Vocabulary & Structure
? ? ? ? ?
Focus in TEM 4 Vocabulary Analysis & Exercises Structure Analysis & Exercises
? 近年来专业四级考试中Grammar and Vocabulary部分中， 50%为词汇、词组和短语的用法，约50%为语法结构。该 题在总分中虽占分不多,但作为测试考生英语水平之基础, 它对于TEM4中所有题项影响之大是众所周知的，因为任 何一门外语的学习均始于词汇和语法，且对于词汇数量及 其深度的掌握程度在一定意义上反应一个人的英语水平。 因此，掌握词汇和语法对于在TEM4中取得好成绩显得尤 为重要。
? 综观这近几年考题，可发现： ? 1．语法考题的涉及面宽，近年考题曾经考到：几乎所有 词类；三种动词的非谓语形式；各种从句及关系词的用法； 动词时态、虚拟语气、情态动词的用法；独立主格，主谓 一致，倒装，强调、并列结构等基本语法知识。 ? 2．语法考试的重点突出，语法考试的重点为内容庞杂较 难掌握的项目，这些项目还反复出现，如：虚拟语气，状 语从句，定语从句，独立主格，情态动词。
? 3．具体考查重点为以上项目中的特殊用法，不常用的情 况 ? 1）虚拟语气的考点为： ? would rather＋that从句＋一般过去时 ? It is time／about time／high time＋that＋一般过去时 It is vital／ necessary／ important／ urgent／ imperative／ desirable／ advisable／ natural／ essential＋that＋动词原形 ? proposal／suggestion＋that＋动词原形； ? lest＋that＋should＋动词原形； ? if only＋that＋would＋动词原形。
? 2）状语从句的考点为： ? 非 if 引 导 的 条 件 状 语 从 句 ， 此 类 句 子 多 用 at times， provided，so long as，in case，once等来替代if； ? 由even if／so，now that，for all等引导的让步状语从 句； ? just／hardly...when引导的时间状语从句； ? more than，as...as，not so much as，the same as，as much as等引导的比较状语从句。 ? 3）独立主格结构多以逻辑主语＋分词的形式出现。 ? 4）情态动词多与完成时形式连用。 ? 5）定语从句重点考查介词＋关系代词（which）和as作为 关系代词。
? 词汇部分: ? 专业四级考试的词汇部分要求考生能灵活正确运用教学大 纲语法结构表一至四级的全部内容，熟练掌握教学大纲词 汇表中一至四级规定的5000—6000个认知词汇及其最基 本的搭配。其考查重点为： ? 1．动词、名词与介词的搭配 ? 如：popular／patient＋with；yield／solution／adapt／ transfer／access＋to；accuse／require＋of；charge ＋for；under＋discussion等等。
? 2．习惯用法如：confess to／set about／be used to＋ doing；be supposed to／have／make sb．＋do等。 ? 3．由同一动词构成的短语如：come，go，set，break等 构成的短语。 ? 4．单个的动词，抽象名词，形容词和副词多以近义词、 同义词的形式出现。 ? 5．介词短语在句中作状语如：in terms of；with the exception of；in vain等，另外还应注意rather than， other than，such as，none／nothing＋but等词在考题 中的出现。
? ? ? ? ? ?
1. 近义词辨析题。 2．形近词辨析题 3. 词根词缀辨析题： 4. 动词词组题： 5. 从句引导词题： 6. 逻辑连词题：
? 任何一个句子中只可能有一个主句。做题时考生需要首先 判断原题中已经给出的句子结构，如果已经有一个主句， 那么就绝对不能够再出现另一个主句，除非中间有连接词 进行联系。 ? 二、谓语动词专一原则
任何一个句子只可能存在一个谓语动词。句子中不可能没 有谓语动词，也不能多于一个谓语动词(除非中间存在连 接词)。 三、平行结构技巧：如果填空题中空格的后面有and, 或 者and后面有空格，那么这道题目一定是考察平行结构。 填空题中平行结构出现的形式是： A and B, A , B, and C ……
? 1．全面掌握基本语法点，重点记住各个项目中的 “偏，特，难”点。 ? 2．掌握常用习惯用法和词组。 ? 3．注意在阅读中培养语感，因为在语篇层次上培 养的语感往往可以直接帮助答题。 ? 4．研究以往考试试题，适当做些练习记住典型题 例。
? 建议大家尽量做真题。把以前做过的所有真题再仔细读 一到两遍，并且仔细分析做错题目的原因何在。 ? 题目不要做得太多，但是要精做，每道题做完了以后， 大家应该有意识地归纳这个题中反映出来的问题，力求 避免下次做题的时候犯同样的错误。这样才能精益求精 ，做好我们考试前的准备。
? 常考到的词类型： ? 1． 容易出错的词： ? ? ? ? ? A． 近形词： B (1) Everyone present considered his conduct ______________. A.contemptuous B.contemptible C.contemporary D. contemplative (2) We are all astonished to learn that the apparently C ________professor was really a spy. ? A. respectful B. respective C. respectable D. respected D ? (3) On the desert travelers often see _______ rivers and lakes. ? A. imagining B. imaginative C. imaginable D. imaginary
? B. 近义的词： ? (1) I couldn’t sleep because the tap in the bathroom D was ______. ? A. draining B. dropping ? C. spilling D. dripping A ? (2) The service was held to _________the sacrifice of those who died in the war. ? A. commemorate B. memorize ? C. remember D. remind ? (3) Shortly after the boat docked, the passengers B ________. ? A. dismounted B. disembarked ? C. dispersed D. discharged
? C. 异形同义词： ? (1) I’m afraid this painting is not by Qi Bashi. It’s only A a copy and so it’s _________. ? A. worthless B. invaluable ? C. unworthy D. priceless ? (2) Following the elections, a completely new situation is likely to __________. B ? A. arouse B. arise C. raise D. rise
? (1) Because of the strong sun the new sitting-room D curtains have _______ from dark blue to grey. ? A. fainted B. paled C. bleached D. faded ? (2) Unfortunately I must have moved the camera, D because the picture is rather _______. ? A. vague B. confused C. scratched D. blurred ? (3) Production has been delayed because of a shortage C of ______ material. ? A. base B. prime C. raw D. rough
? 3. 动词词组：
A ? Isn’t it time you ________ some serious work before the examination? ? A. got down to B. took up with ? C. got off with D. put down to
?非谓语动词 ?虚拟语气 ?情态动词和倒装 ?定语从句 ?状语从句 ?名词性从句 ?其它
? 近几年的语法测试中非谓语动词约占31.1%，平均每年近5 道题，可谓是语法项目考查的重点，那么非谓语动词的考 查都有哪些特点，解答时又应注意些什么呢？
? 对谓语动词与非谓语动词区别的考查主要集中在独立主格 结构，如： D All things ___ because of the snowstorm, many passengers could do nothing but take the train. A. had been canceled B. have been canceled C. were canceled D. having been canceled
A. 下面的动词要求不定式做宾语： C.有少数动词只能用动名词作宾语 D. 名词(形容词，不及物动词)+介词to(不要把它视为动词不定 B. 下面的动词要求不定式作宾补：动词+宾语+动词不定式。 afford负担得起aim针对agree同意appear似乎，显得arrange安排 acknowledge承认，自认admit承认advocate提倡，主张appreciate感 advise劝告allow允许announce宣布ask要求，邀请assist协助 式的标志)。 ask问attempt企图bear承受begin开始beg请求bother扰乱，烦恼care关心， 激，欣赏avoid避免bear忍受can't help不禁can't stand受不了consider考虑 authorize授权，委托bear容忍beg请求bride收买cause引起command命令 ? 谓语动词后接不定式还是接动名词也是四级语法测试中的一个题眼。 下面是大纲中所列短语中的“to”为介词：(be)contrary 喜欢cease停止choose选择claim要求contrive设法，图谋consent同意，赞 cease停止commence开始complete完成confess坦白contemplate细想 如： compel强迫condemn指责，谴责deserve应受direct指导drive驱赶enable to(与……相反)，object(objection)to(反对)，with a too late. view 同decide决定decline推却demand要求design设计，预定desire愿望 defer拖延delay延迟deny否认detest嫌恶dislike不喜欢，讨厌discourage使 B ① I don't mind ____ the decision as long as it is not 使能够encourage鼓励entitle使有资格entreat恳求exhort告诫，勉励forbid determine决定destine注定dread害怕enable能够endeavor努力expect期 to(为……起见)，(be) opposed to (反对)，in contrast 沮丧dread可怕endure忍受enjoy享有，喜爱envy嫉妒escape逃跑，逃避 A. you to delay making B. your delaying making 禁止force强迫get请，得到hate憎恶help帮助implore恳求induce引诱 望fail不能forget忘记happen碰巧hate憎恨，厌恶hesitate犹豫hope希望 excuse借口fancy幻想，爱好favor造成，偏爱figure描绘，计算finish完成， to(与……成对比)，be usedD. you delay to make to (习惯于)，be exposed to, be C. your delaying to make inspire鼓舞instruct指示intend想要，企图invite吸引，邀请lead引起，使得 incline有……倾向intend想要learn学习like喜欢loathe不喜欢，讨厌long渴 结束forgive原谅imagine设想involve卷入，包含hate讨厌keep保持loathe A ② Had remembered ___ the windows, the thief would not have leave使，让like喜欢mean意欲，打算need需要oblige不得不order命令 dedicatedIto(致力于)，resort to(诉诸于)，as to (关于)，be 望love爱manage设法mean意欲，打算need需要neglect忽视offer提供omit 不喜欢，讨厌mention说到，讲到mind介意，留意miss错过pardon原谅， got in. permit允许persuade劝导pray请求prefer喜欢，宁愿press迫使prompt促使 accustomed to习惯于，be devoted to献身于，be committed 忽略，漏plan计划prefer喜欢，宁愿prepare准备pretend假装profess表明 饶恕permit允许postpone延迟，延期practise实行，实践prevent阻止quit A. to close B. closing C. to have closed D. having closed pronounce断定，表示recommend劝告，推荐remind提醒report报告 to委身于，react to对……反应，with regard to关于，look promise承诺，允许propose提议refuse拒绝regret抱歉，遗憾scorn忽视 放弃，停止recall回想report报道，发表repent悔悟resent怨恨resist抵抗， C ③ Your hair wants ______ . You'd better have it done tomorrow. request请求require要求show(how)summon传唤teach教tell告诉tempt劝 seek找，寻觅start开始swear宣誓try试图undertake承接volunteer志愿vow forward to期待，contribute to贡献等。 阻止resume恢复risk冒险suggest建议save营救，储蓄stand坚持，忍受肥 A. cut B. to cut C. cutting D. being cut 诱train训练urge激励，力说want想要warn告诫wish希望 起誓want想要wish希望 沃tolerate忍受；宽容understand明白，理解
? 这类题涉及三个方面： 谓语动词后应该接不定式还是动名词？ 即可接不定式又可接动名词时，结构和意思上有何差别？ Stop; remember; forget; regret; try; mean ? 不定式与动名词用主动形式还是用被动形式？
D ? ① I’m still unable to make myself ________ in the discussion, which worries me a lot. ? A. to be understood B. understanding ? C. understand D. understood ? ② I‘d rather read than watch television; the programs seem B ____ all the time. ? A. to get worse B. to be getting worse C. to have got worse D. getting worse D ? ③ The speech _____, a lively discussion started. ? A. being delivered B. was delivered C. be delivered D. having been delivered
? 该结构属于独立主格结构做时间状语，状语分词所表示的动作发生在 谓语动词之前，所以应该用完成体。
? 从近几年的考查情况来看，对做定语的非谓语动词的考查有两种情况： (1)对一般概念的考查，而不是固定结构中的非谓语动词做定语。如： ① The project ____ by the end of 2000, will expand the city's C telephone network to cover 1,000,000 users. ? A. accomplished B. being accomplished C. to be accomplished D. having been accomplished ? ② If I correct someone, I will do it with so much good humor D and self-restraint as if I were the one ______. A. to correct B. correcting C. having been corrected D. being corrected ? 掌握非谓语动词做定语的一般的规律,就可以判断①题答案为C，②题 答案为D。
? (2)对固定结构的考查，如： D ? ① The professor could hardly find sufficient grounds _____ his arguments in favor of the new theory. A. to be based on B. to base on C. which to base on D. on which to base ? ② The pressure _____ causes Americans to be energetic, but A it also puts them under a constant emotional strain. A. to compete B. competing C. to be competed D. having competed
? ①题为不定式做定语的固定形式，答案为D， ? ②题为某些特定名词的定语结构，答案为A。在英语中有些名词， 如动词变来的名词，形容词变来的名词，以及means, way, time, moment, reason等要求其后用不定式做定语，不定式没有体的变化。
? 做状语的非谓语动词主要考查其各种形式的选择，如： ① ______ the earth to be flat, many feared that Columbus would B fall off the edge of the earth. A. Having believed B. Believing C. Believed D. Being Believed ② _______ a teacher in a university, it is necessary to have at A least a master's degree. A. To become B. Become C. One becomes D. On becoming ③ Realizing that he hadn't enough money and ____ to borrow C from his father, he decided to sell his watch. A. not wanted B. no to want C. not wanting D. wanting not ④ ___ it or not, his discovery has created a stir in scientific A circles. A. Believe B. To believe C. Believing D. Believed
? (1)状语类别的判断 ： 不同的状语对非谓语动词的要求不同，目的状语要求用不定式，如②。 (2)非谓语动词与句子属于之间的逻辑关系 根据主谓关系或动宾关系的不同来确定用现在分词还是用过去分词。 (3)非谓语动词的否定形式 not否定非谓语动词时置于非谓语动词之前，如③。 (4) 独立成分 有些非谓语动词的使用不受与句子主语关系的限制，称为独立成分， 这类成 分只记忆即可。如: generally speaking, judging from..., to tell the truth..., 等。
? 做宾语补足语的非谓语动词受谓语动词的限制，不同动词后的宾语补 足语形式要求不同。近几年对各类宾补都有考查。如： A ? ① They are going to have the service man ____ an electric fan in the office tomorrow. A. install B. to install C. to be installed D. installed ? ② After a few rounds of talks, both sides regarded the territory dispute ______. D A. being settled B. to be settled C. had settled D. as settled B ? ③ You will see this product ____ wherever you go. A. to be advertised B. advertised C. advertise D. advertising
D ? ④ His remarks left me _____ about his real purpose. A. wondered B. wonder C. to wonder D. wondering A ? ⑤ When I caught him ______ me I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop. A. cheating B. cheat C. to cheat D. to be cheating
⑥ The sale usually takes place outside the house, with the C audience _____ on benches, chairs or boxes. A. having seated B. seating C. seated D. having been seated
? 表语的考查多侧重于分词做表语形式的选择，很少有动名词的用法的 考查，虽然选项中有不定式作为干扰项，只要能看出是做表语的也就 不用考虑。如： A ? ① The house was very quiet, ____ as it was on the side of the mountain. A. isolated B. isolating ? C. to be isolated D. having been isolated A ? ② These surveys indicate that many crimes go _____ by the police, mainly because not all victims report them. A. unrecorded B. to be unrecorded C. unrecording D. to have been unrecorded ? 分词做表语可以做系动词be的表语，也可以做其它系动词的表语， 如go, feel,seem, look, remain等等。这些系动词后非谓语动词的用法 规则是相同的。
? to可以是介词，也可以用来引导不定式，四级考试中对种类用法的考 查也比较多。如： ? ① I have no objection _______ your story again. B A. to hear B. to hearing C. to having heard D. to have heard ? ② The traditional approach ____ with complex problems is to A break down into smaller, more easily managed problems. A. to dealing B. in dealing C. dealing D. to deal ? ③ The man in the corner confessed to _____ a lie to the D manager of the company. A. have told B. be told C. being told D. having told ? 这类考题的考查方式有两种，一是四个选项中有两个相对的选项to do something 和 to doing something，这时考查的自然是to的性质； 另一种是to在题干中，如③。
? 分词前连词的使用是为了使分词的作用更加明了，使考生更加准确地 理解试题。考查有两种情况 ? (1)根据连词选择适当的分词形式 D Michael used to look hurt and surprised when ______. A. scolding B. to scold C. having scolded D. scolded ? when的使用说明非谓语动词做时间状语，答案不可能是B，从scold 与句子主语间的逻辑关系来看，应该是动宾关系，答案应该是D。 ? (2)根据状语的功能选择不同的连词 Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of patient do not take drugs ___ directed. D A. like B. so C. which D. as ? 由上下文的意思可以看出，分词所做的是方式状语，连词应该是as。
? 非谓语动词中分词的体有完成体和进行体，即having done, having been done和being done，完成体只用于做 状语的场合，而进行体可以用于做定语和做补足语。
? 动名词的体也有having done, having been done和 being done的结构主要用于做主语和宾语的场合。
? 不定式的体有to be doing 和to have done，主要用于 pretend, happen, seem, appear, be said to等结构中。
? 动名词符合结构可以做主语、宾语和表语，在对动名词的考查中总是 将其逻辑主语包括进来，形成动名词的复合结构： C ① _____ in an atmosphere of simple living was what her parents wished for. A. The girl was educated B. The girl educated C. The girl‘s being educated D. The girl to be educated ? 本题涉及题眼比较多，A，为从句做主语，但缺少that，D为不定式 做主语，但缺少for(for the girl to be educated)，B结构不能做主 语，答案是C，为动名词的复合结构。 ? ② Ann never dreams of _____ for her to be sent abroad very A soon. A. there being a chance B. there to be a chance C. there be a chance D. being a chance ? 介词后用动名词，表示存在时必须用there be句型，所以答案为A， 这也是动名词复合结构，there为动名词的逻辑主语。
B ? ③ I don't mind _____ the decision as long as it is not too late. A. you to delay making B. your delaying making C. your delaying to make D. you delay to make ? Mind要求接动名词,动名词的逻辑主语用形容词性物主代 词，答案自然是B。 A ? ④ I would appreciate _____ it a secret. ? A. your keeping B. you to keep C. that you keep D. that you will keep ? 本题与上一题类似，答案是A。 Back
? 英语中的虚拟语气有4种，一种是条件句中的虚拟 语气，一种是含蓄条件句中的虚拟语气，一种是 名词性从句中的虚拟语气，还有一种是状语从句 中的虚拟语气。其中虚拟时态的运用很大程度上 和其所处的句型有关。95年以来，对虚拟语气的 考查有28题之多，占词汇/语法总数的15.2%。
? 下面分四部分来看一下四级考试中虚拟语气的运 用。
? 1) If I hadn't stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell, you ____ now. A A. wouldn't be smiling B. couldn't have smiled C. won't smile D. didn't smile ? ① 对于虚拟条件句中时态的运用，首先应该区分主从句 的不同。从句中用过去时，过去完成时，或were to/should +原形动词，而主句中用 would/could/might/should + 原形动词或动词的完成形式。
B ? 2) ____ for my illness I would have lent him a helping hand. A. Not being B. Had it not been C. Without being D. Not having been
? ② 虚拟条件句有单一条件句，也有混合虚拟条件句，所以不能只根据 从句与某一事实相反来判断主句就与该事实相反，同样，也不能想当 然地认为主句与某一事实相反，从句也就与该事实相反。 ? 如1）从句与过去事实相反，而主句与现在事实相反。再如： ? If he weren‘t such a kind man, he wouldn’t lent a hand to such people as you the other day. (从句与现在事实相反，主句与过去事 实相反。) ? Were my friends not to come tomorrow, I wouldn't have bought so many foods. (从句与将来事实相反，主句与过去事实相反。)
D ? 3) ______before we depart the day after tomorrow, we should have a wonderful dinner party. A. Had they arrived B. Would they arrive ? C. Were they arriving D. Were they to arrive
? ③ 熟记主从句动词与不同事实相反时的时态运用规则。 解题时根据句子所表达的时间概念确定与什么事实相反， 然后采用相应的时态。
? 4) Jean doesn't want to work right away because she thinks that C if she ____ a job she probably wouldn't be able to see her friends very often. ? A. has to get B. were to get C. had got D. could have got ? ④ if引导条件状语从句时，可以将were/had/should提至句首，省略 if。考试时经常是将省略if的与含有if的选项并列，在这种情况下， 应注意分清从句的时态，尽管多数情况下都是倒装的结构为正确选项。 C ? 5) _____ right now, she would get there on Sunday. ? A. Would she leave B. If she leaves C. Were she to leave D. If she had left ? ⑤ If it weren‘t/hadn’t been for …以及其倒装结构were it not for/had it not been for表示“如果不是……的话”
B ? 6) Had he worked harder, he ____ the exams. A. must have got through ? B. would have got through ? C. would get through ? D. could get through C ? 7) If the whole operation _____ beforehand, a great deal of time and money would have been lost. ? A. was not planned B. has not been planned C. had not been planned D. were not planned
⑥ 正如真实条件从句中不用will一样，虚拟条件从句中也不 可使用would，应特别注意。
? 如果与过去事实相反，从句中用过去完成时，主句中用 would/should/could/might + have done的形式，如2）6） 和7）。 ? 如果与现在事实相反，从句中用一般过去时，主句中用 would/could/might/should + 原形动词，表示与正在进行 的事实相反用would/might/could/should + be doing的结 构，如1）。 ? 如果表示将来不可能实现的事情，从句中用过去时，或 were to / should + 原形动词，以上3） 4） 5）表示的都 属于这种情况。
? 含蓄虚拟条件句指没有明确的条件从句的虚拟条件句，一 般是条件用介词短语、分词短语或并列句的方式表达，这 时主句的时态要求与含有条件从句的主句要求相同。四级 测试中常考的含蓄虚拟条件句句型有：
① But for/Without, 主句 eg: But for/Without your help, we wouldn't have accomplished the task on time. ? ② ……, otherwise/or …… eg: He hadn't had food for two days, or/otherwise he wouldn't have fainted out at work.
? ③ 分词/不定式，主句 Having been born ten years earlier, you could have witnessed the disaster. Given more time, we could have done the work much better. You would be foolish to make friends with such people. ? ④ ……，though/but …… Einstein cared little for money, though he could have been very rich. He could have got the job, but he didn't apply for it.
D ? 1) Some women ____a good salary in a job instead of staying home, but they decided not to work for the sake of the family. A. must make B. should have made C. would make D. could have made
? 2) We didn't know his telephone number, otherwise A we ___ him. A. would have telephoned B. must have telephoned ? C. would telephone D. had telephoned
? 与以上两种虚拟语气句式不同，这里虚拟语气中时态的变化比较少， 主要依据所处的句型。考生所需要的是了解在哪些情况下用这种句式， 测试中考生只需从四个选项中辨认答案即可。 ? 1) Wouldn't you rather your child _____ to bed early? B A.go B.went C.would go D.goes ? 2) Mike's uncle insists ____ in this hotel. D A.staying not B.not to stay C.that he would not stay D.that he not stay B ? 3) Sometimes I wish I ____ in a different time and a different place. A.be living B.were living C .would live D.would have lived D ? 4) It is essential that these application forms ____ back as early as possible. A.must be sent B.will be sent C.are sent D.be sent
? 5) It is recommended that the project _____ until all the C preparations have been made. A.is not started B.will not be started C.not be started D.is not to be started ? 6) We are all for your proposal that the discussion____. A A.be put off B.was put off C.should put off D.is to be out off B ? 7) The suggestion that the mayor ________the prizes was accepted by everyone. A.would present B.present C.presents D.ought to present ? 8) It's already 5 o'clock now.Don't you think it is about time ____? C A.we are going home B.we go home C.we went home D.we can go home
? 评析 该部分所包含的句型有： ① 表示“命令”“建议”或“要求”的动词后面的宾语 从句中用should + 原形动词，should可以省略。常用于该 句型的动词有direct, order, command, require, ask, request, demand, insist, suggest, recommend等。 这里句型的考题中，一般都会有would, must等干扰项， 正确选项以省略should者居多。
? 另外这类考题还常借助于动词本身的句法结构设干扰项。 如insist后可接doing something 或 on doing something 的结构，suggest后也可接动名词。另外，这两个单词也 有不用虚拟语气的句式，如insist 表示“坚持认为”， suggest表示“说明”“表明”时，从句中就不用虚拟语 气，考生应注意分别。 ? ② 表示“命令”“建议”或“要求”的名词后面的同位 语或表语从句中同样是用should + 原形动词，should可以 省略。 与上面一条相同，表示这些概念的名词如suggestion, order, proposal等后面的that从句中虚拟语气使用规则相 同。
? ③ It is + 表示重要，有必要，吃惊，难以相信的名词或形容词，或 表示“命令”“建议”“要求”的过去分词 + that 从句中用should + 原形动词，should可以省略。 这一句型可分解为: It is important/necessary/vital/advisable/essential ...that …(should) It is strange/surprising/unbelievable … that …(should) It is a surprise/wonder ..that …(should) … It is suggested/requested/recommended … that …(should)… 这些句型一律使用should + 原形动词的结构，should可以省略，如4） 5）10）题。
? 注意It is strange/surprising/unbelievable … that …(should)句型中如果表示过去的事情可以用should have done 的形式，如： It is strange that he should have failed in the election.
? ④ wish wish 后面的从句时态. 表示与现在正在进行的事情相反可用过去进行时。 表示与过去事实相反的情况用过去完成时，也可以用could have done 的形式，如： ? I wish I ____ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class. A.could have slept B.slept C.might have slept D.have slept ? ? ⑤ If only 表示愿望时与wish用法相同。再如： If only that photograph weren't missing. If only the letter had arrived in time.
? ⑥ would rather would rather的虚拟语气形式在这几年考查是最多的,但 would rather从句的时态规则并不复杂。 如果表示与过去事实相反的情况用过去完成时，否则用一 般过去时。在如以下各题： ? 1) The manager would rather his daughter _____ in D the same office. A.had not worked B.not to work C.does not work D.did not work D ? 2) To be frank, I'd rather you ____ in the case. A.will not be involved B.not involved C.not to be involved D.were not involved
? 3) You don't have to be in such a hurry. I would C rather you ____ on business first. A.would go B.will go C.went D.have gone A ? 4) Frankly speaking, I'd rather you ___ anything about it for the time being. A.didn't do B.haven't done C.don't do D.have done C ? 5) I'd rather you ____ make any comment on the issue for the time being. A.don't B.wouldn't C.didn't D.shouldn't
? ⑦ It‘s (about/high) time that … 该句型中一律用一般过去时，再如： A ? "You are very selfish. It's high time you ____ that you are not the most important person in the world," Edgar said to his boss angrily. A.realized B.have realized C.realize D.should realize
? 状语从句中的虚拟语气主要指as if/though从句中的虚拟语气，首先请大家 做一下下面三道题： A ? 1) He walked past the pole and soldiers as if they ______. A.didn't exist B.don't exist C.hadn't existed D.were not existing B ? 2) He operates the new computer as if he _____ special training in it. A.has received B.had received C.would receive D.received ? 3) They talked in such an uneasy manner as if something terrible ___soon. C A.had happened B.happened C.would happen D.has happened
谓语动词要求使用虚拟语气的状语从句一般是由as if/as though引导。该从句中时态的选择原则是： ? ① 如果从句中谓语动词与主句谓语动词同时进行，用过 去进行时； ? ② 如果从句中谓语动词表示与主句谓语动词同时存在的 状态，用一般过去时，如1）。 ? ③ 如果从句中谓语动词表示先于主句谓语动词的动作或 状态，用过去完成时，如2）。 ? ④ 如果从句中谓语动词后于主句谓语动词发生，用 would/might + 原形动词。
? 有时从句中的谓语由should加动词原形构成，句子 谓语却不一定用虚拟语气，这种情况实现的可能性 虽然较小，但也不是完全没有. If your car ___ any attention during the first 12 months, take it to an authorised dealer. A. shall need B.should need C. would need D. will need ? ? Ask her to ring me up if you should see her. Should I (If I should) be free tomorrow, I will come. Should she call, what will (would) I say?
情态动词 和 倒装
? 首先让我们分析以下近几年情态动词的考题 B ? 1) This box is too heavy, _________give me a hand? A .would you mind B. would you please C. will you like to D. will you please to ? 2) Research findings show we spend about two hours dreaming C every night , no matter what we ____ during the day. A. should have done B. would have done C. may have done D. must have done ? 3)It was very kind of you to do the washing-up,but you____ it. D A. mustn't have done B. wouldn't have done C. mightn't have done D. didn't have to do B ? 4) If you don't like to swim, you ___ stay at home. A. should as well B. may as well C. can as well D. would as well
D ? 5) You ____ him so closely;you should have kept your distance. A. shouldn't follow B. mustn't follow C. couldn't have been following D. shouldn't have been following D ? 6) You ___her in her office last Friday; she's been out of town for two weeks. A. needn't have seen B. must have seen C. might have seen D. can't have seen A ? 7) The room is in a terrible mess; it ____ cleaned. A. can't have been B. shouldn't have been C. mustn't have been D. wouldn't have been
? 从以上例题可以看出，四级语法对情态动词的测试大体有 以下几点。 ? ? ? 1）情态动词的基本用法。 2）情态动词 + 动词的完成形式的用法。 3）情态动词的推测性用法。
? 1）情态动词自身结构要正确 ? 结构包括情态动词自身的搭配和其后的连带成分。除 ought外情态动词后接原形动词.
? 2）注意情态动词推测性用法中各个情态动词使用的句型是否与题干 句型一致。 ? 在情态动词的推测性用法中，must, can, may, might, could各用于不 同的句型，应注意分辨。具体使用规律为： must只用于肯定句中, 其否定形式为can/could not。 may/might不能用语疑问句中。 ? ? 另外还应注意can't表示"不可能"，may not表示"可能不"。 考试时，如果有原因说明自己的猜测，一般应该must, can't用而不是 may, may not。 ? 如： ? He can't have stolen the money; he is not such kind of person. ? Some pleasant thing must have happened to him. He is so excited.
? 其它“情态动词+ 动词的完成形式”并不表示推测，而分 别表示：
? could have done本来能够 He didn't take part in the competition, he _______ though. A. won B. didn't win C. could win D. could have won ? needn't have done 本来没不要 You ________. There was plenty of time. A. needn't hurry B. can't hurry C. mustn't have hurried D. needn't have hurried ? should/ought to have done 本来应该 You _______ me earlier. I could have helped you. A. should tell me B. should have told C. need to tell D. needn't have told
? shouldn‘t/oughtn’t to have done 本来不应该 ? You ____ him so closely; you should have kept your distance. ? A. shouldn't follow B. mustn't follow C. couldn't have been following D. shouldn't have been following ? might have done 本来应该（用来表示一种责备） You ______ even though you were busy at that time. A. might help him B. must have helped him C. might have helped him D. should help him ? 这类题在设计干扰项时，一般都会有情态动词推测性用法 的涉及，应注意分词上下文的逻辑和语意关系。
? 倒装结构也是比较常见的一种句式，但考查的分量不大. D ? 1) I could not persuade him to accept it, ___ make him see the importance of it. A. if only I could not B. no more than I could C. or I could not D. nor could I ? 2) Not until the game had begun ______at the sports ground. C A. had he arrived B. would he have arrived C. did he arrive C. should he have arrived A ? 3) The organization had broken no rules, but _____ had it acted responsibly. A. neither B. so C. either D. both
? 4) We have been told that under no circumstances ______ the telephone in the office for personal A affairs. A. may we use B. we may use C. we could use D. did we use ?
A 5) Only under special circumstances_____to take make-up tests. A. are freshmen permitted ? B. freshmen are permitted C. permitted are freshmen ? D. are permitted freshmen ?
? 倒装分部分倒装和全部倒装，但从近几年的测试来看，重 点是部分倒装。对于倒装句型同学们所应注意的就是在哪 些情况下需要倒装，并且如何倒装。注意下面常见的倒装 条件。 ? 1） 含有否定意味的词置于句首，主谓倒装。 应注意常用否定词语，如：hardly, barely, not, seldom, little, few, nowhere, never, at no time, by no means, in no way, in no case, under no circumstances, not until, not only… but also.., neither … nor…等。如果是在从句 的句首，则从句倒装，如4）题。
? 2） only + 状语置于句首，主谓倒装。 Only后的状语可以是单词、短语，也可以是从句，要特别 注意，从句并不倒装，而是主句倒装。如： Only when the war was over was he able to get happily back to work. ? 3） Neither/So置于句首倒装，表示"也/也不……"，如上 面的2）3）题。
? 4） There/here/then或做状语的地点副词和地点介词短 语置于句首，要全部倒装。如： There stands a monument in the center of the square. Down came a light form the ceiling when he was walking across the floor. On the hay lay a wounded boy of not more than seventeen. ? 5） 现在分词和过去分词可提至句首构成"分词+ be + 主 语+其它+的倒装句式。如： Enclosed in the letter was a photo of a beautiful girl. Glooming in the test tube on the table was the mysterious something which they had been working so hard to find, radium.
? 6） so/such…. that句型中，so + 形容词/副词提前，主 谓倒装。 ? 如：So boring was the speech that the audience all left halfway. ? Such a noise did they make that the neighbors could not go to sleep at night.
? 定语从句在四级英语测试中占有一定的比重，大 约在词汇语法题的7.4%，平均每次都有一题，实 际测试中有时多达三道题。先让我们看以下几题：
C ? 1) Living in the central Australian desert has its problems, ____ obtaining water is not the least. A.for which B.to which C.of which D.in which
? 2) A survey was carried out on the death rate of newD born babies in that region, ____were surprising. ? A.as results B.which results C.the results of it D.the results of which
B ? 3) We need a chairman ____. ? A.for whom everyone has confidence B.in whom everyone has confidence C.who everyone has confidence of D.whom everyone has confidence on
? 当看到先行词前有the same 或such修饰时，可直接从选 项中找as，选择就变得比较简单。在这种情况下，考生用 不着考虑先行词是人还是物。如 Our company won't employ such graduates as you recommend. I'm determined to buy such a flat as you are now living in.
? ② 关系词在句中做定语, 应该熟悉关系词做定语时的各种 变体。 做定语的关系词可有以下变体，试比较： the office whose windows are broken the office the windows of which are broken the office of which the windows are broken 上面的2）题就属于the windows of which这种形式。 ? 先行词是人时，同样也可有这三种形式，如： the professor whose car was stolen the professor the car of whom was stolen the professor of whom the car was stolen
? ③ 注意"介词 + which/whom"的结构做关系词 从四级考试对定语从句的测试来看，主要考查的是介词的选择。 "介词 + which/whom"主要看关系词与先行词之间的关系 ? A． 介词是句中短语搭配的一部分，如 ? a chairman in whom … has confidence。 ? It is useful to be able to predict the extent ________which a price change will affect supply and demand. A.from B.with C.to D.for ? B． "部分 + of + 整体名词"的结构，该结构，做关系词也就是 "部分 名词 + of which/whom"的结构。 该结构的使用应注意两点，一是注意定语从句与并列句的分别， 如： He invited scientists of different fields to his birthday party, (and) many of _____ were his old classmates. A.whom B.them C.which D.that
? The British are not so familiar with different cultures and other ways of doing things, ___ is A often the case in other countries. A.as B.what C.so D.that ? ④ 注意as引导的非限制性定语从句的用法 as引导非限制性定语从句时，可置于句首，也可置于句尾，表示 "正如……"。 一般as引导定语从句时，其先行词为整个主句。which引导非限制性 定语从句，其先行词也可以是主句或主句中的一部分。但，as从句表 示的行为经常是在主句行为之前，而which引导的定语从句表示的却 在主句之后，表示连续发生的事情或结果等。如： He promised to help me, which he did. He was often late for work, which cost him his job.
? 5) The course normally attracts 20 students per year, D ____ up to half will be from overseas. A.in which B.for which C.with which D.of whom ? ⑤ 注意先行词为时间、地点或原因时，关系词的选用。 如果用when, where 或why，关系词在从句中应该是做状 语，否则的话则应该用which/that等。如： I will never forget the days that I spent with my friends in the country.
? ⑥ 关系词做代替的成分在从句中不能再次出现。 ? ⑦ 注意定语从句与同位语从句的区别。如： There are signs ____ restaurants are becoming more popular with families. A.that B.which C.in which D.whose (2000.6) 由于signs与后面的restaurants没有修饰和被修饰关系， 所以whose不对，如果是定语从句，关系词代替signs，而 从句中不需要该词。所以这里不是定语从句而是同位语从 句，从句表示sign的内容。
D ? 6) Melted iron is poured into the mixer much ____ tea is poured into a cup from a teapot. A.in the same way like B.in the same way which C.in the same way D.in the same way as C ? 7) I've never been to Beijing, but it is the place ____. A.where I'd like to visit B.in which I'd like to visit C.I most want to visit D.that I want to visit it most A ? 8) ___ might be expected, the response to the question was very mixed. A.As B.That C.It D.What
? ⑧ 适当注意that和which的不同，什么情况下只能用that， 什么情况下只能用which。 ? 1、不用that的情况 ? a) 在引导非限制性定语从句时 ? The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here. ( X ) ? b) 介词后不能用 ? We depend on the land from which we get our
? We depend on the land that/which we get our
? 2、指事物时，在下列情况通常用that，而不用which。 ? a)当先行词是指物的all, little, few, much, any, anything, everything, nothing, none, the one时， 或先行词被all, little, few, much, any, every, no等修 饰时。 ? That is all (that) I want to tell you. ? Is there anything (that) I can do for you? ? b)先行词是序数词或最高级形容词时，或者被序数词(包 括last, next)、最高级形容词及the only, the very等修 饰时。 ? This is the best car that is made in China. ? The first thing (that) we should do is to work out
? 3、先行词既有人，又有物时，只用that。 ? The boy and the dog that are in the picture are
? 评析 从以上各题可以看出，定语从句的考查还是 集中在关系词的选择，四级考试中的定语从句虽 然也有关系词最一般的用法，但更多的是对特殊 关系词的考查。
? 状语从句也是四级词汇和句法部分考查的重点之 一，就状语从句而言，主要是根据主从句的关系 判断连词的使用。因此，在准备状语从句时，主 要任务是弄清楚各种状语从句的连词。
? 表示时间的连词有when, while, as, by the time, before, after, since, till/until, as soon as，有 些名词短语也可以引导时间状语从句，如the moment, the instant, each time，有些是固定句 型如：no sooner … than hardly/scarcely …when。
? ① as强调同时，也表示"一边……，一边……"，while表示主 句动作发生在从句的过程之中，要求从句谓语动词为状态 动词或持续性动词，when的使用则比较简单，相当于汉 语的"当……时候"。如： ? Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your A test scores, and this is especially true ____ it comes to classroom tests. A.when B.since C.before D.after
? ② when的特殊句型 下列句型中when连接的不是时间状语从句，但考试中却 常与其它时间状语从句的连词一块出题。 were/was doing something when … were/was about to do something when … had just done something when … ? 四级考题中不乏对上述结构的考查，如： I had just started back for the house to change my clothes ___ I heard voices. A.as B.when C.after D.while ? I felt somewhat disappointed and was about to leave ___ something occurred which attracted my attention. A.unless B.until C.when D.while
? ③ 注意no sooner … than ….和hardly/scarcely …when句 中的时态。 ? ④ 注意not … until 中时间状语可以提前。 ? ____ quite recently, most mothers in Britain did not take paid work outside the home. A.Before B.Until C.From D.Since
? 比较常见的提前方式是将not until….提至句首，后面用肯 定形式，主谓倒装。本题可以改成，Not until quite recently did most mothers in Britain take paid work outside the home.这时，句子采用主谓倒装结构，应注 意。
? ⑤ 在对名词短语做连词引导时间状语从句时，常与名词构成的其它短 语相区别。 ? You see the lightening ___ it happens, but you hear the thunder later. A.the instant B.for an instant C.on the instant D.in an instant ? ⑥ 注意含有时间状语从句的固定句型，如It won't be long before … 和It is …since两类句型。It won't be long before可以有三个变体， 即：It was (not) + 一段时间 + before，It won't be + 一段时间+ before。 ? 如95年6月就有对此的考查： ? Scientists say it may be five or ten years ____ it is possible to test this medicine on human patients. A.since B.before C.after D.when
? 原因状语从句一般由because, since, as, now that, considering that, seeing that连接。对于表原因连词本 身的区别考查相对较少，主要是与其它状语从句连词的对 比。如： ? ① ____ that my head had cleared, my brain was also beginning to work much better. A.For B.Now C.Since D.Despite
? 1) 从上题可以看出，首先，同学们要根据主从句的语意关系，确定是 什么状语从句，然后在进行选择。 ? 2) 注意连词的结构、搭配。 ? 3) 注意for, because, since/as的区别。一般说来，for不表示原因， 其所连接的是并列句，是一种解释说明，尤其是当用结果来反证原因 时。如： He must have experienced something very unpleasant, for he looks so upset. You must try to rid yourself of your carelessness, for it often leads to errors. ? 4) 注意引导原因状语从句的还可以是considering/seeing that，其 用法与since/as相同。如： Considering that he is only a beginner, it is understandable for him to make such mistakes. Seeing that you have come, you may as well stay here for a few days.
? 涉及到条件状语从句的考查题很多，如时态，虚拟语气等。 但从状语从句的概念来讲，这里我们所说的是条件状语从 句性质的判断和连词的选择。要求同学们首先能理解主从 句之间的关系，确定是条件状语从句，然后在根据各连词 的特点进行选择。如： A ? ① I am sure he is up to the job ____ he would give his mind to it. A.if only B.in case C.until D.unless
D ? ② We'll visit Europe next year _____ we have enough money. A.lest B.until C.unless D.provided D ? ③ ____ he works hard, I don't mind when he finishes the experiment. A.As soon as B.As well as ? C.As far as D.So long as
? 引导让步状语从句的连词很多，但结构差别比较大，比较容易掌握，。 先看一下下列各题： – ① I've already told you that I'm going to buy it, ___________. A.however much it costs B.however does it cost much C.how much does it cost D.no matter how it costs – ② ____, he does get annoyed with her sometimes. A.Although much he likes her B.Much although he likes her C.As he likes her much D.Much as he likes her
A ? ③ ____ the calculation is right, scientists can never be sure that they have included all variables and modeled them accurately. A.Even if B.As far as C.If only D.So long as ? ④ ____ their differences, the couple were B developing an obvious and genuine affection for each other. A.But for B.For all ? C.Above all D.Except for B ⑤ _____rich or not, she will marry him all the same. A. Is he B. Be he C. Whether he be D. he is
? 相比之下，方式状语从句则简单了许多。用来表示方式的 主要是as 和as if/though。 ? 如： I have made the change as you suggested. I remember the whole thing as if it happened only yesterday. ? 注意as if/though后跟不定式，表示好像/仿佛. ? He smiled dreamily, as if (he was) to remember something pleasant.
? 了解以下结果状语从句的一些用法。熟悉一下结果状语从 句所在句式： 1) so … that…/ such ….that 该句式中重要考查的是so和such的区别。应注意以下可能 出现的结构： so nice a boy that… such a nice boy that… so beautiful/diligent/carefully … that… such (fine weather/great improvement) that…
? 2) so that Everyone lend a hand, so that the sowing was done in time. 该句式中主要考查so that 与其它短语的区别，如： B I took no notice of him, ___ he flew into a rage. A.for that B.so that C.in that D.but that 由于so that也可以引导目的状语从句，同学们应特别注 意从句中时态的运用。
? 3) so much so that 该结构用于形容词或副词之后，表示"到如此程度以致于"。 如： He was very weak, so much so that he could not walk. I long to visit Beijing, so much so that I dream about it every night. ? 4) 注意结构状语从句与too….to..enough to…, so… as to结 构的不同。 ? Only to
C ① I was advised to arrange for insurance ___ I needed medical treatment. A.nevertheless B.although C.in case D.so that
? ② The man mad was put in the soft-padded cell lest A he ___ himself. A.injure B.had injured C.injured D.would injure
? 表示地点的自然是where或 wherever引导，要求从上下文中看出从句 表地点的特征。如： ? ① Although he knew little about the large amount of work done D in the field, he succeeded ____ other more well-informed experimenters failed. A.which B.that C.what D.where
B ? ② I have kept the portrait ___ I can see it every day, as it always reminds me of my university days in London. A.which B.where C.whether D.when
? 这种地点状语从句一般是与定语从句相比较。 A ? His grandparents live near Zhongshan Park, ____ he visits often. ? A.which B.where C.whether D.when
? 名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句： ? B 1) Although Anne is happy with her success she wonders _____ will happen to her private life. A.that B.what C.it D.this
D 2) We agreed to accept ____ they thought was not the best tourist guide. A.whatever B.whomever C.whichever D.whoever
? 3) 连词what为缩合连词，相当于all that/ everything that等。在解这种题时一是看从句所表达的含义，最重要 的是看连词在从句中是否做主语、宾语或表语。 ? ? 4) 除what以为，when, where, why也都可做缩合连词来 用，考生也应引以注意，如： I still remember when this used to be a small quiet village. Is this where you and yours got robbed the other day? ?
? 同位语从句一般以that为连词者句多，这类从句的特点是 从句表示与其同位的名词的具体内容，连词that没有任何 词汇意义，也没有任何句法功能。
A is to B ___ C is to D.
A Intellect is to the mind ___ sight is to the body.
A) what B) as C) that D) like
B Twelve is to three ____ four is to one.
A is to B ___ C is to D.
what Intellect is to the mind ___ sight is to the body.
? What A is to B, (that) C is to D。 ? As A is to B, (so) C is to D。
less/more … than … (1)
There ought to be less anxiety over the A perceived risk of mountain climbing than ___ in the public mind today.
A) exists B) exist
D) to exist
Western Nebraska generally receives less C snow than _____ Eastern Nebraska.
B) it receives in
D) it does in
less/more … than … (2)
The indoor swimming pool seems to be a A great deal more luxurious than ___.
A. is necessary
C.to be necessary ?
B.being necessary D.it is necessary
The experiment requires more money than C _____.
A. have been put in
B. being put in
C. has been put in
D. to be put in
more … than … (3)
Catherine is more diligent than intelligent. Hearing the loud noise, the boy was more surprised than frightened.
not … any more than
? “两者都不 …” ; “不 … 也不 …” ? He is not a poet any more than I am a novelist.
? Fat cannot change into muscle ____ muscle changes into fat.
A.any more than C.no less than
B.no more than D.much more than
no more ... than (= not...any more than)
? A whale is no more a fish than a horse is. ? = A whale is not a fish any more than a horse is.
? My elder brother is no more a singer than I am. 我哥哥和我都不是歌唱家。
no more than
? 只，仅仅，只不过是 (=only)，后面接名 词或数词。例如：
The street is no more than two miles long.
? What he is saying is no more than a joke. 他所讲的只不过是个玩笑而已。
no other than
? The murderer turned out to be no other person than the inspector himself. 结果是，那个杀人犯不是别人，正是巡官自己。
? The man was none other than my husband. 那个人(不是别人)正是我的丈夫。
no better than
和……一样， 实际上等于(practically the same as)
? A man who cannot read and write is no better than the blind.
? The patient is no better than he was yesterday.
no less ... than
和……一样，不逊于。其中的than前后都是肯定的意思。 ? This person is no less diligent than he used to be. 这个人和从前一样勤奋。
? The technique of writing is no less difficult than that of the other arts. 写作技巧和其他艺术技巧一样困难。
John is ____ hardworking than his sister, but he failed in the exam.
A.no less C.not less
B.no more D.no so
no less than
多达，竟有……之多，不下于(as many as, as much as)。 ? He won no less than 1000 Yuan in the lottery. 他居然中了一千元的奖券。
?The bank pays him a yearly salary of no less than 90,000. 银行给他的年薪竟高达九万。
other than/rather than
? other than 意思是：不同于，除……之外；rather than意思是：而不是。
A In no country ___Britain, it has been said, can one experience four seasons in the course of a single day. A) other than B) more than C) better than D) rather than 除了在英国，一个人不可能在其它国家在 一天内经历四季。
Know better than to
? know better than (that/to do sth.) ? ==be wise or well trained enough not to do (sth.) ? 明事理而不至于(做某事) 举倒如下: You should have known better than to cheat your friend.
D ? Do help yourself to some fruit, _____ you? (00/44) A.can’t B.don’t C.wouldn’t D.won’t
? When you have finished with that video tape, don’t forget to put it in my drawer, ___? (97/42) B
A.do you C.don’t you
B.will you D.won’t you
B ? I don’t think he will come in time, _____?) ? ? A. do you C. do I B.will he D.won’t he
与 as 有关的结构 (1) ? She did her work ___ her manager had instructed.
? As 作连词
与 as 有关的结构 (2) ? Fool ___ Jane is, she could not have done such a thing.
? As 引出让步状语时,要求句子部分倒装。
与 as 有关的结构 (3)
? It is not so much the language ___ the cultural background that makes the book difficult to understand.
? not so much A as B: 与其说是A，倒不 如说是B；不是 …而是 …
与 as 有关的结构 (4)
? ? ? ? Such people as you describe are rare nowadays. Let’s discuss only such questions as concern everyone of us. He opposed the idea, as could be expected. As is known to the world, Mark Twain is a great American writer.
? as 引起定语从句(4)
- Believe it or not
? ____ it or not, his discovery has created a stir in scientific circles.
A) Believe C) Believing B) To believe D) Believed
– There is no doubt …
? There is no doubt ____ the company has made the right decision on the sales project.
A) why C) whether B) that D) when
– why not + 动词原形
? _____ him tomorrow?
A. Why not to call on B. Why don’t call on C. Why not calling D. Why not call on
? 主语是单数时，尽管后面跟as well as (以及)，no less than (不少于……，多达)，rather than(而不是)，more than(不止是，超过)，but(除了)，except(除……外)， besides(加之，还有)，with(和……一起，和……一块儿)， along with(跟……一起)，accompanied by (由……陪同)， combined with(加上)，in addition to(除……以外)， including(包括)，together with(与……一起)等，谓语动 词仍用单数形式。 ? The teacher, along with her students _____ when the headmaster came in. ? A. is singing B. was singing ? C were singing D are singing
? 一、事件、国家、机构名称、书刊及其他作品的名称(专有 名词)用作主语时，谓语动词用单数。如： ? The United States was formed in 1776.
? 二、表示时间、距离、重量、度量、价值等的复数形式主语 ，习惯上用单数谓语动词。如： ? Two weeks was too long. 两周太长了 ? 三、表示学科和某些疾病名称的名词是复数形式，作主语时 ，谓语动词用单数形式。如： ? Linguistics is a branch of study on human language. ? 四、集体名词作主语时，谓语动词的数取决于主语表示的意 义。当表示整体时，谓语动词用单数；当主语强调集体中的 个体时，谓语动词用复数(意义一致原则)。 ? 如：army audience band board crowd cattle class club committee crew family crowd firm flock gang government group majority party police public staff team troop等
? 英语中主动表被动之特例 ? 1. 一些与can't(不能)或won't(不会)连用的动词。常用的 有：lock(锁住), shut(关 上), open(打开), ? act(上演)等，例如： ? The door won't open.这门打不开 ? 2. 一些与well(很), easily(容易地), perfectly(十分地)等 连用的动词,如: sell(销售), wash(洗), clean(打扫), burn( 燃烧), cook(煮)，measure vi(有……长/宽/高等)，write ，read，keep，prove，weigh，weigh, number，drink ，wear，pay，wash，open, teach, translate常用主动形 式表被动意义。请看下面句子： ? Bikes of that kind sell well. ? The sign reads as follows.
? 3. 系动词没有被动形式,但有些系动词常表示被动意义。 常见的有look，taste(吃起来), smell，sound (听起来), prove(证明是), feel(摸上去感到)等
? 4. 动名词主动形式表示被动意义的情况 ? need, want, require（要求，需要）, deserve(应得，值 得), be worth值得），not bear(经不住) 后面接doing主 动表被动。
? 1．不定式作状语，在“主语+be+形容词+不定式”句型中 ? 2．不定式作定语，其逻辑主语是句子的主语，间接宾语 或说话人时，不定式用主动表被动。 ? She has an old grandfather to look after. ? 4．在“疑问代词 + 不定式”结构中。如： ? I don‘t know what to do next. ? 5．在下列句型中，to let, to blame, to seek等用不定形 式表示被动含义。如： ? The house is to let. 这栋房子要出租。 ? Who is to blame for it? 这得怪谁？ ? 6．在there be结构中，用来修饰主语的不定式可以用被 动形式，也可以用主动形式，在口语中用主动形式的时候 更多一些。如： ? There is no time to lose/be lost .
? 专四常见短语 ? 英语中常见的前缀与后缀