarse texture we know that it must have formed through slow cooling at a great depth and later been laid bare by erosion. The word "contemporary" is closest in

meaning to which of following? (A) vast (B) natural (C) existing (D) uneven 285. The most finely grained igneous rock is volcanic glass or obsidian, which has no crystals. The word "finely" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) minutely (B) loosely (C) sensitively (D) purely 286. It was in the cities that the elements that can be associated with modern capitalism first appeared-the use of money and commercial paper in place of barter, open competition in place of social deference and hierarchy, with an attendant rise in social disorder, and the appearance of factories using coal or water power in place of independent craftspeople working with hand tools. The phrase "in place of" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) connected to (B) in addition to (C) because of (D) instead of The word "attendant" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) avoidable (B) accompanying (C) unwelcome (D) unexpected 287. Except for Boston, whose population stabilized at about 16, 000 in 1760, cities grew by exponential leaps through the eighteenth century. The phrase "exponential leaps" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) long wars (B) new laws (C) rapid increases (D) exciting changes 36

288. The quality of the hinterland dictated the pace of growth of the cities. The word "dictated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) spoiled (B) reduced (C) determined (D) divided 289. The land surrounding Boston had always been poor farm country, and by the mideighteenth century it was virtually stripped of its timber. The available farmland was occupied; there was little in the region beyond the city to attract immigrants. The word "virtually" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) usually (B) hardly (C) very quickly (D) almost completely 290. Although there are several variations on the exact format that worksheet can take, they are all similar in their essential aspects. The word "essential" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) introductory (B) changeable (C) beneficial (D) fundamental 291. Next, the pertinent considerations that will be affected by each decision are listed, and the relative importance of each consideration or consequence is determined. The word "pertinent" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) relevant (B) preceding (C) insightful (D) responsive 292. A decision-making worksheet begins with a succinct statement of the problem that will also help to narrow it. It is important to be clear about the distinction between long-range and immediate goals because long-range goals often involve a different decision than shortrange ones.

The word "succinct" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) creative (B) satisfactory (C) personal (D) concise 293. Focusing on long-range goals, a graduating student might revise the question above to "What will I do after graduation that will lead to a successful career?" The word "revise" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) ask (B) explain (C) change (D) predict 294. The ecosystems of the Earth provide an array of free public services that are essential for the support of civilizations. The word "array" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) large number (B) excess (C) requirement (D) model 295. They do know, however, that the theory once advanced in the nineteenth century --that the productivity of the land can be infinitely increased by the application of capital, labor, and science --- is wrong. The word "advanced" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) debated (B) ignored (C) proved (D) proposed 296. Two reasons are usually advanced to account for this tardy development, namely, the mental difficulties and the physical difficulties encountered in such work. The word "tardy" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) historical (B) basic (C) unusual (D) late 37

297. The first of these, the mental difficulties, must be somewhat discounted. The impression that the ancient numeral systems are not amenable to even the simplest calculations is largely based on lack of familiarity with these systems. The word "discounted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) reduced (B) contradicted (C) disregarded (D) interpreted 298. Without a plentiful and convenient supply of some suitable writing medium, any very extended development of the arithmetic process was bound to be hampered. The word "hampered" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) impeded (B) concluded (C) unnoticed (D) rejected 299. In the core of the Sun, the pressures are so great against the gases that, despite the high temperature, there may be a small solid core. The word "great" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) dangerous (B) unknown (C) variable (D) strong 300. The corona is a brilliant, pearly white, filmy light, about as bright as the full Moon. Its beautiful rays are a sensational sight during an eclipse. The corona's rays flash out in a brilliant fan that has wispy spike like rays near the Sun's north and south poles. The word "sensational" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) spectacular (B) predictable (C) bizarre (D) constant 301. She also photographs away from her studio at various architectural sites, bringing

camera, lights, mirrors, and a crew of assistants to transform the site into her own abstract image. The word "transform" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) move (B) extend (C) change (D) interpret 302. At first she works only with objects, concentrating on their composition ; then she lights them and adds color from lights covered with colored filters. The word "composition" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) arrangement (B) brightness (C) quality (D) size 303. She visits each location several times to make sketches and test shots. Until she brings in the lights, however, she cannot predict exactly what they will do to the image, so there is some improvising on the spot. The word "shots" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) injections (B) photographs (C) loud noises (D) effective remarks 304. With its radiant color and plantlike shape, the sea anemone looks more like a flower than an animal. The word "shape" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) length (B) grace (C) form (D) nature 305. The upper end of the sea anemone has a mouth surrounded by tentacles that the animal uses to capture its food. The word "capture" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) catch (B) control 38

(C) cover (D) clean 306. When disturbed, a sea anemone retracts its tentacles and shortens its body so that it resembles a lump on a rock. The word "retracts" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) pulls back (B) relaxes (C) reproduces (D) lifts up 307. The first such attempt, the ambitious Project Mohole, got under way during the 1960's and proved the value of deep-sea drilling by making several test holes in the mantle beneath the crust before spiraling costs led to its cancellation. The word "spiraling" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) rising (B) necessary (C) unpredictable (D) circular 308. Soon afterward, however, work began on the more modest Deep Sea Drilling Project, which is not aimed at reaching the mantle but at exploring the crust itself. The expression "more modest " is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) more sophisticated (B) more timid (C) less ambitious (D) less controversial 309. This venture uses a special ship, the Glomar Challenger, which can be held precisely in position in the sea --- without any anchor --- by sound-wave guiding systems and computer-controlled propellers. The word " precisely" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) exactly (B) clearly (C) economically (D) practically 310. Throughout the colonial period there was

a marked shortage of women, which varied with the regions and was always greatest in the frontier areas. The word "marked" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) underlined (B) graded (C) prolonged (D) distinct 311. Puritan town councils expected widows and unattached women to be selfsupporting and for a long time provided needy spinsters with parcels of land. The phrase "unattached women" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) women without high social status (B) women without property (C) unmarried women (D) unemployed women 312. The artisan who makes pottery in North America today utilizes his or her skill and imagination to create items that are beautiful as well as functional, transforming something ordinary into something special and unique. The word "functional" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) useful (B) strong (C) inexpensive (D) original 313. The potter uses one of the Earth's most basic materials: clay. Clay can be found almost anywhere. The word "basic" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) familiar (B) fundamental (D) dirty 314. They then pour on the liquid glaze and let it run over the clay surface, making any kind of decorative pattern that they want. The word "pattern" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) model (B) color 39

(C) puzzle (D) design 315. Horses live in a monochrome world. Light visible to human eyes, however, occupies only a very narrow band in the whole electromagnetic spectrum. The word "monochrome" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) monotonous (B) ultraviolet (C) one-dimension (D) one-color 316. The world would look eerily different if human eyes were sensitive to infra-red radiation. The word "eerily" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) strangely (B) increasingly (C) slightly (D) superficially 317. They are, in fact, remarkably discerning in color gradation. The color sensitivity of normal human vision is rarely surpassed even by sophisticated technical devices. The word "surpassed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) recorded (B) exceeded (C) found (D) provided 318. Once, just before he died, when he was sick with the flu, I took him a sack full of oranges. The joy I felt in giving that simple gift is undiminished by time. He said he liked oranges, too. " The word "undiminished" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) not exaggerated (B) not lessened (D) unequaled 319. And he was kind to me; I will always be grateful that in his absolute warmth and generosity he fulfilled my deepest dream (and

need) of what a poet should be. " The word "dream" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) nightmare (B) expectation (C) sleep (D) misconception 320. "After my first meeting with Langston Hughes I vowed I would write a book about him for children someday. The word "vowed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) confided (B) b<elieved (C) denied (D) promised 321. A third process by which salinity may be altered is associated with the formation and melting of sea ice. When seawater is frozen, the dissolved materials are left behind. The word "altered" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) determined (B) changed (C) accumulated (D) needed 322. With encouragement from the park, local landowners initiated a land-use planning effort to guide the future of the North Fork. The word "initiated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) started (B) requested (C) purchased (D) considered 323. The willingness of local landowners to participate in this protection effort may have been stimulated by concerns that Congress would impose a legislative solution. The word "stimulated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) motivated (B) anticipated (C) substituted (D) undermined 40

324. Nevertheless, many local residents want to retain the existing the character of the area. The word "retain" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) preserve (B) possess (C) enjoy (D) improve 325. There were two widely divergent influences on the early development of statistical methods The word "divergent" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) different (B) distributed (C) recorded (D) prominent 326. Descriptive statistics is a tool for describing or summarizing or reducing to comprehensible form the properties of an otherwise unwieldy mass of data. The word "unwieldy" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) unmanageable (B) unpredictable (C) understandable (D) unreliable 327. From then on, humans would increasingly take their living from the controlled production of a few plants, rather than getting a little here and a little there from many varieties that grew wild-and the accumulated knowledge of lens of thousands of years of experience and intimacy with plants in the wild would begin to fade away. The word "controlled" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) abundant (B) managed (C) required (D) advanced 328. This century, the work of cognitive psychologists has illuminated the subtle forms of daily learning on which intellectual progress depends. The word "illuminated" is closest in meaning

to which of following? (A) illustrated (B) accepted (C) clarified (D) lighted 329. They have also suggested that the very concept of abstract numbers-the idea of a oneness, a twoness, a threeness that applies to any class of objects and is a prerequisite for doing anything more mathematically demanding than setting a table-is itself far from innate. The word "prerequisite" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) reason (B) theory (C) requirement (D) technique 330. The droplets or ice crystals in clouds are exceedingly small. The effect of gravity on them is minute. Air currents move and lift droplets so that the net downward displacement is zero, even though the droplets are in constant motion. The word "minute" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) second (B) tiny (C) slow (D) steady 331. Air currents move and lift droplets so that the net downward displacement is zero, even though the droplets are in constant motion. The word "motion" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) wind (B) change (C) movement (D) humidity 332. To the casual observer, dust seems to act in a totally random fashion, moving about chaotically without fixed direction. The word "random" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) unpredictable (B) perplexing 41

(C) independent (D) abnormal 333. During the 1920's she was editor of The Dial, an important literary magazine of the period. The word "period" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) movement (B) school (C) region (D) time succeeding generations of poets and readers. The word "succeeding" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) inheriting (B) prospering (C) diverse (D) later 334. The Southwest has always been a dry country, where water is scarce. The Hopi and Zuni brought water from streams to their fields and gardens through irrigation ditches. The word "scarce" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) limited (B) hidden (C) pure (D) necessary 335. Like tree roots breaking up a sidewalk, the growing crystals exert pressure on the rock and eventually pry the rock apart along planes of weakness, such as banding in metamorphic rocks, bedding in sedimentary rocks, or preexisting or incipient fractions, and along boundaries between individual mineral crystals or grains. The word "exert" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) put (B) reduce (C) replace (D) control 336. A rock durable enough to have withstood natural conditions for a very long time in other areas could probably be shattered into small

pieces by salt weathering within a few generations. The word "durable" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) large (B) strong (C) flexible (D) pressured The word "shattered" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) arranged (B) dissolved (C) broken apart (D) gathered together 337. The dominant salt in Death Valley is halite, or sodium chloride, but other salts, mostly carbonates and sulfates, also cause prying and wedging, as does ordinary ice. The word "dominant" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) most recent (B) most common (C) least available (D) least damaging 338. Overland transport in the United States was still extremely primitive in 1790. Roads were few and short, usually extending from inland communities to the nearest river town or seaport. The word "primitive" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) unsafe (B) unknown (C) inexpensive (D) undeveloped 339. Nearly all interstate commerce was carried out by sailing ships that served the bays and harbors of the seaboard. Yet, in 1790 the nation was on the threshold of a new era of road development. The phrase "on the threshold of" in line 4 and 5 is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) in need of (B) in place of (C) at the start of (D) with the purpose of 42

340. The company built a gravel road within two years, and the success of the Lancaster Pike encouraged imitation. Northern states generally relied on private companies to build their toll roads, but Virginia constructed a network at public expense. The word "imitation" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) investment (B) suggestion (C) increasing (D) copying 341. Its peoples became great traders, bartering jewellery, pottery, animal pelts, tools, and other goods along extensive trading networks that stretched up and down eastern North America and as far west as the Rocky Mountains. The word "bartering" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) producing (B) exchanging (C) transporting (D) loading 342. Over the next centuries, it was supplanted by another culture, the Mississippian, named after the river along which many of its earliest villages were located. The word "supplanted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) conquered (B) preceded (C) replaced (D) imitated 343. Most of these towns boasted at least one major flat-topped mound on which stood a temple that contained a sacred flame. Only priests and those charged with guarding the flame could enter the temples. The phrase "charged with" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) passed on (B) experienced at (C) interested in (D) assigned to

344. Printmaking is the generic term for a number of processes, of which woodcut and engraving are two prime examples. The word "prime" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) principal (B) complex (C) general (D) recent 345. Engraving, which grew out of the goldsmith's art, originated in Germany and northern Italy in the middle of the fifteenth century. It is an intaglio process (from Italian intagliare, "to carve") . The image is incised into a highly polished metal plate, usually copper, with a cutting instrument, or burin. The word "incised" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) burned (B) cut (C) framed (D) baked 346. Both woodcut and engraving have distinctive characteristics. Engraving lends itself to subtle modeling and shading through the use of fine lines. The word "distinctive" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) unique (B) accurate (C) irregular (D) similar 347. Both methods can yield several hundred good-quality prints before the original block or plate begins to show signs of wear. The word "yield" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) imitate (B) produce (C) revise (D) contrast 348. But not all animal parents, even those that tend their offspring to the point of hatching or birth, feed their young. The word "tend" is closest in meaning to which of following? 43

(A) sit on (B) move (C) notice (D) care for 349. Few insects feed their young after hatching, but some make other arrangement, provisioning their cells and nests with caterpillars and spiders that they have paralyzed with their venom and stored in a state of suspended animation so that their larvae might have a supply of fresh food when they hatch. The word "provisioning" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) supplying (B) preparing (C) building (D) expanding 350. For animals other than mammals, then, feeding is not intrinsic to parental care. Animals add it to their reproductive strategies to give them an edge in their lifelong quest for descendants. The word "edge" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) opportunity (B) advantage (C) purpose (D) rest 351. Young that are fed by their parents become nutritionally independent at a much greater fraction of their full adult size. And in the meantime those young are shielded against the vagaries of fluctuating of difficult-to-find supplies. The word "shielded" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) raised (B) protected (C) hatched (D) valued 352. A second, more dense atmosphere, however, gradually enveloped Earth as gasses from molten rocks within its hot interior escaped through volcanoes and steam vents. The word "enveloped" is closest in meaning to

which of following? (A) surrounded (B) changed (C) escaped (D) characterized 353. With much of the water vapor already condensed into water and the concentration of carbon dioxide dwindling, the atmosphere gradually became rich nitrogen. The word "gradually" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) accidentally (B) quickly (C) in the end (D) by degrees 354. At any rate, plant growth greatly enriched our atmosphere with oxygen. The reason for this enrichment is that plants, in the presence of sunlight, process carbon dioxide and water to produce oxygen. The word "At any rate" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) regardless (B) in addition (C) although unlikely (D) fortunately 355. Over 25,000 islands are scattered across the surface of the Pacific, more than in all the other oceans combined, but their land area adds up to little more than 125,000 square kilometers, about the size of New York State, and their inhabitants total less than two million people, about a quarter of the number that live in New York City. The word "scattered" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) widely known (B) usually estimated (C) rarely inhabited (D) irregularly distributed 356. Many are uninhabitable, by virtue of their small size and particular characteristics, but even the most favored are very isolated fragments of land, strictly circumscribed by the ocean, strictly limited in terms of the numbers of people they can support. 44

The phrase "by virtue of" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) regarding (B) because of (C) taking advantage of (D) in place of The word "circumscribed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) located (B) flooded (C) restricted (D) pushed 357. Simply surviving those ocean crossings of indeterminate length, in open canoes, to arrive on the shores of uninhabited and hitherto unknown islands, was a formidable achievement. The word "indeterminate" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) undecided (B) uncertain (C) unacceptable (D) increasing 358. The Rosetta stone thwarted scholars' efforts for several decades until the early nineteenth century when several key hieroglyphic phrases were decoded using the Greek inscriptions. The word "thwarted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) continued (B) influenced (C) encouraged (D) frustrated 359. Lichens, probably the hardiest of all plants, live where virtually nothing else can--not just on rugged mountain peaks but also on sunbaked desert rocks. The word "hardest" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) most unusual (B) most basic (C) most abundant (D) most vigorous 360. Unlike other members of the plant

kingdom, lichens are actually a partnership between two plants. The framework of a lichen is usually a network of minute hairlike fungus that anchors the plant. The word "framework" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) structure (<B (C) condition (D) environment 361. When water is scarce (as is often the case on a mountain) , lichens may become dormant and remain in that condition for prolonged periods of time. The word "prolonged" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) precise (B) extended (C) approximate (D) regular 362. For decades, scientists wondered how the offspring of an alga and a fungus got together to form a new lichen; it seemed unlikely that they would just happen to encounter one another. The word "encounter" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) lose (B) support (C) meet (D) create 363. Newbery notwithstanding, Americans still looked on children's books as vehicles for instruction, not amusement, though they would accept a moderate amount of fictional entertainment for the sake of more successful instruction. The word "notwithstanding" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) in spite of (B) in addition to (C) as a result of (D) as a part of 364. As the children's book market expanded, then, what both public and publishers wanted was the kind of fiction Maria Edgeworth wrote: 45

stories interesting enough to attract children and morally instructive enough to allay adult distrust of fiction. The word "allay" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) clarify (B) attack (C) reduce (D) confirm 365. The characters of children in this fiction were serious, conscientious, self-reflective, and independent --- strong>testimony to the continuing influence of the earlier American moralistic tradition in children's books. The word" testimony to" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) inspiration for (B) evidence of (C) requirement for (D) development of 366. The Moon, which has undergone a distinct and complex geological history presents a striking appearance. The word "undergone" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) altered (B) substituted (C) experienced (D) preserved 367. It is now known that the vast majority of the Moon's craters were formed by the impact of solid bodies with the lunar surface. The word "vast" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) special (B) Known (C) varied (D) great 368. The term "latent heat" refers to the energy that has to be used to convert liquid water to water vapor. The word "convert" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) mix (B) change (C) adapt

(D) reduce 369. In the atmosphere, a large portion of the Sun's incoming energy is used to evaporate water, primarily in the tropical oceans. The word "primarily" in the line 19 is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) chiefly (B) originally (C) basically (D) clearly 370. Other species may become better adapted to an environment, resulting in competition and, ultimately, in the death of a species. The word "ultimately" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) exceptionally (B) dramatically (C) eventually (D) unfortunately 371. One of the best-known examples of mass extinction occurred 65 million years ago with the demise of dinosaurs and many other forms of life. The word "demise" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) change (B) recovery (C) help (D) death 372. One interesting, and controversial, finding is that extinctions during the past 250 million years have tended to be more intense every 26 million years. The word "finding" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) published information (B) research method (C) ongoing experiment (D) scientific discovery 373. Even the name is an epithet, a synonym for the stunted, the scruffy, the insignificant, what is beautiful about such a place? The word "insignificant" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) unimportant 46

(B) undisturbed (C) immature (D) inappropriate 374. Potter, for instance, found it convenient to locate their workshops near their source of clay, regardless of its relation to the center of settlement. The phrase "regardless of" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) as a result of (B) no matter what (C) proud of (D) according to 375. The techniques of pottery manufacture had evolved well before the Greek period, but marked stylistic developments occurred in shape and in decoration, for example, in the interplay of black and other glazes with the red surface of the fired pot. The word "marked" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) original (B) attractive (C) noticeable (D) patterned 376. The broad utility of terra-cotta was such that workers in clay could generally afford to confine themselves to either decorated ware and house wares like cooking pots and storage jars or building materials like roof tiles and drainpipes. The word "confine" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) adapt (B) train (C) restrict (D) organize 377. Some sixth-and fifth-century B. C. Athenian pottery establishments are known to have concentrated on a limited range of fine ware, but a rural pottery establishment on the island of Thasos produced many types of pottery and roof tiles too, presumably to meet local demand. The word "presumably" is closest in meaning to which of following?

(A) frequently (B) practically (C) preferably (D) probably 378. The expense of moving a family to the ever-receding frontier exceeded the means of many, and the cost of tools draft animals, a wagon, a well, fencing, and of building the simplest house, might come to$1,000---a formidable barrier. The word "formidable" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) obvious (B) predictable (C) difficult (D) manageable 379. Homesteaders usually came from districts not far removed from frontier conditions. And despite the intent of the law, speculators often managed to obtain large tracts. The word "intent" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) purpose (B) power (C) effect (D) invention 380. The smooth operation of an ant colony depends on ten to twenty different signals, most of which are pheromones(chemical signals triggering behavioral responses) . The phrase "smooth operation" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) daily activity (B) effective functioning (C) delicate balance (D) permanent location 381. The simple of these is the carbon dioxide from the respiration of an ant cluster, a chemical that acts pheromone to promote aggregation. The word "cluster" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) organ (B) activity (C) group (D) cycle 47

382. Fire ants also make use of an alarm pheromone to alert workers to an emergency, and their scouts lay down a trail pheromone as a guide during mass migrations. The word "alert" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) allow (B) transport (C) warn (D) provide 383. A fire ant queen emits a chemical signal that identifies her to the colony's workers. They respond by scurrying to gather around her. The decomposing corpse of a dead ant also generates a signal, to which workers respond by eliminating the corpse from the nest. The word "scurrying" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) agreeing (B) appearing (C) competing (D) rushing 384. Rivers also reveal clay along their banks, and erosion on a hillside may make clay easily accessible. The word "accessible" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) buried (B) improved (C) available (D) workable 385. Variations of clay composition and the temperatures at which they are fired account for the differences in texture and appearance between a china teacup and an earthenware flowerpot. The phrase "account for" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) reduce (B) explain (C) combine with (D) list all of 386. One researcher observed babies and their mothers in six diverse cultures and found that, in all six languages, the mothers used

simplified syntax, short utterances and nonsense sounds, and transformed certain sounds into baby talk. The word "diverse" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) surrounding (B) divided (C) different (D) stimulating 387. Other investigators have noted that when mothers talk to babies who are only a few months old, they exaggerate the pitch, loudness, and intensity of their words. The word "noted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) theorized (B) requested (C) disagreed (D) observed 388. They also exaggerate their facial expressions, hold vowels longer, and emphasize certain words. The word "emphasize" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) stress (B) repeat (C) explain (D) leave out 389. When songs have been subjected to these processes, their origin is usually impossible to trace. The word "subjected" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) reduced (B) modified (C) exposed (D) imitated 390. This constant reshaping and re-creation is the essence of folk music. Consequently, modern popular songs and other published music, even though widely sung by people who are not professional musicians, are not considered folk music. The word "essence" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) basic nature 48

(B) growing importance (C) full extent (D) first phase 391. In 1903 the members of the governing board of the University of Washington, in Seattle, engaged a firm of landscape architects, specialists in the design of outdoor environments --- Olmsted Brothers of Brookline, Massachusetts --- to advise them on an appropriate layout for the university grounds. The word "engaged" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) trained (B) hired (C) described (D) evaluated 392. John Olmsted did the investigation and subsequent report on Seattle's parks. The word "subsequent" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) complicated (B) alternate (C) later (D) detailed 393. With such unparalleled sums at their disposal, with the Olmsted guidelines to follow, and with the added incentive of wanting to have the city at its best for the Alaska-YukonPacific Exposition of 1909, the Parks Board bought aggressively. The word "sums" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) problems (B) amounts (C) services (D) debts 394. Many prehistoric people subsisted as hunters and gatherers. Undoubtedly, game animals, including some very large species, provided major components of human diets. The word "Undoubtedly" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) occasionally (B) unexpectedly (C) previously

(D) certainly The word "components" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) parts (B) problems (C) changes (D) varieties 395. Hunter-gatherers may have contributed to Pleistocene extinctions in more indirect ways. Besides overhunting, at least three other kinds of effects have been suggested: direct competition, imbalances between competing species of game animals, and early agricultural practices. The word "Besides" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) caused by (B) whereas (C) in addition to (D) in favor of 396. If such hunters first competed with the larger predators and then replaced them, they may have allowed more young to survive each year, gradually increasing the populations of favored species. The word "favored" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) large (B) escaping (C) preferred (D) local 397. They became an integral part of the gardens of the Ottoman Empire from the sixteenth century onward, and, soon after, part of European life as well. The word "integral" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) interesting (B) fundamental (C) ornamental (D) overlooked 398. They flourished in Pennsyvania too, where in 1698 William Penn received a report of John Tateham's "Great and Stately Palace," its garden full of tulips. The word "flourished" is closest in meaning to 49

which of following? (A) were discovered (B) were marketed (C) combined (D) thrived 399. Thomas Hancock, an English settler, wrote thanking his plant supplier for a gift of some tulip bulbs from England, but his letter of the following year grumbled that they were all dead. The word "grumbled" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) denied (B) warned (C) complained (D) explained 400. No two comets ever look identical, but they have basic features in common, one of the most obvious of which is a coma. The word "identical" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) equally fast (B) exactly alike (C) near each other (D) invisible 401. At the heart of a comer's coma lies a nucleus of solid material, typically no more than 10 kilometers across. The word "heart" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) center (B) edge (C) tail (D) beginning 402. The most graphic proof that the grand spectacle of a comet develops from a relatively small and inconspicuous chunk of ice and dust was the close-up image obtained in 1986 by the European Giotto probe of the nucleus of Halley's Comet. The word "graphic" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) mathematical (B) popular (C) unusual (D) vivid

403. As a comet's orbit brings it closer to the Sun, first the coma grows, then two distinct tails usually form. The word "distinct" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) visible (B) gaseous (C) separate (D) new 404. Pheromones are substances that serve as chemical signals between members of the same species. The word "serve" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) improve (B) function (C) begin (D) rely 405. Pheromones are the predominant medium of communication among insects (but rarely the sole method) . Some species have simple pheromone systems and produce only a few pheromones, but others produce many with various functions. The word "sole" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) obvious (B) best (C) only (D) final 406. Some species, such as ants, seem to be very articulate creatures, but their medium of communication is difficult for humans to study and appreciate because of our own olfactory insensitivity and the technological difficulties in detecting and analyzing there pheromones. The word " detecting " is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) controlling (B) storing (C) questioning (D) finding 407. Aphids, which are particularly vulnerable to predators because of their gregarious habits and sedentary nature, secrete an alarm 50

pheromone when attacked that causes nearby aphids to respond by moving away. The word "sedentary" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) inactive (B) inefficient (C) unchangeable (D) unbalanced 408. These innovations in manufacturing boosted output and living standards to an unprecedented extent;the average per capita wealth increased by nearly 1 percent per year30 percent over the course of a generation. The word "boosted" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) ensured (B) raised (C) arranged (D) discouraged 409. Since the 1790's, North American entrepreneurs --- even without technological improvements --- had broadened the scope of the outwork system that made manufacturing more efficient by distributing materials to a succession of workers who each performed a single step of the production process. The word "scope" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) value (B) popularity (C) extent (D) diversity 410. As early as 1782 the prolific Delaware inventor Oliver Evans had built a highly automated, laborsaving flour mill driven by water power. The word "prolific" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) efficient (B) productive (C) self-employed (D) progressive 411. This new technology enabled them to build factories in the Nation's largest cities, taking advantage of urban concentrations of inexpensive labor, Good transportation

networks, and eager customers. The word "eager" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) wealthy (B) knowledgeable (C) regular (D) enthusiastic 412. Small, both in format and number of pages, they were generally bound simply, in board(a form of cardboard) or merely stitched in paper wrappers (a sewn antecedent of modern-day paperbacks) . The word "antecedent" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) predecessor (B) format (C) imitation (D) compontent 413. By far, the most appealing publishing investments were to be found in small books that had proven to be steady sellers, providing a reasonably reliable source of income for the publisher. The word "appealing" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) dependable (B) respectable (C) enduring (D) attractive 414. Almanacs, annual publications that contained information on astronomy and weather patterns arranged according to the days, week, and months of a given year, provided the perfect steady seller because their information pertained to the locale in which they would be used. The word "locale" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) topic (B) season (C) interest (D) place 415. What unusual or unique biological train led to the remarkable diversification and unchallenged success of the ants for over 50 million years? 51

The word "unique" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) inherited (B) habitual (C) singular (D) natural 416. The answer appears to be that they were the first group of predatory ensocial insects that both lived and foraged primarily in the soil and in rotting vegetation on the ground. The word "rotting" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) decaying (B) collected (C) expanding (D) cultivated 417. Richly organized colonies of the kind made possible by eusociality enjoy several key advantages over solitary individuals. The word "key" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) uncommon (B) important (C) incidental (D) temporary 418. Composers today use a wider variety of sounds than ever before, including many that were once considered undesirable noises. The word "wider" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) more impressive (B) more distinctive (C) more controversial (D) more extensive 419. Non-Western music typically divides and interval between two pitches more finely than Western music does, thereby producing a greater number of distinct tones, or microtones, within the same interval. The word "thereby" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) in return for (B) in spite of (C) by the way (D) by that means

420. The population of Los Angeles (114,000 in 1900) rose spectacularly in the early decades of the twentieth century, increasing a dramatic 1,400 percent from 1900 to 1930. A number of circumstances contributed to the meteoric rise of Los Angeles. The word "meteoric" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) rapid (B) famous (C) controversial (D) methodical 421. The downtown business district did not grow apace with the city as a whole, and the rapid transit system designed to link the center with outlying areas withered away from disuse. The phrase "apace with" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) anew with (B) apart from (C) as fast as (D) at the middle of 422. After the 1870's, a number of important authors began to reject the romanticism that had prevailed immediately following the Civil War of 1861-1865 and turned instead to realism. The word "prevailed" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) dominated (B) transformed (C) entered (D) generalized 423. Realists such as Joel Chandler Harris and Ellen Glasgow depicted life in the South; Hamlin garland described life on the Great Plains; and Sarah Orne Jewett wrote about everyday life in rural New England. The word "depicted" in line11 is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) emphasized (B) described (C) criticized (D) classified 424. Theodore Dreiser, the foremost naturalist writer, in novels such as Sister Carrie, grimly portrayed a dark world in which human 52

beings were tossed about by forces beyond their understanding or control. The word "foremost" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) most difficult (B) interesting (C) most focused (D) leading 425. Even in this current era of large scale, intensive research and development, the interrelationships involved in this process are frequently misunderstood. The word "intensive" is closest in meaning to which of following?. (A) decreased (B) concentrated (C) creative (D) advanced 426. The widespread and usually uncritical acceptance of this thesis led in turn to the assumption that application of science to industrial purposes was a linear process, starting with fundamental science, then proceeding to applied science or technology, and through them to industrial use. The word "assumption" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) understanding (B) public awareness (C) scientific knowledge (D) expansion 427. The most thoroughly studied cases of deception strategies employed by groundnesting birds involve plovers, small birds that typically nest on beaches or in open fields, their nests merely scrapes in the earth. The word "merely" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) often (B) only (C) usually (D) at first 428. One technique involves first moving quietly toward an approaching animal and then setting off noisily through the grass or brush in a low, crouching run away from the nest, while

emitting rodentlike squeaks. The word "emitting" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) bringing (B) attracting (C) producing (D) minimizing 429. The plover's most famous stratagem is the broken --- wing display, actually a continuum of injury --- mimicking behaviors spanning the range from slight disability to near complete helplessness. The word "spanning" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) covering (B) selecting (C) developing (D) explaining 430. Few predators fail to pursue such obviously vulnerable prey. Needless to say, each short run between "flight attempts" is directed away from the nest. The word "pursue" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) catch (B) notice (C) defend (D) chase 431. Glass fibers were little more than a novelty until the 1930's, when their thermal and electrical insulating properties were appreciated and methods for producing continuous filaments were developed. The word "appreciated" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) experienced (B) recognized (C) explored (D) increased 432. The scarce fossils of the Proterozoic, mostly single-celled bacteria, provide little evidence in this regard. However, the rocks themselves do include the earliest evidence for glaciation, probably a global ice age. The word "scarce" is closest in meaning to which of following? 53

(A) ancient (B) tiny (C) available (D) rare 433. In 2.3-billion-year-old rocks in Canada near Lake Huron (dating from the early part of the Proterozoic age), there are thin laminae of fine-grained sediments that resemble varves, the annual layers of sediment deposited in glacial lakes. The word "resemble" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) result from (B) penetrate (C) look like (D) replace 434. Watching the behaviors diverse animal species in their natural habitats, Lorenz, and Tinbergen observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The word "diverse" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) small (B) varied (C) wild (D) particular 435. The most well-known of these is imprinting, the early following behavior of certain baby birds that ensures that the young will stay close to their mother and be fed and protected from danger. The word "ensures" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) guarantees (B) proves (C) teaches (D) assumes 436. It refers to a limited time span during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of suitably stimulating environment. The word "suitably" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) willingly (B) moderately

(C) appropriately (D) emotionally 437. The development of attachment in human infants is a lengthy process involving changes in psychological structures that lead to a deep affectional tie between parent and baby. The phrase "affectional tie" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) cognitive development (B) emotional attachment (C) psychological need (D) behavioral change 438. Locke strongly suggested that individuals, while accepting their Americanism, take pride in their African ancestral arts and urged artists to look to Africa for substance and inspiration. The word "urged" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) prepared (B) defined (C) permitted (D) encouraged 439. From this unity created by the convergence of artists from various social and geographical backgrounds came a new spirit, which, particularly in densely populated Harlem, was to result in greater group awareness and self-determination. The word "convergence" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) gathering (B) promotion (C) expression (D) influence 440. African American graphic artists took their place beside the poets and writers of the Harlem Renaissance and carried on efforts to increase and promote the visual arts. The phrase "carried on" is closest in meaning to which of following? (A) continued (B) praised (C) transformed (D) connected 54

55

Answer Key
001 A 002 A 003 A 004 D 005 B 006 A 007 C 008 D 009 D 010 B 011 B 012 B 013 C 014 A 015 C 016 A 017 D 018 D 019 A 020 D 021 C 022 B 023 B 024 D 025 B 026 B 027 A 028 A 029 A 030 D 031 D 032 B 033 D 034 C 035 B 036 B 037 C 038 D 039 B 040 D C 041 C 042 D 043 A 044 D 045 B 046 D 047 A 048 C 049 A 050 C 051 A 052 A 053 A 054 D 055 A 056 D 057 B 058 D 059 D A 060 A 061 D 062 A 063 B 064 A 065 B 066 A 067 A 068 D 069 B 070 A 071 A 072 A 073 A 074 C 075 B 076 C 077 A 078 D 079 A 080 B 081 B 082 C 083 B 084 D 085 D 086 B 087 C 088 A 089 B 090 C 091 A 092 C 093 D 094 D 095 C 096 C 097 C 098 D 099 A 100 B 101 A 102 D 103 D 104 A 105 C 106 D A 107 A 108 A 109 D 110 B 111 C 112 A 113 C 114 D 115 B 116 C 117 C 118 B 119 A 120 A D 121 A 122 A 123 B 124 B 125 A 126 C 127 D 128 A 129 B 130 C 131 A 132 D 133 D 134 D 135 C 136 B 137 B 138 D 139 B 140 A 141 C 142 C 143 B 144 B 145 C 146 D B 147 A 148 D 149 D 150 C 151 B 152 D 153 A 154 D 155 A 156 D 157 C 158 D 159 D 160 D 161 B 162 A 163 C 164 D 165 C 166 C 167 B 168 C 169 D 170 C 171 A 172 D 173 B 174 A 175 B 176 A 177 B 178 A B 179 D 180 A 181 C 182 A 183 B 184 B 185 A 186 D 187 B 188 D 189 A 190 D 191 B 192 A 193 D 194 A 195 C 196 B 197 B 198 A 199 A 200 C 56

201 C 202 C 203 A 204 B 205 A 206 D 207 C 208 A 209 C 210 A 211 D 212 B 213 C 214 B 215 C 216 B 217 C 218 C 219 D 220 D 221 D 222 C 223 D 224 A 225 C 226 C 227 D

228 C 229 C 230 A 231 B 232 C 233 C 234 A 235 B 236 A 237 B 238 B 239 D 240 C 241 B 242 A 243 B 244 B 245 E 246 D 247 C 248 D 249 B 250 C 251 D 252 B 253 D 254 D

255 C 256 A 257 D 258 A 259 C 260 D 261 A 262 C 263 D 264 D 265 A 266 C 267 C 268 B 269 D 270 D 271 B 272 D 273 B D 274 D 275 A 276 D 277 A 278 B A 279 D 280 D 281 D

282 C 283 A 284 C 285 A 286 D B 287 C 288 C 289 D 290 D 291 A 292 D 293 C 294 A 295 D 296 D 297 C 298 A 299 D 300 A 301 C 302 A 303 B 304 C 305 A 306 A 307 A 308 C

309 A 310 D 311 C 312 A 313 B 314 D 315 D 316 A 317 B 318 B 319 B 320 D 321 B 322 A 323 A 324 A 325 A 326 A 327 B 328 C 329 C 330 B 331 C 332 A 333 D D 334 A 335 A

336 B C 337 B 338 C 339 C 340 D 341 B 342 C 343 D 344 A 345 B 346 A 347 B 348 D 349 B 350 B 351 B 352 A 353 D 354 A 355 D 356 C C 357 B 358 D 359 D 360 A 361 B 362 C

363 A 364 C 365 B 366 C 367 D 368 B 369 A 370 C 371 D 372 D 373 A 374 B 375 C 376 C 377 D 378 C 379 A 380 B 381 C 382 C 383 D 384 C 385 B 386 C 387 D 388 A 389 C

390 A 391 B 392 C 393 B 394 D 395 C 396 C 397 B 398 D 399 C 400 B 401 A 402 D 403 C 404 B 405 C 406 D 407 A 408 B 409 C 410 B 411 D 412 A 413 D 414 D 415 C 416 A 57

417 B 418 D 419 D

420 A 421 C 422 A

423 B 424 D 425 B

426 A 427 B 428 C

429 A 430 D 431 B

432 D 433 C 434 B

435 A 436 C 437 B

438 D 439 A 440 A

58



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