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What is this word?
Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis

After today, you will know!

Literacy & Learning Teacher Workshop Vocabulary Teaching and Learni

ng in Content Areas Dr. Martha H. Thornhill September 21, 2002

Chapter 4

Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS) and Morphemic Analysis

VSS and Morphemic Analysis

Anticipation Guide
Agree Disagree

1. Students should not be asked to select the vocabulary words they are to study. 2. Applying morphemic analysis to mathematical terms can enhance learning mathematics. 3. Working in cooperative groups will not meet the vocabulary development needs of the individual student. Introduction
When most people think about mathematics, they think of numbers; however, understanding mathematics requires an in-depth and accurate development of language, particularly mathspecific vocabulary. This mathematics language is necessary for developing mathematical concepts, communicating these concepts, and applying the concepts to real life. There are many words specific to mathematics that can be difficult, particularly in areas of geometry and measurement. Some words have meanings in mathematics that are different from the meanings of the same words in generic use, e.g., plane, point, and gross. Other words have morphemes with similar meanings in general usage and mathematical language, e.g., polygon, quadrilateral, and polyhedron. Many literacy strategies for developing vocabulary can be applied very effectively in a mathematics classroom. Two of these strategies for vocabulary development will be addressed in this chapter, the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS) and Morphemic Analysis. The Vocabulary SelfCollection Strategy involves the students selecting words in a chapter or about a particular concept to study. With Morphemic Analysis, students study morphemes and their meanings in generic usage to better understand terms in mathematics with the same morphemes.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 21

Literacy Strategy Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy(VSS)
Readence, Bean, & Baldwin (2001) state that the purpose of the Vocabulary SelfCollection Strategy (Haggard, 1982) is to help students generate a list of words to be explored and learned and to use their own prior knowledge and interests to enhance their vocabulary. This strategy can be used to stimulate growth in word knowledge. Because the list is self-generated, an internal motivation is utilized. This strategy can help students become fascinated with language and thus, increase their enjoyment of the subject. VSS involves the following steps: ? Selecting the words ? Defining the words ? Finalizing the word lists ? Extending word knowledge Students are put into cooperative groups and asked to go through the assigned reading (for example a chapter in their book) to identify words that they think ought to be studied further. Students are to find words that are important to understanding the content of a particular text selection. The meaning and importance of the words can be discussed in cooperative groups prior to sharing them with the whole class. Next, a class list of words is developed. Each team submits one word from their list to the class, giving its meaning and why they consider it important. The word is recorded for display. Each other group then submits a different word. This action is repeated until all selected words are on display. The teacher can also submit a word to the list. The teacher then leads a discussion for clarification and expansion of the meanings of the terms. A dictionary or the index of the text can be checked for word meanings when necessary. Students’ prior knowledge is applied in the discussion.

Vocabulary Self-Collection (VSS)

Vocabulary Self-Collection (VSS) Vocabulary Self-Collection (VSS)

When the list is complete, the class may choose to delete some words for various reasons, such as duplication, words already known, or words the students do not desire to study. The definitions of the final vocabulary list are discussed for any needed clarification and then recorded in the students’ individual journals. Students may choose to add some of the deleted words to their individual journals. Follow-up activities can refine and expand the meanings of the self-collected words. The words can be referred to as content is addressed. An assessment on the chapter can include the spelling, application, and definition of the new vocabulary terms.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 22

Lesson Plan for a Mathematics Class Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy
(Note: See Literacy and Learning, Vocabulary Self-Collection and Morphemic Analysis video lesson for an illustration of this lesson in action.)
Topic: Geometry Objectives: The student will … (to be completed by the classroom teacher) Set Induction: The teacher explains that many words have specific meanings in mathematics, for example, the word gross. The meaning of gross in mathematics is 144 (12 dozen); another meaning for the word is vulgar or distasteful. Some mathematical terms related to geometry will be discussed in this lesson. Activities: 1. In small groups students generate a list of words found in the geometry chapter in their texts. They are to select several words that the group considers important. They are to list the words and find the meanings. The index and dictionaries can be used to define the terms selected. 2. Words are submitted by the groups to develop a class vocabulary list of important words related to the topic of the chapter. As each word is recorded, its meaning and importance is shared with the class. The teacher may also add his/her selected words to the list. An example entry is bi, meaning two. Mathematics applications are binomial and bisect; general usage words are bicycle and bifocal. The final class list is formed by having students delete any duplication, words already known, and/or words the students do not wish to learn. Definitions are clarified and students record the vocabulary words and their definitions in their individual math journals. Individuals may add some of the deleted words to their individual journals.

Lesson Plan

3.

Closure: In pairs, the students can call the words from the class list to each other asking for correct spellings and definitions. Evaluation Suggestions: The self-collected vocabulary words can be included in the chapter assessment. Resources and Materials: Board or chart paper, text books, dictionaries, and markers Other Applications: The VSS strategy can be applied throughout the school year. Although the strategy is especially useful in the area of geometry because of its large number of content-specific words, every strand in mathematics has some specific terminology that needs to be clearly defined. Additionally, this procedure is effective in various content areas to help students learn technical or specialized vocabulary.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 23

Literacy Strategy Morphemic Analysis
A morpheme can be defined as the smallest unit of language that has an associated meaning. This small unit cannot be subdivided into smaller units that have meaning. Thus, the purpose of morphemic analysis is to study the morphemes of words to aid in understanding the meaning of those words. In mathematics, this literacy strategy can be applied to study meaningful parts of words. For example, the word triangle has two morphemes, tri and angle. These morphemes mean three and the relationship of rays respectively; thus, a triangle is a three-sided or angled figure. Morphemic Analysis in the mathematics classroom involves selecting words, identifying a morpheme of that word, defining the morpheme, identifying mathematics words with that morpheme, and relating it to words of general usage with the same morpheme. Going through this process with students helps them understand the meanings of specific words and the relationships between words. For example, tri in tripod means three and tri in triangle means three as well. In the mathematics classroom, students in small groups can identify difficult terminology. As a whole class, the students can create a chart listing a morpheme, mathematics words that use that morpheme, and finally general usage words that use the same morphemes.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 24

Morphemic Analysis

Lesson Plan for a Mathematics Class Morphemic Analysis
(Note: See Literacy and Learning, Vocabulary Self-Collection and Morphemic Analysis video lesson for an illustration of this lesson in action.)
Topic: Geometry Objectives: The student will … (to be completed by the classroom teacher) Set Induction: The teacher asks the students if they can think of any words in mathematics that they find difficult to understand. Tell them that in this lesson they will study many words and break them down into parts so that they can better understand difficult vocabulary. Activities: 1. Students generate all the important mathematics words in a chapter. This can be constructed through the use of the Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (see the other lesson plan in this chapter), teacher selection, or an existing vocabulary list. 2. Small groups of students are directed to select one word from the list and identify a morpheme of that word. They are to generate two or three mathematical words with that same morpheme and two or three general usage words with the same morpheme. 3. As a whole class, a display chart is constructed with the student findings. The teacher asks one group at a time to enter their morpheme, write its definition, list the mathematics words with the morpheme, and finally, list the general usage words they identified. A small discussion follows each entry. Closure: Students are asked to identify any pairs of words having the same morphemes and related meanings. Evaluation Suggestions: The teacher and students should assess the chart entries for correctness. Regular and/or mathematics dictionaries can be utilized for clarification. Students can be assessed formally or informally by asking them to give a morpheme and its meaning as used in specific mathematics terms. Resources and Materials: Dictionaries, possibly a mathematics dictionary, chart paper, and a marker Other Applications: Morphemic Analysis can be applied whenever a new or difficult term is encountered during mathematics instruction or any other instruction. Because much of the English language has evolved from Latin, a Latin translation dictionary should be available in the classroom at all times. A bulletin board with morphemes and their definitions can be continuously extended throughout the school year. An awareness of morphemes and their meanings can enhance vocabulary development for lifelong, independent vocabulary learning.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 25

Lesson Plan

Reaction Guide

Reaction Guide
Agree Disagree

1. Students should not be asked to select the vocabulary words they are to study. 2. Applying morphemic analysis to mathematical terms can enhance learning mathematics. 3. Working in cooperative groups will not meet the vocabulary development needs of individual students.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 26

Chapter 3

World Wide Vocabulary
Anticipation Guide

World Wide Vocabulary

Agree

Disagree

1. Vocabulary is best learned within the context of the lesson. 2. Specialized words are not often found in content reading materials at the middle school level. 3. Introducing new vocabulary words before they are encountered in text reinforces comprehension of new concepts.

Introduction
In content area classrooms, literacy competencies involve the use of many specialized words and concepts. Students who master new vocabulary quickly tend to excel in reading, writing, and communication. Words play an important role in every aspect of our lives. Vocabulary knowledge is a key component of teaching and learning in the content classroom. Effective teachers realize that the technical vocabulary found in every subject area must be taught, and the understanding of critical words is essential for learning new information. Students need to develop independence in critical thinking and problem solving. Literacy strategies that target vocabulary development can help them be successful in the literacy-rich environment they encounter both in and outside the classroom. The introduction of new vocabulary words to students before they encounter them in text reinforces comprehension of new concepts. However, vocabulary instruction does not end with the introduction of new words. Use of terms over time within the classroom environment promotes the acquisition of new vocabulary and enhances understanding of new information. Simply memorizing a definition, or even having some knowledge of a word’s meaning, is not sufficient for text comprehension. Meaning is derived from a word’s use in different contexts and an understanding of the relationships between words and concepts. The language used in different content areas allows members of the classroom community to share ideas, interests, and needs. Without an understanding of the technical language that distinguishes one subject from another, learning becomes difficult. Therefore, vocabulary development is the basis for learning content material.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 13

Literacy Strategy World Wide Vocabulary

World Wide Vocabulary

An online dictionary can be used to discover and learn new vocabulary in many different content area classrooms. To help students feel more comfortable with the technology, it is important for the teacher to demonstrate how to locate sites that will enhance the lesson as well as how to navigate around the sites. It is also important that students recognize the author of the web sites that will be visited or the source of the information found. Information software is another way to incorporate vocabulary activities. Packages that focus on particular subject areas, encyclopedias, and software programs that accompany textbooks give students an opportunity to search for word meanings in a different and exciting way. Online word games, word searches, and puzzles can reinforce the learning of new words and their definitions. Students often enjoy constructing their own word puzzles and games using the computer. A guide sheet can be helpful for students to use with an online vocabulary activity or with a computer software program. Each student can be assigned particular vocabulary words to find. The words can be known words, unknown words, or a combination of words students may or may not be familiar with in the context of the lesson. Students could also work in pairs or small groups of three depending upon the availability of computers, a student’s knowledge of technology, etc. Assignments can vary in terms of finding definitions, using the words in sentences, and restating the meaning of words in context.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 14

Lesson Plan for a Visual Arts Class World Wide Vocabulary
(Note: See Literacy and Learning, World Wide Vocabulary video lesson for an illustration of this lesson in action.)
Topic: Artlex-Online vocabulary Objectives: The student will…(to be completed by the classroom teacher) Set Induction: Introduce the lesson by holding up a traditional dictionary for the students to identify. Ask where they might find other sources to learn the meanings of new words. Activities: 1. Discuss what is expected of the students during the activity, presenting the vocabulary activity sheet and requirements for the final art projects. 2. The students will explore the site, Artlex: A Visual Dictionary of Art. Each student will have a specific part of Artlex to investigate, i.e., A-Ah. 3. The student will write the definitions for one familiar term and two new or unfamiliar terms on the vocabulary activity sheet. 4. The students will select a piece of artwork from the web site to include on the vocabulary activity sheet. The entry should include its artist, title, medium, year produced, physical location of artwork (gallery or museum and city), and the exact site location on the World Wide Web. Some entries may not have all of this information; however, the student should include information provided at the site. A simple line sketch will also be required for each student’s personal reference. 5. (Extra work for those who finish early: Investigate the “Short Cuts” links in Artlex.) 6. Students will write the familiar word as well as one of the unfamiliar words from the vocabulary activity sheet onto two separate cards with the definitions on the reverse side of the cards. 7. Student groups will share and discuss their words with their small groups. The groups will choose two reporters: one to read familiar terms to the class, and one to read unfamiliar terms to the class. 8. The reporters will read the terms. After a large group discussion, the word cards will be posted around the room in two groups: Familiar Words and Unfamiliar Words. 9. As the students begin to work on a final art product (a 6"x6" drawing inspired by the sketch chosen from the web site), they will be asked to consider the vocabulary words presented. Do any of these words pertain to their artworks?

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 15

Lesson Plan: WWVocabulary

Closure: Students will display their drawings with reflection time and discussion to follow. (The artwork may be incomplete at this time; it’s still great for discussion!) During discussion, try to incorporate as many of the words from the word lists as possible. Evaluation Suggestions: Depending upon the student’s expertise, the process and/or product can be evaluated with a teacher-designed or teacher/student-designed rubric. Resources and Materials: Computer with Internet capabilities, sketchbook, pencils, markers, vocabulary activity sheets (See page 17) Artlex: A Visual Dictionary of Art www.artlex.com Michael Delahunt, author Ms. Denise Holly-Tullier Art Educator Southeastern Louisiana University Laboratory School Hammond, LA 70402 Other Applications The Art Education Department can be a wonderful resource for content teachers. Art concepts can be incorporated into a variety of lessons to enhance learning opportunities. While the preceding lesson plan comes from an art education class, the ideas and activities can easily be modified to meet student vocabulary learning needs in other subject areas such as mathematics, social studies, science, and English/language arts.

Reaction Guide

Reaction Guide
Agree Disagree

1. Vocabulary is best learned within the context of the lesson. 2. Specialized words are not often found in content reading materials at the middle school level. 3. Introducing new vocabulary words before they are encountered in text reinforces comprehension of new concepts.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 16

www.artlex.com

Vocabulary Activity Sheet Name: ____________________________

1.

WWVocabulary Activity

2.

3.

Art work: Title: Year, if available: Web site: Draw a simple line sketch in the box:

Artist: Medium: Location:

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 17

VERBAL AND VISUAL WORD ASSOCIATION
Students can use this strategy on their own to learn and retain both technical and general vocabulary. It is especially effective for low-ability students and second-language learners. Nouns and descriptive words work best. The steps are: 1. Draw a rectangle with four boxes in it. Write the key word in the upper left-hand corner box and its definition in the lower left-hand box. 2. In the top right-hand box, write a personal association for the key word. Alternatively, a simple sketch representative of the key word may be used in this box. 3. In the bottom right-hand box write a word that represents the opposite (or a non-example) of the key word. Example: key word = salubrious

salubrious
promoting health

exercise smoking

Now try this strategy on these words from The Fall of the House of Usher by Edgar Allan Poe: uncouth appellation melancholy patrimony tremulous lurid

Chapter 5

Analogical Guide & Feature Analysis
Anticipation Guide
Agree Disagree

Analogical / Analysis

1. Teachers can use analogies to help students better understand concepts. 2. Cooperative learning groups used in conjunction with literacy strategies support comprehension.

3. Feature analysis is a useful literacy strategy for compiling data and making generalizations.

Introduction
Teachers can guide students in developing the literacy tools they need to pursue personal interests and topics of study that relate to their world through content area literacy. When learning is of personal relevance and structured so that every group member contributes, students are motivated to learn. In this chapter we will explore teaching practices that support reading comprehension and promote cooperative learning in content areas such as science and social studies. As you read about the literacy strategies, you will understand how students can be engaged in cooperative learning groups used in conjunction with the literacy strategies. As students begin an area of study, a variety of reading materials on that topic will be needed rather than a single source, such as the textbook. Selecting a variety of texts and reference materials also allows for the teacher to consider the various reading levels of the students as text selection is made. Knowing the students’ reading levels is important in meeting the diverse needs of learners in teaching and learning in content area literacy. Using literacy and learning strategies will support the students’ understanding of concepts as they read about the topic of study.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 22

Literacy Strategies Analogical Guide & Feature Analysis
Analogical guides and feature analysis are literacy strategies that help to increase students’ interactions with the science concepts and ideas that are presented in various texts and help the students acquire and retain important content information. These literacy strategies and variations of these may be used prior to reading, during reading, and after reading. The analogical guide is a form of a study guide developed for application in science classes while reading text. It can also be a useful tool for the teacher to share with students as special vocabulary and concepts are introduced. Feature analysis is a literacy strategy that helps to organize specific information about the concepts by providing a synopsis of the ways the identified technical concepts may be similar or different. Both of these strategies are useful in helping students learn content specific vocabulary and increase students’ comprehension of text that present new concepts. Teaching students to learn how to use these strategies will help them to become independent learners as they use the strategies to read other content area texts.

Analogical Guide

Effective Teachers Use Effective Strategies
In this chapter you will also find two lesson plans that that accompany the Literacy and Learning video lesson on Analogical Guides and Feature Analysis. Jill Saia, a middle school science teacher who is National Board Certified in Early Adolescent Science, and who is the teacher in this video lesson, has written these. This highly qualified teacher effectively uses the strategies with her students, but in doing so, adapts the strategies to meet the unique needs and strengths of her particular learners. As you work with these strategies to support literacy and learning in your class, adapt the procedures to meet your goals and objectives within your community of learners.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 23

Constructiong an Analogical Guide
Readence, Bean and Baldwin (1995) suggest the following three important steps in constructing an analogical guide: 1. The teacher analyzes the reading task that is required of the students. The teacher does this by identifying the concepts the students are to acquire from their reading. In this video lesson all of the concepts are related to energy. The second step is to create appropriate analogies that will help the students relate to the new science concepts. In the video lesson, the teacher chose the analogy of eating in a restaurant for the analogical guide in the energy lesson.

2.

Analogical Guide

3.

The third step is to explain how students can use the analogical guide to help them understand the science concepts and vocabulary that will be encountered.

As with any method or technique for supporting reading content area text, options or variations in using the literacy strategy can be used to best meet the needs of the students.

Analogical Guide for a Science Lesson on Energy Dining at a Restaurant Energy Related Terms

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 24

Lesson Plan for Middle School Science Analogical Guide
(Note: See Literacy and Learning, Analogical Guides and Feature Analysis video lesson for an illustration of this lesson in action.)
Topic: Energy Objectives: The student will… 1. associate new science-related vocabulary about energy by analogy 2. define new vocabulary using clues from analogies 3. read the content area reading text using the analogical guides during text reading 4. use analogies to comprehend and recall concepts Set Induction: The teacher explains to the students that the use of analogical guides helps students understand new concepts and terminology by creating analogies that they can relate to known concepts and terms as they read the content area texts about their new topic of study on energy. Offer some examples. Procedures: 1. Begin lesson by explaining to students that it is necessary to use some common terminology when discussing different forms of energy. List these new terms on the board and suggest to the students that they compare words such as producer and consumer to features of eating in a restaurant. 2. Use dictionaries and/or textbooks to define the rest of the words, then ask students to work in groups to come up with analogies based on the restaurant model for all words. After about ten minutes, each group shares its analogies with the rest of the class. Suggestions are listed on the analogical guide chart for the whole class and copied into individual science notebooks. 3. Summarize the use of analogical guides to learn new terminology by explaining that students can use the analogies on the right side of the chart to comprehend and recall the meaning of each new concept or vocabulary word on the left. Closure: As the class period comes to a close, the teacher may ask the students to use the analogical guide to assess their understanding of new concepts. Students will be

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 25

Lesson Plan: Analogical Guide

asked to use analogies as they encounter other new concepts and consider this strategy for other new concept learning. Evaluation Suggesions: 1. At the end of the energy unit, students will be tested on comprehension of vocabulary words. 2. Students will apply their knowledge of new terminology by using it in writing energy reports. Resources and Materials: Per student: Science notebook Pen or pencil Dictionary Science textbook Per class: Chalkboard or overhead with vocabulary words listed Chalk or overhead markers Other Applications: This vocabulary strategy is easily integrated into instruction for any content area. Glossary words from the textbook can be used to create analogical guides. The strategy offers students a different way to explore word meanings and practice new terminology in context. Answers may be provided, making the activity easier to complete. However, allowing students to come up with their own answers opens the door for small or large group discussion. Analogies can be confusing and difficult for students who have not had opportunity to work with them before. Provide simple examples and model the use of analogies with students before asking them to engage in divergent thinking. Jill W. Saia National Board Certified Teacher

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 26

Lesson Plan: Analogical Guide

Using Feature Analysis as a Litracy Strategy
Pittleman, Heimlich, Berglund, & French (1991) identify the literacy strategy, feature analysis, as a procedure for helping students discriminate details among concepts. This strategy works well with specialized vocabulary as well as general vocabulary in content area literacy. The idea of using feature analysis to help students compile and analyze their research data about a specific topic of interest in a content area class is supportive of reading comprehension. It also fosters higher-level critical thinking by asking students to synthesize and generalize about the data. Throughout research units of study, teachers can support students’ use of appropriate reference materials as they complete the feature analysis chart when summarizing and compiling the data or research information.

Feature Analysis

How To Get Started
The following steps are recommended by Readence, Bean, & Baldwin (1995) to get started using feature analysis in your class. 1. Category Selection - While planning this unit of research on the various types of energy, the teacher decided that feature analysis would be an appropriate literacy strategy to support students’ content area reading. Therefore, Energy was selected as the category for this unit of study since it consists of two or more items that are similar and need to be studied. 2. List Category Terms - Knowing the kinds of energy that are to be studied, the teacher placed these terms along the left side of the blackboard. The kinds of energy being researched became the category terms for using feature analysis. Nuclear Electrical Solar Heat Chemical Radiant 3. List Features - Across the top of the blackboard, the features that will be used to describe the terms (or kinds of energy) that are to be explored should be listed. As the teacher you may pre-select the features that you want to have the students explore or the features may be generated with the students. In this unit of research on energy, the teacher pre-selected the features to coincide with the specific information that she wanted the students to research.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 27

Feature Analysis Chart Energy
Natural Synthetic Used at Home Reusable Causes Pollution

Radiant

Heat

Feature Analysis

Electrical

Nuclear

Chemical

Solar 4. Complete Feature Chart – Students should be guided through the completion of the feature chart matrix as they determine whether or not each category item possesses that particular feature. In Mrs. Saia’s lesson, the children had previously researched information that would be used to complete the feature chart. Completion of the chart may be done individually, in small groups, or whole group as the teacher did in this video lesson. A plus (+) indicates that the category items have that feature. A minus (-) indicates that the category item does not have that particular feature. In the video lesson Mrs. Saia used pink chalk to indicate the students’ initial responses. Usually, the plus (+) indicates that a category item has that particular feature. Following a period of research time, the teacher provided guidance through the process a second time to record what the students then believed based on their research. It is important to note that this highly qualified science teacher was using this literacy strategy to teach the scientific process as well as for the students to obtain content information. She provided various scaffolds for her students to become comfortable with using the matrix as a procedure for conducting their research. A second color of chalk was then used to confirm or change the information about the features based on their ongoing research. In some cases, the teacher and the students decided more research was needed before they completed the feature chart. Every feature area should be completed with a plus or minus for all of the category terms. As the students discuss whether the category has this particular feature or does not, they begin to develop higher-level critical thinking skills through their synthesis, reasoning, and problem solving skills. Discussion of this nature supports the scientific process.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 28

5. Explore the Matrix – Exploring the matrix is the final step in this literacy strategy. During this step the students continue to discuss their observations about the various features for each category item. Time should be given for small group discussions as students have the opportunity to make generalizations. Guiding comments and probing questions will be supportive as students generalize, synthesize, and rationalize the bits of information they have indicated about the category in the matrix. These questions can be posed in order of simple to more complex. Each teacher should determine the kinds of questions that will guide the students’ understanding of the topic of study based on their developing an understanding about the topic. Comments or questions that Mrs. Saia may have posed for her class:

Feature Analysis

? Which kinds of energy are used at home? ? Which kinds of energy cause pollution? ? Which are the most hazardous? ? Which kinds of energy are most cost efficient?

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 29

Lesson Plan for Middle School Science Feature Analysis
(Note: See Literacy and Learning, Analogical Guides and Feature Analysis video lesson for an illustration of this lesson in action.)
Topic: Energy Objectives: The students will… 1. revise their conclusions about the different types of energy based on information gathered during research 2. make generalizations about each type of energy from data shown on chart Set Induction: The teacher asks the students if they would like to learn about a way to summarize their research findings. Activities: 1. (Students have recently finished research projects on different types of energy and will be using the feature analysis chart to summarize their findings.)Review results obtained on the original feature analysis chart. Explain to the students that the results may change based on the research that has been completed. 2. Using a different colored chalk or marker, change results on the feature analysis chart to reflect new research findings. Leave the previous lesson’s results on the chart so students can easily spot discrepancies. Discuss the differences for each type of energy, and ask students to give reasons why these differences may occur. 3. Ask students to come up with generalizations about each type of energy based on research results shown on the feature analysis chart. For example, students should be able to state which type of energy would be best suited to their home environment, and which would be the least suitable.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 30

Lesson Plan: Feature Analysis

Closure: As the lesson comes to a close, the teacher may ask the students to use the feature analysis chart in such a way as to assess student understanding or students may be asked to verbalize their understandings based upon the feature analysis grid. Students will be asked to share how the feature analysis technique worked for them and how they might use this technique again. Assessment: 1. The group responsible for each type of energy should be knowledgeable enough to complete their portion of the feature analysis chart without difficulty. 2. Students will complete generalizations in their science journals for homework.

Reaction Guide

Resources and Materials: Per student: Science notebook with original chart Pencil Report on specific type of energy Per class: Chalkboard or overhead with chart drawn Colored chalk or markers Other Applications Feature analysis may be used within any content area class and for any grade level. It is important to remember that adequate time should be provided to students when they are developing the grid. Students develop the data grid based upon the research they have conducted. Also, time should be given for students to synthesize and to make generalizations about the data grid. Jill W. Saia National Board Certified Teacher

Reaction Guide
Agree Disagree

1. Teachers can use analogies to help students better understand concepts.

2. Cooperative learning groups used in conjunction with literacy strategies support comprehension.

3. Feature analysis is a useful literacy strategy for compiling data and making generalizations.

Literacy & Learning: Reading in the Content Areas ? 31

CLUES AND QUESTIONS This strategy is designed to help students review technical vocabulary. What makes the strategy interesting is that the students provide the questions as well as the answers. The steps are: 1. Collect content area vocabulary words that students should review. Write or type each word on a note card and place the cards in a shoebox. 2. Students randomly select several of the cards. Their task is to write three good questions whose answers are the word on the card. It is a good idea to have the questions written in descending order of difficulty. The questions are written beneath the word on the same side of the card as the word. 3. When the cards have been completed, the class is subdivided into small groups with each group having a portion of the vocabulary cards. One student chooses a card (without looking at it) and hands it to the others in the group. They take turns asking the student the questions until he/she can identify the word. 4. The activity proceeds in round robin fashion until all the cards have been exhausted, at which point the cards are exchanged with another group and the clue sessions begin anew. Example: 1. _____ is to “compound” as “atom” is to “element”. 2. What is the smallest unit of a compound that retains all the characteristics of the compound? 3. Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom make one _____ of water. (The word is molecule.)

WRITING ROULETTE This strategy was originally created to help students become more fluent in writing by having them write about anything at all for a specific period of time. It has been modified for use in content learning. First, students are told to use a simple three-part story structure for the activity so that three different students (or groups of students) write each distinct part of the story. Second, they review content material within the framework of the story by selecting key vocabulary words from their reading and including those words in each section that they write. Here are the steps: 1. Provide a simple structure for the story, consisting of three main elements or divisions: a. A setting or characters b. A problem or goal for the main character c. A resolution 2. Advise students that each section of the story must use at least two words from the lesson or unit they have been studying. These words should be underlined within the story. 3. Set a specific time limit for the first story section (e.g., 5 minutes for the setting). A kitchen timer works well for this. 4. When the time is up, have students exchange papers, or collect and shuffle them so that a second author writes the problem or goal section. Advise students to read the paper they receive and continue the story. Set a time limit for this writing as well. 5. Exchange papers one last time so a third author can provide a resolution for the story. The have students return the story to the original author and share aloud those stories that are particularly interesting or that use content words in a creative way.

Try Writing Roulette using the following Music terms: adagio andante presto misterioso forte pianissimo key tonic chord fugue octave scale opera

- or use these Algebra terms: horizontal axis ordered pair coordinates linear equation origin graph x-axis slope vertical axis abscissa y-axis intercept quadrant ordinate coordinate plane solution

LIST-GROUP-LABEL LESSON This strategy is a classification technique that emphasizes word relationships. It can be used before reading/discussion to activate prior knowledge of the topic. It can also be used after reading to actively engage students in the review process and to allow them to see how their knowledge of the topic has increased. The steps are: 1. Topic selection: Select a topic that is comprised of multiple sets of related terms from the unit of study. If the topic is a good one, you should be able to visualize the kinds of subgroupings and labels the students will create. 2. List procedure: Write the topic on the board or overhead and have students volunteer any terms they can think of that fall under that topic heading. Write all these terms on the board as they are listed. 3. Group and label: Have students reorganize the list into smaller lists of items that have something in common. Each of these sublists should be given a descriptive label.

Now try this strategy with one of the following topics: Social Studies: Biology: Geometry: Home Economics: English: Physical Education: Louisiana place names Mammals Polygons Nutrition Poets Flag Football

molecule
1. _____ is to “compound” as “atom” is to “element”. (HARDEST) What is the smallest unit of a compound that retains all the characteristics of the compound? Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom make one _____ of water. (EASIEST)

2.

3.

ethyl alcohol
(Write your three clues or questions below)

blood alcohol level
(Write your three clues or questions below)

intoxication
(Write your three clues or questions below)

occasional drinkers
(Write your three clues or questions below)

social drinkers
(Write your three clues or questions below)

problem drinkers
(Write your three clues or questions below)

cirrhosis
(Write your three clues or questions below)

respiratory system
(Write your three clues or questions below)

circulatory system
(Write your three clues or questions below)

digestive system
(Write your three clues or questions below)

blackouts
(Write your three clues or questions below)

hallucinations
(Write your three clues or questions below)

alcoholics
(Write your three clues or questions below)

alcoholism
(Write your three clues or questions below)

alcohol treatment
(Write your three clues or questions below)

Alcoholics Anonymous
(Write your three clues or questions below)

Al-Anon
(Write your three clues or questions below)

Alateen
(Write your three clues or questions below)

euphoria
(Write your three clues or questions below)

barbiturates
(Write your three clues or questions below)

depressant
(Write your three clues or questions below)

DUI
(Write your three clues or questions below)

DWI
(Write your three clues or questions below)

liver
(Write your three clues or questions below)

malnutrition
(Write your three clues or questions below)

Etymology Activity

Directions: The following words, listed by content area, have interesting word origins. Use a dictionary to determine the history of the highlighted word. Describe how you might work one or more of these words into a lesson in your content area.

Science

Social Studies

English Language Arts

alkali barnacle cobalt crayfish hurricane larva nicotine parasite

assassin ballot boycott filibuster indenture lynch senate sinecure

anecdote dumbbell enthrall fib gossip quixotic sarcasm tragedy

Feature Analysis
Directions: Compare and contrast nonassertive behavior, assertive behavior, and aggressive behavior using the Feature Analysis chart. In this activity you will write examples in the blanks instead of using + or – for features that are present or absent.

Behavior type Facial expression

Nonassertive

Assertive

Aggressive

Voice pitch

Hands

Eyes

Head

Posture

Movements



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