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英语教学案一体化(模块 8)
Unit 5 Meeting your ancestors 单 元 学 习 目 标 导 航 类别 话 题 重 点 词 汇 知 识 目 标 词 组 句 型 语 新课标要求掌握的项目 1.General knowledge of archaeology 2. Anthropology as well as history alternative tentative accuracy interrupt assume regardless centimetre sharpen ample primitive preserve botany botanical analysis specific specifically seashell category significance somehow systematic yogurt radioactive radioactivity applaud accelerate arrest dizzy relief division affection affectionate patient skilful punctuation regardless of cut up look ahead

语 言

1.强调句型 2.have been doing sth. 3. if only 1. 复习动词时态(Revise the verb tense) 2. 学习现在完成进行时态(Learn the present perfect continuous tense) We have been excavating here for many years. How long have you been driving? What have you been doing these years? 1. 存在/不存在(Existence and non-existence) Perhaps there was … Is there any…on the…? Is there anything to…? It could be because… 2.度量(Measurement) How large do you think it is? It’s at most three centimetres long. …ash almost six meters thick. 3.特征(Feature) It looks like … It may/might have been used as/for… It could be made from… It seems that… It is reasonable to assume that… What do you think the…? We think that… Our evidence suggests that… 1. 了解考古学、人类学和人类史的基础知识。 2. 了解早期人类的生活方式,增长考古学知识,体验人类文明发展的进程,激发学生 对考古学的兴趣和研究古代史的欲望。

情感 文化 目标

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第一课时 词汇突破 Teaching aims: Master the new words and expressions. STEP 1. Pronunciation correcting Read after the teacher or the tape twice. Then the teacher asks the students to read words by themselves. STEP 2.Skills in memorizing the new words The teacher analyses the structure and usage of the new words briefly. STEP 3. Consolidation of the words and expressions ★单词翻译 1.可能的选择_________ 2.试探性的,不确定的__________ 3.精确;准确_________ 4.打断;打岔__________ 5.假定;设想_____________ 6.不管;不顾_________ 7.厘米__________ 8.锋利;尖锐___________ 9.充足的_____________ 10.原始的___________ 11.保存___________ 12.植物学__________ 13.分析__________ 14.确切的;特定的________ 15.种类;类别____________ 16.意义;重要性____________ 17.有系统的________ 18.鼓掌欢迎____________ 19.加速;促进___________ 20.逮捕;拘留__________ 21.晕眩的________________ 22.减轻;解除______________ 23.分配;划分____________ 24.喜爱__________ 25.耐心的,忍耐的____________ 26.有技巧的___________ 27.标点符号________________ ★单词竞猜 1.___________ the choice between two mutually exclusive possibilities. 2. ___________uncertain; hesitant. 3.___________ to break the continuity or uniformity of sth. 4. ___________to make or become sharp or sharper. 5. ___________large in degree, kind, or quantity. 6. ___________of or relating to an earliest or original stage or state. 7. ___________to keep in perfect or unaltered condition; maintain unchanged. 8. ___________intended for, applying to, or acting on a particular thing. 9. ___________of, characterized by, based on, or constituting a system. 10. ___________having a whirling sensation and a tendency to fall. ★重要短语 1. _________________不管、不顾 2. _________________切碎 3. _________________向前看、为将来打算 4. _________________结论 5. _________________和…相似 6. _________________时而 7. _________________为….做好准备 8. _________________偶然地 9. _________________清除 10. _________________集中精力 ★单词拼写 1.A river forms the __________(分界线)between the land and mine. 2.Few of the early books have been ______________(保存).
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3.Living conditions in the camp were pretty_____________(原始) 4.A lot of _____________(分析)of the accident showed what had happened. 5.He is very _____________(有条理的)in all he does. 6. The other day the crowd a________________his wonderful performance for five minutes. 7. It’s polite to i_______________others when they are talking. 8.After another glass of wine ,I began to feel d_______________ 9. You will have to be p______________with my mother ---she is rather deaf. 10. The knife needs s____________; when I cut it up meat, it doesn’t work well. 11. It is impossible to i_____________the man among so many people. 12.He is making a _________________(试探性的)plan. ★USING WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS (WB, P79-80) STEP 4. Homework 1. Learn all the words and expressions by heart. 2. Preview the text and finish discovering useful words and expressions. 第二课时 课文理解表达 Teaching aims: 1.Understand the general meaning of the new text to train the reading ability of the students 2.德育目标:了解并自觉保护世界文化遗产。 STEP 1. Warming up 1. In pairs, try to identify some objects. 2. Discuss what they may be made of and explain their use. 3. Think of the alternatives we would use today. STEP 2. Pre-reading Try a tentative guess about what Peking Man might have done and used thousands of years ago.1).Places for living____________________ 2).Furniture _________________________ 3).Entertainment _____________________ 4).Food_____________________________ 5).Clothing___________________________ STEP 3. Fast reading: TRUE or FALSE questions 1. A group of students from England has come to the Zhoukoudian Caves for a visit.( ) 2. In the caves, human and animal bones, tools and ornaments have been found. ( ) 3. Fires were used for keeping warm, cooking the food and scaring away the animals. ( ) 4. The most dangerous enemies for the earliest people were tigers and bears. ( ) 5. The earliest people wore clothes made from animal skins. ( ) 6. The primitive necklace was made of animal bones and shells. ( ) 7. There was trade between early peoples. ( ) 8. The earliest people were called hunters or gathers. ( ) STEP4. Listening STEP5. Careful reading 1) What did the archaeologist do before entering the cave? ____________________________________________________ 2) Where did those cave lie?
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____________________________________________________ 3) How did experts learn that the earliest people kept warm by keeping the fire burning? _____________________________________________________ 4) How did sea shells get to the caves? ______________________________________________________ 5) According to the text, what is the important evidence of archaeology? _______________________________________________________ STEP 6. Comprehending Practice SB, P39 Parts1—3. STEP 5.Homework 1. Preview the second text.(SB P43) 2. Reading task(WB,P82) 第三课时 Extensive Reading Teaching aims: 1. Improve Ss’ ability of reading further 2.德育目标:了解并自觉保护世界文化遗产。 PART I READING (SB, P43) STEP1. Read the passage quickly and silently to tell the main idea of the text_________ _______________________________________________________________ STEP2. Careful reading to finish the exercises on P43-44. PART II Reading Task(WB, P82) STEP1. Listen to the tape and write down what the passage is mainly about. ________________________________________________________________________ STEP 2. Read the passage and underline the information you think is most important. STEP 3.Teacher explains some difficult points. STEP 4. Homework: Read the passage fluently and recite some parts. 第四课时 重难点知识探究 Teaching aims: Teach and study the language points to grasp and use them freely 【课前探究】 ★重点单词 1.可能的选择_________ 2.试探性的,不确定的__________ 3.精确;准确_________ 4.打断;打岔__________ 5.假定;设想_____________ 6.不管;不顾_________ 7.厘米__________ 8.锋利;尖锐___________ 9.充足的_____________ 10.原始的___________ 11.保存___________ 12.植物学__________ 13.分析__________ 14.确切的;特定的________ 15.种类;类别____________ 16.意义;重要性____________ 17.有系统的________ 18.鼓掌欢迎____________ 19.加速;促进___________ 20.逮捕;拘留__________ 21.晕眩的________________ 22.减轻;解除______________ 23.分配;划分____________ 24.喜爱__________
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25.耐心的,忍耐的____________ 26.有技巧的___________ 27.标点符号________________ ★重点短语 1. __________________不管、不顾 2. __________________切碎 3. __________________向前看、为将来打算 4. __________________结论 5. __________________和…相似 6__________________.时而 7. __________________为….做好准备 8. __________________偶然地 9. __________________清除 10. __________________ 集中精力 11. __________________as well as 12. __________________as well 13. __________________keep sb doing sth 14. __________________keep out sth 15. __________________care about sth 16. __________________used to 17. __________________walk up the path 18. __________________with hunger 19. __________________scoop up 20. __________________look like ★课文重点句子翻译 1. You must be aware that it’s here that we have found evidence of some of the earliest people who lived in this part of the world. ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. I am sorry to interrupt you but how could he live here? ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. It seems that they might have used sharpened stone tools to cut up the animals and remove their skin. ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. As the botanical analyses have been specifically showing us, all the fields around here used to be part of a large shallow lake. __________________________________________________________________________ 5.He had a large ,long face,with strongly pronounced eyebrows and cheekbones. __________________________________________________________________________ 6. 当部落成员为他的选择大声喝彩时,他感到很自豪。 __________________________________________________________________________ 7. 要是她早有计划和安排就好了。 __________________________________________________________________________ 8. 快到目的地的时候,一阵香气扑鼻,她不往前走了,停了下来。 __________________________________________________________________________ 【精讲精练】 Warming Up 1Can you think of alternatives we would use today? 你能想出我们今天会用到哪一种吗? [要点导航] alternative n.选择对象 have no alternative but to do sth.:只能做某事 We have no alternative but to go on. 除了继续下去,我们没有选择的余地。 There was no other alternative but to fight till the victory. 除了战斗直到胜利,别无选择。
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我没有钱,所以,我没有选择,只好呆在家里。 I had no money, so I ___________________________. 这条路被堵塞了,我们不得不走另一条路。 The way was blocked, so we had to go by ____________________. [思维拓展] alternative n.[C]可能的选择,可能性之一。近义词,choice。 adj. 选择性的, 二中择一的 另一种方式:alternative means; 另择群体:the alternative society 这条路被堵塞了,我们不得不走另一条路。 The way was blocked, so we had to go by ____________________. alternative v.交替;轮流 alternatively adv.交替地,作为另一种选择的 Pre-reading 2. Try a tentative guess about what Peking Man might have done and used thousands of years ago.暂且猜猜几千年前“北京人”可能做的事情和用的东西。 [要点导航] tentative adj. 试验性的, 试探的, 尝试的, 暂定的,在句中作前置定语和表语。 a tentative schedule. 是个试验性的计划 We have ___________________________to meet next month. 我们暂约定下月见。 我只能给出一个不确切的意见。 _______________________________________________ 我的看法仅作尝试。 ________________________________________________ 2. I am sorry to interrupt you but how could he live here? 对不起,打断一下,但是,他们是如何生活在一起的呢? [要点导航] interrupt v 中断,打扰,打断,插嘴 Rain interrupted our baseball game.下雨中断了我们的捧球比赛。 The baby interrupted me while I was on the phone. 我在打电话时,婴儿干扰了我。 Traffic in the city was interrupted by a snowstorm. 市内交通被暴风雪所阻断。 It is rude to interrupt.打断别人的话,是不礼貌的。 “Don't interrupt,”he said. 他说: “别插嘴” 。 他中断大学学业到军队去服役。 __________________________________________________ 我忙的时候,请不要来打扰我。 __________________________________________________ 在别人讲话的时候插嘴是不礼貌的。 ______________________________________________________ 你继续讲下去,我不想打断你说话。 _______________________________________________________ 3. So it is reasonable to assume they lived in these caves, regardless of the cold. 因此,我们假想他们不顾寒冷而住在这些山洞里是合情合理的。 [要点导航] assume v.假定,以为;装作,担任,承担。后多跟宾语;宾语+to be +n./adj 或 that 从句。
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I assume you always get up at the same time. 我想你总是在同一个时间起床。 我假定那是错误的。 _________________________________________ 我来承担责任。 _________________________________________ 他装出国外腔调,但我们仍听出来了。 _________________________________________ 我想是这样的。 __________________________________________ [思维拓展] suppose 近似于 think,但含有不确切之意,比 think 缺少根据 guess 凭想象加以猜测 imagine 想象 fancy 凭空想象 [要点导航] regardless adj.(与 of 连用)不管?的;不顾?的 He says what he thinks, regardless of other people's feelings. 他怎么想就怎么说,不考虑别人的情绪。 regardless of 不注意、不顾、不管 他不注意自己的外表。 _______________________________________ 他不顾危险地去了。 _______________________________________ 4. It seems that they might have used sharpened stone tools to cut up the animals and remove their skin. 看起来他们可能是用尖锐的石器切开动物,把他们的皮剥下来。 [要点导航] sharpen v.使变得锋利;变得清晰;变得尖锐,变得刺耳。 他正在削铅笔。________________________________ 随着天色转亮,树的轮廓也变得清晰了。 ______________________________________________ 他在变得不耐烦时,说话的声音也变尖了。 _______________________________________________ [思维拓展]sharp adj.1)锐利的, 锋利的,尖的 a sharp knife 锋利的小刀 a needle with a sharp point 针头尖利的针 2)思维敏捷的;目光敏锐的; 听觉灵敏的 sharp eyes 灵敏的眼睛 The famous writer is still sharp in thought though he has attained the age of ninety-two. 这位著名作家虽已九十二岁高龄,但仍然思维敏捷。 sharp adv.1)准时地;整 at seven o'clock sharp 七点整 2)突然地,急剧地 turn sharp to the left 猛然向左转 [要点导航]
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cut up 切碎;使伤心,严厉批评 彼得,为何不把蔬菜切碎呢? _________________________________________爱丽丝丢了钱,她伤心极了。 __________________________________________ 红军很快摧毁了敌军。 __________________________________________ [思维拓展] 由 cut 组成的常用词组: cut off 切断;剪掉 cut down vt.砍伐;削减 cut in 打断 Don't cut in while I'm talking. 我说话时别插嘴。 5. After that they would have had to rub an ample amount of salt inside the skin to make it soft enough. 然后,他们可能在兽皮里边擦上大量的盐,使皮变柔软。 [要点导航] ample adj. 足够的,富裕的;宽敞的,大的 an ample reward. 优厚的报酬 Ample food and clothing by working with our own hands. 自己动手,丰衣足食。 我们有充足的旅费。 ___________________________________________ 有足够的时间到达机场。 __________________________________________桌子上有满满一篮子水果。 __________________________________________ [思维拓展] ample adj 足够的,富裕的;宽敞的,大的 adequate 指数量或质量刚好达到一般要求 sufficient 着重指足够满足物质或精神方面的需求 enough 多指足够满足某种物质需要 eg: We have enough money for the journey. 我们有足够的旅费。 (意为:够用) 6. It is a primitive necklace.这是一条原始的项链吧。 [要点导航] primitive adj.原始的 ;简陋的;古老的;旧式的;简单的 Primitive men lived in caves. 原始人住在山洞里。 Primitive man made tools from sharp stones and animal bones. 原始人用尖石块和动物的骨制造工具。 The native of that region still live in primitive straw huts. 那个地区的居民依然住在古老的茅草屋里。 Small seashells were once used as a primitive kind of money. 小贝壳曾经被用作简单的钱币。 当时原始人过着艰苦的生活。 ___________________________________________
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他们用一些树干建造了一个简陋的棚子。 ____________________________________________ [思维拓展] 原始部落:primitive tribes 原始森林:primitive forests primitively adv.最初地 primitiveness n 原始;原始性 7.-Did early people really care about their appearance like we do? -Yes and so well preserved. 早期人类也象我们一样讲究外表吗? 是的,还保存得很好呢。 [要点导航] preserve v.保护、维持、保存 You can preserve meat or fish in salt. 你可以用盐保存肉或鱼。 It is one of the duties of the police to preserve public order. 警察的职责之一是维持公共秩序。 警察维持着街道的秩序。 ________________________________________ 盐腌制着食物以免变质。 _________________________________________ 这个花瓶保存得完好无损。 __________________________________________ [思维拓展] preservable adj.可保存的 preservation n.保存 preserver n.保护者,保存者 辨析: preserve v.保护、维持、保存 conserve v.保存、保护(强调珍惜) reserve v.指意见、看法的保留;或座位的预定 8. As the botanical analyses have been specifically showing us, all the fields around here used to be part of a large shallow lake. 植物学的分析结果明确地告诉我们:这儿四周曾经是一个很大的浅水湖。 [要点导航] specific adj.确切的,特定的,具体的 I want a specific answer. 我想要一个明确的回答。 这笔钱是为一个特殊用途而收的。 __________________________________________ 他在写作上有一种独特的风格。 __________________________________________ 这是一本专门面向职业妇女的杂志。 ___________________________________________ [思维拓展] specific gravity 比重 specifically adv.确切地,特别地,具体地 specification n.规格 specify v.确切说明,明确规定 abstract adj. 抽象的;非具体的;非实在的
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an abstract idea 抽象概念 Learning about Language 1. As his university was aware of the significance of his work… 他在大学时代就意识到工作的重要性。 [要点导航] significance n.意义,重要性。 无关紧要的事情_______________________ 重大的演讲__________________________含义深刻的一瞥______________________ 这是具有重要意义的一件事情。 ________________________________________________ [思维拓展] significant adj.有特殊意义的,重大的 a significant speech 意味深长的讲话 significantly adv.有意义地,重要地 辨析:importance ,consequence and significance importance: 一般用语,着重指本身具有重大价值、意义、影响等。例如:news of great importance consequence 侧重指具有或可能有重要或深远的后果。 例如: You must be ready to take the consequence.你必须准备自食其果。 significance 指马上显示其特殊重要意义。例如:an event of significance 重要新闻 2. Somehow, he cycled thirty miles…他设法骑车 30 英里。 。 。 [要点导航] somehow adv. 以某种方式,以某种方法;莫明其妙地;不知怎么地 他不知道怎么竟迷了路。 ____________________________________ 不知怎么地,我不喜欢这种方式。 ______________________________________ 我们必须设法在 10 点以前赶到哪里。 ______________________________________ 【习惯用语】somehow or other 不知是什么原因,由于某种原因,以某种方式 Somewhat adv.有几分,略,稍 I was somewhat surprised. 我有点惊讶。 Using Language 1. She had felt so proud as the group shouted loudly to applaud his choice. 当部落成员为他的选择大声喝彩时,他感到很自豪。 [要点导航] applaud v.&n. 拍手喝彩,称赞,赞同 演出结束时,大家都热烈地鼓掌。 ______________________________________ 我赞成你的决定。 ______________________________________我们称赞他的勇敢。 _______________________________________
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[思维拓展] applaud sb/sth.为某人/某事鼓掌 applaud one’s decision 赞成决定 applause n.鼓掌欢迎,热情称赞 〔辨析〕applaud 和 cheer 共有的中心意思是“以听得见的方式,尤指以鼓掌来表示赞许或鼓励” : We applauded at the end of the concert. 我们在音乐会结束时喝彩。 The fans cheered when the home team scored; 球迷当主队得分时欢呼。 2. If only she had looked ahead and planned well. 要是她早有计划和安排就好了。 [要点导航] look ahead 向前看,计划未来 你是否想过五年后你要做些什么? _______________________________________ 做任何他想做的事情之前,他总是提前打算。 ________________________________________ if only 但愿;要是……就好了。其后一般用虚拟语气。only if 表示"只有"。 If only I were a doctor. 这句话用的是一般过去时,因为原意是:我现在要是个医生就 好了。与现在相对应的句子用一般过去时。 If only I had said nothing. 而这句用的是过去完成时,原意为:我当时不说就好了。是 与过去时态相对应的,故用过去完成时。 If only my son didn't spend so much time befor TV. 这句可以理解为一般现在时的虚拟语气,所以句子中使用了一般过去时态。原意为:要 时我儿子不在电视前面呆那么长时间就好了。 I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。 [思维拓展] look about /around 四下里看,环顾 look over 翻阅,浏览 look up 仰视,查阅 look up to sb.尊敬某人 look down upon sb.轻视某人 look into sth.调查 look out 注意 Look out! There is danger ahead. 当心!前面危险。 look forward to 盼望;期待 I'm looking forward to seeing you this summer vacation. 我盼望今年暑假见到你。 3. Lala accelerated her walk up the path to the caves fearing that there might be wild animals lying in wait for her. 拉拉加快了去往山洞的步伐,担心会有野兽躺在路边等着她。 [要点导航] accelerate v.加速,促进
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加速________________ 他决定增加广告的数量。 ___________________________________________ 这是一种用以加大火势的物质。 ____________________________________________ 4. She had almost reached her destination when a delicious smell arrested her progress and she stopped. 快到目的地的时候,一阵香气扑鼻,她不往前走了,停了下来。 [要点导航] destination n.目的地 到达目的地 ________________________ 东京是我们最终的目的地。 ____________________________________________ 我们花了一整天,才到达目的地。 ____________________________________________ arrest v. 吸引注意力,阻止,妨碍 The criminal was arrested yesterday. 罪犯昨天被捕了。 止血_________________ 惹人注目________________ 警察逮捕了小偷。 _____________________________________________ 花的艳丽色彩引起了苏珊的主意。 ______________________________________________ 5. Lala smiled with relief. 拉拉轻松地笑了。 [要点导航] relief n.减轻,解除 I felt great relief when I heard I had passed the examination. 听说我已经通过了考试,感到轻松多了。 这种药可以减轻一些痛苦。 ______________________________________________ 我最庆幸的是没有迟到。 ______________________________________________ 见到你在这儿,也就放心了。 _________________________________________________ [思维拓展] bring /seek/find/give/feel relief 带来/寻求/得到/予以/感到解脱 relief road 备用车道 relief map 地形图 relieve v. relieve one’s feelings 发泄感情 6.affectionate adj.亲爱的, 挚爱的(having or showing fond feelings or affection; loving and tender) 7. patient adj. 忍耐的;容忍的
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[要点导航] Be patient! 耐心点儿! I know your leg hurts, just be patient until the doctor arrives. 我知道你的腿伤了,耐心点等医生来。 patient n. 病人;患者 The doctor visited his patients in hospital. 医生在医院里看视他的病人。 [重难点跟踪练习] ★ 单项填空 1. In our school, the students have three__________courses and seven __________courses. A. required ;alternative B.require ;alternative C.requiring ; alternative D.reqiure;alternative 2. Our teacher ’s plans are still ____________. A. attentive B.tentative C.attend D.tent 3. He has made a ________offer –he will make it clear as soon as possible. A. sure B.certain C.tentative D.clear 4. Our bodies are strengthened by taking exercises __________, Our minds are developed by learning. A. probably B.Likely C.similarly D.Generally 5. Generally speaking, friends have________in__________each other. A.little;common with B.much;common with C.many; common with D.much; similar to 6. One way to understand thousands of new words is to gain_______good knowledge of basic word formation. A./ B.the C.a D.one 7. It is what you do rather than what you say _________matters. A. that B.what C.which D.this 8. As well as __________the books, he publishes them. A. to print B.printing C.printed D.have printed 9. I assumed him to be able to read. Which of the following word can replace the word “assume”? A. considered B.found C.proved D.promised 10. Some people act regardless _________what will happen afterwards. A. of B.with C.as D.for 11. ----Mummy, can I put the peaches in the cupboard? -----No, dear.They don’t ________well. Put them in the fridge instead. A. keep B.fit C.get D.last 12. Your stay abroad will give you ________opportunities to learn a new language. A. much B.ample C.enough D.sufficient 13. The island where these rare birds nest has been declared a _________area. A. observation B.reservation C.preservation D.conservation 14. Although we don’t have much to say, we write to each other __________. A. sooner or later B.from then on C.every now and then D.more or less 15. So long as the weather _________, we should go for an outing.
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A. clears off B.clears up C.clears away D.clears out 16. As senior 3 students, it is the most important to _______ a good state of mind in face of failure. A. keep up B. keep on C. keep out D. keep off 17. The boss _________ 30 dollars from my salary without any good reason. A. brought down B. kept back C. cut off D. held up 18. -- Where does Mr. Green come from? --- I’m not sure, but his accent ____________ Australia. A. suggests B. sounds C. advises D. shows 第五课时 语法探究 Teaching aims: Review the usages of the Present Continuous Tense [自学探究] (SB P40 Discovering useful structures) [要点导航] 现在完成进行时 (1)结构由“have/has been+动词的现在分词”构成,表示从过去某时开始,一直持续 到现在的动作,可能刚刚停止,也可能还在继续进行。例如: We have been looking for you for an hour. 我们找了你一个小时。 (动作刚停止) She has been teaching English since she graduated. 她毕业后一直在教英语。(动作还在继续进行) We have been going over maths these days. 我们这些天一直在复习数学。 (动作还在继续进行) (2)有时现在完成进行时不是指某动作一直在不停的进行,而是表示一直到说话时为 止的一段时间内一再重复的动作,常常带有感情色彩。例如: She has been saying that 20 times. 这话她已经说了 20 遍了。 He has been calling on her several times this week. 他这个星期几次来看他。 We have been having a lot of rain recently. 最近雨水很多。 (3)有时现在完成进行时表示刚才或近来发生的动作,也可表示知道说话时为止的一 段时间内发生的动作,这一动做到说话时已经结束,而且一般不再继续下去;这种用法 主要表示某一动作所产生的结果或对现在的影响。例如 He has been working too hard. 他工作太辛苦了。 The girl has been playing with toys. 那个女孩一直在玩玩具。 You have been cleaning the classroom, I think. 我想你刚才在打扫教室吧。 (4)现在完成时和现在完成进行时 现在完成时和现在完成进行时均可表示从过去开始一直持续到现在的动作,有时两者可 换用。这两种时态的主要区别有两个 : 其一:现在完成时表示动作已完成,着重结果;现在完成进行时表示动作的进行,强调 动作的持续性。比较: I have watered the flowers. 我已经给花浇过水了。 (已完成:你不必浇了)
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I have been watering the flowers. 我一直在给花浇水。 (未完成:一直在浇) 其二:状态动词、知觉动词或情感动词如:see, feel,know,love 等,不可用于现在完成进 行时,但可用于现在完成时,例如: I have known her for a long time. 我认识她已经很久了。 I haven’t seen him theses days. 这些日子我没有见过他。 [典例解析] 1.--- I ______ so busily recently that I ______ no time to help you with your math. --- That’s OK. I can manage it by myself. A. have been working; have B. have worked; had C. am working; will have D. had been working; had had [解析] recently 常与现在完成时或一般过去时连用。 第二空应用一般现在时。 答案为 A。 2. --- Have you finished the report? --- No. I ______ it all this week. A. will do B. had done C. have done D. have been doing [解析] 现在完成进行时可用于表示动作或状态从过去某一时间开始, 一直持续到现在, 有可能继续延续下去,也可能刚刚结束。本题使用现在完成进行时强调了动作的持续性 和未完成性。答案为 D。 3. It was some time ______ we realized the truth. (2005 山东 24) A. when B. until C. since D. before [解析] .对于强调句型的判断, 主要运用还原法对句子进行检验即可, 把 it be that 省略, 把被强调的部分还原,如果句子完整,且句意正确,则为强调句型。否则,则是其他的 句型,选 D。 [同步练习] ★单项填空 1. We ___for the bus half an hour, but it has not come yet. A. have been waiting B.have waited C.are waiting D.have been waited 2. You are so late. We ________you for a whole hour. A. waited B.had waited C.were waiting for D.have been waiting for 3. He _______articles for our wall-newspaper the three years, and he ______about thirty articles. A. has written; has written B.has been writing ;wrote C.is writing ;has been writing D.has been writing ;has written 4. It_________for two days. The roads will be blocked if it __________soon. A. snowed ;won’t B.has been snowing ; doesn’t stop C.has snowed ;won’t stop D.snow; doesn’t stop 5. It _______for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on, so the match_________. A. has been raining; has put off B.has rained ; is put off
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C.was raining; has been put off D.has been raining ; has been put off 6.He wanted to know how this ___________________ A. had happened B.happened C.has happened D.has been happening 7. China sent up Shenzhou VImanned spaceship into space successfully, which shows science and technology ________rapidly in China. A. has been developing B.develops C.is developing D.has developed 8. Mrs.White became a teacher in 1985.She _______for 20years by next summer. A. will teach B.would have taught C.has been teaching D.will have been teaching 9. ---Hi, Tracy, you look tired. ---I am tired. I ________the living room all day. A. painted B.had painted C.have been painting D.have painted 10. Now that she is out of a job, Lucy______going back to school, but she hasn’t decided yet. A. had considered B.has been considering C.considered D.is going to consider ★USING STRUCTURES (WB P80 PART1-2)

第 8 块第 5 单元参考答案: 重要短语: 1. regardless of 2.cut up 3.look ahead 4.come to a conclusion 5.be similar to 6.now and then 7.be prepared to 8.by chance 9.clear away 10.concentrate on 单词拼写: 1.division2.preserved3primitive4.analyses5.systematic6.applauded7.interrupt 8.dizzy9.patient10.sharpening 11.identify 12.tentative 判断正误:
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1. T 2 .T 3.T 4.T5.T 6.T 7.T 8.T The answers to the careful reading questions: 1. He introduced some knowledge of the caves to guests. 2. Higher up the hill. 3. They found layers of ash. 4. They might travel to the seaside on their journey. 5. Bones. 重难点讲练:Warming up 1. had no alternative but to stay at home alternative road Pre-reading 2. made a tentative arrangement I can only give a tentative opinion。 My opinion is only tentative. Reading 2. He interrupted college to serve in the army. Don’t interrupt me when I am busy. It is not polite to interrupt when someone is talking. Go on, I don’t want to interrupt. 3. I assume it to be wrong. I assumed the responsibility. She assumed a foreign accent, but I still recognized her. I assume that it is so. He is regardless of his appearance. He went regardless of the risk. 4. She is sharpening a pencil. The outline of the trees sharpened as it grew lighter. His voice sharpened as he became impatient. Peter, why not cut up vegetables? Alice was badly cut up by losing the money. The Red Army soon cut up the enemy’s forces. 5. We have ample money for the journey. There was ample time to get to the airport. There is an ample basket of fruit on the table. 6. The primitive men lived a hard life at that time. They built a primitive shelter out of tree trunks. 7. Policemen preserve order in the streets. Salt preserves food from decay. The vase has been preserved intact. 8. The money was collected for a specific purpose. He has a specific style in writing. This is a magazine aimed specifically at working women. Learning about language 1. a matter of little significance
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a speech of great significance a look of deep significance It is a matter of great significance. 2. He somehow got lost. Somehow I don’t like this way. We must get there before ten somehow. Using language 1. Everyone applauded when the play ended. I applaud your decision. We applauded him for his bravery. 2.Have you looked ahead to what you will be doing in five years? He always looks ahead before doing whatever he’d like to do. 3. accelerate the speed He decided to accelerate his advertising. It is a kind of substance used to accelerate a fire. 4. arrive at/reach one’s destination Tokyo is our final destination. It took us a whole day to arrive at the destination. arrest the bleeding of the blood arrest sb’s eyes The policeman arrested the thief. The bright colors arrested Susan’s attention. 5. The drug gives some relief from pain. To my great relief, I wasn’t late. It’s a great relief to find you here. 同步单选答案: 1-15 A BCCB, CABAA, ABDCB 16-18ABA 语法单选答案 1-10ADDBDAADCB

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