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could、should、would+have done


一、 “must+have+done” 表示对过去事情的肯定推测,译成“一定做过某事” ,该结构只用于肯定句。 1. It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 昨晚一定下雨了,因为地面 还是湿的。 2. You must have been mad to speak to the servant. 你和仆人说话, 一定是发疯了。 二、 “can't+have+done” 表示对过去事情的否定推测,译成“不可能做过某事” 。 1. Mr. Smith can‘t have gone to Beijing, for I saw him in the library just now. 史密斯 先生不可能去北京了,我刚才还在图书馆见过他。 2. Mary can't have stolen your money. She has gone home. 玛丽不可能偷你的钱, 她回家去了。 三、 “can+have+done” 表示对过去行为的怀疑,用于疑问句,译成“可能做过……吗?” 。 1. There is no light in the room. Can they have gone out? 屋里没有灯,他们可能出 去了吗? 2. There is nowhere to find them. Where can they have gone? 到处找不到他们,他 们可能到什么地方去呢? 四、 “could+have+done” 是虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思是本来能够做某事而没有做。 He could have passed the exam, but he was too careless. 本来他能够通过考试, 但是他太粗心。 五、 “may+have+done” 表示对发生过的事情的推测,意思是“可能已经”或“也许已经” ,用于肯定句 中。 —What has happened to George? —I don't know. He may have got lost. —乔治发生了什么事? ——我不知道,他可能迷路了。 六、 “might+have+done” 表示对过去事情的推测,might 与 may 意思相同,但可能性更小。多用于虚拟语 气结构中。 1. He might have given you more help, even though he was busy. (MET90) 他或许会 多给你一些帮助,即使他很忙。 2. She might have achieved greater progress, if you had given her more chances. 如 果你多给她点机会,她可能已经取得更大的成绩。 七、 “would+have+done” 虚拟语气,表示对过去事情的假设,意思是“本来会做” 。 1. I would have told you all about the boy's story, but you didn't ask me. 我本来会告 诉你这个小男孩的故事,但是你没有问我。 2. Without your help, I wouldn't have achieved so much. 没有你的帮助,我是不会 取得如此大的成绩。 八、 “should+have+done” 意思是“本来应该做某事,而实际没做。 “shouldn‘t+have+done”表示本来不 ” 应该做某事,而实际做了。含有指责对方或自责的含意。

1. Tom, you are too lazy. The work should have been finished yesterday. 汤姆,你太 懒惰了,这项工作本来应该昨天就做完的。 2. Look, Tom is crying. I shouldn't have been so harsh on him. 看,汤姆哭了,我本 来不应该对他如此严厉。 九、 “ought to+have+done” 表示过去应该做而实际并没有做,译成“理应做……”,往往表示遗憾。与 “should+have+done”用法基本一样。 I ought to have gone home last Sunday. 我理应上星期日回家。 You ought not to have given him more help. 你不应该帮助他那么多。 十、 “need+have+done” 表示本来需要做某事而没有做。 “needn‘t+have+done”则表示 “本来不需要做某事 而做了” 。 I needn‘t have bought so much wine—only five people came. 我本来没有必要买这 么多酒,只来了五个人。 He need have hurried to the station. In that case, be wouldn't have missed the train. 他本来需要快点去车站,那样的话,他就不会误了火车。 高考题 【经典考例 1】 The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I ________ the trouble to carry my umbrella with me. (2006 江西) A. should have taken B. could have taken C. needn't have taken D. mustn't have taken 【经典考例 2】 We ________ have proved great adventurers, but we have done the greatest march ever made in the past ten years. (2006 天津) A. needn't B. may not C. shouldn't D. mustn't 【经典考例 3】As you worked late yesterday, you ________ have come this morning. (2006 陕西) A. mayn't B. can't C. mustn't D. needn't


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