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托福北美机经08.12.5NA(口语参考+独立作文范文)



2008.12.5NA Reading 第一篇 英国工业的发展 关于英国经济的兴起,主要是由于工业化后出口量大增。商业以棉花的发展 为 lead,次要是煤、丝等,之後 coal replace the wood 成了主要的 fuel。英国之 所以成了欧洲重心的原因有:英国国内政治稳定统一,语言一致,没有 internal tariff,有标准化的 xx,得益于 bank and

finance investment 的发达(推动贷款, 減少 tax) (题目,排除题,选 tariff) 。英国有便捷的交通和有力的地理位置,所 有的城市都离海不远,最远不过 70 mile,水运方便,raw material 和 goods 运输 顺畅(运铁) ,即使到 Ireland 的 edinburgh 也只需 60 小时车程。其他欧洲国家当 时都没有这些特点。英国有皇家海军的保护,政府采取低税收(题目,但是 对 high-quality woolen 收税) ,政府会出面与他国谈判低进口税。英国从印度等 殖民地廉价進口 rm,然后出口 finished goods。 (一名学者 adam 不支持这个理 论) 。 艺术与地点的关系 讲 art 与 location(place)的关系,以其历史发展来说,art 刚开始时都必须依 附 location,它们是紧密联系的,painting 和 sculpture 是不能动的,只能固定在 某个地方,例如古代的洞穴壁画、教堂顶的壁画,后来发明了 ease painting,随 着 portable 东西的出现,例如 vase、雕像、小饰品,可以带着到处创作,教堂 的玻璃画也是画好了再加上去的,渐渐地 art 和 location 开始分离了。Art 到了 1800-1940 达到鼎盛, 艺术家都认为 art 即使离开 location 和 context 也有其意义, 后来 40 年代几乎 gallery 都强调统一的灰色调,以昏暗灯光来突出 art,让人们 忽视 location context,后来 photograph 的出现也加速了这个过程;但是现代艺 术家们(contemporary=current-day) (1960s 之後)又开始认为 context 很重要, 其重要性甚至等于 art,又意識到兩者是分不開的,认为环境是艺术的一部分, 例如一个 nyc 的艺术家做了铝制的 tree 放到 central park 里以表达其概念。 考古学与其文化的关系 描述考古学所研究的文化主要体现于几个方面,考古能说明很多东西,刚开始 考 古 主 要 关 注 大 的 building 、 monument 、 tomb 等 , 后 来 开 始 关 注 一 般 人 的 house 等物。但很多時候考古有许多局限性,例如 material 物品可能一样,但 其实是不同 culture 的文明,由于贸易,不同文化的人可能使用相同的东西。强 调考古学上研究的的「文化」 (culture)与我们平时所说的文化是两个概念,在 意义上有所不同。 一个学生不太理解 first-person narrative 去问老师,教授说 narrative 有时候会是 trick。 讲一个学生想 spring break 的时候回家 去找 faculty 看能不能搭车 对话开头是 faculty 抱怨新建的网站老出问题(他以为这个学生也是来问这个网站出问题的 事情) 讲一个学生去找 academic advisor 他参加了 marching band 和一个 jazz band 导致 没有时间忙课业。希望 drop 一门课,但是 advisor 告诉他 deadline 已经过了。 academic advisor 要他去找 professor 申请 extension, 男生说申请了还是忙不过来, 准备下学期把 jazz 那个退了,但是现在不能,因为别人都 count on him。但是他 可以选择 withdraw,并说了这样的好处有两点。有一点是 refund 比较多,还有

第二篇

第三篇

Listening 听力 1 听力 2

听力 3

一点是可以晚申请只不过会有 record。 学生打算将来上研究生所以不希望成绩单 上有 record。但是如果不 withdraw 几门课的话,就要全部的完蛋,所以要考虑 一下。 听力 4 architecture 二战以后美国一个房地产公司为了相应市场需要(很多家庭需要低价的房子) 建了一批房子,造价便宜,有可以继续建造更多房间的潜力,因为 roof 有东西, 2 个卧室,一个 bathroom,living room 的窗户向着大街。后来又建了一批,跟第 一批差不多, 但是 living room 的窗户朝向 backyard, 家长可以看见小孩在后院玩, 不是面朝大街,所以有 privacy。这些房子材料相同设计相同所以成本很低 公司 雇佣专门的工人做 specific work,做门的做门, 安装门的安装门, 也降低了成本。 听力 5 environmental science 说地表淡水的面积增加了,有各种假设解释。一个学生说是因为降雨多了,另 一个学生认为由于植物数量减少导致水土流失。老师说是因为 global warming, 她解释说大气中 CO2 浓度增加,植物叶片气孔张开的 less often,导致植物体内 水分蒸发减少,蒸发减少导致导致植物吸收的地下水也少了,所以水都留在了 地下,然后流到了 ocean 里。还给看了一下叶绿体和气孔的图片。 geology 讲一个英国人如何测出地球的密度。方法虽然简单,但是 speaker 觉得很厉害, 最后 data4.5,离确切值 5.5 很接近。 试验如下:在山顶山用绳子吊着一个重物,然后小东西不会竖直向下的,有一 个角度,因为山有 mass,产生 gravity,和地球重力产生合力。大概原理很简单, 就跟高中物理里面的万有引力一样。 研 究 教 小 孩 子 学 怎 么 把 喜 欢 的 东 西 从 盒 子 里 面 拿 出 来 。 有 关 recognition development。说如果不给 infant 进行这种 xxx exposure 教育,婴儿要等到 12 个 月以后才会,如果进行了,可以减少到 5 周或者多长时间的 What suggestion would you like to give to a child who is starting school for the first time. Use reasons and specific examples to explain why this suggestion is important.

听力 6

听力 7

Speaking Task 1

I would like to give a child who is starting school a suggestion that he or she should know something about how to communicate with others. I think it is very important for a child because I once had such a problem when I started school. You know, when I entered the classroom for the first time, I felt very nervous and didn’t know what to say to other children. This bad situation had lasted for half a month before my parents and teacher helped me overcome it. So I think a child should

learn how to communicate with others and this will help him or her get along well with the classmates.
Task 2 Some people prefer to live in places where climate doesn’t change very much. While others prefer to live in places where climate changes with seasons. Which one do you prefer? Include reasons and details in your explanation.

I prefer to live in the places where climate changes with seasons. First of all, I can experience different sceneries with the change of seasons. I can feel the bracing breeze on my face in spring, smell the sweet flowers in summer, watch the gold leaves in fall and play the white snow in winter. In addition,with the change of climate, I can wear more kinds of clothes ranging from the T-shirt in summer to the warmer clothes in winter. This will make my life more colorful and enjoyable.
Task 3 【公开信】 :一学生写信 letter 给校报建议学校把新生的 orientation 从秋季 fall semester 的开头改到夏季 summer。 理由 1、秋季一开学,学生很忙 schedules will tight,都忙着买书、搬新的宿舍。 理由 2、在夏季的 orientation,学生们可以提前认识未来的室友 roommates。 【学生议论】 :女生反对此计划。 理由 1、买书搬家都是容易做到的事情 manageable thing。很多学生在夏季 summer 忙于工作 be busy working,而且很多人住得离学校很远,把 orientation 改期会给他们带来不便,他们可能不会来参加 orientation。 理由 2、新生们可以 meet roommates 通过 email 或者打电话 telephone。没必要 face to face。 【课文要点】 :research enviry,注意 effect,意思是:人们一般做出选择会受到 别人的影响。 【教授举例】 教授举了两个例子: : 有两组跑步运动员 athletes: 给第一组 athletes 每天都吃 energy bar,不给第二组 athletes 吃 energy bar。研究两组 athletes 的跑 步速度是否会提高。如果第一组 athletes 中的一人是第二组 athletes 中的一人的 朋友,第二组 athletes 就会知道第一组 athletes 每天吃补药,而自己所在的这一 组没有给吃 energy bar,但是他们不想就这么输掉,每天都很努力的练习。结果 as a result,两组 athletes 的速度都变快了 run faster。这个实验就分不清这个

Task 4

energy bar 是否有效。 Task 5 【学生困难】 :男生的物理课学不好,跟不上进度。 【解决方案】 :女生给他两个方案: 方案 1、找个专业的家教 professional tutor。但男生说找 professional tutor 贵,他 必须打更多的工才能把辅导费挣出来。 方案 2、请室友 roommate(是一物理专业学生)给他辅导。男生说虽然很便宜, 但他室友非常忙 (好象参加了个 basketball team 而且室友是一个 double major (同 时主修两个专业的学生)。等每天室友忙完自己的工作是已经是深夜了。 ) 【讲课要点】 :讲蚯蚓 earthworm 对植物生长的两个好处: 好处 1、蚯蚓吃了地上的树叶后,the cast they produce can become nutritious fertilizer for the plant。Make soil more fertile。 好处 2、by moving through the soil,they can make tunnels in the soil so that the water, air and nutrition can go through the deep soil。 关于政府 the government 是否应该 own amtrak(amtrak 是美国的铁路公司,为 政府所有) 阅读(应私人承包) 听力 赚不到钱(不能 make profit) ,反而赔钱 government funding 火车不是为了赚钱 lose money。有些车路线很偏僻,去 make profit 而是为了给偏僻地区 remote remote area。很少有人坐。 and unpopulated 的人提供方便 provide services。 住在 remote area 的人需要用火 车,他们跟住在城市的人一样有权利 right 享受公共交通。 对私有的 transportation company(比如 政 府 对 航 空 公 司 airline 有 很 多 支 持 airlines)很不公平。因为政府只给火车 funding 了, 已经给了各种各样的。 例如: funding , 并 没 有 support those paying bills from the air traffic control towers, training aviators and weather companies。等,以至于他们没法降价, forecasting organizations. 难以和火车争顾客。 在美国火车不是那么 popular /out of 大家不坐火车不是因为火车不 popular, date。大部分人选择使用汽车而不是火 而是速度慢,效率低,导致人们使用自 车,因此政府不应该再 funding 或者, 己的私人汽车。要是政府再使劲的往 而是直接投资高速 high way 的建设,培 train system 里砸钱, improve the service。 训工作人员,播报天气预报。 整的跟日本欧洲 japan and europe 似的, 方便又便宜 more affordable and faster, 人们都愿意做火车。结论说政府应该多 投入在 amtrak 上。 独立写作 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Playing sports teaches people more lessons about the life.

Task 6

Writing 综合写作

Task 3 【公开信】 一学生写信 letter 给校报建议学校把新生的 orientation 从秋季 fall semester : 的开头改到夏季 summer。理由 1、秋季一开学,学生很忙 schedules will tight,都忙着买书、 搬新的宿舍。理由 2、在夏季的 orientation,学生们可以提前认识未来的室友 roommates。 【学生议论】 :女生反对此计划。理由 1、买书搬家都是容易做到的事情 manageable thing。 很多学生在夏季 summer 忙于工作 be busy working,而且很多人住得离学校很远,把 orientation 改期会给他们带来不便,他们可能不会来参加 orientation。理由 2、新生们可以

meet roommates 通过 email 或者打电话 telephone。 没必要 face to face。 student write a letter a to the school, suggesting that school should change the orientation of the new students from fall semester into summer. He has 2 reasons, 1 is that students’ schedules are tight if the orientation is in autumn since they may busy buying books, moving into new dormitory. 2 is that if the orientation is put into summer, then students may have enough time to get know with their future roommates. The woman in the listening passage disagrees with this opinion since 1 buying books and moving to new dormitory are manageable things. Many students will busy working during summer and also many students live far from campus, this may bring them much inconvenience thus they may quit the orientation. 2 is that new students can meet their roommates by email them or just call them, there's no need to have face to face communication. Task 4【课文要点】 :research enviry 此词有问题,大家仔细听 effect,意思是:人们一般做 出选择会受到别人的影响。 【教授举例】 :教授举了两个例子:有两组跑步运动员 athletes: 给第一组 athletes 每天都吃 energy bar, 不给第二组 athletes 吃 energy bar。 研究两组 athletes 的跑步速度是否会提高。如果第一组 athletes 中的一人是第二组 athletes 中的一人的朋友, 第二组 athletes 就会知道第一组 athletes 每天吃补药,而自己所在的这一组没有给吃 energy bar,但是他们不想就这么输掉,每天都很努力的练习。结果 as a result,两组 athletes 的速 度都变快了 run faster。这个实验就分不清这个 energy bar 是否有效。 The reading passage tells us a phenomenon that people always affected by others when they make decisions. In the listening passage ,the professor illustrate this phenomenon by using an example. there are 2 groups of racing athletes, members from the first team eat energy bars everyday while the 2nd team do not. The researcher wants to find out whether the speed of the athletes from team 1 would increase. However, one athlete in team 1 is a close friend to an athlete in team 2, and he tells his friend everything. Then all the members in team 2 realize the disadvantage , but they don’t want to lose the game, so they training even harder every day. As a result, athletes from both team run faster than before. And it’s still unclear that whether the energy bar is helpful Task 5【学生困难】 :男生的物理课学不好,跟不上进度。 【解决方案】 :女生给他两个方案: 方案 1、找个专业的家教 professional tutor。但男生说找 professional tutor 贵,他必须打更多 的工才能把辅导费挣出来。方案 2、请室友 roommate(是一物理专业学生)给他辅导。男 生说虽然很便宜,但他室友非常忙(好象参加了个 basketball team 而且室友是一个 double major 同时主修两个专业的学生)。 ( ) 等每天室友忙完自己的工作是已经是深夜了。 man’s the problem is that he is not so good at his physics and he cannot keep up with it. The woman gives him 2 solutions, 1 is to hire a professional tutor, but the man thinks this is too expensive, he must do more part time jobs to afford it. 2 is to ask his roommate who is major in physics for help, but as the man mentioned that his roommate is very busy since he joined a basketball team and he's a double major student, that means when he finish his own work it would be very late in the evening. If I were that man I would prefer the 1st solution, cause, credit is more important than anything else,he can do some part-time job after the finals in order to balance the budget . Task 6【讲课要点】 :讲蚯蚓 earthworm 对植物生长的两个好处:好处 1、蚯蚓吃了地上的树 叶后, cast they produce can become nutritious fertilizer for the plant。 the make soil more fertile。

好处 2、by moving through the soil,they can make tunnels in the soil so that the water, air and nutrition can go through the deep soil。 The lecture mainly talks about the 2 benefits that earthworm bring to the plants. 1 is that after the earthworm eat the leaves on the ground, the cast they produced will become nutritious fertilizer for the plants , it makes soil more fertile 2 is that by moving through the soil,they can make tunnels in the soil so that the water, air and nutrition can go through the deep soil. These things are essential to the plants, and allow them to grow better.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Playing sports teaches people more lessons about the life.
Nowadays, lots of people in China are fond of playing sports. They regard sports as a method to exercise effectively and a way to learn about life. Though some people, who object to the idea, hold the point that it only wastes time to play sports, this idea is fashionable in my country. Personally, I think sports, such as basketball and tennis, really help learn how to be a man. First and foremost, if people keep on hard sport training for a long period, they will have courage to conquer any challenge in their future. When people take a training program, feeling painful and exhausted is definitely common. If one can undergo the program, he or she will never surrender to any difficulty because compared with that in sports, the suffering in daily life is quiet easy to bear. For example, my neighbor, Join, is very proud of his experience in a tennis training program. In the program, he had to run 5 miles everyday, which was really a tough task for him. During the days, he felt extremely tired and once wanted to quit, but finally he determined to carry on. Today, he is a senior executive in PetroChina Company Limited. He owes his success to the program because it makes him stronger and braver. Life abounds with examples like this. From Join's experience, we can easily conclude that sports can bring us courage and endurance, both of which are valuable in our life. Second, people can learn how to work with others from team sports, such as basketball and football. No one can deny the importance of team work in our career. Nowadays, communication and interpersonal skills are becoming more and more useful and essential in team work. Sports can teach us those skills. For instance, among my friends in university are Joy and Michael, who are the members of university basketball team. Whenever we have a group assignment, they will organize our discussion. In addition, when we have different ideas, they will show their great ability and make us agree on a point. They think that they learn this ability from their basketball team, because the team needs to discuss together and figure out a tactic when facing a basketball game. Our society is filled with examples like this. Obviously, we can grasp the knowledge about team work through sports.

The last but not the least, risky sports can provide people with confidence. It is confidence that makes people overcome difficulties and realize their dreams. Under no circumstance can we lose self-confidence. But how can people gain confidence? In my opinion, sports can help. For example, one of my child friends, Lily, was afraid of bungee jumping in her childhood. Once her family had a journey to Daqing Mountain, with her parents' encouragement, she was reluctant to have a try. Through the experience, she learnt that nothing is impossible. Therefore, the striking example shows us that confidence can be developed through playing sports. In sum, though doing sports costs much time, it is worthwhile because it can give you courage, communication skills and confidence. Based on the above analysis, we can safely come to the point that playing sports teaches people many priceless lessons about life.



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