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13星火英语四级美文听力第13篇Leisure and Boredom

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Passage 13 Leisure and Boredom
Technology and the division of labour have done two things: by eliminating in many fields the need for special strength or skill, they have made a very large number of paid occupations which formerly were enjoyable work into boring labour, and by increasingproductivity they have reduced the number of necessary labouring of the population, that is to say, its labourers, will have almost as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy. It seems interesting and relaxing good news at the first sight, but when one recalls how aristocracies in the past actually behaved, the prospect is not cheerful. The past aristocracies invented a lot of activities to make fun out of boredom, however, the problem of dealing with boredom may be even more difficult for such a future mass society than it was for aristocracies. The latter, for example, ritualized their time; there was a season to shoot grouse, a season to spend in town, a season to hold a lot of parties, etc. The masses are more likely to replace an unchanging ritual by fashion which it will be in the economic interest of certain people to change as often as possible. Again, the masses cannot go in for hunting, for very soon there would be no animals left to hunt. For other aristocratic amusements like gambling, dueling, and warfare, it may be only too easy to find equivalents in dangerous driving, drug-taking, and senseless acts of violence. Workers seldom commit acts of violence, because they can put their aggression into their work, be it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist. The role of aggression in mental work is aptly expressed by the phrase “getting one’s teeth into a problem”. productivity [,pr?d?k'tiv?ti, ,pr?u-]n. 生产力; 生产率;生产能力 1. Keep the highest level of safety, quality and productivity. 保持安全,质量和生产力的最高水平。 aristocracy [,? ri'st?kr?si]n. 贵族;贵族统治;上 层社会;[法]贵族政治 1. He objected to the toadying toaristocracy. 他反对对于贵族阶级的奉承。 2. Romanos was a member of an important family of the landed aristocracy and had been prefect of the city. 罗曼努斯是出身一个重要的土地贵族家庭,曾经担 任过君士坦丁堡城的市长一职。 cheerful ['t?i?ful]adj. 快乐的;愉快的;高兴的 1. I have this image of you as always being cheerful. 在我的心目中。你的样子总是兴高采烈的。 2. The two of you spend a fun, cheerfulnight at the movies. 你们两个在电影院度过了一个有趣的、愉快的夜 晚。 happy,glad,cheerful,joyful,merry, delightful,gay,pleasant,nice,jolly, agreeable 这些形容词均含“愉快的,高兴的”之意。 happy glad 情。 cheerful joyful merry 多指因内心的愉快而表现出兴高采烈, 侧重感到满足、幸福或高兴。 最普通用词, 语气较弱, 表示礼貌的惯用语。


是强调而自然的感情流露。 语气较强,强调心情或感情上的欣喜。 指精神情绪的暂时高涨,表示欢乐、愉快

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English Garden Morning Reading Materials

delightful gay


1. Unconscious harm is another type ofwarfare. 无意识伤害是另一种战争形式。 battle, war, campaign, struggle, war, fight, combat,engagement 这些名词均有“战斗,战 争”之意。 battle 侧重指战争中的一次较全面、 时间较长的

感,用于非常愉快的场合。 侧重无忧无虑、 精神昂扬、 充满生命的快乐。 侧重给人以“赏心悦目”或“愉快的,宜 pleasant nice jolly

人的”感受。 语气较温和,泛指任何愉快或满意的感觉。 通俗用词,多指充满快乐与喜悦的神情。 指与感受者的愿望、 情趣或受好等和

战斗,也指陆军或海军在某一特定地区进行的战 斗,或个人之间的争斗。 war 是战争的总称,一般指包括多个战役的大规 模战争。


谐一致而带来的心情上的快意。 boredom ['b?:d?m]n. 厌倦;令人厌烦的事物 1. I believe that boredom is a fate worse than death. 我相信无聊是比死亡更可怕的一个命运。 2. Work banishes those three great evils:boredom, vice, poverty. 工作能赶走三种罪恶:无聊,堕落,贫穷。 mass [m? s]n. 块,团;群众;弥撒,民众;大量, 众多 adj. 群众的,民众的;大规模的,集中的 vi. 聚集起来,聚集 vt. 使集合 1. Crowds massed along the road where the film star would pass. 人群聚集在电影明星要经过的街道旁。 grouse [ɡraus]n. 松鸡;雷鸟科的猎鸟;怨言 replace [ri'pleis]vt. 取代,代替;替换,更换;归

campaign 申用。 struggle 争。 war fight 斗。 combat


区进行的一连串有既定目的的军事行动。也可作引 指激烈或时间持续长的战斗或奋力斗

fare 侧重指战争状态或具体的作战方法。 最普通用词,含义广,指战斗、斗争或打

泛指军事行动,尤指小规模的战斗,甚 指交战,交火。

至是格斗。 engagement

senseless ['senslis]adj. 愚蠢的;无知觉的;无意识 的 1. De Gankelaar: Who taught you thatsenseless self-chastisement? 谁教会你那个毫无意义的自我惩罚? aggression [?'ɡre??n]n. 侵略;进攻;侵犯;侵害

还,偿还;把…放回原处 1. Please replace the books after reading. 请将书放回原处。 2. Why your replace your passport? 的护照? ritual ['ritju?l, -t?u-]n. 仪式;惯例;礼制 adj. 仪 式的;例行的;礼节性的 1. Managing our time needs to become aritual too. 时间管理也需要成为我们的一种仪式。 warfare ['w?:fε?]n. 战争;冲突 你为何更换你 看完书后

1. The amassing of the Soviet power alerted free nations to a new danger ofaggression. 这苏维埃力量的这积累使警觉自由的国家对侵略 的一新的危险。 2. Crush opponents for global domination with distinct tactics and unique levels of aggression. 挤压对手统治全球具有独特的战术水平和独特的 侵略。 Aptly adv. 适宜地;适当地 2. A word aptly spoken is like apples of gold in settings of silver. 说话得合宜一句话说得合宜,犹金苹果在银网子里

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