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高一定语从句讲解ppt



Attributive clause

一、定语从句的三个概念: 1. 定语从句:用来做定语的句子叫定语 从句。 2. 关系词:引出定语从句的词叫关系词。 3. 先行词:被定语从句所修饰的名词或

代词叫先行词。

二、关系词在从句中的作用: 1. 引导定语从句; 2. 关系词本身没有词义,代替先行词 的词义; 3

. 必须充当定语从句中的一个成分.
**根据在定语从句中所充当的成分将引 导定语从句的关系词分为: 关系代词和关系副词。

三. 关系词的用法: (一)引导定语从句的关系代词有: who, whom, whose, that, which, as。 在定语从句中充当主语、宾语、表 语、定语(whose)等成分。

1.先行词是人时的情况: 注 意 1)先行词是人, 从句中缺少主语时, 用 定 who 或 that 作从句的主语。 语 从 e.g. I have a friend who/that likes 句 的 listening to classic music. 翻 我有一个喜欢听古典音乐的朋友。 译 !

2)先行词是人,从句中缺动词宾语 或介词宾语时,用whom,who或that。 e.g. She is the girl whom/who/that I met at the meeting. 她是那个我在会议上遇到的女孩。 e.g. He wants to return the book to the girl whom/who/that he cares for. 他想把书还给那个他喜欢的女孩子。

* I. 当先行词是one, ones, anybody, anyone, all, none, those 等, 指人时 一般用who,不用that。 e.g. Those who want to go to the cinema will have to wait at the gate of the school. 想去看电影的人必须在校门口等。

II. 在以疑问词who开头的句子中, 或关 系代词在从句中作表语时, 用that, 不用 who。 e.g. Who is the man that is shouting there? 正在那边叫喊的那个人是谁? e.g. She is not the girl that she used to be. 她已经不是过去的她了。

2. 先行词是物时的情况:

1)先行词是物, 从句中缺少主语时,
用that, which。

e.g. You’d better not drink water
which /that has not been boiled.

你最好不要喝没开的水。

2)先行词是物, 从句中缺少动词宾语或介 词宾语时, 用which或 that。 e.g. Finally the thief handed the money which /that he stole to the police. 最后小偷把他偷的钱交给了警察。 e.g. This is the house which/that once Lu Xun lived in. 这是鲁迅曾经居住过的房子。

3.下列情况下, 最好用that引导定语从句:

1)先行词是不定代词, 如all, little, few,
much, anything, everything, nothing,

none, some 等。
e.g. Is there anything that you want?

2)先行词被all, every, no, some, little, few, much, one of , the only, the very, the right 等所修饰时。

e.g. The only thing that he remembered
was her name.

他唯一记得的东西是她的名字。

3)先行词前有序数词或形容词最高级修 饰时。 e.g. This is the first film that I’ve seen

since I came here.
这是我来到这里以来看的第一部电影。

4)先行词中既有人又有物时。

e.g. They talked about the teachers and
the things that they remembered in the

school.
他们谈论了他们所记得的学校里的老 师和一些事情。

4.关系代词作宾语时的特别情况:

关系代词作宾语时通常可省略。但是当作介词 的宾语且介词提前到定语从句句首时,不能省 略,要根据先行词的内容选择whom和which, 即构成介词+whom/which的结构。

*介词后面不可用that ! **介词可提前的情况:

固定搭配和非固定搭配

1.The artist ___ D the judge gave a prize is the teacher ___ I have been taught painting for two years. A.from whom; by whom

B.to whom; who
C.from; who

D.to whom; by whom

2. The journey around the world took the old B the sailing time was sailor nine months, ___ 226 days.
A.of which C. from which B. during which D. for which

3. -Why does she always ask you for help? B is there? -Ther is no one else ___, A.who to turn to

B.she can turn to
C.for whom to turn D. for she to turn

5.whose的用法: 1) 先行词是人,从句中缺少定语时,用 whose。 e.g. Do you know the boy whose parents are on holiday? 2)先行词是物,且从句中缺少定语时, 也可用whose或the+名词+of which 的结构。 e.g. We study in the classroom whose door /the door of which faces south. 我们在那个门朝南开的教室里学习。

6. 关系代词as的用法: 引导的限制性定语从句, as用作关系代词, 既可指

人, 也可指物。在定语从句中可做主语, 宾语和
表语。它常用在the same…as, such…as, as…as,

so…as 句型中,as不可省略。
e.g. Such girls as he knew were teachers.

他认识的女孩都是老师。
e.g. I will buy the same bike as you ride. 我要买和你骑的一样的自行车。

** 若与the same连用指同一物时, 关系 代词只能用that。 e.g. This is the same museum that you once visited. 这就是你曾经参观过的那个博物馆。

Exercises
1.

----What a beautiful place!
---- This is the park ____the best.

A. where I like
C. what I like

B. that I like B
D. I like it

2. ____ hold the special card will be

free of charge for this book.
A. People B. Those people

C. Those ones

D. Those who D

3. The days ____ I spent in the

countryside in my childhood were
the happiest time ____I had ever had

in my life.
A. when; when B. where; that

C. that ; which

D. D that ; that

4. He is the same teacher ____ spoke

at the meeting on the opening
ceremony.

A. as
C. C that

B. whom
D. who

5. The second book ____ I want to

read is Travels in China by Rewi
Alley.

A. which
C. C that

B. what
D. as

6.This is all____I A know about the matter. A.that B.what C.who D. whether 7.The last place _____we visited was the Great B Wall. A.which B.that C.where D.it

8.He talked happily about the men and books _____ interested him greatly in the school. B
A.which B.that C.it D.whom

9.This is one of the best books_____ A by Hai Yan. A.that have ever been written C. that has written B.that has ever been written D.that have written 10.Which of the books______were borrowed C from him is the best? A.which B.what C.that D.whose

11.The English playC ___ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great success. A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which 12. I bought an ancient Chinese vase B ___ was very reasonable. A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of it

13.He built a telescope____he C could study the skies. A.in which B.with that

C.through which D. by it A 14.This is the very knife_____I used to cut apples yesterday. A.that B.by which C.which D.with which

15.A.Mr Smith is one of those foreigners who D working in China. ____ B. Mr. Smith is the only one of those A foreigners who____working in China. A.is B.has C.have D. are

(三)引导定语从句的关系副词有: where, when,why等。 关系副词在定语从句中也有三个作用:
1. 引导一个定语从句; 2.在从句中部分代替先行词; 3.在从句中充当地点,时间或是原因状语.

1. 关系副词where引导的定语从句 1) 当先行词是表示地点的名词,如place, room, mountain, airport等,同时又在 从句中作状语时,定语从句需要用关系 副词where引导。 e.g. The two lost boys happened to come into a cave where they discovered some very valuable pre-historical rock paintings by chance.
那两个迷路的男孩碰巧进入了一个山洞,在那里 他们意外地发现了一些非常有价值的史前岩画。

在上述例句中,where代表in the cave,作 地点状语。

2) 通常,引导定语从句的where大都可以转换成 “介词+which”的形式。

e.g. The American soldiers rushed into the President Mansion where / in which they found those gold bars.
美国士兵冲进总统官邸,在那里他们发现了 那些金条。

3)当表示地点的先行词在从句中不是作状语, 而是作主语、宾语或表语时,必须用关系代词 that或which引导定语从句,而不是用where。

e.g. The Yangtze Gorges is a beautiful place ___________ (that / which)people all over the world look forward to visiting.

e.g. The Yangtze River is our mother river where the Chinese people have created ______ the brilliant Chinese civilization.

在第一句的定语从句中,visiting是一个 及物动词,必须带宾语,而关系副词where 不能作宾语,所以只能用which或that引导, 而且二者可以省略;在第二句的定语从句中, 不缺主语、宾语、表语,所以用where作状语

2.关系副词when引导的定语从句:
1)当先行词是表示时间的名词,如time, day, year, month, week等,同时又在 从句中作状语时,定语从句需要用关系副 词when引导。 e.g. Galileo lived at a time when the human spirit was waking after a thousand year of sleep .

伽利略生活的时代是人类灵魂经过了 千年沉睡之后正在苏醒的时代。

2)与where一样,引导定语从句的when也可以 转换成“介词+which”的形式。

e.g. All the Chinese, at home and abroad, will forever remember the date when / on which the Red Five Star Flag was raised in Hong Kong. 海内外的所有华人都不会忘记五星红旗 在香港的土地上升起时的日子。

3)当表示时间的先行词在从句中不是作状语, 而是作主语、宾语或表语时,必须用关系代词 that或which引导定语从句,而不是用when。 e.g. The film reminded me of those miserable days (that /which) I spent in my childhood. _______________ 这部电影使我想起了我童年时代度过的 那些苦难日子。

3.关系副词why引导的定语从句 1)当先行词是表示原因的名词reason,引导词不 在从句中作主、宾、表语时,定语从句需要用 关系副词why引导。 e.g.Do you know the reason why there are heat losses in a steam engine﹖ 你知道蒸汽机中存在热损耗的原因吗?

2)我们也可以用for which来替代why。

e.g. The reason why / for which you failed, I think,was that you had turned a deaf ear to your mother’s advice. 我认为你失败的原因是你不听你母亲的忠告。
注:在“The reason why sb. does sth.is that ?从句”的结构中,that不能换成because。

***1. 关系副词常可换成“介词+关系代词”, 但先行词前已有介词时,一般不换。 2. situation, point, case, stage, scene等名词 后也常接where 引导的从句。 e.g. It gets to the point where communication is simply not possible. 这使得交流达到了难以成为可能的地步。 3. from where/ since when为“介词+关系副词” 的结构,也可以引导定语从句。 e.g. He left school in 1983, since when he has been working in a bank.

非限制性定语从句
1.非限制性定语从句与限制性定语从句的区别 限制性定语从句,顾名思义,是对先行词从 本质或特征上进行限制的一种定语从句,它 所修饰的词代表一个(些)或一类特定的人 或事、物。

e.g. A man who doesn’t want to learn from others can’t achieve much.
一个不向别人学习的人是不能指望有多大成就的。 a man被限定后,指一类特定的人。 限制性定语从句是不能去掉的,否则剩下的部分 就失去意义而不能成立。

非限制性定语从句则不然,它只对所修饰的词 作进一步的说明,去掉之后并不影响整个句子 的含义。在形式上,非限制性定语从句与主句 之间通常必须有逗号隔开。

e.g. Finally we visited the Giant Yangtze Gorges
Dam,which is the greatest key water control project in the world at present.
最后我们参观了长江三峡大坝,它是目前 世界上最大的水利枢纽工程。 本句若去掉定语从句,主句部分的含义仍然完整。 历年的高考题中,非限制性定语从句是出现频率 最高的考点之一,因此值得我们注意。

比较: He has three sons who are working in the city. He has three sons, who are working in the city.

2.引导非限制性定语从句的which可以指代 前面的先行词,也可以指代前面整个句子。

e.g. That Peter will marry Alice, which has not been announced yet, has spread around.
彼特要娶爱丽斯这件事还没宣布,却已被传 得沸沸扬扬 .

e.g. After graduation, I decided to stay in Chongqing, where I spent my childhood and four years of college life.
毕业后,我决定留在重庆,在那里我度过了 我的童年和四年大学生活。

3.除which外,还可用when, where, who, whom等关系副词或关系代词引导非限制性定 语从句。

e.g. Albert Einstein left Germany for the United States during World War II, when Jews were badly treated in Germany.
第二次世界大战期间,爱因斯坦离开德国去 了美国,那时犹太人在德国受到极大的歧视。

注意:that不能引导非限制性定语从句。

e.g.The American journalist (whom / who) the announcer mentioned in the news broadcast is said to have been killed by the gangsters.
播音员在新闻广播中提到的那位美国记者 据说已经被匪徒杀害了。

4.在限制性定语从句中,如果关系代词作宾语时, 引导词可以省略;但引导非限制性定语从句的引导 词不能省,同时关系代词whom不能用who替换。

e.g. He was eager to go to the hospital to see his stepmother, whom he loved and respected as his own mother.
他急于想去医院看望他的继母,他像对亲生 母亲一样爱戴和尊敬她。

5.as 作为关系代词,引导非限制性定语从句, 其先行词必须是整个句子,而which作为关系 代词,引导非限制性定语从句, 其先行词既 可以是整个句子也可以是名词.通常意思翻译 为“正如”。

e.g.The moon travels around the earth once every month, as is known to everybody. 众所周之,。。。。。

当as和which都指代整个句子时,as可以置于主句 的前、中,位置较灵活;但which 不能引导定语从 句置于句首。

e.g.As is known to everybody, the moon travels around the earth once every month.



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