Z 语法复习 时态语态名从定从
考点 1 一般时态 ★★★★★ 1. 一般现在时 (1)表示现在的习惯性、经常性发生的动作或存在的状态, 常与表示频度的时间状语连用, 如 usually, often, always, sometimes, every day 等。 (2)表示客观事实、真理、格言或者警句等。 (3)表示按照时间表、计划安排好的或者规定的行为, 只限于 go, come, leave, start, stop, arrive 等表示动作趋向性或移动意义的词。 The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 这列火车明早六点出发。 (4)在时间、条件等状语从句中常用一般(现在)时代替一般将来时。 2. 一般过去时 (1)表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态, 常用 yesterday, last year, in 1995, the other day 等作时间状语。 (2)在时间、条件等状语从句中常用一般过去时代替过去将来时。 He said he would not go if it rained. 他说过如果下雨, 他不会去的。 【典题印证】 —Haven’t seen you for ages! Where have you been? —I went to Ningxia and (stay)there for one year, teaching as a volunteer. 3. 一般将来时 (1)一般将来时表示将来某一时刻的动作或状态, 即单纯的将来事实。 (2)三类表示一般将来时的特殊结构: ①be going to do sth. 表示计划、打算要做某事或者有预兆要发生某事。 The dark clouds are gathering, so it is going to rain. 乌云密布, 眼看就要下雨了。 ②be to do sth. 表示按计划或安排即将要做某事, 或者按照职责、义务、规定等要做某事。 We are to obey these rules when we go into the library. 进入图书馆时我们要遵守这些规定。 ③be about to do sth. 表示即将要发生某事。该结构通常不与具体的时间状语连用, 但常与 when 引导的时间状语从句连用。 The train is about to leave. 火车即将开出。 【点津】will do sth. 有时候强调“临时的、当即的决定”, 意为“要去做某事”。 ―Where is the telephone book? 电话簿呢? ―I’ll go and get it for you. 我去给你拿。 用所给词的适当形式填空 1. (2014· 新课标全国卷Ⅱ)A boy on a bike ______ (catch)my attention. He was riding beside the bus and waving his arms. 2. (2014· 重庆高考)You’d better write down her phone number before you ______ (forget)it. 3. (2013· 广东高考)Suddenly, he ______ (find)that he had run out of salt. 4. (2013· 山东高考)I didn’t think I’d like the movie, but actually it ____ (be)pretty good. 5. (2013· 北京高考)—Do you think Mom and Dad ______(be)late? —No, Swiss Air is usually on time.
Z 语法复习 时态语态名从定从
6. (2013· 湖南高考)Around two o’clock every night, Sue will start talking in her dream. It somewhat _______ (bother)us. 7. (2013· 江苏高考)—What about your self-drive trip yesterday? —Tiring! The road is being widened, and we ____ (have)a rough ride. 8. (2012· 湖南高考)Don’t worry. The hard work that you do now _____________(repay)later in life. 考点 2 进行时态 ★★★★★ 1. 现在进行时 (1)表示说话时正在进行的动作、 存在的状态或者表示现阶段正在进行的动作、 存在的状态(说 话时动作不一定进行或存在)。 (2)一些特定的表示动作趋向性的短暂性动词 come, go, leave, start, open, arrive, begin, return 等常用现在进行时表将来。 He is returning from Beijing next week. 他下周要从北京回来。 (3)现在(或者过去)进行时态与 always, constantly, often, forever, continually 等副词连用表示说 话者的“赞叹、厌烦、不满”等感情色彩。 The girl is always talking aloud in public. 这个女孩总是在公众面前大声喧哗。 2. 过去进行时 (1)过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作或者存在的状态。 She was writing a book about China last year, but I don’t know whether she has finished it. 去年 她一直在写一本关于中国的书, 但我不知道她是否已经写完。 (2)表示过去一个动作发生时另外一个动作正在进行。 She was watching TV when a burglar broke into her house. 当一名窃贼破门而入的时候, 她正在看电视。 (3)过去进行时可以表示按计划、安排在过去将要发生的事。用于 come, go, leave, start, arrive 等表示位置转移的动词时, 也可以用过去进行时表示过去按照计划安排将要发生的动作。 Yesterday he said he was leaving for Canada. 昨天他说他要动身去加拿大。 3. 将来进行时 表示将来某个时间正在进行的动作, 或按预测将来会发生的事情。常用的时间状语有: soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, in two days, tomorrow evening 等。 This time next week I’ll be lying on the beach, enjoying the sunshine. 下星期这个时候我就会躺 在沙滩上享受阳光了。 用所给词的适当形式填空 1. (2014· 重庆高考 )James has just arrived, but I didn’t know he ___________ (come)until yesterday. 2. (2013· 新课标全国卷Ⅱ)We ___________(leave)very early so we packed the night before. 3. (2013·天 津 高 考 )The water supply has been cut off temporarily because the workers ____________(repair)one of the main pipes. 4. (2013· 湖南高考)—I don’t understand why you didn’t go to the lecture yesterday afternoon. —I’m so sorry. But I _________(do)my homework. 5. (2013· 北京高考)Hurry up! Mark and Carol ____________(expect) us.
Z 语法复习 时态语态名从定从
6. (2013· 江西高考)I __________(come)to visit you later that day, but I had to phone and cancel. 7. (2013· 四川高考)Hurry up, kids! The school bus _________(wait)for us! 考点 3 完成时态 ★★★★★ 1. 现在完成时 (1) 表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果 , 常用的时间状语 : already, so far, never, just, before, recently 等。 He hasn’t heard of the news about the lost child so far. 他到目前为止还未听说有关这个失踪小孩的消息。 (2)表示过去发生而持续到现在的动作或状态, 甚至延续到将来。常与 since, for 以及 so far, now, today, this week(month, year), for a long time, in the past/last few years, these days 等 连用。 We have learnt 500 words these days. (3)现在完成时还可以用在时间和条件状语从句中, 表示将来某时完成的动作。 Please return the book to me when you have finished it. 你看完这本书后请还给我。 【点津】注意牢记以下固定句型: ①It is/has been+时间段+ since. . . 表示“自从……以来已 经……”。 It is/has been ten years since I graduated from the university. 我已经从这所大学毕业十年了。 ②This/It/That is the first/second/third. . . time that. . . 表示“这/那是(某人)第几次做某事”, that 从句中要用现在完成时。 This is the first time that I have been here. 这是我第一次来这里。 2. 过去完成时 (1)表示在过去某一动作之前已经完成的动作, 强调“过去的过去”之意。常与 by, before 等介 词短语或状语从句连用或用于有上下文暗示的句子。 By the end of last year, we had accomplished the project completely. 到去年年底, 我们已经彻 底完成了该工程。 (2)表示意向的动词, 如 hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose 等, 用过去完成时表示 “原本……(事实上未能……)”。 We had expected that you would be able to win the match. 我们本来预料的是你能赢得这场比赛的。 【点津】注意固定句型①This/It/That was the first/second/third. . . time that. . . 表示“这/那 是(某人)第几次做某事”, that 从句中要用过去完成时。 This was the first time that I had been here. ②hardly. . . when. . . 和 no sooner. . . than. . . 两个句型中, 主句均用过去完成时。 Hardly had the match started when we arrived. 我们一到场, 比赛就开始了。 用所给词的适当形式填空 1. (2014· 安徽高考)The twins, who ___________(finish)their homework, were allowed to play badminton on the playground. 2. (2014· 浙江高考)Sofia looked around at all the faces; she had the impression that she
Z 语法复习 时态语态名从定从
________(see)most of the guests before. 3. (2014· 陕西高考)During his stay in Xi’an, Jerry tried almost all the local foods his friends ________________(recommend). 4. (2014· 北京高考)I found the lecture hard to follow because it ___________ (start)when I arrived. 5. (2014· 大纲版全国卷)The reports went missing in 2012 and nobody ________(see)them since. 6. (2013· 山东高考)—Oh no! We’re too late. The train _______(leave). —That’s OK. We’ll catch the next train to London. 7. (2013· 浙江高考)During the last three decades, the number of people participating in physical fitness programs ____________(increase) sharply. 8. (2013· 辽宁高考)He was unhappy when he sold his guitar. After all, he _______(have)it for a very long time. 9. (2013· 湖南高考)—Have you heard about the recent election? —Sure, it ________(be)the only thing on the news for the last three days. 考点 4 现在完成进行时和过去将来时 ★★★ 1. 现在完成进行时 (1)常用来表示开始于过去某个时间、一直持续到现在并且会继续进行下去的动作。 I’m very tired. I have been checking the students’ papers all the morning. 我很累。我整个上午都在批改学生的试卷。 (2)表示到目前为止的一段时间里一直在反复进行的动作。 I have been calling him many times this morning, but there’s no answer. 今天上午我给他打了很多次电话, 但目前一直没有收到答复。 2. 过去将来时 过去将来时表示在过去某个时间看将要发生的动作或存在的状态。即过去将来时是“立足过 去, 着眼未来”的一种时态, 常用于宾语从句中。 I heard that they were going to return to Shanghai soon. 我听说他们不久要回到上海。 【点津】判断这种时态的依据是要有表示过去的“动作”, 而不一定是单纯的时间。 用所给词的适当形式填空 1. (2014· 湖南高考)Since the time humankind started gardening, we _______________(try)to make our environment more beautiful. 2. (2014· 江西高考)—Tony, why are your eyes red? —I ________________(cut)up peppers for the last five minutes. 3. (2013· 福建高考)The girl has a great interest in sport and ______________(take)badminton classes twice a week over the last three years. 考点 5 被动语态 ★★★ 1. 不能用被动语态的特殊动词 (1)系动词类(look, seem, feel, taste, sound, prove, appear 等)。 (2)表示主语特征的词(read, wash, write, sell, wear, lock 等), 常与 not, hardly, well, easily, badly, nicely 等副词连用。 This kind of cloth washes easily. 这种布料容易洗。
Z 语法复习 时态语态名从定从
2. get 构成的表示被动的短语 get paid/lost/hurt 等。 We get paid every week. 我们按周获得薪酬。 3. 主动形式表示被动意义 (1)在 need, want, require, deserve, bear 等动词、worth 等形容词的后面, 动名词主动形式表示 被动意义, 其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。 The house needs repairing/to be repaired. 这房子需要修理。 (2)在某些“主语(人/物)+be+形容词+不定式”中不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容词 有 nice, easy, fit, hard, difficult, important, impossible, pleasant, interesting 等。 The problem is difficult to work out. 这道题很难计算出。 (3)be to rent/blame/let 主动形式表被动意义。 Who is to blame for the mistake? 谁应为此错误接受谴责? The houses are to let. 这些房子有待出租。 用所给词的适当时态和语态填空 1. (2014· 广东高考)We ________(tell)that our rooms hadn’t been reserved for that week, but for the week after. 2. (2014· 辽宁高考)Tai Chi _______(call)“shadow boxing”in English. It asks you to act like water. 3. (2014· 天津高考)We won’t start the work until all the preparations ______________(make). 4. (2014· 大纲版全国卷)Unless some extra money _______(find), the theatre will close. 5. (2013· 北京高考)—So what is the procedure? —All the applicants ______________(interview)before a final decision is made by the authority. 6. (2013· 北京高考)Shakespeare’s play Hamlet _____________(make) into at least ten different films over the past years. 7. (2013· 上海高考)The school board is made up of parents who ________________(elect)to make decisions about school affairs. 8. (2013· 湖南高考)If nothing ______(do), the oceans will turn into fish deserts. 高考集训 1. (2015· 承德模拟)—When are you leaving for Chicago? —As soon as we __________ (complete)the project. 2. Listen to the music! That’s what I __________ (play)in a competition last July. 3. I __________ (wear)glasses since I was in primary school and I hate them. They make me look like a bookworm. 4. Although all of the apples have been tasted, none of them __________ (taste)good. 5. There are lots of problems in your hometown, but we’re happy to see many of them __________ (solve). 6. Up to now, the program __________ (save)thousands of children who would otherwise have died. 7. The other day, they __________ (have)a party when they heard a loud noise from downstairs. 8. (2015· 保定模拟)—Why don’t we choose that road to save time? —The bridge to it __________ (repair). 9. (2015· 银川模拟)—You speak very good French! —Thanks. I __________ (study)French in Sichuan University for four years.
Z 语法复习 时态语态名从定从
10. All his attention __________ (fix)on the computer game he was playing, so he even didn’t notice his mother enter the room. 11. I was giving a talk to a large group of people, the same talk I __________ (give)to half a dozen other groups. 12. (2015· 邯郸模拟)—Roderick had an accident yesterday. —How come? He __________ (drive)very carefully. 13. (2015· 石家庄模拟)—Have you seen your nephew lately? —Yes, in fact, I saw him yesterday. I __________ (not see)him for three years. 14. Some teenagers __________ (damage)their health because they often expose themselves to so many electric products. 15. (2015· 大连模拟)—Have you read a book called Waiting for Anya? —Who __________ (write)it? 16. On Monday mornings it usually __________ (take)me an hour to drive to work although the actual distance is only 20 miles. 17. My brother fell while he __________ (ride)his bicycle and hurt himself. 18. (2015· 洛阳模拟)—Can I call you back at two o’clock this afternoon? —I’m sorry, but by then I __________ (fly)to Beijing. How about five? 19. (2015· 承德模拟)When I first met Bryan I didn’t like him, but I __________ (change)my mind. 20. (2015· 锦州模拟)—Have you heard about that fire in the market? —Yes, fortunately no one __________ (hurt).
1. A dog is the only thing on earth _________ loves you more than he loves himself. 2. Wolves are highly social animals _________ success depends on cooperation. 3. I would like to take this opportunity to thank my leader, without _________ support our program could not have been completed so smoothly. 4. There are three kinds of paper to make a card with, none of _________ tears easily. 5. He wrote a letter _________ he explained what had happened in the accident. 6. (2015· 大连模拟)Do you still remember the food company _________ my father visited ten years ago? 7. _________ has been mentioned many times, serving the people is our first policy. 8. (2015· 承德模拟)Life is like a long race in _________ we compete with others to go beyond ourselves. 9. (2015· 宝鸡模拟)We all like our English teacher, from _________ we have learned a lot. 10. Clean water and fresh air are essential for our daily life, without _________ we can’t live. 11. (2015· 哈尔滨模拟)Last term our maths teacher set so difficult an examination problem _________ none of us worked out. 12. I refuse to accept the blame for something _________ was someone else’s fault. 13. Children who are not active or _________ diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly. 14. Do you know the way in _________ he worked out the problem? 15. I will never forget the day _________ ShenzhouⅩwas sent up into space. 16. She passed the driving test, _________ surprised everyone.
Z 语法复习 时态语态名从定从
17. This is the worst way _________ we can use to deal with the problem. 18. Do you know the man with _________ Mr. Black talked just now? 19. Such a book _________ you bought is not worth buying. 20. He lives in the room _________ window faces south.
1. (2015· 邯郸模拟)I wondered _________ you had finished reading the book that I lent to you, so I called you this morning. 2. Nothing can change the fact _________ the Diaoyu Islands belong to China. 3. Science and technology is developing rapidly and it’s hard to predict _________ the world will look like in another 20 years. 4. (2015· 锦州模拟) _________ I am concerned about is whether you can provide us with the most up-to-date information. 5. The news _________ house prices will fall has caused many people to sell their houses at lower prices. 6. (2015· 银川模拟) _________ you said at the meeting describes a bright future for the company. 7. (2015· 保定模拟)We are thinking about _________ can be admitted into our club. The number of members is limited. 8. (2015· 沈阳模拟)As many as five courses are provided, and you are free to choose _________ suits you best. 9. (2015· 大连模拟)He spoke proudly of his part in the game, without mentioning _________ I had done for it. 10. _________ we should keep calm does matter in case of emergency. 11. (2015· 唐山模拟)The suggestion put forward by our monitor _________ we visit the film studio is really exciting. 12. _________ is confident is always energetic and is more likely to succeed. 13. (2015· 石家庄模拟)The girls are receiving shape training, which is _________ it takes to be a dancer. 14. (2015· 承德模拟)The reason why he is absent from the meeting is, I think, _________ he may not have been informed of it. 15. It never occurred to me _________ you could succeed in persuading him to change his mind. 16. (2015· 贵州模拟)Up to now, I haven’t got any ideas _________ we should go on with the project. 17. After _________ seemed a long time, they finally arrived at the destination. 18. What I want to tell you is _________ I’ve made a decision that I will give up the job. 19. (2015· 哈尔滨模拟)—Is there any particular soup you would like to have? —_________ you select is all right with me 1. (2014· 北京高考)Some people believe ________ has happened before or is happening now will repeat itself in the future. 2. (2014· 大纲版全国卷)Exactly _____ the potato was introduced into Europe is uncertain, but it was probably around 1565. 3. (2013· 北京高考)_____ makes the book so extraordinary is the creative imagination of the writer.
Z 语法复习 时态语态名从定从
4. (2013· 重庆高考)_____ struck me most in the movie was the father’s deep love for his son. 5. (2012· 山东高考)It doesn’t matter ________ you pay by cash or credit card in this store. 6. (2012· 安徽高考)The limits of a person’s intelligence, generally speaking, are fixed at birth, but ________ he reaches these limits will depend on his environment. 1. (2013· 上海高考)I have no idea ____ the cell phone isn’t working, so could you fix it for me? 2. (2013· 浙江高考)The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief ____ you are better than anyone else on the sports field. 3. (2012· 江苏高考)The notice came around two in the afternoon ____ the meeting would be postponed. 4. (2012· 重庆高考)Evidence has been found through years of study ____ children’s early sleeping problems are likely to continue when they grow up. 5. (2012· 浙江高考)I made a promise to myself ____ this year, my first year in high school, would be different. 1. (2014· 北京高考)The best moment for the football star was _____ he scored the winning goal. 2. (2014· 浙江高考)“Every time you eat a sweet, drink green tea. ”This is _____ my mother used to tell me. 3. (2013· 安徽高考)From space, the earth looks blue. This is _______ about seventy-one percent of its surface is covered by water. 1. (2014· 福建高考)Pick yourself up. Courage is doing _____ you’re afraid to do. 2. (2013· 新课标全国卷Ⅰ)Police have found _____ appears to be the lost ancient statue. 3. (2013· 北京高考)Experts believe ____ people can waste less food by shopping only when it is necessary. 4. (2013· 上海高考)Some people care much about their appearance and always ask if they look fine in _____ they are wearing. 5. (2012· 辽宁高考)The newcomer went to the library the other day and searched for ________ he could find about Mark Twain. 6. (2012· 福建高考)We promise ________ attends the party a chance to have a photo taken with the movie star.