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Lesson 1 Camille

Face to Face with Hurricane

Hurricane A tropical storm Wind speeds >75 mph North Atlantic Ocean typhoon, cyclone, tornado evacuate v. evacuation ndefy v. defied government orders uninhabitable curfew n. torrential refinery n. meteorologist n. meteorology heed v. surge v. the most populated region mandatory evacuation tsunami n. knocked outpower paralyze v. lash: to hit against sth with violent force, flog e.g. The waves lashed the cliffs./ The rain lashed her face pummel/pommel: to beat or hit with repeated blows, esp. with the fist. batter, pound, reason sth out: to figure something out; to plan a reasonable course of action.

e.g. Let us reason out our difficulties demolish: v. to completely destroy a building; tear down; raze; l n. demolition demolish(a building is demolished if smashed to pieces) A good: a general intensive word, meaning “ full” or “at least”. e.g. We waited for a good three hours. 舱口) Batten: to fasten canvas over the hatches(舱口 舱口 of a ship, especially in preparing for a storm. Ride it out: to stay afloat during a storm without too much damage. French doors: two adjoining doors that have glass panes from top to bottom and they open in the middle. gun-like reports: loud explosive noises like guns being fired. fling: (as throw) throw sth, oneself with a lot of force e.g. Tom seized the glass on the table and flung it at me. (fig.) do sth with a lot of enthusiasm and energy. e.g. She flung herself into her career.

douse/dowse: to put out a fire by pouring water on it; drench; to plunge into liquid; immerse The pumps were started and the crew began to douse the fire with water. inch: vt. vi.—move very slowly, carefully, or with difficulty swipe: n. A sweeping blow or stroke. He gave the child a swipe. maroon: vt. leave abandoned, isolated, or helpless. I am temporarily marooned at home by my injured knee. snap: v. break suddenly with a sharp cracking noise. e.g. She gripped the pipe with both hands, trying to snap it in half. implore: to appeal of request earnestly; plead e.g. She implored her husband to give up his life of crime; debris n. The scattered remains of something broken or destroyed; rubble or wreckage

e.g. The fireman found a corpse among the debris topple: v. to push or throw over; overturn or overthrow. lean-to n. a shelter or shed having a roof with a single slope. sprawl v. to sit or lie with one's arms and legs spread out strew—spread about here and there by or as by sprinkling; scatter; be scattered or dispersed over (a surface) e.g. The wind strewed dead leaves on the ground. coil, v, n. wind around and around e.g. A snake can coil itself up or coil around a branch. shatter: break (to) pieces, vi, vt. e.g. The explosion shattered every window of the building. rake: n. A long-handled implement with a row of projecting teeth at its head, used especially to gather leaves or to loosen or smooth earth. v. to scrape or gather with a rake

e.g. I'll rake these grass-cuttings up later. rampage v. act violently, recklessly, or destructively e.g. The elephants rampaged through the jungle. 横冲直撞 pitch in: Informal 1. To set to work vigorously. 2. To join forces with others; help or cooperate. Seabee: A member of one of the construction battalions(营) in the U.S. Navy that builds naval 营 aviation bases and shore facilities. awe: n. A mixed emotion of reverence, respect, dread, and wonder inspired by authority, genius, great beauty, or might. v. inspire awe in; e.g. The famous professor awed the undergraduates salvage v. to save (goods or property) from shipwreck, destruction, or waste e.g. He salvaged his books from the burning house.

afflict v. cause great unhappiness for; distress e.g. Her deafness is a great affliction to her. 苦惱 inflict v. to impose (something unpleasant) on 1. demolish, destroy, raze, annihilate Destroy is a general word with few overtones beyond its emphasis on force and thoroughness [the cyclone that destroyed dozens of houses in the town]. Demolish and raze are generally applied to big or substantial things, such as buildings or other edifices. Demolish, unlike raze, is often used figuratively of the reduction of any complex whole to ruins [to demolish a theory with a few incisive comments]. Annihilate is the most extreme word in this list, and literally means to reduce to nothingness. As more commonly used, however, it denotes a severe degree of damage to a thing or person disintegrate, decompose decay, rot, spoil, molder,

disintegrate: v. (of an object) to break into fragments; shatter; break apart; fall to pieces; crumble. syn. decay, v. implies gradual, often natural deterioration from a normal condition. (e.g. His teeth have begun to decay.) rot refers to the decay of organic, esp. vegetable, matter caused by bacteria. (rotting apples) spoil is the common informal word for the decay of foods. (Fish spoils quickly in summer.) molder suggests a slow, progressive, crumbling decay( Old buildings molder away.) decompose suggests the breaking up of sth into its component elements. (a partially decomposed body/corpse lesson 2 Marrakech in a cloud: a large number of small things moving through the air as a mass. thread one’s way through/ across: to pass through by twisting, turning, or weaving in and out pomegranate : large globular fruit having many seeds with juicy red pulp in a tough

brownish-red rind wail: to cry out in a loud, shrill voice, usu. in mourning or lamentation, implies the uttering of loud, prolonged mournful cries in unsuppressed lamentation e.g. The child is wailing over its broken toy. Cry implies the expression of grief, sorrow, pain or distress by making mournful, convulsive sounds and shedding tears. weep more specifically stresses the shedding of tears To sob is to weep aloud with a catch in the voice and short gasping breaths. To whimper is to cry with subdued, whining, broken sounds, as a fearful or frightened child does. Moan suggests the expression of sorrow or pain in a low, prolonged, mournful sound or sounds. chant: a rhythmic or repetitious slogan repeated over and over, usually by more than one person bier: A stand on which a corpse or a

coffin(casket) containing a corpse is placed before burial. hack: to cut or chop with repeated and irregular blows e.g. He hacked his way through the jungle; hacker hummock: A low mound or ridge of earth; a knoll derelict: adj. deserted by an owner or keeper; abandoned; deserted; discarded; forsaken prickly pear: n. cacti having spiny flat joints and oval fruit that is edible in some species gazelle: small, swift antelopes characteristically having a slender neck and annulate( 有 环 纹 的)horns. hindquarters: (of an animal) the back legs and the part of the body above them. nibble : To eat with small, quick bites or in small morsels: nibble a cracker. butt: v. To hit or push against with the head or horns; noun.

1. thick end of the handle The butt of a rifle 2. the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on; buttocks; fanny; bottom; ass; bum e.g. he deserves a good kick in the butt. 3. small part of a cigarette that is left after smoking navvy: pl -vies Brit & Austral informal a laborer on a building site or road [from navigator builder of a navigation (in the sense: canal)] hoe: A tool with a flat blade attached approximately at a right angle to a long handle, used for weeding, cultivating, and gardening. Farming tools: rake, shovel, spade, scythe, plough (plow) sidle: v. move unobtrusively or furtively; e.g. The young man began to sidle near the pretty girl sitting on the log. stow: v. to put or pack in a (secret) place until required; tuck away; store

municipality n: a city, town. etc. having its own incorporated government for local affairs ghetto : n. 1. formerly the restricted quarter of many European cities in which Jews were required to live; e.g. "the Warsaw ghetto“ 2. a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions. cluster: v. to group together in clusters skull-cap (n.) : a light, closefitting, brimless cap infest: of rats, insects etc. be present in large numbers e.g. 1. Warehouses are infested with rats. shark-infested waters 2. The waterway near Somali is infested with pirates. n. infestation: n. an infestation of rats lathe: machine tool for shaping metal or wood; warp : become bent or twisted out of shape; deform; distort.

frenzied : adj. Affected with or marked by frenzy; frantic: Syn. frenzy: not used technically in psychiatry, implies extreme emotional agitation in which self control is lost. hysteria: neurotic disorder characterized by violent emotional outbreaks and disturbances of sensory and motor functions 歇 斯 底 里 . hysterically adv. mania suggests a craze for sth. (a mania for surfing) delirium denotes a temporary state of extreme mental disturbance that occurs during fevers, in alcoholic psychosis, etc, often used to suggests rapturous(狂喜的 excitement. (A delirium of 狂喜的) 狂喜的 joy) wring(wrung): 1. to twist, squeeze, or compress, especially so as to extract liquid. Often used with “out” . 2. To cause distress to; affect with painful emotion: 3. To obtain or extract by applying force or pressure

Syn. press out, squeeze, twist, wrest e.g. ~ one’s hand. ~ the wet clothes. I’ll ~ your neck if you don’t do it. wring a confession from the prisoner They finally wrung a consent from the council. a tale that wrings the heart. desolate: 1. devoid of inhabitants; deserted 2. barren; lifeless: rendered unfit for habitation or use He left the war-torn and desolate city. The invading Nazi army desolated the European countries . 3. sad, dreary; dismal and forlorn. The old lady was desolated by her husband’s death. lucerne (n.) : a type of which is used for feeding farm animals 紫花苜蓿 fodder (n.) :Feed for livestock, especially coarsely chopped hay or straw. wretched: v. Of very inferior quality: wretched prose. spike : n. A long, thick, sharp-pointed piece of wood or metal. harrow: n. A farm implement consisting of a

heavy frame with sharp teeth or upright disks, used to break up and even off plowed ground. furrow (n.) : a narrow groove shrill: adj. High-pitched and piercing in tone or sound: e.g. the shrill wail of a siren. hobble: v. walk impeded by some physical limitation or injury; limp e.g. "The old woman hobbles down to the store every day“ gall: v. To make (the skin) sore by abrasion(擦 擦 伤) stork n. a type of wading bird with long beak, neck and legs (鹳) 鹳 infantry: soldiers who fight on battle battery: A set of guns or other heavy artillery clump: a heavy, dull sound; a thud. clatter: a rattling sound slump v. To droop, as in sitting or standing; slouch. glitter: brilliant or showy, often superficial attractiveness. small pieces of light-reflecting decorative material. glisten: to shine by reflection with a

sparkling luster. glimmer: a dim or intermittent flicker or flash of light. shimmer: to shine with a subdued, flickering light. spark: to shine with animation: syphilis (n.) : an infectious venereal disease (STD), usually transmitted by sexual contact. 梅毒 gonorrhea 淋病 garrison: troops stationed in a fort or fortified place 驻军 NCOs or NonCOs (士官 士官 Non-commissioned officer; an enlisted person of any various grades in the armed forces, from corporal 下士 to sergeant 军士 inclusive ranks: The body of soldiers of an army, as distinguished from the officers. Lesson3 Pub Talk and the King’s English indulge v. to let yourself do or have sth that you enjoy, esp. sth considered bad for you. indulge myself. (eat a lot) n. indulgence adj. indulgent (grandparents)

meander v. 1. (of a river, road, etc.) to follow a winding course 2. to wander aimlessly; ramble; roam leap: to flow swiftly, joyously sparkle: to burn brightly, throwing off sparkles glow: to burn steadily without flame anecdote n. : a short, entertaining account of some happening, usually personal or biographical . adj. anecdotal on the rocks 1. Lit. [of a ship] broken and marooned on rocks in the sea. The ship crashed and was on the rocks until the next high tide. 2. Fig. likely to fail because of serious problems. Get out of bed on the wrong side/ get up on the wrong side of the bed. To feel slightly angry or annoyed for no particular reason. delve into v. to make a careful and detailed search for information. recess n. a suspension of business or procedure

often for rest or relaxation. e.g. The older kids were picking on Richie at recess. the recesses of , the inner hidden parts of sth. desultory adj. done without a definite plan, regularity, or purpose e.g. They talked in a desultory manner for a few minutes. Jupiter n. 1. (Roman Mythology )The supreme god, patron of the Roman state and brother and husband of Juno. 2 木星 alchemy n. 1. a medieval chemical science and speculative philosophy aiming to achieve the transmutation of the base metals into gold.炼金 炼金 术 2. an inexplicable or mysterious transmuting snob n. a person who tries to associate with those of higher social status and who hates those of a lower social status. snobbish adj. Having attitudes, behavior etc . that

are typical of a snob. snobbery n. the feelings and behavior of snobs rift n. 1. a crack or narrow opening in a large mass of rock, cloud etc. e.g. The sun appeared through a rift in the clouds. 2. (fig) division. e.g. I'm afraid there's been a rift between us. till v. to prepare land for growing crops. scamper v. To run with quick short steps, like a child or small animal. e.g. Giggling, the children scampered back to the house. turn one’s nose up at Informal, to refuse to accept sth because you do not think it is good enough for you. clip v. to simplify; abusing: this word may be used in two senses: 1) take unfair or undue advantage of, trying (one’s patience) 2) improper or incorrect use of language

Tussle fight or struggle in a confused way at close quarters; scuffle e.g. The drunken men started to tussle. come into one’s own: to receive proper recognition Something : 1 )very important 2) An idea that is quite good and should be considered seriously e.g. 1. There is something in what you say. 2. It’s something to be home again without an accident. 3. At least, we didn’t lose any money. That’s something…. 4. By the look on her face, I guess Mary is up to something pejorative : making or becoming worse; depreciative, derogatory; disparaging; belittling. antonyms: complimentary, positive, praising facetious: adj. lightly joking, esp. at an inappropriate time.

something disagreeable or harmful; resistant to immune from: exempt from; free from AIDS =Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ultimatum n. : A statement, esp in diplomatic negotiations, that expresses the threat of serious penalties if the terms are not accepted.最后通牒 最后通牒 ultimate adj. sinister adj. suggesting or threatening evil; ominous; inauspicious sit up: (colloquial) to become suddenly alert Be justified in doing sth.: to have a good or proper reason to do sth. e.g. (1) I think I am completely justified in asking for her resignation. (2) The policeman was justified in shooting the criminal in self-defense.

e.g. Some tribes use special facial markings to signify status. signify that e.g. Hamilton waved his hand to signify that he didn't mind what they decided. almighty: having unlimited power, all-powerful, omnipotent Almighty God/Almighty Father : expressions used to talk about God that emphasize His power. Creator, Maker Lord, Godhead, Jehovah, Blessed Trinity, Holy Trinity forebear n. From whom you are descended from; forefather, forerunner, predecessor prescribe v. 1. To set down as a rule or guide; 2. To order the use of (a medicine or other treatment). prescription n. e.g. He gave me a prescription to give to the chemist at issue: in dispute; undecided heritage: the traditional beliefs, values, customs etc of a family, country, or society e.g. We attach great importance to

lesson4 edict n. an official public proclamation or order ; issued by authority;decree immune adj. exempt from or protected against

Inaugural Address

signify: v. to represent, mean, denote, symbolize or be a sign of something

preserving the national intangible heritage. inheritance: money or property which you receive from someone who is dead undoing: n. ruin; destruction; or the act of bringing to ruin. be committed to sth / doing sth : to promise/ pledge to do /support sth. e.g. Allan has been committed to staying there for a long time. commit sth. to memory; commit to someone; commit suicide; pledge: to make a formal, usually public, promise that you will do something support/loyalty/solidarity etc pledge sth to sb pledge that pledge to do sth pledge yourself to (do) sth Synonyms: vow, swear, oath, promise at odds with somebody/something : (slightly formal) in disagreement split asunder: to be torn violently apart or destroyed

join the ranks of something to become part of a larger group or organization e.g. Our country will join the ranks of the most developed nations of the world in four or five years tyranny: A government in which a single ruler is vested with absolute power; dictatorship; despotism; tyrant/dictator alliance: A close association of nations or other groups, formed to advance common interests or causes; the state of being allied. syn: coalition, league, union, ally: a country, person, or group with an agreement to support another prey n. an animal hunted and killed for food by another animal; game; quarry prey on, upon to attack as prey subversion: secret activities that are intended to damage or destroy the power or influence of a government or established system. v. subvert

anew : again, in a new or different way quest : a search or attempt to find unleash: To release or loose from or as if from a leash: e.g. unleashed the guard dogs; unleashed his pent-up rage. engulf : to completely surround or swallow up something e.g. The building was engulfed in flames. belabor: 1. attack verbally with harsh criticism; e.g. She was belabored by her fellow students. 2. To discuss repeatedly or at length invoke: To call for earnestly; solicit; call forth e.g. He invoked the help of a passing motorist. beachhead, 1. A position on an enemy shoreline captured by troops in advance of an invading 滩头堡). force(滩头堡 滩头堡 2. An initial achievement that opens the way for further developments; a foothold. e.g.

“ The town became a beachhead in the campaign to ban smoking outdoors. testimony: 1. evidence in support of a fact or assertion; proof. 2. the statements made by a person who testifies in a law-court; summon v. call in an official matter, such as to attend court. embattled adj. 1. (of a country) involved in fighting a war, esp. when surrounded by enemies or prepared for a battle. 2. facing many problems and difficulties: e.g. the embattled Mayor. tribulation n. Great affliction, trial, or distress; suffering; ordeal; e.g. Their tribulation has finally passed.

is thus displaced can either be actually present in the sentence, or it can be implied logically. e.g. The plowman homeward plods his weary way, /And leaves the world to darkness and to me" (Thomas Gray, "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard") To watch the storm from their spectacular vantage point sleepless night happy morning female prison careless erro Understatement is a figure of speech which deliberately expresses an idea too weakly. It is the opposite of hyperbole. e.g. There was a slight disturbance in the city yesterday. All the shops were shut. The face wasn’t a bad one: it had what they called charm. Mixed metaphors: are different metaphors occurring in the same utterance, especially the same sentence, that are used to express the same concept. e.g. 1. At this point our argument doesn’t have much content. 2. If we keep going the way we're going,

we’ll fit all the facts in. Syllepsis refers to the use of any part of speech comparably related to two other words or phrases, correctly with respect to each taken separately, as to both syntax and meaning, but in different ways, so as to produce a witty effect. (一笔双叙法 一笔双叙法) 一笔双叙法 e.g. He lost his temper and his hat. She looked at the object with suspicion and a magnifying glass. Lesson 5.Love is a Fallacy Argument--a statement which is offered as an evidence or a proof. It consists of two major elements 1. conclusion 2. premises -- a previous statement serving as a basis for an argument. Conclusion is to be drawn from premises fallacy -- false reasoning, as in an argument –a weakness and lack of logic or good sense in an argument or piece of reasoning Usually, an argument is correct (deductively valid) if the premises can provide enough conclusive evidence for the conclusion.

修辞 Transferred epithet / hypallage; a modifier, usually an adjective, is applied to the "wrong" word in the sentence. The word whose modifier

Otherwise the argument is wrong. It is said to be fallacious. 1. material fallacy -- in its material content through a misstatement of the facts. 2. verbal fallacy -- in its wording through an incorrect use of terms. 3. formal fallacy-in its structure through the use of an improper process of inference. enterprising– initiative, adventurous, in a month of Sundays– in a long time. e.g. The blonde hadn't had a bath in a month of Sundays, so everybody called her dusty queen. unfetter-- set free, let sth go freely / to set free or keep free from restrictions or bonds. limp – lacking strength, or firmness e.g. a limp handshake flaccid -- soft, flabby, limp spongy -- soft, full of holes, not firm pedantic: marked by a narrow focus on or display of learning especially its trivial aspects e.g. a pedantic attention to details. trauma: 1. an emotional shock that may have long-lasting effects. 2. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc. injury, wound.

keen –(of the mind) active, sensitive, sharp 敏捷 的,敏锐的 syn. nimble, quick, adroit prompt, sharp smart swift) ~ sight~ intelligence dynamo: A generator, especially one for producing direct current (DC/AC alternating current). scales: An instrument or machine for weighing. Often used in the plural. scalpel:A small, straight knife with a thin, sharp blade used in surgery and dissection. impressionable--Readily or easily influenced; suggestible: e.g. impressionable young people. fad -- an intense but short-lived fashion; craze; mania: idiocy—stupidity; foolishness; retardation; moronism acme--The highest point, as of achievement or development; summit: e.g. He has reached the acme of her career. Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix -itis: a suffix referring to some disease involving inflammation meningitis 脑膜炎 bronchitis 支气管炎 hepatitis 肝炎 rhinitis 鼻(粘 carditis 心脏炎 gastritis 胃炎 膜)炎

Common Disease List: syphilis, malaria 疟疾, AIDS, influenza (Flu), measles , acne, arthritis, asthma, autism, cancer. diabetes, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), plague 瘟疫, rabies 狂犬病, scarlet fever, tuberculosis(TB)肺结 核, coronary heart disease 冠心病 laxative-- a medicine that induces the emptying of the bowels raccoon-- a type of small furry North American animal, with a striped, bushy tail. 浣熊 Charleston-- a quick spirited dance of the 1920's, in 4/4 time, characterized by a twisting step. unsightly--unpleasant or offensive to look at; unattractive. ?syn: homely, plain, ugly, unattractive stroke –pass the hand over gently, esp. for pleasure covet--to long to possess (something belonging to another person) ; want ardently; long for with envy cerebral –1. of the brain, 2. Appealing to or requiring the use of the intellect; intellectual rather than emotional 理 智 的 e.g. His approach is cerebral, analytical, cautious. pin-up--(American colloquialism) designating a girl whose sexual attractiveness makes her a subject for the kind of pictures often pinned up on walls. cover girl

proportions-- lines, shape of body carriage----- (sing) the manner of carrying oneself, bearing the manner of holding one's head, limbs, and body when standing or walking; physical aspects of persons bearing 体态, 仪态 e.g. Dancing can improve the carriage. 舞蹈能 增进体态美。 bearing-- manner of holding one's body or way of behaving (physical /mental posture)举止,仪态 e.g. She has a very modest bearing. 她举止淑静。 poise—1. dignified manner 2. physical balance:e.g. the poise of a natural model go steady -- (Am. coll.) to date sb of the opposite sex regularly and exclusively canny--showing self-interest and shrewdness in dealing with others mince—1.To cut or chop into very small pieces. mincemeat 2. To restrain (words) for the sake of politeness; euphemize: e.g. Don't mince words, say what you mean. swivel -- to move round. If you swivel your head or eyes in a particular direction, you turn your head or eyes in that direction, so that you can look at sth.

wax-- increase in strength, size/ grow, extend, enlarge wane –decrease, fail, diminish, If sth waxes and wanes, it first increases and then decreases over a period of time. e.g.. My feelings for her wax and wane. The popularity of the film stars waxed and waned. comply – act on a accordance with a request, order etc. loom -- to come into sight without a clear form, esp. in a way that appears very large and unfriendly, causing fear. wince-- to move suddenly as if drawing the body away from sth unpleasant. e.g. She winced as she touched the cold body. ?tug--To pull at vigorously or repeatedly.exasperation—irritation, annoyance, vexation hypothesis--A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation; assumption hypothetical adj. ?hamstring –to cut the hamstring, to destroy the ability to walk –a cord-like tendon at the back of the leg, joining a muscle to a bone 腿腱

constellation ---- a group of fixed stars often having a name //horoscope: Sagittarius languish--lose vigor, health, or flesh, as through grief; e.g. After her husband died, she just languished. shambling -- walking with a slow dragging motion without lifting your feet; e.g. From his shambling I assumed he was very old. hulk– 1. the body of an old ship from which everything has been taken away. 2. something or someone enormous and clumsy. croak -- To utter in a low hoarse sound. bellow-- To make the deep roaring sound characteristic of a bull; roar; howl; scream; yell; reel back--step away suddenly and unsteadily, as after a blow or shock e.g. When she hit him, he reeled back and almost fell. infamy--a state of extreme dishonor; The condition of being infamous. notoriety; shame; disgrace; modulate –To change or vary the pitch, intensity, or tone of (one's voice or a musical instrument, for example).e.g. Some people are able to modulate their voices according to the size of the room in which sy: calculating --

–It means coldly planning and thinking about future actions and esp. whether they will be good or bad for oneself 有心计,精明的 –He was regarded as a calculating man. perspicacious -- fml. It suggests one has or shows an unusual power or ability of keen judgment and understanding 敏锐,颖悟 Tom's understanding to the matter is ~. acute -- It suggests a sensitivity and receptivity to the small differences that was not notices by others, also implies a high-keyed state of nervous attention that will not be lasting. He is an acute observer and thinker. brilliant ---才华出众,卓越的,能力与理解力 stronger than bright. E.g. he was considered as a brilliant speaker.他是公认的卓越的演说家。 A project of no small dimensions – a rather big task understatement: A figure of speech in which a writer or a speaker deliberately makes a situation seem less important or serious than it is. It is formed by using a negative statement to express the contrary in order to give emphasis. e.g. The question is no easy. (very difficult)

He was a man of no mean wealth. (quite rich) Lesson 6.Disappearing Through The Skylight thermodynamics n. (used with a sing. verb) the branch of physics that deals with the relationships and conversions between heat and other forms of energy.热力学 thermo- prefix concerning heat: thermos (/ flask ) genetics n. the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms. mutation n. 1. a change or alteration 2. Genetics A change of the DNA sequence within a gene or chromosome of an organism resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not found in the parental type.突变,变异 discredit v. 1. to damage the reputation of (someone) 2. to cause (an idea) to be disbelieved or distrusted corollary n. a natural consequence or effect; e.g. Blind jealousy is a frequent corollary of passionate love. homogeneous n. formed of parts or elements that are all of the same kind.同类的 e.g. homogeneous and heterogeneous classes; a

homogeneous society. homo-prefix same: homosexual(=attracted to the same sex) bisexual heterosexual homograph (=words spelt the same way) homophone streamlining n. the design of an aircraft, boat, or vehicle less resistant to flowing air or water by improving its shape.流线型 cylinder n. 1. a solid or hollow body with circular equal ends and straight parallel sides. 2. the chamber in an internal-combustion engine within which the piston moves. cylinder block - a metal casting containing the cylindersand cooling ducts of an engine.气缸体 carburetor n. the part of an internal combustion engine in which petrol and air are mixed to make an explosive mixture (内燃机中的) 汽化器 transmission n. An automotive assembly of gears and associated parts by which power is transmitted from the engine to a driving axle.传动装置, 变速 器 imperative n. 1. A command; an order. 2. An obligation; a duty: e.g. social imperatives. barring prep . unless something occurs; except

for : e.g. Barring any last minute problems, we should finish the job tonight. reminisce v. to recall or talk about the past; e.g. The grandparents sat there, reminiscing all afternoon. We walked on, reminiscing about the old days. adj. reminiscent , n. reminiscence aesthetic n. a principle or set of principles relating to the appreciation of art and beauty . owe it to yourself to do sth , to feel you should try to achieve something because it is what you deserve. e.g.1 You owe it to yourself to take some time off. I owe you one, Inf. Thank you, now I owe you a favor; e.g. Bob: I put the extra copy of the book on your desk. Sue: Thanks, I owe you one. (Much obliged.) owe someone a debt of gratitude, a large amount of thanks owed to someone who deserves gratitude. e.g. We owe you a debt of gratitude for all you have done for us. blasphemy, n. An irreverent or impious act, attitude, or utterance in regard to something considered inviolable or sacred.

rehabilitation n. the restoration of someone or something to a useful place in society. proposition n. 1. a proposal or offer 2. a person or matter to be dealt with: e.g. Even among experienced climbers the mountain is considered a tough proposition. plasticity n. the property of being flexible; easily bent or shaped; flexibility. insubstantiality n. lacking substance or reality, immateriality 无 实 体 artifact n. a man-made object taken as a whole Surrealism is a style in which fantastical visual imagery from the subconscious mind is used with no intention of making the work logically comprehensible. mock adj. simulated; false; sham: a mock battle, a mock court heroics n. behavior or language considered too melodramatic(感情夸张的) or extravagant for the particular situation in which they are used. cannibalism n. the practice of eating the flesh of your own kind. cannibal n. 1. A person who eats the flesh of other humans.2. An animal that feeds on others of its own kind.

typify v. To serve as a typical example of; embody the essential characteristics of: e.g. a painting that typifies the artist's work. collage n. An artistic composition of materials and objects pasted over a surface, often with unifying lines and color.拼贴画 ad hoc adj. Formed for or concerned with one specific purpose: 特别的 geometry n. The mathematics of the properties, measurement, and relationships of points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids.几何学 Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and calculus 微积分 gamesmanship n. Facetious. the use of methods that, while not dishonest or contrary to the rules, are dubious and give the user unfair advantage in a game or sport. craftsmanship virtuosity n. An appreciation for or interest in fine objects of art.艺术鉴别力 etch v. make an etching 蚀刻法; "He etched her image into the surface" oil tanker n. A ship having large compartments, designed to transport crude oil over the ocean. bulldozer n. large powerful tractor; a large blade in

front flattens areas of ground. truss n. a framework of wood or metal used to support a roof, bridge, etc.构架 geodesic adj. (architecture) having a structurally strong surface made up of short, straight, light weight bars that form a grid of polygons 筑成圆顶 的,geodesic dome bleary adj. 1. blurred or dimmed by or as if by tears: bleary eyes.2. vaguely outlined; indistinct.3. exhausted; worn-out. malice n. the desire to do harm or cause mischief to others. e.g. She did it out of malice. adj. malicious ponderous adj. having great mass and weight; e.g. a ponderous stone; a ponderous burden, ponderous weapons vault n. 1. An arched structure, usually of masonry or concrete, serving to cover a space. 2. A room or compartment, often built of steel, for the safekeeping of valuables: e.g. a bank vault. Syn. Strongroom trailer adj. A furnished vehicle drawn by a truck or automobile and used when parked as a dwelling or office.

haze n. atmospheric moisture or dust or smoke that causes reduced visibility. Lesson9 The One Who Walk Away from Omelas clamor n. 1. a loud and persistent outcry from many people; a hubbub e.g. He ignored the clamor of the crowd. 2. A vehement expression of discontent or protest; e.g. There is a clamor in the press for pollution control. v. to make loud demands; e.g. He clamored for justice and tolerance rigging n. The system of ropes, chains, and tackle( 滑 车 ) used to support and control the masts( 桅 杆 ), sails, and yards of a sailing vessel.procession n. 1. a line of people or vehicles moving forwards in an orderly or ceremonial manner ; 2.the act of proceeding in a regular formation decorous adj. formal. characterized by or exhibiting decorum; proper: decorous behavior. decorum n. quiet, dignified and proper behaviour e.g. The man behaved with decorum in the old lady's presence. shimmer v. to shine with a soft light that looks as if it shakes slightly. e.g. The lake shimmered in the moonlight.

syn.: glimmer, gleam, twinkle, glisten gong n. a percussion instrument consisting of a metal plate that is struck with a softheaded drumsticktambourine n. a shallow, one-sided drum with tinkling metal discs in the rim, held in the hand and shaken or beaten. 铃鼓,小手鼓 dodge v.tr 1. To avoid (a blow, for example) by moving or shifting quickly aside.2. To evade (an obligation, for example) by cunning, trickery, or deceit: e.g. He kept dodging the reporter's questions. v. intr. 1. To move aside or in a given direction by shifting or twisting suddenly: e.g. The child dodged through the crowd. 2. To practice trickery or cunning lithe adj. [lai?] (used especially of the human body) bending easily; flexible ; agile; supple; pliable restive adj. 1.uneasily impatient under restriction, opposition, criticism, or delay. 2. Resisting control; difficult to control. mane n. the long hair on the back of the neck of a horse, lion etc. braid v. 1.to interweave three or more strands, strips, or lengths of in a diagonally overlapping pattern: e.g. braided the rags into a strong rope.

n. a hairdo formed by braiding or twisting the hairprance n. intr. 1. a. To spring forward on the hind legs. Used of a horse. b. To spring or bound forward in a manner reminiscent of a spirited horse. 2. To ride a horse moving in such a fashion.stallion n. a male horse that is fully grown, especially one that is used for breeding ? mare litter n. (esp. formerly) a bed or seat held between parallel poles and used for carrying people. barbarian n. 1. A member of a people considered by those of another nation or group to have a primitive civilization. 2. A fierce, brutal, or cruel person. syn. savage; singularly adv. in a noticeable way; exceptionally; remarkably; particularly ; notably e.g. The committee is singularly impressed at the originality of your research. dulcet adj. a. pleasing to the ear; melodious. b. Having a soothing, agreeable quality; bland adj. characterized by a moderate, or tranquil quality, especially pleasant in manner; mild: Utopia n. an imaginary perfect world where everyone is happy [coined by Sir Thomas More in 1516 as the title of his book that described an imaginary island

representing the perfect society] opposite: dystopia pedant n. someone who pays too much attention to rules or to small unimportant details, especially someone who criticizes other people in an extremely annoying way sophisticate n. Some one who is sophisticated; worldly-wise people banality n. The condition or quality of being banal; triviality e.g. The banality of the speaker's remarks rise to the occasion to succeed in dealing with a difficult situation e.g. It's not easy to play your first match in front of a crowd that size, but he certainly rose to the occasion. exuberance adj. joyful enthusiasm; high spirits; exhilaration; puritanical adj. 1. usually disparaging strict in moral or religious outlook. e.g. a puritanical father who wouldn't let his children watch television 2. (sometimes cap) of or relating to a puritan or the Puritans languor n. literary a pleasant state of dreamy relaxation arcanum n. a secret or mystery; carefully hidden knowledge. pl. arcana n. boundless adj. Being without boundaries or limits; infinite.

magnanimous adj. noble and generous in spirit amiable adj. Friendly and agreeable in disposition; good-natured and likable; sweet-tempered benign adj. 1.Of a kind and gentle disposition; 2.Not life-threatening or severe, and likely to respond to treatment, as a tumor that is not malignant. rapt adj. rap v. 1. totally engrossed or absorbed. 2.Deeply moved or delighted; enraptured: listened to the speaker with rapt admiration. n. rapture/ ecstasy/bliss/exaltation/ cloud nine pavilion n. large and often sumptuous tent seep v. pass gradually or leak through or as if through small openings; syn: ooze, leakimbecile n. someone who is very stupid or behaves very stupidly. whine n. to issue a long high-pitched moan protrude v. to stick out; to project e.g. His teeth protrude.abominable adj. Thoroughly unpleasant or disagreeable: e.g. abominable weather. uncouth adj. crude and uncultured poignancy n. a quality that arouses emotions (especially pity or sorrow) adj. Profoundly moving; touching: a poignant memory.

profundity n. intellectual depth; penetrating knowledge; keen insight snivel v. to cry or whine with snuffling(抽鼻子); e.g. "Stop snivelling--you got yourself into this mess!“ Lesson10 The Sad Young mansensational adj. causing intense feelings of shock, anger, or excitement: sensational newspaper stories romanticize v. to view or interpret romantically; make romantic. slightest adj. small and not making much difference to something. E.g. not the slightest chance/ doubt/ difference etc : no doubt, chance etc at all nostalgic adj. if you feel nostalgic about a time in the past, you feel happy when you remember it, and in some ways you wish that things had not changed. nostalgic about He remained nostalgic about his days as a young actor. delicious adj. extremely pleasant or enjoyable e.g. He waited in delicious anticipation. illicit adj. not allowed by laws or rules, or strongly disapproved of by society. e.g .illegal, unlawful, illegitimate; illicit drugsSpeakeasy n. A

place for the illegal sale and consumption of alcoholic drinks, as during Prohibition in the United States. Prohibition refers to a law which prohibits alcohol. Typically, denunciation n. open condemnation; denouncing amour n. a usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship Puritan morality The essence of Puritanism is in the intensity of the Puritan's commitment to a morality, a form of worship, and a civil society strictly conforming to God's commandments. naughty adj. 1. (of children) mischievous or disobedient 2.mildly indecent, suggestive of sexual impropriety : e.g. naughty lingerie , a naughty winksheik n.1. A leader of an Arab family or village. 2.Slang A romantically alluring man. vagary: unexpected changes in a situation or someone's behavior, that you cannot control but which have an effect on your life e.g. vagaries of : the vagaries of the English weather

drugstore cowboy n. Slang. a young man who loafs around drugstores or on street corners. in perspective, within a reasonable view or appraisal. (*Typically: be ~; get sth ~; have sth ~; put sth [into] ~.) e.g. If we put the matter into perspective, I think we can discuss it reasonably. from my perspective and from where I stand; from my point of view; the way I see it degeneration n. the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality. Syn. deterioration, debasement aftermath n. 1. A consequence, especially of a disaster or misfortune. e.g. famine as an aftermath of drought. 2. A period of time following a disastrous event: in the aftermath of war. syn. in the wake of stature n. 1. The natural height of a human or animal in an upright position. 2. An achieved level; status. provincial adj. 1. Of a province .2. Of or characteristic of people from the provinces; not fashionable or sophisticated. 3. Limited in perspective; narrow and self-centered. bustle v. To move or cause to move energetically and busily. bustling adj. full of energetic and

noisy activity. e.g. a bustling city Syn. hustling, thronged, busy catalyst n a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change. Adj. catalytic precipitate v. 1. To throw from or as if from a great height; hurl downward 2. Meteorology To cause (water vapor) to condense and fall from the air as rain, snow, sleet, or hail. e.g. The storm brought several inches of precipitation.obsolescent adj. becoming obsolete mores n, pl the customs and conventions embodying the fundamental values of a community [Latin: customs] Bohemian adj. 1. unconventional in appearance, behavior, etc. 2. A native or inhabitant of Bohemia, Czech. Bohemians are associated with unorthodox or antiestablishment political or social viewpoints, which were often expressed through free love, frugality, and voluntary poverty. transitory adj. Existing or lasting only a short time; short-lived, temporary and transient.hectic adj. very busy or full of activity. a hectic social life gaiety n. A state of joyful exuberance or

merriment. perversion n. 1. any abnormal means of obtaining sexual satisfaction 2. the act of perverting. pervert/ weirdo/freak /sicko orgy n. pl -gies a wild party involving promiscuous sexual activity and excessive drinking. spree n. a session of overindulgence, usually in drinking or spending money stalemate n. A situation in which further action is blocked; a deadlock. insolence n. the trait of being rude and impertinent strenuous adj. 1. Requiring great effort, energy, or exertion: a strenuous task. 2. Vigorously active; energetic or zealous. jingoism n. Extreme nationalism characterized especially by a belligerent foreign policy; chauvinistic patriotism. warfare n. Military operations marked by a specific characteristic: guerrilla warfare; chemical warfare. strife n. angry or violent struggle; conflict magnolia n. an Asian and North American tree or shrub with white, pink, purple, or yellow showy flowers 木兰花

fracas n. A noisy, disorderly fight or quarrel; a brawl. charge n. A feeling of pleasant excitement; a thrill: He got a real charge out of the movie. preparedness n. n. The state of being prepared, especially military readiness for combat. dissipate v. to gradually become less or weaker before disappearing completely, disperse e.g. As he thought it over, his anger gradually dissipated. contingent n. 1. a group of people with a common interest, that represents a larger group: a contingent of European scientists 2. a military group that is part of a larger force 分遣队: the force includes a contingent of the Foreign Legion bombast n. pompous and flowery language 豪言壮 语 sodden adj. 1. Thoroughly soaked; 2. Expressionless, stupid, or dull, especially from drink.3. Unimaginative profiteer n. One who makes excessive profits on goods in short supply.dubious adj. fraught with uncertainty or doubt conflagration n. 1. a very large fire that destroys a lot of buildings, forests etc. blaze

Babbit n. A narrow-minded, self-satisfied person with an attachment to middle-class values and materialism. Babbittry n. philistine, uncultured person whose interest are material and commonplaceoblique adj. indirect or evasive e.g. Only oblique references have been made to the anti-government unrest . susceptible to a. giving in easily to: susceptible to political pressure b. vulnerable to (a disease or injury): susceptible to pneumonia diatribe n. a bitter critical attack , denunciation boobery n. Babbitry grandiose adj. impressive to an excessive or foolish degree e.g. He produced several grandiose schemes for a holiday resort but no resort was ever built. glint n. A momentary flash of light; a sparkle.iconoclastic adj. characterized by attack on established beliefs or institutions. iconoclast n. One who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional or popular ideas or institutions. flay v. 1. To strip off the skin or outer covering of. Syn. skin, strip, peel 2. to criticize severely


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