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Chapter 3 Barriers to World Trade



Chapter 3 Barriers to World Trade
Emphasis 1. the type of barriers to world trade: tariff barriers (specific duties, ad valorem duties and compound duties) and non-tariff barriers (quotas, exchange control, technical barriers) 2. The advantage and disadvantage of tariff barriers and non-tariff barriers.

Chapter 3 Barriers to World Trade
? 3.1

Motivation of government intervention Tariff barriers Nontariff barriers

? 3.2

? 3.3

Phrase
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levy on征收 coincide with与…一致,相符 customs union 关税同盟 common market共同市场 drawback n.退税 intervene vi.干预;介入 revenue 税收,收入 bargain n.交易,特价品 v.讲价,交易

Forms of international economic integration Stage of Abolition of Common integration tariffs and tariff and quotas among quotas members Free trade area Customs union Common market yes yes yes no yes yes Abolition of restrictions of factor movements no no yes Harmonization and unification of economic policies and institutions no no no

Economic yes union

yes

yes

yes

Exercise
Translation ? 1.对进口产品征收关税可以增加政府的税收 收入。 ? 2.一个国家的进出口额经常是不同的,但全 球的进出口额一定是相一致。 ? 3.西方国家总是喜欢干涉他国内政,并常常 以此来跟对方讨价还价。

Answer
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1.Through levying taxes on the importing commodities, the government can increase its tax revenue. 2.The import value usually differs from the export value in a nation, however the former must coincide with the latter in the whole world. 3.The West always like intervening in other nations’ internal affairs, which often can be used to bargain with those nations.

3.1 Motivation of government intervention
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(1) protecting jobs and industries (2) national security (3) retaliation (4) protecting consumers (5) furthering foreign policy objectives (6) protecting human rights

3.2 Tariff barriers (P300)
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1. Definition of tariff A tariff is a tax or duty, levied on a commodity when it crosses the boundary on a customs area. A customs area usually coincides with national political boundaries.

2. Content of tariffs
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(1) General types of tariffs: Import duties Export duties 进口税 出口税

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(2) Main measures of taxation:
Specific duties Ad valorem duties Compound duties

3. Advantage and disadvantage of tariffs
P301 ? Advantage of tariffs protecting its domestic production; increasing government revenues; achieving rather precise objectives. ? Disadvantage of tariffs increasing the cost of imports to the customer; difficult to be reduced or eliminated.

3.3 Non-tariff barriers
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1. Definition of NTBS
NTBS are barriers other than tariffs and quantitative restriction on import.

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2. Principal categories of NTBs P302
(1) Government participation in trade (2) Customs and entry procedures (3) Standards (4) Specific limitations (5) Import charges

3. Quotas
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Quota, is a legal limit on the imports (or exports ) of quantity or value of a specific commodity during a given time period. Goods in the quantity or value limit of quota can be imported, over the limit can be imported with levied higher tax, or even can’t be imported. Quotas are the most common form of NTBs.

Advantage and disadvantage of NTBs
Advantage of NTBs
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NTBs are more certain and precise as trade restraint than are tariffs.

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NTBs also provide greater flexibility in bargaining

and administration.
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NTBs are more concealable.

Disadvantage of NTBs
NTBs have increased the difficulties to international trade. ? NTBs exert no pressure to keep domestic price down. ? Inequities and corruption may occur in the allocation of quotas both in importing countries and exporting countries.
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Case
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For example, Tara Materials Inc. (Tara) US company, applied for an anti-dumping appeal to the United States Department of Commerce (DOC) and International Trade Commission (ITC) regarding painting fabric imported from China on 31st March 2005 with a request to levy an anti-dumping tariff on certain painting fabric made in China. ITC accepted the appeal from Tara on 21st April and judged the painting fabric from China injured the existing same industry in US, according to the progress; DOC launched an investigation and levied a 244% import tax (currently, it is only 6%). The entire process took only three weeks.

Exercise
1.True or false (1)Tariff barriers are the most common form of trade restriction.( ) (2)Ad valorem duties are levied on the basis of some physical unit such as dollars per kilo, per meter or per ton.( ) (3)Specific duties are most common used to calculate the tariffs.( ) (4)Export duties are more common than import duties because most nations are anxious to expand exports.( )
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(5)Non-tariff barriers reduce imports by limiting quantities, increasing costs or creating uncertainties.( ) (6)Acording to Voluntary Export Restraints, we know the exporting country agree to limit their sales quite voluntarily.( ) (7)NTBs are less visible than tariffs, but they are more effective restrictions on trade.( ) (8)Through using the import quotas, the importing countries can keep their domestic price down.( )

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2.Translation

(1)不幸的是,世界各国都在设立贸易障碍,保护本国经 济不受国际市场力量的影响。 (2)由于受到从关税中得到实惠的国内集团的政治压力, 关税很难降低或取消。 (3)国际商会完全承认各国政府为例保护消费者和用户 的利益,有权对消费品和某些类型设备的分配进行干预。 (4)关税是对进口和/或出口商品征收的一种税收,有时 称作海关关税。 (5)在进口国家里,配额通常需要许可证制度,并要有 一个机构把配额分配给国内的进口商。

Answer
1.True or false (1)_(8) TFFFTFTF ? 2.Translation (1)Unfortunately, every country in the world has trade barriers which are designed to protect its economy against international market forces. (2)Tariffs are difficult to reduce or remove because of political pressures from domestic groups benefited by the tariff. (3)The ICC fully recognizes that governments are entitled to intervene in the distribution of articles for consumption or of certain types of equipment in order to protect consumers and users. (4) A tariff is a tax levied on the imported and/or exported commodity, sometime called a customs duty. (5)In the importing countries, quotas usually require a licensing system and an agency to distribute the quota shares to domestic importers.
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