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Numerical-forward-modelling-of-fluxoturbidite-flume-experiments-using-Sedsim



MarineandPetroleumGeology35(2012)190e200

ContentslistsavailableatSciVerseScienceDirect

MarineandPetroleumGeology精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

journalhomepage:www.elsevier.com/locate/marp

etgeo精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Numericalforwardmodellingof‘uxoturbidite’umeexperimentsusingSedsim

XiuHuanga,b,*,ChrisDytb,CedricGrifthsb,TristanSallesb

ab精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

ChinaUniversityofGeosciences(Beijing),Beijing,China

CSIRO,PredictiveGeoscienceGroup,Kensington,WesternAustralia,Australia

articleinfo精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Articlehistory:

Received21July2011Receivedinrevisedform2January2012

Accepted7February2012精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Availableonline27February2012Keywords:

‘Fluxoturbidite’SandavalancheSedsim

StratigraphicforwardmodelTopographicslope精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

RelativewaterlevelchangeWaveactionFlumetank

abstract

Deltafront‘uxoturbiditydeposits’inriftbasinmargins,aswellassandavalanches,areinuencedbytopography,waterleveluctuationandwaveaction.Instabilityofpriorsedimentsdepositedonthedeltafrontisaprerequisiteforthegenerationof‘uxoturbidity’.InthisstudySedsim,athree-dimensionalnumericalstratigraphicforwardmodelisusedtoreplicateandextendasetofphysicalumetankexperimentsinvestigatingtheformationof‘uxoturbidites’fromdifferentinitialconditions.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Thisstudyhasinvestigatedtheinuenceoftopographicslope,relativewaterlevelchangeandwaveactionontheformationof‘uxoturbidites’,andhopefullyimprovesourunderstandingandinsightintothedynamicprocessesof‘uxoturbidity’resultingfromdifferentinitiationmechanisms.Thestudyalsoillustratesthevalueofnumericalmodellingincomplementingandextendingphysicalumetankstudies.

Weshowthat,atleastatthescaleofaumetank,thereexistsanoptimumwindowoftopographicslopeswithinwhich‘uxoturbidites’ariseduetoslumping.Thiswindow,rangingfrom9to18,maybeusefulindistinguishingtheeffectsoftopographicslopefromother‘uxoturbidite’causalmechanisms.Theamplitudeandfrequencyofwaterleveloscillationappearstobeasignicantcontrolon‘ux-oturbidite’thickness,whilewaveattributes,especiallywaveangles,appeartoaffect‘uxoturbidite’localityrelativetothesedimentsource.

2012ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

1.Introduction

‘Fluxoturbidite’isatermthathascontroversialoriginsanddoubtfulutilitywithoutfurtherdenition.Shanmugam(2006)states“ThetermuxoturbiditewasintroducedbyDzulynskletal.(1959).Theoriginofthesedepositsisunclear.Thesedepositsappeartorepresentsandavalanches,slumps,andothermassmovements.”Afterinvestigatingthemeaningofthetermux-oturbidite,Hsü(1989,p.85),pointsoutthat“.thisisanothercasewhenageologistwantedtohidehisignorancebehindanexoticname.”TheAllaby’sintheir1999DictionaryofEarthScienceentrydeneuxoturbiditeas:“Apoorlygradedsediment,theproductofgravity-inducedowinwhichlittleturbulentmixingofparticlesoccurs.Itistransitionalbetweenaslumpandaturbidityow.”

Whileneitherdefendingtheuseoftheterm,norwishingtoaddtotheconfusionaboutwhetheritdescribesafaciesoraprocess,theaimofthispaperissimplytodemonstratetheuseofanumericalstratigraphicforwardmodeltoreplicateandextendaparticular精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

*Correspondingauthor.ChinaUniversityofGeosciences,Beijing,China.Fax:61864368555.

E-mailaddress:huangxiu1983@yahoo.cn(X.

精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Huang).0264-8172/$eseefrontmatter2012ElsevierLtd.Allrightsreserved.doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2012.02.012

umeexperimentthatinvestigatedthegenerationofsandavalanchesdownadeltaslope,andthedepositionofthoseavalanchesatthebaseofslope.Theterm‘uxoturbidite’,widelyusedinChina,isconsideredsynonymouswith‘sandavalanche’inthispaper.StanleyandBouma(1964),intheirFig.17,showdepositslabelledas‘uxoturbidite’atthemouthofasubmarinechannel.Onecanimaginethatsuchsandavalanchescanbeinitiatedbymanytypesofevent:autochthonousinstability,tectonicuplift,earthquakes,storms,etc.

Itiscommonlyagreedthatinstabilityofsedimentsdepositedontheupperdeltafrontisthemainprerequisiteforthegenerationofsandavalanchesor‘uxoturbidites’(Chang,1991;Lietal.,2003b;Zhang,2004;Niuetal.,2008;Jiangetal.,2008;Chenetal.,2009).Therefore,itisnotsurprisingthatmanystudiesofsuchinstabilityhavefocusedonearthquakestriggeringseismogenicslumping(e.g.,HeezenandEwing,1952;ColemanandPrior,1988;Hamptonetal.,1996;Li,2005;Zhangetal.,2006;Dadsonetal.,2005).Otherwritershavesuggestedthatstorm,waveandwaterleveloscillationalsoplaysignicantrolesininducingsedimentdetachment(e.g.AndresenandBjerrum,1967;Morgenstern,1967;Bjerrum,1971;Piperetal.,1985a,b;Prioretal.,1989;Weaveretal.,1992;GarciaandHull,1994;LeeandChough,2001;Xuetal.,2004;Li,2005;Zhangetal.,2006;Warricketal.,2008;Sallesetal.,2008;精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

X.Huangetal./MarineandPetroleumGeology35(2012)190e200191

Figure1.Cross-sectionofumeexperimentequipment.[FiguretakenfromLi,2005].

UrozaandSteel,2008),butnoneoftheabovestudieslookedattheeffectofvariationsinthedirectionoftheseforcingprocesses.Furthermore,theautochthonousprocessofoversteepeningoftheparentdepositonthedeltafrontcanbeanotherpotentialcauseofinstabilitywithinasedimentarydeposit(Banerjee,1966;Prioretal.,1986,1987;Li,2005;Zhangetal.,2006;Girardclosetal.,2007).However,mostpublishedmodelsofturbiditesonthedeltatoeandprodeltahavefocusedonthedelta-slopemorphology,withslopesvaryingfrom6to35(Forstneretal.,1968;SturmandMatter,1972;Sturm,1976;SturmandMatter,1978;Bogen,1983;KostaschukandMcMann,1983;Carter,1988;Corneretal.,1990;Meixner,1991;SiegenthalerandSturm,1991;Jansa,1991;Mosheretal.,1994).Therearealsolimiteddataconcerningthelocalisedpreexistingtopographicslopeangleintheareawherefan-deltasystemshavedeveloped(Shepard,1963;ShepardandDill,1966),andtheeffectofpreexistingtopographicslopeangleonnaturaldeltasystemsispoorlyconstrained(Lajoie,1979;Macdonald,1986).精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Numericalmodellingof‘uxoturbidite’initiationmayprovideinsightintovariationsofinternalarchitectureofthesedeposits,andhelpunderstandtheevolutionof‘uxoturbidite’depositionandthelocationofthesepotentialhydrocarbonreservoirrocks.TheaimofthisstudyistoshowtheapplicationofstratigraphicforwardmodellingandinparticulartheabilityoftheSedsimcomputerprogram(TetzlaffandHarbaugh,1989;GrifthsandParaschivoiu,1998)tocapturesomeofthesignicantfeaturesofsandavalanchesatumetankscale,andinvestigatepotentialcausalprocessessuchastopographicslope,waterleveluctuationandwaveaction.Referenceexamplesofthemodellingpotentialandcapabilitiesareillustratedbynumericallyreplicatingphysicalumeexperiments.NumericalresultsfromSedsimmodelsarecomparedwiththeexperimentalresultsfromthephysicalumetankinordertovalidatethemodelcapabilities.Eventually,threeofthemanypossiblecausalmechanismsof‘uxoturbidity’areinvestigatedusingnumericalstratigraphicforwardmodelling.2.TheSedsimprogram

Sedsimisathree-dimensionalnumericalstratigraphicforwardmodelthatsimulatesawidevarietyofdepositionalprocesses(e.g.,sedimenterosion,transport,anddeposition)bothongeologicalandengineeringtimescales.Itisaprocessmodelwhichusesamarker-in-cellapproachpresentedbyTetzlaffandHarbaugh(1989)toovercomethelimitationscausedbythedifcultyofsolvingthefullNaviereStokesequationsandthecontinuity

equation.ThisapproachcombinestheattributesofEulerianandLagrangianequationsandallowsSedsimtosuccessfullysimulatecomplexdepositionalsystemsandpredicttheerosion,transportanddepositionofsedimentinthreespatialdimensionsovertime.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

AseriesofSedsimmodulessimulatingsedimenttransport,subsidence,exuralisostaticloading,compaction,slopefailureandotherprocesses,arerepresentedbyTetzlaffandHarbaugh(1989),GrifthsandParaschivoiu(1998),Grifthsetal.(2001),Liangetal.(2005),Lietal.(2004,2006,2007,2008)andSallesetal.(2010).Sedsimiscontrolledbyanumberofinputparameters,forexample,relativesealevel/base-levelcurve,initialtopography/bathymetry,tectonicmovement,sedimentinputratesetc.

Sedsimenablesawidevarietyofdynamicprocessestobesimulatedquicklyandthusevaluationoftheimpactofarangeofdifferentparameterscanbeanalysedinashortperiodoftime.Since1994Sedsimhasbeenwidelyappliedinhydrocarbonexplorationandprediction(e.g.,GrifthsandParaschivoiu,1998;Grifthsetal.,2001),andnumerousresearchershaveadoptedSedsimtosimulateandevaluateavarietyofdepositionalsystems.3.Physicaltankexperiments

Theumeexperiments(Li,2005;Zhangetal.,2006)wereconductedusinga5mlongby2mwideand1mdeepume(Fig.1).Theinitialrampwas0.6mhigh3.5mlongand2mwide,withaslopeof0.16(9).TheinputparametersofthephysicalexperimentsareshowninTable1.ObserveddepositionalslopesinriftbasinsinChinarangefrom3to20(LaiandZhou,1994;Liuetal.,1995;FengandLi,2001;Jinetal.,2003;Duetal.,2005).Thesedimentreleasedintothetankhadagrain-sizerangewithinthatobservedinmodern(e.g.,Girardclosetal.,2007)andancientdeltasystems(e.g.,Raoetal.,2004;Yinetal.,2006;Yanetal.,2004),andwascarriedasasuspendedloadthatconsistedof64.7%clayand35.3%siltandnesand.Thesedimentinputwasnotcentralinthetank,butwaslocated60cmfromtheglasswalland50cmfromthesteepedgeofthetank.Thetotalvolumeofsedi-mentsupplywasadjustedsothatthedeltasystemwasappropriatesizeforthespecicumetank,aswasthewaterdischargerate.Beforetheexperiments,therampandatbasinwerecoveredbyasmoothedinitial3cmlayerofsandysediments.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Twoexperimentalrunswerecarriedout.Run1investigated‘uxoturbidite’productionwithoutexternaltriggerandranfor1446minusingawaterlevelthatroseuniformlyfrom0.35mto0.4mduringtherst230mintobuildaninitialdeltadepositandwasunchangedduringthelast1216min(Fig.2).Run2investigatedtheeffectofwavesusingtheresultfromRun1astheinitialtopography.Thewaveshadan8cmheightand4minperiodrep-resentingmoderatewaveconditions.Theywerecreatedbytheupanddownmovementsofacontainer(locatedatthecentrepointattheendoftankoppositethesedimentsupply)inthewater(Fig.1).TheparametersofthetworunsinthisstudyarelistedinTable1.4.Sedsimnumericalsimulationsandresults

ThereweretwogoalsfortheSedsimnumericalsimulations.Therstwastoverifythatanumericalsimulationcouldreplicate

精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

the

Table1

Inputparametersoftheumeexperiments.(TabletakenfromZhangetal.,2006).Experiments精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Trigger

Time(min)

Waterdepth(cm)精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Waterdischargerate(ml/s)

Totalsediment(kg)

Sedimentcomposition(%)Coarse精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Run1Run2

NoneWave

14461446精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

35e4040

41.741.7

730730精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

00

Medium5.45.4

Fine29.929.9精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Finest30.430.4

Clay34.334.3

99Slope精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

192X.Huangetal./MarineandPetroleumGeology35(2012)190e200

Figure2.Diagramshowingthetopographywithpre-depositandwaterlevelcurveusedinSedsimmodelling.Theinitialrampis0.6mhigh3.5mlongand2mwide,andthepre-depositlayeris3cmthick(yellowforsandysedimentslayer,brownforinitialramp)(Forinterpretationofthereferencestocolorinthisgurelegend,thereaderisreferredtothewebversionofthisarticle.).

Table2精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

ParametersandparametervaluesusedintheSedsimModel.ExperimentsRun1

ExperimentsRun2

Vx(m/s)精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Vy(m/s)

Waterdischargerate(m3/s)0.0000417

Wavesheight(m)0.08精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Concentration(kg/m3)201.775

1mm

0.3mm精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

0.03mm

0.002mm

00.0417Tanktime(min)405.4Wavebase(m)0.0429.964.7Wavedirection0精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

physicaltankexperimentsinallessentialdetails(i.e.scale,inputparametersandoutputgeometriesandgrain-sizedistributions.Thesecond,onceweweresurethatthephysicalexperimentscouldbenumericallyreplicated,wastoextendtherangeoftheexperi-mentstoinvestigateparametersthatwerenotphysicallyinvesti-gatedduetolackoftimeorequipment.

Themainaimofboththephysicalandnumericalumetankexperimentswastoinvestigatehowmuchthebehaviourofthesedimentslumpingandredepositionleadingto‘uxoturbidites’issensitivetochangesinvariousforcingconditions.InitiallywecarriedoutaseriesofsimulationsusingtheinputparametersshowninTable2,basedontheparametersreportedbyLi(2005)andZhangetal.(2006)atphysicalumetankscale(Table1).Thetopographicsurfacewithpre-deposit,overwhichsedimentwastransported,depositedanderoded,wasreproducedatthesamescale(Fig.2).SedimentwasintroducedtothemodelinthesamelocationofthetankwithvolumesofsedimentaslistedinTable1.InRun1,thesimulationtimeranfrom0to1446minwithadisplayintervalof20min.Thespatialresolutionwas0.1mgivingagridof50by20cells.Sedimentssuppliedtothetankhadgraindiametersof1mm,0.3mm,0.03mm,and0.002mm,withadensityof2650kgm3.Theangleofreposeforeachgrainsizewassetaccordingtothegeneralizedrelationshipbetweensedimentgrain-sizeandangleofinternalfriction(Kirkby,1987;Nemec,1990b;OrtonandReading,1993).Studiesofmodernandancientslope

failuresindicatedthatthecriticalvaluefornesandydepositsisupto30(OrtonandReading,1993),tobetween25and10withinsand-andsilt-dominateddepositsandclay-dominateddeposits,respectively(Kirkby,1987).Sedimentfailurecanoccurduetotheautochthonousprocessofoversteepening.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

ForRun2,theSedsimwavemodulewasincluded,whichgeneratedwavesuniformlysouthwardsfromthenorthernedgewiththesameamplitudeandperiodasthephysicalmodel(Li,2005;Zhangetal.,2006).TheinitialtopographyforRun2wasthenalsurfacefromRun1.Inthefollowing,threedifferentseriesofnumericalsimulationshavebeenrunwithavarietyofparame-tersgivingdifferentinitialconditionsforthedetachment(e.g.,topographicslope,waterleveluctuationandwaveactions,seeTable3).

4.1.Thereferencemodels

Thenumericalmodelpredictionsfor‘uxoturbidite’depositionareplottedtogetherwiththephysicalexperimentalresultsinFigures3e6.InRun1,duringthetimefromthebeginningoftherun,thesimulationresultsasshowninFigure3indicatethatthedeltasysteminitiallyaggrades(A),duringwhichsandsaredepos-itedmainlyonthedeltaplain,whereassiltandclayaretransportedtothedeltafront;slumpingbeginsat(B),andcontinues(CeD),producingnumerousslumpscarsaroundthedeltafront,gulliesintheprodelta(E,F),and‘uxoturbidite’terracesbelowthedeltafront(Fig.6),despitetheconstantwaterlevel.Theresultantmorphologyfromthesimulation(Fig.3DeF)agreeswiththeobservedphysicalexperimentalresult(Fig.4)bothinpositionandform.Thelengthandwidthofdeltaplainobtainedareofthesameorderasthoseobservedinthephysicalexperimentaldata(alengthof1.5mandwidthof2marederivedfromthenumericalmodelascomparedto1.4minlengthand2minwidthasobservedinthephysicalexperiment).Thelengthofdeltafrontandprodeltaalsocomparewellwiththeexperimentaldata(30cmfor35cm,160精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

cm

Table3精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

ParametersandparametervaluesusedinSedsimModel.Process

Slopeangle

WaterlevelchangeProcess精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Waveaction

Run3e1516e20Run21e3031e3940e45

Physicalreference(Run1)9精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

0.4m

Reference(Run2)Waveheight:0.08mWavebase:0.04mWavedirection:0

精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Range7e20

0.35e0.4mRange

0.04e0.4m0.02e0.1m10e60精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

X.Huangetal./MarineandPetroleumGeology35(2012)190e200193

Figure3.Simulationofthe‘uxoturbidite’systemsinthedeltafrontwithouttriggermechanismfromthebeginningoftherunusingSedsim.(A),(B),(C)and(D)showcompositionofdeposits,withcoloursdenotingdifferentgrainsizes(yellowfornesand,greenforsiltandgreyforclay).(E)Showsanobliqueviewwithcoloursrepresentinglocations(greenfordeltaplain,yellowforforeslopeandpurpleforprodelta).(F)Showssurfacerepresentingthenalmorphology.Verticalexaggerationof(E)and(F)is4timeshorizontal.Seetextfordiscussion(Forinterpretationofthereferencestocolorinthisgurelegend,thereaderisreferredtothewebversionofthisarticle.).

for175cmobtained,respectively).Figure3Dalsoshowsagreaterdistanceof3.9mclaysedimentswithligulateshape,whichareperpendiculartotheshorelineandextenttotheslopebreak.Incomparison,thephysicalexperimentyieldsamaximumtransportdistanceof4m.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

TheresultsshowninFigure5indicatethatthefeaturesofmultipleforesetdepositswithcompactionanddepressionduetothediversionofchannelsseeninthephysicalexperiment(Fig.5B)arecapturedwellbythenumericalmodel(Fig.5A).Furthermore,themaximumthicknessandslopeangleofthesiltandsanddominateddeltafront(Fig.5A),matchtheresultsshowninFigure5B(maximumthicknessof12.75cmfor13cmobservedandslopeangleof27.5for27observed).

The‘uxoturbidite’depositsintheprodelta(Fig.6)areinaccordancewiththedepositsobservedinthephysicalexperiment(Fig.4).However,someloadstructuresinthephysicalexperiment,suchaspillowstructuresandamestructuresinliqueedzone(Fig.5B),cannotbeproduceddirectlyinthenumericalforwardmodel(Fig.5A)astheheightofthesestructuresissmallwithrespecttotheowdepthandtheyhaveanarealessthanthesimulationgriddimension.

Nevertheless,overthesametimescale,andallowingforaliasingeffectsofthegridsizeused,thesimulationrepresentsareasonablerecreationofsedimentarydepositionintermofdepocenterloca-tion,geometryandthickness.Onefeaturetonoteconcerningthedifferencebetweenthephysicalandnumericalexperimentsistheelapsedtimefortheexperiments.Run1tooklessthan6minutesofelapsedcomputertimetoreplicatethe1446minofphysicalexperimentaltime.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

InRun2theresultofnumericalsimulationofwaveactionisconsistentwiththeobservedexperimentalresults.Thedeltasystemischaracterizedbyfourobviousterraces(Figs.7and8)includingadeltaplainunaffectedbywaveshadow,theliqueedzoneinthedeltafront,theprodeltawheremostsandysedimentresettled,andthedeep-waterbasinreachedbysomemuddysediment.Theirlengthsareclosetothoseobservedinthephysicalexperiments(1.3mfor1.2m,0.2mfor0.3m,1.5mfor1.5m,and1.5mfor1.4mobserved,respectively).Figure9showsthat

the精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

194X.Huangetal./MarineandPetroleumGeology35(2012)190e200

Figure6.Perspectivefencedisplayofsectionsshowing‘uxoturbidity’deposits,whicharedenotedbyarrows,infrontofthedeltafrontshowingSedsimpredictedresults.Verticalexaggerationis4timeshorizontal.

Figure4.Sketchofthe‘uxoturbidite’systemsinfrontofthedeltafrontwithouttriggermechanisminumetank.Seetextfordiscussion.FromLi(2005)精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

.

theoreticalvalueofthemaximumwavebaseagreeswiththeexperimentalvalue.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

However,somefeaturesoftheprodeltainthenumericalmodeldonotmatchthephysicalexperimentalresults.Themost

noteworthydifferenceisthatthemaximumtransportdistancebetween‘uxoturbidies’andnger-shapesandsisalittlelongerinthenumericalmodelthaninexperiment.Thisdiscrepancybetweenthesimulationandobservationisprobablyduetothedistributionofwaveenergy.Thewavedirectioninthenumericalsimulationisalinearwaveeldfromsouthtonorthwhereasinthephysicalexperimentthewaveswerecreatedbyapointsourcewithenergypropagatedradially(Li,2005;Zhangetal.,2006).Despitethisminordiscrepancy,thenumericalsimulationhascaptured

精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

the

Figure5.(A)Crosssection,whichisperpendiculartoshorecompareswith(B)umeexperimentresultwhichfromLi(2005).,multipleforesetdeposits.ColoursrepresentrangeofgrainsizesinFigure3.Seetextfordiscussion(Forinterpretationofthereferencestocolorinthisgurelegend,thereaderisreferredtotheweb

精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

versionofthisarticle.).

X.Huangetal./MarineandPetroleumGeology35(2012)190e200195

Figure7.SimulationofthedistributionofforesetdepositionwithwavesusingSedsimmodelling.(A),(B),(C)and(D)showcompositionofdepositsatwateresedimentinterface.ColoursrepresentrangeofgrainsizesinFigure3.(E)Showssurfacerepresentingthenalmorphology.Themaximumtransportdistancebetween‘uxoturbidites’andnger-shapesandsisapproximately60cm.Verticalexaggerationof(E)is2timeshorizontal.Seetextfordiscussion(Forinterpretationofthereferencestocolorinthisgurelegend,thereaderisreferredtothewebversionofthis精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

article.).

sedimentmovement,geometryand‘uxoturbidite’distribution.Run2took1secondofelapsedcomputertimetoreplicatethe4minofphysicalexperimentaltime.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

4.2.Theinuenceoftopographicslopeon‘uxoturbidite’

UsingthesameparametersasusedintheRun1referencemodeldescribedabove,butvaryingtopographicslopesfrom7to20,allowedtheinvestigationofthepossibleinuenceoftopographicslopeon‘uxoturbidite’depositionasaresponsetoslumping.Figure10clearlyshowstherelationshipbetweenslopeangleandslumpoccurrence,andindicatesthatthereisanoptimumwindowoftopographicslopeswithinwhichslumpingleadingto‘ux-oturbidites’occurs.

Below9andabove18slumpingdoesnotoccurorgenerate‘uxoturbidites’undertheexperimentalconditions.Thesilt-andsanddominatedslopeproleswithtopographyof7and8inthisstudyhavemaximumdeltaslopeanglesof22.5and24.5.TheseslopeanglesagreewiththeresultsuggestedbyKirkby(1987),whosuggestedthatthecriticalslopeforslumpingtobeinitiatedwithinlooselypackedsiltandnesandisgenerallygreaterthan25.Thatslumpingdoesnotoccuronsuchsteepslopesispossiblyduetoinitialsedimentbypassenablingsiltandsanddominatedsedi-mentstosettledirectlyatthetoeofslopewithoutslopefailure.Thisresultmightexplainthedifferencebetween‘uxoturbidies’inducedbysteeptopographicslopes,especiallyextremelyprecip-itousslopes,andanyothermechanism(e.g.,Bogen,1983;KostaschukandMcMann,1983;Corneretal.,1990).精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Asaconsequence,thecriticalvaluesoftopographicslopefor‘uxoturbidite’depositionviaslumpingliebetween9and18.Itremainstobetestedwhetherornotthisgradientwindowisalsopresentatfull

scale.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Figure8.Thedistributionofforesetsdepositionwithwave.Themaximumtransportdistancebetween‘uxoturbidies’andnger-shapesandsisabout55cm.FromLi(2005).

196X.Huangetal./MarineandPetroleumGeology35(2012)190e200

Figure9.(A),perspectivefenceofliqueedzone(Pseudo-seismic)withSedsimmodelling,compareswith(B)umeexperimentresultwhichwasfromLi(2005).Themaximumwavebaseis4cmbothinsimulationandexperiment精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

result.

Figure10.Relationbetweentopographicslopeactivityand精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

slumping.

4.3.Theinuenceofrelativewaterlevelchangeon‘uxoturbidites’Whathappenstosimulated‘uxoturbidite’sandthicknesseswithwaterlevelchanges?Therearenowaterleveloscillationsinthereferencemodel,thethicknessesslumpedovertimeasshowninFigure11showthatslumpoccurrenceisinfrequentwithoutaforcingevent.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Figures12e14showthethicknessesslumpedovertimefortwomodelrunswithawaveamplitudeof0.05mandaperiodofeustaticwaterleveloscillationrangingfrom1.0T(T834min)

to精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Figure11.Thicknessslumpedfromthestandardreferencemodel,plottedagainstelapsedmodeltimeandalongsidethewaterlevelcurve.

X.Huangetal./MarineandPetroleumGeology35(2012)190e200197

Figure12.Thethicknessslumpedthroughtimewithanamplitude0.05mandeustaticperiod1.0T(T834精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

min).

Figure13.Thethicknessslumpedthroughtimewithanamplitude0.05mandeustaticperiod0.5T(T417精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

min).

0.5T.Theresultsrevealthatinbothruns,anincreaseofslumpingresultingin‘uxoturbidity’occursduringrelativewaterlevelfall,whereaslittleslumpingoccurswhenrelativewaterlevelrose.Figure13alsoindicatesthatitiseasiertoinitiateslumpingpriortothesecondrelativewaterlevelfallthantherst.Bythetimeoftherstrise,steeperslopeshadbeenestablishedbecauseofdeltaprogradationsothattheslumpingwasmorereadilyinitiated.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

Arapidincreaseinthefrequencyofslumpingeventsisobservedastherateofrelativewaterlevelfallincreases(Fig.14).Possiblybecauseoftherapidrateoffall,sedimentshavelesstimetosta-bilise,andthusslumpingoccursfrequently.

Figure15demonstratesthattheamplitudeandfrequencyofrelativewaterleveloscillationscanhavesignicanteffectsonthechangeoftotalsandthicknessslumped.Forthesameamplitudethetotalsandthicknessslumpedisalwayshigherwithhighfrequencythanwithlowfrequency.Althoughtheresultsofno-andlow-amplitudemodelssuggestthattheslumpingcanhappenwithoutrelativewaterlevelchange,theincrementaltotalsandthicknessslumpedisproportionaltoamplitudeofwaterlevelchange.

Consequently,thenumericalanalysisindicatesthat,atleastunderthesetankconditions,theamplitudeandfrequencyofwaterleveloscillationarethemostimportantparametersinuencing‘uxoturbidite’thickness.Highamplitudeandhighfrequencyofwaterleveloscillationusuallyleadstofrequentslumpingwhichisonecauseof‘uxoturbidites’.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

4.4.Theinuenceofwaveactionon’uxoturbidite’productionTheSedsimmodelsimulationsareperformedwitharangeofwaveparameters,includingwaveheight,wavebaseandwavedirectionaspresentedinTable1.Figures16e18illustratethatvariationinwaveparametersplaysanimportantroleinthegeographicdistributionof‘uxoturbidite’deposition.

Itisobservedthattheareaofthesedimentreworkedzonesignicantlyenlargesandmigratesshorewardwithincreasingwaveheight(Fig.16),reworkingthepreviousdeltaplaindeposits.Unlikethewaveheightinuence,theeffectofchangingwave-basetendstochangethetransportdistanceofreworked

精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

sediments

Figure14.Thethicknessslumpedthroughtimewiththerateofchangeofwaterlevel.

精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

198X.Huangetal./MarineandPetroleumGeology35(2012)190e200

Figure15.Thetotalthicknessslumpedplottedagainsttheamplitudeofwaterleveloscillation.Resultsaretakenfromthe21separatemodelruns.

Figure16.Sandydepositthicknessreworkedduetothechangeofwaveheight((A)for0.04m,(B)for0.08m,and(C)for0.4m,精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

respectively).

Figure17.Sandydepositthicknessreworkedduetothechangeofwavebase.Thewavebaseis0.02min(A),0.04min(B)and0.2min精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

(C).

Figure18.Thedistributionofsandydepositthicknessreworkedwithdifferentwaveangles(0in(A),30in(B)for,and60in(C),精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

respectively).

X.Huangetal./MarineandPetroleumGeology35(2012)190e200199精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

(Fig.17),withdeeperwave-baseleadingtogreatertransportdistance.Figure18showsthatthedistributionof‘uxoturbidite’depositsinducedbywaveactionissignicantlyaffectedbywavedirection.Sandysedimentsredepositasymmetricallyaroundtheprodeltawithwaveanglesrangingfrom0to60,andbecomedigitatefartherfromdeltaplain,possiblyhavingasignicanteffectonlateralreservoircontinuity.5.Conclusions

UsingtheSedsimstratigraphicforwardmodellingprogram,wesimulatedandvalidatedrecentinterpretationsconcerning‘ux-oturbidite’generationanddistributioninaseriesofphysicalumetankexperiments.Thefollowingcanbeconcludedfromtheinvestigation:

(1)Initialtopographicslopeanglesignicantlyinuencesthe精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

evolutionof‘uxoturbidite’deposits.Theremayexistanoptimumwindowofinitialtopographicslopesfortheproductionofslump-initiated‘uxoturbidites’.Thiswindowwasbetween9and18fortheparticulargrainsizedistribu-tionusedintheseexperiments.

(2)Ratesofrelativewaterlevelchangeplayanimportantrolein

governingtheoccurrenceofslump-initiated‘uxoturbidity’.Thegenerationof‘uxoturbidites’ismoresensitivetowaterlevelfalls.Theamplitudeandfrequencyofwaterleveloscil-lationsappeartoinuence‘uxoturbidite’thickness.精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

(3)Waveaction,andinparticulartheincidentangle,mayinu-encethelocationandreservoircontinuityofsandavalanche/‘uxoturbidite’reservoirs.

(4)Thenumericalsimulationstookaround1/261thetimeofthe

physicalexperiments,providedeasyaccesstotheinternalgeometriesandfaciesdistributions,andenabledtheeffectsofagreaterrangeofparameterstobestudiedinashortertimeinterval.Numericalsimulationprovidedaconvenienttoolforinvesti-gatingawiderangeofdynamicprocessesresultingin‘ux-oturbidite’deposition,andshowshowanumericalmodelmaycomplementphysicalumetankstudies.Acknowledgements精彩内容,尽在百度攻略:http://gl.baidu.com

WewouldliketothankC.LiofSINOPECShengLiOileldforgivingtheexperimentdatasetandwealsodeeplythankK.LiuandX.QiofCSIROEarthScienceandResourceEngineering,andF.LiWesternAustraliaDeptofTransportfortheirveryusefulreviewsandcommentsfortheimprovementofthepaper.References

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