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It用法基本概念


It 用法基本概念

it 可用作人称代词、指示代词、先行词及引导词等。

it,是第三人称单数中性, 1. 人称代词 it,是第三人称单数中性,代表前文已提到过的一件 事物。 事物。如: 1)That vase is valuable. Its more than 200 years old. 那个花瓶很珍贵,它有 200 多年的历史。 2)I love swimming. It keeps me fit. 能使我保持健康。 当说话者不清楚或无必要知道说话对象的性别时,也可用 it 来表示。 如: 宝 我喜欢游泳,它

3)Its a lovely baby. Is it a boy or a girl? 宝真可爱,是男孩还是女孩? it 可用来指代团体。如: 4)The committee has met and it has rejected the proposal. 委员会已开过会,拒绝了这项建议。 it 用以代替指示代词 this, that.如: 5)--- Whats this? pen. —这是什么? --- Its a —是一支钢笔。

6)--- Whose book is that? 那是谁的书? —是迈克的。

--- Its Mikes.



it,常用以指人。 2. 指示代词 it,常用以指人。如: 7)Go and see who it is. 声? --- It must be the children. —一定是孩子们。 去看看是谁。 —一是谁发出这样的吵闹 8)--- Who is making such a noise?

无指代性,常用作没有具体意义的主语,出现于表示天气、气候、 3. 虚义 it 无指代性,常用作没有具体意义的主语,出现于表示天气、气候、 温度、时间、地点、距离等意义的句子中。 温度、时间、地点、距离等意义的句子中。如: 9)It is half past three now. 医院也有六英里。 11)It was very cold; it snowed and grew dark. 渐渐地变黑了。 it 也常用来表示一般的笼统的情况。如: 12)Its awful—Ive got so much work I dont know where to start. 透了——我有这么多工作要做我不知从何开始。 13)How is it going with you? 14)Take it easy. it 也常用于下列结构: 15)It looks as if the college is very small. 16)It seems as though our plan will be perfect. 很完善。 17)Its my turn. 并无具体意义。如: cab it 乘车 strong 做得过分 make it 办成 4. 先行词 it. it 充当形式主语或形式宾语,本身无意义,只起一种先行引导的作用, 先行词不重读。后面的真正主语或真正宾语通常是不定式结构、-ing 分词结构 catch it 受责,受罚 walk it 步行 take it out of somebody 拿某人出气 come it 尽自己分内 come it 该轮到我了。 it 也常用于某些习惯用语中作宾语,各该习惯用语有具体意义,但 it 看起来这个学院很小。 似乎我们的计划 你近况如何? 不要紧张。 糟 天气很冷;天下着雪, 现在是三点半钟。 这里离最近的 10)It is six miles to the nearest hospital from here.

或名词性从句。 (1)用作形式主语 18)It is difficult to translate this article. 很难。 19)It is getting harder every day for a lazy man to get a living. 懒汉谋生是日益困难了。 20)What time would it be most convenient for me to call again? 什么时候我再给你打电话最合适? 21)It is no use going there so early. 来访是我很大的荣幸。 23)It is strange that he did not come at all. 还没来。 24)It doesnt matter what you do.什么都没关系。 在上述诸例中, 后置的真正主语可以取代先行 it 的位置, 而出现于句首。 To translate this article is difficult. Going there so early is no use. That he did not come at all is strange. 上述结构远不如用先行 it 结构普通。此外,也并非所有先行 it 结构都 可作上述转换。如: 25)It seems that John is not coming after all. 约翰终竟不来。 26)It happened that John was the only witness. 是唯一的证人。 上述两例只能转换为: John doesnt seem to be coming after all. John happened to be the only witness. (2)用作形式宾语 27)I found it difficult to explain to him what happened. 觉得向他解释清发生了什么事很困难。 28)He thought it no use going over the subject again. 为再讨论这个问题没有用了。 29)They kept it quiet that he was dead. done to stop pollution. 我们必须使公众明白应该采取措施制止污染。 他们对他的死保密。 30)We must make it clear to the public that something should be 他认 我 碰巧约翰 似乎 真奇怪,他竟 这么早去那里没有用。 你的 22)It has been a great honour your coming to visit me. 翻译这篇文章

it. 5. 分裂句引导词 it. 分裂句是以 it 为引导词的强调句型。它的结构形式是:It+be 的一定形 式+中心成分+that-/who-从句。如: 31)It was Jane that/who called this morning. 打来电话。 32)It was a parcel that she brought him. 一个包裹。 分裂句是由普通陈述句转换而来的。通过这种结构可以强调除谓语动词 以外的大多数句子成分。如: 33)John gave Mary a handbag at Christmas. 玛丽一个提包。 根据上下文和语义意图,说话人可以通过分裂句分别强调主语、间接宾 语、直接宾语、状语,使之成为信息中心。 34)It was John that/who gave Mary a handbag at Christmas. 约翰在圣诞节给了玛丽一个提包。 35)It was Mary that John gave a handbag (to) at Christmas. 翰在圣诞节是给玛丽提包的。 36)It was a handbag that John gave Mary at Christmas. 圣诞节给玛丽的是一个提包。 37)It was at Christmas that John gave Mary a handbag. 诞节约翰给了玛丽一个提包。 分裂句的时态一般应一致,即主句与从句的时态应皆用现在时,或皆用 过去时,或皆用将来时。如: 38)It is not I who am angry. 39)It was my two sisters who knew her best. 妹最了解她。 40)It will not be you who will have to take the blame for this. 此须受责难的将不是你。 有时分裂句的谓语动词还可以采取复杂形式。如: 41)It may have been at Christmas that John gave Mary a handbag. 可能是在圣诞节约翰给玛丽一个提包。 42)It might have been John who gave Mary a handbag. 能是约翰给了玛丽一个提包。 分裂句可以强调多种多样的状语成分。如: 43)It was when she was about to go to bed that the telephone rang. 是在她即将上床睡觉时电话铃响了。 很可 对 发怒的不是我。 是我的两个姐 是在圣 约翰在 约 是 约翰在圣诞节给了 她带给他的是 是珍妮今天上午

44)It was because I wanted to buy a dictionary that I went to town yesterday. yesterday. 置) 主语补语通常不可以用作分裂句的中心成分, 如在规范英语中通常不说: It is beautiful that she is. It is chairman of the Committee that he is. 但是宾语补语是可以这样用的。如: 46) is the chairman of the committee that they elected him. It 们选他是作委员会主席。 47)It is green that they have painted the wall. 的是绿色。 who, 注:(1)当强调的中心成分为主语,指人时可用连词 that 或 who,如 :(1 当强调的中心成分为主语, 上述例(31)、(34)、(38),强调其余的成分时, that。 上述例(31)、(34)、(38),强调其余的成分时,连词一律用 that。 )、(34)、(38),强调其余的成分时 在非正式文体中可以省略,如: (2)分裂句中的 that 与 who 在非正式文体中可以省略 48)It was the President himself spoke to me. 谈了话。(省去从句主语 who) 49)It was the dog I gave the water to. (省去从句的宾语 that) 50)It was yesterday I first noticed it. 到的。(省去从句连词 that) 有时还可省去句首的 it is,如: 51)A good, honest trade you are learning, Sir Peter! 你学得是一种很好而诚实的一行啊! (3)分裂句中的被强调部分有时可放在句首,如: 分裂句中的被强调部分有时可放在句首, 52)Now was it that his life was done, and the fate which he could not escape was upon him. 就在这时,他的生命完结了,他所逃不脱的命运降临了。 53)When was it that he arrived at the village? 到达了这个村子? 54)Why was it that he was late for school? 到的? 他是为什么上学迟 是何时他 彼得爵士, 我是昨天开始注意 我是给那条狗水的。 是总统亲自和我 他们把墙壁漆 他 我昨天是由于想买一本词典而进城的。 昨天汤姆是直到他父亲回来才上床睡觉的。 (注意句中 not 的位 45)It was not until his father came back that Tom went to bed

重点疑难

的区别: 1.分裂句引导词 it 与先行词 it 的区别: 比较: 55)It is surprising that Mary should have won the first place. 玛丽本应获得第一名,真令人吃惊!(先行词 it) 是玛丽获得了

56)It is Mary that has won the first place. 第一名。(分裂句引导词 it)
2.虚义 it 与分裂句引导词 it 的区别: 的区别: 比较:

57)It was three oclock in the morning when his father came back.(虚 义 it 指时间) 裂句引导词 it) 他父亲回来时是凌晨 3 点。 他父亲是在凌晨 3 点回来的。 58)It was at three oclock in the morning that his father came back. (分

that/who who引导的定语从句之区别。 3.分裂句中 that/who- 从句与 that/who 引导的定语从句之区别。 比较: 59)It is money that is most needed.(分裂句中的 that-从句) 要的是钱。 60)This is the money that is most needed.(that 引导定语从句) 是最需要的钱。 61)It is Mary who has broken the glass.. (分裂句中的 who-从句) 玛丽打破了玻璃杯。 62)Mary is the girl who has won the first place.(who 引导定语从句) 玛 丽是获得第一名的姑娘。 区别方法: 结构去掉, 区别方法:如将句型 It is/was… that 结构去掉,而句子能还原成普通陈 述句, 则该句是分裂句, 否则不是。 (56) 如 例去掉 It is …that 则变成: Mary 述句, 则该句是分裂句, 否则不是。 has won the first place. 父亲在凌晨 3 点回来。 (59)例变成:Money is most needed. (61)例变成:Mary has broken the glass. 钱是最需要的。 玛丽打破了玻璃杯。 玛丽获得了第一名。 他 (58)例变成:His father came back at three oclock in the morning. 是 这就 最需

4.“拟似”分裂句 拟似” 如前所述,一般分裂句是不可以用简单陈述句的谓语动词作为中心成分 的。 如果要强调谓语动词, 就得采用另外一种强调句型, 这种句型又叫做“拟似” 分裂句。如: 63)I gave her a book. look. to Beijing. 我所做的是给她一本书。 64)He took a plane to Beijing. 他所做的是乘飞机去北京。 What the student What he did was (to) take a plane What I did was (to) give her a

65)The student is going to write an article. is going to do is(to) write an article. 这个学生要做的是写一篇文章。

“拟似”分裂句的主语通常是由 what 引导的名词性从句, 从句的主动词 通常是 do 的一定形式;这种分裂句的主语补语通常是不定式结构,可带 to,也 可不带 to,它构成“拟似”分裂句的信息中心。 “拟似”分裂句还可采取另外一种形式, 即“what-从句+be+名词词组” 的形式,如: 66)What he gave her was a handbag. 也可采取“名词词组+be+what-从句”的形式 67)A handbag was what he gave her. 提包就是他所给她的。 他所给她的是个提包。

专项练习 改写下列句子: 1.用先行词 it 改写下列句子: (1)Possibly the Joneses will come to the party as well. (2)Whether they will come or not doesnt matter very much. (3)He is quite likely to let you down. (4)You seem to have taken a dislike to him. (5)I happen to have had some nasty experiences in dealing with him. (6)Getting the car on the boat was rather complicated. (7)To be with you here this evening is a great pleasure.

(8)You were so kind to invite us. (9)What you say does not matter in the least. (10)How he came to have such a valuable painting is a mystery. 2.翻译下列句子: 翻译下列句子: (1)冬天,天色晚得早。 (2)问她没有用,她什么也不知道。 (3)从这儿到车站有两英里(路程)。 (4)你见过下冰雹吗? (5)由你来决定该怎么办? (6)据说他已去过美国两次了。 (7)可惜你错过了那次音乐会。 (8)看来,他很害怕。 (9)牛奶已经泼翻,哭也无用。(即:作无益的后悔无济于事。) (10)几个月之后我们才又见面。 3.用强调句型改写下列句子。(划线部分为中心成分) 用强调句型改写下列句子。(划线部分为中心成分) 。(划线部分为中心成分 (1)She has been studying French only for three months. (2)He has painted the windows green. (3)John bought the car from Henry. (4)I met Henry in New York. (5)He didnt come home until 11 oclock last night. 翻译句子答案: 翻译句子答案:

(1)It is getting dark earlier in winter. (2)It is no use asking her because she didnt know anything about it. (3)Its two miles from here to the bus station. (4)Have you seen it hailing? (5)It is up to you decide what to do. (6)It is said that he has been to the U.S.A. twice. (7)Its a pity that youve missed the concert. (8)It seems that he is much afraid. (9)Its no use crying over spilt milk. (10)It was several months before we met again.


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