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2-(国际船舶)货物系固手册


船舶安全管理体系

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货物系固手册

CARGO SECURING MANUAL

国际航行船舶

货物系固手册
CARGO SECURING MANUAL

《国际海上人命安全公约》 、 本手册是按照 国际海上人命安全公约》 国际海事组织 Msc/Circ745 号通函和“货物积载和系固安全操作规则 A.714(17 决议>”编制的。 A.714(17) 号通函和“货物积载和系固安全操作规则<A.714(17)决议 ”编制的。 This manual has been prepared according to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), the IMO Msc/circ745, the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (IMO Resolution

A.714(17) ).

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序言( 序言(PREAMBLE) )

本手册是按照 1974 年《国际海上人命安全公约》、国际海事组织第 Msc/Circ745 号通函、国际海事组织决议 A.714(17)以及“货物积载和系固安全操作规则”编制的。 This manual has been prepared according to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea , 1974(SOLAS) 1994 amendment, the IMO Msc/circ745,the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (IMO Resolution A.714(17) ). 本手册应永久保留在船上, 以便船级社的验船师、港口国检查的官员以及其他有关 人员的随时检查。 The manual shall always be kept on board and available for inspection by class surveyors , port/flag state inspectors and others to whom it may concern. 如系固装置和对系固手册的要求有变化, 本手册应修订并送船级社或主管当局重新 批准。 The manual is to be modified and re-approved by the Classification Society or the Administration in case of that the provision of Cargo Securing Manual was revised or the cargo securing devices were changed. 附录应保持最新有效。 Appendix should be maintained up to date.

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CONTENTS

第一章(CHAPTER 1) 总则(GENERAL)
1.1 船舶数据(SHIP DATA) 1.2 定义(DEFINITIONS) 1.3 概述(GENERAL INFORMATION)

第二章(CHAPTER 2) 货物系固装置(CARGO SECURING DEVICES)
2.1 固定式货物系固设备 ( FIXED CARGO SECURING DEVICES) 2.2 便携式货物系固设备(PORTABLE CARGO SECURING DEVICES) 2.3 检查和维护计划(INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE SCHEMES)

第三章(CHAPTER 3): 非标准化和半标准化货物的积载和系固 (STOWAGE & SECURING OF NON-STANDARDIZED AND SEMI-STANDARDIZED CARGO )
3.1 积载和系固须知 ( STOWAGE AND SECURING INSTRUCTIONS ) 3.2 货物单元受力计算(EVALUATION OF FORCES ACTING ON CARGO UNITS) 3.3 各种货物单元、车辆和积载容器上的可移动系固装置的使用(APPLICATION OF PORTABLE SECURING DEVICES ON VARIOUS CARGO UNITS,VEHICLES AND STOWAGE BLOCKS)

附则一(ANNEX 1) 非为运输集装箱而专门设计和装备的船舶的甲板上的集装箱的安全积载和系固

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Safe stowage and securing of containers on deck of ships which are not specially designed and fitted for the purpose of carrying containers 附则二(ANNEX 2) 移动式罐柜的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of portable tanks 附则三(ANNEX 3) 移动式容器的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of portable receptacles 附则四(ANNEX 4) 轮载(滚动)货物的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of wheel-based(rolling cargoes) 附则五(ANNEX 5) 机车、变压器等重件货的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of heavy cargo items such as locomotives,transformers,etc. 附则六(ANNEX 6) 成卷钢板的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of coiled sheet steel 附则七(ANNEX 7) 重金属制品的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of heavy metal products 附则八(ANNEX 8) 锚链的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of anchor chains 附则九(ANNEX 9) 散装金属废料的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of metal scrap in bulk 附则十(ANNEX 10) 挠性中间散装容器的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of flexible intermediate bulk container 附则十一(ANNEX 11)
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原木在甲板下积载的一般指南 General guidelines for the under-deck stowage of logs 附则十二(ANNEX 12) 成组货物的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of unit loads 附录(APPENDIX) ) 附录 附录一(APPENDIX 1) 固定式货物系固设备清单、 布置和结构图( List, arrangement and structure sketch of fixed cargo securing devices) 附录二(APPENDIX 2) 便携式货物系固设备清单、结构图及证明书(List, structure sketch of portable cargo securing devices and documents to them) 附录三(APPENDIX 3) 货物系固设备检查/维护簿(Log for inspection/maintenance of cargo securing devices) 83

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第一章 (CHAPTER 1) 总则(GENERAL) 总则
船舶数据( 1.1 船舶数据(SHIP DATA) ) 船名 Ship name 船级社 Classification 海事组织编号 IMO No. 船旗国 Flag 船籍港 Port of registry 船东 Owner 船型 Ship type 船长 Length, BP 船宽 Breath, B 型深 Depth, D 服务航速 Service speed 夏季吃水 Summer draft 总吨位 Gross tonnage 初稳性高度范围 Range of GM0 1.2 定义(DEFINITIONS) 定义( )

.1 货物单元(Cargo Units) 系指车辆(公路车辆、滚装拖车等)、铁路车辆、集装箱、板材、托盘、便携式容器、 中间散装容器、包装单元、成组货、其他货物运输单元如船运箱盒、件杂货如线材卷、 重货如火车头和变压器。不是永久固定在船上的船运输的装载设备或其部件, 也应被视

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为货物单元。 means vehicles(road vehicles, roll trailers, etc.), railway wagons, containers, flats, pallets, portable tanks, intermediate bulk containers IBC) packaged units, unit loads, ( , other cargo carrying units such as shipping cassettes, cargo entities such as steel coils and heavy cargo items such as locomotives and transformers. Loading equipment, or any part thereof, transported on the ship, but which is not permanently fixed to the ship, is also considered as cargo units. .2 货物系固设备(Cargo Securing Devices) 所有用于系固和支持货物单元的固定式和便携式装具。 means all fixed and portable devices used to secure and support cargo units. .3 最大系固载荷(Maximum Securing Load)(MSL) 本术语用于限定船上系固设备的许用负荷。当能提供等同或较高的强度时, 安全工作 负荷(SWL)可以替代 MSL。 MSL is a term used to define the allowable load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship. Safe Working Load(SWL)may be substituted for MSL for securing purposes, provided this is equal to or exceeds the strength defined by MSL. .4 标准货(Standardized Cargo) 已根据货物单元的特定形式在船上设置了经批准的系固系统的货物。 means cargo for which the ship is provided with an approved securing system based upon cargo units of specific types. .5 半标准货(Semi-standardized Cargo) 在船上设置的系固系统仅适应货物单元的有限变化。如: 车辆、拖车等。 means cargo for which the ship is provided with a securing system capable of accommodating a limited variety of cargo units, such as vehicles, trailers, etc. .6 非标准货(Non-standardized Cargo) 需要专门的装载和系固安排的货物。 means cargo which requires individual stowage and securing arrangements.
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.7 固定式系固设备(fixed cargo securing devices) 指系固点及其支撑结构。这些设备既可以是内部的,如焊接在船体结构内,也可以是 暴露在外的,如直接焊接在船体结构外部。 Means securing point and its supporting configuration. It can be inside, such as welding in the hull structure. Can expose outside too , if weld it on the hull structure outside directly. .8 便携式系固设备(portable cargo securing devices) 指用于货物单元绑扎、系固和支撑的移动式设备。 Mean portable devices used for cargo units colligation 、 securing and

supporting.
1.3 概述(GENERAL INFORMATION) 概述( ) .1 本手册不排除良好的航海技术, 也不排除经验和在装载和系固方面的实践。 The guidance given herein should by no means rule out the principles of good seamanship, neither can they replace experience in stowage and securing practice. .2 本手册的资料和要求与下述文件中的要求相一致: -----船舶稳性计算书 -----1966 年国际载重线证书 -----船体强度装载手册(如有时) -----国际海运危险货物规则(如适用) The information and requirements set forth in this Manual are consistent with the requirements of the vessel’s trim and stability booklet, International Load Line Certificate(1966), the hull strength loading manual(if provided)and with the requirements of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods ( IMDG)Code(if applicable).

.3 本手册规定了船上的货物系固设备及其布置方式, 以便对货物单元进行正确的系固。 这些规定基于恶劣气候和海况下货物所受到的纵、横、垂向力。

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This Cargo Securing Manual specifies arrangements and cargo securing devices provided on board the ship for the correct application to and the securing of cargo units, containers, vehicles and other entities, based on transverse, longitudinal and vertical forces which may arise during adverse weather and sea conditions. .4 应该认识到对货物的适当系固以及在船上选择适当的系固点对船、货、人的安全都是 重要的。 It is imperative to the safety of the ship and the protection of the cargo and personnel that the securing of the cargo is carried out properly and that only appropriate securing points or fittings should be used for cargo securing. .5 本手册中提到的货物系固设备应被正确地使用, 并应适合货物的数量、包装方式和物 理特性。当采用新型或替代的货物系固设备时, 手册应相应修改。替代的货物系固设备 的强度不应低于原设备。 The cargo securing devices mentioned in this manual should be applied so as to be suitable and adapted to the quantity, type of packaging, and physical properties of the cargo to be carried. When new or alternative types of cargo securing devices are introduced, the Cargo Securing Manual should be revised accordingly. Alternative cargo securing devices introduced should not have less strength than the equipment which it replaces. .6 船上应配有足够的备用货物系固设备。 There should be a sufficient quantity of reserve cargo securing devices on board the ship. .7 手册中已包括每种货物系固设备的强度资料、使用和保养的须知。货物系固设备应保 养良好, 当存在影响系固效果的磨损或损伤时应更新设备。 Information on the strength and instructions for the use and maintenance of each specific type of cargo securing device, where applicable, is provided in this manual. The cargo securing devices should be maintained in a satisfactory condition. Items worn or damaged to such an extent that their quality is impaired should be replaced.

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.8 未经船长许可船体结构上不得加焊任何部件。 The hull structure can't be added and welded any part without permission of captain. .9 如要在甲板板、舱壁板上焊接系固设备,必须同扶强材、横梁、纵骨或肋板重合,且 具有合适的焊接面积来承载。 If securing devices shall be weld at deck, bulkhead, it must connect with the stiffener , beam , longitudinal or frames, and the suitable area of welding is born the weight of. .10 所有新更换的基座、绑扎眼板和绑扎地令等应配有符合合适的国家或国际标准的证 书,以证明其最大系固负荷。 All renewal of base , eyeplate and D-ling should provide with suitable certificate of nation or the international standard in order to prove its maximum securing load. .11 载荷不应直接作用于船体结构上,也不应与系固设备允许的受力面成一定角度(如 下图) Load should act on hull structure directly, and should not form into a certain angle with allowable forces against securing devices (see the following picture)

正确 correct 正确 correct 不正确 wrong

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第二章 (CHAPTER 2) 货物系固装置 ( CARGO SECURING DEVICES) )
2.1 固定式货物系固设备(Fixed cargo securing devices) 固定式货物系固设备( )

.1 固定式货物系固设备清单(List of Fixed cargo securing devices ) 见附录二 see appendix 2 .2 固定式货物系固设备布置图(Arrangement of fixed cargo securing devices) 见附录二 see appendix 2 .3 固定式货物系固设备结构图(Sketch of fixed cargo securing devices) 见附录二 see appendix 2 2.2 便携式货物系固设备(Portable cargo securing devices) 便携式货物系固设备( )

.1 便携式货物系固设备清单(List of portable cargo securing devices) 见附录三 see appendix 3 .2 便携式货物系固设备结构图(Sketch of portable cargo securing devices) 见附录三 see appendix 3
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.3 便携式货物系固设备证明书 ( Documents to portable cargo securing devices ) 见附录三 see appendix 3 检查和维护计划(Inspection and Maintenance Schemes) 检查和维护计划

2.3

2.3.1 船长应负责定期检查和维护。货物系固设备的检查的最低要求应包括 船长应负责定期检查和维护。货物系固设备的检查的最低要求应包括: Regular inspection and maintenance are carried out under the responsibility of the Master. Cargo securing device inspection should as a minimum include: .1 对零件的日常外观检查: Routine visual examinations of components being utilized: - 使用任何货物系固设备前,无论是固定式还是便携式,均应进行外观检查以确认没 有缺陷。当适用时,所有活动部件应已润滑并要正确使用。 - Before using any cargo securing device, whether fixed or portable,the equipment must be visually inspected to ensure that there are no defects and that when appropriate,all moving parts have been greased and are operating correctly. - 使用后及存放前,应对每一部件做外观检查,确认其未受到损坏,保持良好状态,不 必进行修理或更换。特别在船舶航行遇有恶劣天气后,应对绑扎设备仔细检查。有缺陷的 便携式绑扎设备应存放在合适的独立处所,如标有“已坏”的箱子里,在其再次使用前须进 行必要的修理和试验。如部件无修理价值,就应将其报废。 - After use,and before going into storage,each device should be visually inspected to ensure that the device has not sustained damage, is still in good condition and does not require repair or replacement. Especially after heavy weather voyages the lashing equipment should be carefully examined.Defective portable lashing equipment should be put aside into a suitable separate location, i.e. bins marked “BAD”, and any necessary repairs and testing must be carried out prior to
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re-use. If beyond repair the equipment is to be scrapped. - 报废部件应用等同部件代替。换新的货物系固设备必须具有证书。 - Discarded parts of equipment should be replaced by equivalent parts. Cargo Securing Equipment is only to be renewed by certified equipment. - 所有便携式系固设备应每隔不超过三个月进行外观检查及必要的润滑。 - All portable securing devices shall be visually examined and greased as necessary at intervals not exceeding 3 months. - 未使用的便携式设备应收集、存放在箱子里。 - Portable equipment not in use should be collected and stored in bins. .2 定期检查和/或重新试验按照主管机关要求进行。 当需要时,有关的货物系固设备 应经 OMCS 检验。 Periodic examinations/re-testing as required by the Administration. When required, the cargo securing devices concerned should be subject to inspections by OMCS. - 固定式货物系固设备和船舶结构的连接焊缝应定期检查,任何裂纹或开裂都应刨 掉并焊补。该连接焊缝应由有资格的焊工按照批准的焊接工艺进行焊接。 - The welds connecting the fixed cargo securing equipment to the ship’s structures should be inspected regularly and any fractures or tearing should be gouged out and rewelded. Welding of the device to the structure should be carried out by approval personnel in accordance with recognized welding practice. - 如果甲板、内底板、舱盖、舱壁或舷侧结构的基本结构已经变形到可导致积载不 均匀的程度时,这些结构必须用最适当的方法进行修理。 船舶结构在系固点附近任何重大 变形的修理,应在最早时间内报告 OMCS。 - If the underlying structure of the deck, tank top, hatch covers, bulkhead or side structure is deformed to such an extent that an uneven stow would result, the structure should be repaired by the most appropriate method. Any significant
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deformation of the ship’s structure in way of securing points is to be reported to OMCS at the earliest opportunity. - 货物系固设备使用几次后,无论是未紧固的还是固定的,均应定期进行重新试验。被 试验的设备应是随机选取,如每种型号设备中,50 件中取一件。这些试验应采用许用强度 负荷。 - Cargo securing equipment used several times, both loose and fixed, should be re-tested regularly. The equipment to be tested should be selected by random selection, for instance 1 of 50 pieces of each type of equipment. These tests should be proof strength load. 本节以文件形式给出检查和维护船舶货物系固设备的作法。 应在附在货物系固手 2.3.2 本节以文件形式给出检查和维护船舶货物系固设备的作法。 册后的记录簿作记录。 册后的记录簿作记录。 This sub-chapter documents actions to inspect and maintain the ship’s cargo securing devices. Entries are made in a record book, which should be kept with the Cargo Securing Manual.

.1 检查、维护、修理和换新应定期进行,以确保货物在整个航程中被安全系固。

The inspection, maintenance, repair and renewal to the cargo securing devices should be regularly carried out to ensure that the cargo remains safely secured throughout the voyage. 见附录四 See appendix 4. 检查和维护应记入附录四中的货物系固设备检查/维护簿上。 Inspection and maintenance carried out are to be entered into the “LOG FOR INSPECTION/MAINTENANCE OF CARGO SECURING DEVICES” shown in appendix 4. 2.3.3 本节内容包括提供给船长的有关航行中系固布置的检查和调整的信息。 本节内容包括提供给船长的有关航行中系固布置的检查和调整的信息。 This sub-chapter should contain information for the master regarding
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inspections and adjustments of securing arrangements during the voyage.

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应对系固设备进行定期检查,以确保货物在整个航程中被安全系固。 The securing devices should be regularly inspected to ensure that the cargo

remains safely secured throughout the voyage. .2 航行中,经检查如有必要,应及时调整系固布置。系固设备的调整包括收紧系索或 重新绑扎。如有必要应安装额外的系索,并且如可行,应增加摩擦力。当预期船舶要遇到 恶劣气象或涌浪及船舶遇到恶劣气象后,上述措施更是至关重要。 航行中因货物变形或挤 碰可导致系索松动,故应密切注意系索的情况。 当货物在温度较低的环境中装载或系固后, 船舶驶向温度较高的环境中,系索也容易松动。 The securing arrangement should be adjusted, if found necessary after inspection, during the voyage. Adjustment of securing devices include re-tightening of lashings or remarking the lashing. If necessary additional lashings should be fitted, and if possible the friction could be increased. This is particular important when heavy weather or swell is expected. Moreover, when heavy weather has passed. Particular attention should also be paid to lashing which may become slack due to the cargo deforming or compacting during the voyage. Lashings may also become slack when cargoes are loaded and secured in conditions of low ambient temperature and the vessel then proceeds to areas of significantly higher ambient temperature. .3 如船舶遇有恶劣气象及海况而对货物系固布置进行调整时,应特别小心以避免 船员受伤。良好的航海技术是必要的。 If adjustment to the cargo securing arrangement has to be carried out at sea under adverse weather and sea conditions adequate precautions have to be taken to avoid dangerous situations for the crew. Good seamanship is necessary. .4 在一个航次中,部分卸载将导致货物暴露在外,应对其进行良好系固以避免在卸 放其它货物时发生危险。 During a voyage, partial discharge may result in an exposed cargo face. This should preferably be secured while loading to avoid hazards while discharging
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other cargo. .5 应有足够的备用系固设备以应付不可预测的的情况发生。 Sufficient reserve securing devices should be carried to dealt with unexpected circumstances. .6 对绑扎件的全部检查和调整应记入船舶记录簿。 Entries of all examinations and adjustments to lashings should be made in the ship’s record book.

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第三章 (CHAPTER 3) 非标准化和半标准化货物的积载和系固 (Stowage and Securing of Non-Standardized and Semi-Standardized Cargo)
3.1 积载和系固须知 (Stowage and securing instructions)

3.1.1 系 固 设 备 的 使 用 须 知 (Instructions on the proper handling of the securing devices) .1 当垫货材放在甲板时,方向应横对船体,以便污水能容易排到舱内。 When dunnage is laid on deck, it should be directed athwartships so that bilge can be easily drained into the tank. .2 当使用钢丝绳、链条等器械时,应该对缠绕进行相应的注意。 In applying wire ropes、chains etc. due care should be given to any twisting on them. 当钢丝采用夹钳夹紧时,应按照下面的标准图进行: The standard illustrated below is to be followed when applying clips to wires:

.3

3.1.2

使用货物系固设备及由船上或岸上人员进行系固操作的安全须知 使用货物系固设备及由船上或岸上人员进行系固操作的安全须知 Safety instructions related to handling of the cargo securing devices

and to securing operations by ship or shore personnel.

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为了防止不适当地积载和系固货物,船上人员应监督货物的系固操作过程。 Ship personnel are to supervise cargo securing operations in order to

prevent unsuitable stowage and securing of cargoes. 工作处所应井然有序,在光线暗淡的处所,应有灯具照明。 Working space are to be put in order and lighted by any lighting apparatus where it is dark. 系固操作开始前,船上人员应检查工作处所以确保工作安全。 Ship personnel are to inspect working spaces prior to securing operations and ensure that they are suitably safe for carrying out such work. 货 物 单 元 受 力 计 算 ( Evaluation of forces acting on the cargo

.2

.3

3.2 units)

下文系直接引用”CSS 规则”附则 13, 序号同原文。
The following text is quoted directly from Annex 13 to the CSS Code. The same chapter numbering is applied.

1.适用范围(Scope of Application) 本规则介绍的方法适用于非标准货物,但不适用于集装箱船上装载的集装箱。 The methods described in this annex should be applied to non-standardized cargoes, but not to containers on container ships. 按照 “货物积载和系固安全操作规则”(以下简称 “规则”)第 1.8 章条款载运的非常沉 重的货件和规则附则中已给出关于装载和系固的详尽建议的其他货物,不包括在本附则 范围内。 Very heavy units as carried under the provisions of chapter 1.8 of the Code of Safe Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing (CSS Code) and those items for which exhaustive advice on stowage and securing is given in the annexes to the Code should be excluded. 如果计算机软件输出的设计参数满足最低安全系数要求时,,则允许使用该软件。 Nothing in this annex should be read to exclude the use of computer
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software ,provided the output achieves design parameters which meet the minimum safety factors applied in this sub-chapter. 采用本附则所描述的方法是对良好航海技术原则的补充,并不能代替在装载和系固 方面的实践经验。 The application of the methods described in this section is supplementary to the principles of good seamanship and shall not replace experience in stowage and securing practice. 2. 目的(Purpose of the methods) 本计算方法应: (The methods should:)

.1

提供货物系固手册的编写指南; provided guidance for the preparation of the Cargo Securing Manual and the

examples therein; 就不包括在货物系固手册内的货物单元的系固方式向船上人员提供评定方法; assist ship’s staff on assessing the securing of cargo units not covered by the Cargo Securing Manual; 帮助岸上人员评定手册以外的货物单元的系固方式; assist qualified shore personnel in assessing the securing of cargo units not covered by the Cargo Securing Manual; and 供船岸人员培训参考。 serve as a reference for maritime and port-related education and training. 3. 计算方法简述(Presentation of the methods) 本计算方法采用了一种可普遍采用的和灵活的方式。 The methods are presented in a universally applicable and flexible way. 4. 系固设备的强度(Strength of securing equipment)

.2

.3

.4

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.1 系固设备的制造商应至少提供设备的破断强度(kN); Manufacturers of securing equipment should at least supply information on the nominal breaking strength of the equipment in kilo-Newton’s(kN);

.2 “最大系固载荷”(MSL)用于限制船上某一用于系固货物的设备的载荷。 最大系固载荷 是系固设备的安全载荷,相当于起重设备的安全工作载荷。 “Maximum securing load”(MSL) is a term used to define the load capacity for a device used to secure cargo to a ship; Maximum securing load is to securing devices as safe working load is to lifting tackle. 除 4.3 所述情况外,各种不同的系固设备的 MSL 见表 1。 The MSLs for different securing devices are given in Table 1 if not given under 4.3. 木材的 MSL 取 0.3kN/cm (顺 纹 )。 The MSL of timber should be taken as 0.3 kN/cm 由破断强度确定 MSL Determination of MSL from breaking strength 表 1 ( Table 1 ) MATERIAL shackles, rings, deck turnbuckles of mild steel fibre rope wire rope(single use) wire rope(re-usable) steel band(single use) chains MSL eyes, 50% of breaking strength 33% of breaking strength 80% of breaking strength 30% of breaking strength 70% of breaking strength 50% of breaking strength
2 2

normal to the grain.

.3 对于某些系固设备(如:带有张紧装置的纤维带或系固集装箱的特殊设备 ),可由主管 机关规定并标出许用工作负荷。该值可作为 MSL。 For particular securing devices (e.g. fibre straps with tensioners or special equipment for securing containers) a permissible working load may be prescribed and marked by authority. This should be taken as the MSL. .4 当系固装置的部件以串联形式连接时,如钢丝绳连接卸扣再连接甲板眼环, 则该系 固装置的 MSL 为串联中的最小的 MSL 值。 When the components of a lashing devices are connected in series, for
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example, a wire to a shackle to a deck eye, the minimum MSL in the series shall apply to that device. 5. 安全系数(Safety factor) 在用力和力矩的计算平衡来评估绑扎布置时,绑扎装置的计算强度(CS)可用安全系 数 1.5 对 MSL 按下述方法折减: Within the assessment of a securing arrangement by a calculated balance of forces and moments, the calculated strength (CS) of securing devices should be reduced against MSL, using a safety factor of 1.5, as follows: CS = MSL/1.5 折减的原因是由于绑扎装置中力的不平均分布可能性、 由于不良装配而导致的强度 降低或其他原因。 The reason for this reduction are the possibility of uneven distribution of forces among the devices, strength reduction due to poor assembly and others. 尽管引入了上述的安全系数,还应尽量采用长度和材料相似的系固部件以使绑扎装 置的弹性特性一致。 Notwithstanding the introduction of such a safety factor, care should be taken to use securing elements of similar material and length in order to provided a uniform elastic behavior within the arrangement. 6. 经验方法(Rule-of- thumb method)

.1 货物单元任一侧(左舷和右舷)的系固设备的 MSL 之和应等于该单元的重量(单元的 重量单位应为 kN)。 The total of the MSL values of the securing devices on each side of a unit of cargo (port as well as starboard) should equal the weight of the unit.(The weight of the unit should be taken in kN). .2 本办法实际上是将横向加速度取为 1g(9.81kN/s2),适用于所有尺度的船舶,不管其码 放位置、稳性和装载条件、季节和运营区域。另外,本方法不考虑系索角度的不利作用和 同类系固点间的不均匀性,也未考虑摩擦的有利作用。 This method, which implies a transverse acceleration of 1g(9.81m/s2 ),applies to nearly any size of ship, regardless of the location of stowage, stability and loading condition, season and area of operation. The method, however, takes into account neither the adverse effects of lashing angles and homogeneous distribution of forces among the securing devices nor the favourable effect friction.

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.3 系索与甲板间的横向夹角应不大于 60 ,并且使用适当的材料以产生足够的摩擦。夹 角大于 60 的系索只能用于防止货物翻转而不能计入与经验方法有关的系索之中。 Transverse lashing angles to the deck should not be greater than 60
. o o

and it is important that adequate friction is provided by the use of suitable material.

Additional lashings at angle of greater than 60o may be desirable to prevent tipping but are not to be counted in the number of lashings under the rule-of-thumb. 7. 改进的计算法(Advanced calculation method)

7.1 外力假设(Assumption of external forces) 在纵、横、垂三个方向作用在货物单元上的外力应使用下式求得: External forces to a cargo unit in longitudinal, transverse and vertical direction should be obtained using the formula:

F(x, y, z)=ma(x, y, z)+Fw(x, y)+Fs(x, y) F(x,y,z): 纵、横、垂向力(longitudinal, transverse and vertical forces); m: 货物单元的质量(mass of unit); a(x,y,z) : 纵 、 横 、 垂 向 加 速 度 ( 见 表 2)(longitudinal ,transverse and vertical accelerations(see Table 2); Fw(x,y): 由 风 压 造 成 的 纵 、 横 向 力 (longitudinal and transverse forces by wind pressure); F
s(x,y):

由浪的拍击造成的纵、横向力(longitudinal and transverse forces by sea

sloshing)。

基本加速度值见表 2(The basic acceleration data are presented in Table 2)。 表 2 基本加速度值

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注(Remark): 横向加速度值包括因重力、纵摇和垂荡而引起的平行于甲板的分力。垂向加速度 不包括静重分力。 The given transverse acceleration figures include components of gravity, pitch and heavy parallel to the deck. The given vertical acceleration figures do not include the static weight component. 上述基本加速度值仅在满足下列所有条件时有效: The basic acceleration data are to be considered as valid under the following operational conditions: 1.在无限航区运营; Operation in unrestricted area; 2.全年运营; Operation during the whole year; 3.25 天为一个航次; Duration of the voyage is 25 days; 4.船长为 100m; Length of ship is 100 m.; 5.服务航速为 15 kn; Service speed is 15 knots; 6.B/GM≥13(B:船宽, GM:初稳心高度)。 B/GM≥13(B: breadth of ship, GM: metacentric height).

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若在限制航区运营,表列数值可在考虑季节和航次的航行时间后减少。 For operation in a restricted area, reduction of these figures may be considered. taking into account the season of the year and the duration of the voyage. 若船长并非 100 m 且服务航速并非 15 kn, 应根据表 3 修正加速度值。 For ships of a length other than 100 m and a service speed other than 15 knots, the acceleration figures should be corrected by a factor given in Table 3. 与船长和航速有关的修正 Correction factors for length and speed 表 3 ( Table 3 )
Speed Length

9 kn 12 kn 15 kn 18 kn 21 kn 24 kn

50 1.20 1.34 1.49 1.64 1.78 1.93

60 1.09 1.22 1.36 1.49 1.62 1.76

70 1.00 1.12 1.24 1.37 1.49 1.62

80 0.92 1.03 1.15 1.27 1.38 1.50

90 0.85 0.96 1.07 1.18 1.29 1.40

100 0.79 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.21 1.31

120 0.70 0.79 0.89 0.98 1.08 1.17

140 0.63 0.72 0.80 0.89 0.98 1.07

160 0.57 0.65 0.73 0.82 0.90 0.98

180 0.53 0.60 0.68 0.76 0.83 0.91

200 0.49 0.56 0.63 0.71 0.78 0.85

对于 B/GM<13 的情况,应按表 4 对横向加速度值进行修正。 In addition, for ships with B/GM less than 13, the transverse acceleration figures should be corrected by a factor given in Table 4. B/GM<13 时的修正系数 Correction factors for B/GM<13 表 4 ( Table 4 ) B/GM ondeck high on deck low tween deck lower hold 7 1.56 1.42 1.26 1.15 8 1.40 1.30 1.19 1.12 9 1.27 1.21 1.14 1.09 10 1.19 1.14 1.09 1.06 11 1.11 1.09 1.06 1.04 12 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.02 13or abve 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

当发生严重的横摇共振时,横摇幅值可超过±30o, 此时横向加速度可能超过表列 值,应采取有效措施加以避免。

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In the case of marked roll resonance with amplitudes above ±30 ,the given figures of transverse acceleration may be exceeded. Effective measures should be taken to avoid this condition. 当迎浪高速航行砰击严重时,则纵向和垂向加速度可能超过表列值,应适当减速。 in the case of heading into the seas at high speed with marked slamming shocks, the given figures of longitudinal and vertical acceleration may be exceed. An appropriate reduction of speed should be considered. 当随浪或随尾斜浪航行时,尽管其稳性不明显低于最低要求,但可能发生大的横摇因 而横向加速度可能超过表列值。此时应适当该变航向。 In the case of running before large stern or quartering seas with a stability

which does not amply excess the accepted minimum requirements, large roll amplitudes must be expected with transverse acceleration greater than the figures given. An appropriate change of heading should be considered. 露天甲板上货物件的风浪力应由下式确定: Forces by wind and sea to cargo units above the weather deck should be accounted for by simple approach: 风力=1kN/m2 forces by wind pressure=1kN/m2 飞溅力=1kN/m2 forces by sea sloshing=1kN/m2 实际的飞溅力可能比上述数值大的多。上述数值可以被认为是经采取保护措施后的剩 余部分。 Sloshing by sea can induce forces much greater than the figure given above. this figure should be considered as remaining unavoidable after adequate measures to prevent overcoming seas. 仅就高于露天甲板或舱口 2 M 以下的范围内的甲板货考虑飞溅力。 在限制航区航行可以忽略飞溅力。 Sea sloshing forces need only be applied to height of deck cargo up to 2m above the weather deck or hatch top. For voyages in restricted area sea sloshing forces may be neglected. 7.2 力和力矩的平衡(Balance of forces and moments)
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平衡计算应包括如下内容: The balance calculation should preferably be carried out for: - 向左、右舷的横向滑动 - transverse sliding in port and starboard directions - 向左、右舷的横向转动 - transverse tipping in port and starboard direction - 在减少摩擦的条件下向前、后的纵向滑动 longitudinal sliding under conditions of reduced friction in forward and aft

direction 若系固安排是对称的,则可仅计算一次。 In the case of symmetrical securing arrangements, one appropriate calculation is sufficient. 7.2.1 横向滑动(Transverse sliding) 平衡计算应在如下条件下进行(见图 1) The balance calculation should meet the following condition(see also figure 1)

Fy ≤mg+CS1 f1+CS2f2+...+CSnfn 其中(where): n:纳入计算的系索的根数(the number of lashings being calculated); Fy:由外力假设而得到的横向力(transverse force from load assumption),kN; : 摩擦系数(friction coefficient); (=0.3 钢、木或钢、橡胶(for steel-timber or steel-rubber) ) (=0.1 干燥的钢、钢(for steel -steel, dry))
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(=0.0 潮湿的钢、钢(for steel-steel, wet)) m:货物质量(mass of the cargo unit),t; g:地球重力加速度,取 9.81m/s (gravity acceleration of earth=9.81m/s ); CS:横向系固设备的计算强度,(calculated strength of transverse securing devices) kN; f:和垂向系固角α的函数(见表 5)(a function of and the vertical securing angle α (see Table 5)。 作为和α的函数的 f 的值/即 f=sinα+cosα 作为 和 的函数的 的值 即 f-values as function of α and /Remark: f=sinα+cosα 表 5 ( Table 5 ) 0.3 0.1 0.0
o o o o α -30 -20 -10 0 2 2

10o 20o 30o 40o 50o 60o 70o 80o 90o

0.72 0.84 0.93 1.00 1.04 1.04 1.02 0.96 0.87 0.76 0.62 0.47 0.30 0.82 0.91 0.97 1.00 1.00 0.97 0.92 0.83 0.72 0.59 0.44 0.27 0.10 0.87 0.94 0.98 1.00 0.98 0.94 0.87 0.77 0.64 0.50 0.34 0.17 0.00

当垂向系固角大于 60 时将降低系固设备在防止货物单元滑动方面的作用,应考虑在 平衡计算中不计入该系固设备,除非它用于防止翻转和提供预应力。 A vertical securing angle α greater than 60o will reduce the effectiveness of this particular securing device in respect to sliding of the units. Disregarding of such devices from the balance of forces should be considered, unless the necessary load is gained by the imminent tendency to tipping or by a reliable pre-tensioning of the securing device and maintain the pre-tension throughout the voyage. 水平系固角不应大于 30, 否则该系索不应纳入横向滑动平衡计算。 Any horizontal securing angle ,i.e. deviation from the transverse direction, should not exceed 30o, otherwise an exclusion of this device from the transverse sliding balance should be considered. 7.2.2 横向翻转(Transverse tipping) 平衡应满足下式(见图 2): This balance calculation should meet the following condition(see also Figure 2):

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Fya ≤ bmg+CS1c1+CS2c2+...+Csncn 其中(where): Fy, m, g, CS, n 同上述 7.2.1( Fy, m, g, CS, n are as explained under 7.2.1); a: 翻转力臂(见图 2)(lever-arm of tipping (see Figure 2)),m; b: 稳定力臂(见图 2)(lever-arm of stableness(see Figure 2)),m; c: 系固力臂(见图 2)(lever-arm of securing force(see Figure 2)),m。

7.2.3 纵向滑动(longitudinal sliding ) 在常规情况下,横向的系固装置的纵向分力足够防止纵向滑动。如存在疑问,则应满 足下式: Under normal conditions the transverse securing devices provided sufficient longitudinal components to prevent longitudinal sliding. If in doubt, a balance calculation should meet the following condition: Fx ≤ (mg-Fz)+CS1f1+CS2f2+...+Csnfn 其中(where): Fx: 由外力假设而得到的纵向力(longitudinal force from load assumption),k N; , m, g, f, n 同 7.2.1(, m, g, f, n are as explained under 7.2.1); Fz:由外力假设而得到的垂向力(vertical force from load assumption),kN;
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CS: 纵向系固设备的计算强度(calculated strength of longitudinal securing devices),kN。 注:横向系索的纵向分力不应大于 0.5CS。 Remark: Longitudinal components of transverse securing devices should not be assumed greater than 0.5 CS. 改进计算方法算例(Advanced calculation method: calculated example) 改进计算方法算例

船舶(Ship): L=120m;B=16m;GM=1.4m; 航速(speed)=15 节(knots) 货物(Cargo): m=62t; 尺寸(dimensions)=6x4x4 m; 积载在甲板下 0.7 L 船长处(storage at 0.7 L on deck low)

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系固材料(Securing material): 钢丝绳(wire rope): 破断强度( breaking strength)=125kN;MSL=100kN 卸扣(shackles),松紧螺丝(turnbuckles)甲板环(deck rings): 破断强度(breaking strength)=180kN;MSL=90kN 装在垫货材上( stowage on dunnage boards):
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=0.3;CS=90/1.5=60kN 系固布置 (Securing arrangement):
边( side) n 4 2 2 CS 60kN 60kN 60kN

α
40 40 10

f 0.96 0.96 1.04

c -

右舷( stbd) 左舷( port) 左舷( port)

外力(External forces):
Fx=2.9x0.89x62+16+8=184kN Fy =6.3x0.89x62+24+12=384kN Fz=6.2x0.89x62=342kN

力的平衡(Balance of forces): (左舷布置(port arrangement)):
384<0.3x62x9.81+2x60x0.96+2x60x1.04 384<422

满足(this is OK)

力的平衡(Balance of forces): (右舷布置(stbd arrangement)):
384<0.3x62x9.81+4x60x0.96 384<412

满足(this is OK)

力矩的平衡(Balance of moments):
384x1.8<2x62x9.81 691<1216

即使没有绑扎也不会翻转(no tipping, even without lashing)!

注(Remark): 船上货物单元的受力计算应根据附录一给出的表格进行。 Evaluation of forces acting on cargo units on board should be verified in accordance with the table given in Appendix 1

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对评估非标准货物系固装置有效性的方法的说明和解释 Explanations and interpretation of “methods to assess the efficiency of securing arrangements for non-standardized cargo” 应了解按本规则第 1.8 章的规定装运特重货物件所采纳方法范围以外情况,为在特

1.

定气象条件和海浪条件下运输时提供采纳堆装和系固此类重货件的方法。对范围以外情 况的了解并不是对货物件所采纳的方法限止到某一重量或尺寸。 The exclusion of very heavy units as carried under the provisions of chapter 1.8 of the Code from the scope of application of the methods should be understood to accommodate the possibility of adapting the stowage and securing of such units to specifically determined weather conditions and sea conditions during transport. The exclusion should not be understood as being a restriction of the methods to units up to a certain mass or dimension. 表 2 给出的加速度数与修正系数一起代表一个 25 天航程的峰值。这一点并不表

2.

示在 x、 和 z 轴向的峰值以相同的概率同时发生。 y 一般可以这样假设即横向峰值将与小 于 60%的纵向和垂向峰值一起出现。 纵向和垂向的峰值可以更紧密地参与进来。由于它们都有纵倾和升沉的共同源。 The acceleration figures given in Table 2 in combination with the correction factors represent peak values on a 25-day voyage. This does not imply that peak

value in x,y and z directions occur simultaneously with the same probability. It can be generally assumed that peak values in the transverse direction will appear in combination with less than 60% of the peak values in longitudinal and vertical directions. Peak values in longitudinal and vertical directions may be associated more closely because they have the common source of pitching and heaving. 改进计算方法使用了”最差条件方法”。 这一点可以通过横向加速度数清楚地表示

3.

出来,这些数值在船舶的首部和尾部的增大并显示出同时产生的垂向加速度的横向分力 的影响。因此在力和力矩的横向平衡中不必分别考虑垂向加速度。这些同时作用的垂向 加速度会引起货件的重量明显增大,因而促进力平衡中的摩擦力以及力矩平衡中各力矩 的稳定性。正因为如此,没有由于现有的横倾角而减小法向力 mg 。
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这种情况对纵向滑动平衡是不同的。最差的情况将是纵向力 Fx 伴随由垂向力 Fz 极 大减小重量的峰值。 The advanced calculation method uses the “worst case approach”.That is expressed clearly by the transverse acceleration figures, which increase to forward and aft in the ship and thereby show the influence of transverse components of simultaneous vertical acceleration. Consequently there is no need to consider vertical accelerations separately in the balance of transverse forces and the moments. These simultaneously acting vertical acceleration create an apparent increase of weight of the unit and thus increase the effect of the friction in the balance of moments. For this reason there is no reduction of the force mg normal to the deck due to the presence of an angle of heel. The situation is different for the longitudinal sliding balance. The worst case would be a peak value of the longitudinal force Fx accompanied by an extreme reduction of weight through the vertical force Fz. 在这些方法中显示的摩擦系数是对其他出版物中适用数值进行某种减小。 关于这一

4.

点情理应该在实际航运中可能出现的各种影响之中体现出来:如湿度、油脂、油、灰和其 他残杂物、船舶的振动。 应备有据说可大大增加摩擦的某种装堆材料。对这些材料的扩大使用可给实际应用 中带进附加的系数。 The friction coefficients shown in the methods are somewhat reduced against appropriate figures in other publications. The reason for this should be seen in various influence which may appear in practical shipping, as: moisture, grease, oil, dust and other residues, vibration of the ship. There are certain stowage materials available which are said to increase friction considerably. Extended experience with these materials may bring additional coefficients into practical use. 对复杂系固装置中的系固分力计算力的主要方法应必要包括考虑每个单一系固分

5.

力的如下情况: - 负荷伸长特性(弹性); - 几何布置(角度、长度);
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- 预应力。 此计算方法要求大量的信息和复杂且迭代运算。但是计算结果仍然因不定参数而 不能确定。因此选择了简化计算方法,即假定每个分力取计算强度的均匀负荷,该计算强 度对最大系固负荷是以安全系数为 1.5 而减小。 The principal way of calculating forces within the securing elements of a complex securing arrangement should necessarily include the consideration of : -load-elongation behavior(elasticity), -geometrical arrangement(angles, length), -pretension, of each individual securing element. This approach would require a large volume of information and a complex, iterative calculation. The results would still be doubtful due to uncertain parameters. Therefore the simplified approach was chosen with the assumption that the elements take an even load of CS (calculated strength) which is reduced against the MSL (maximum securing load) by the safety factor 1.5. 6. 当应用改进计算方法时,收集数据的方法应按照在计算样例中所示的方法。估算系固 角度,对一组绑扎取平均角度,同样对力矩平衡取力臂合适的 a、b 和 c 数值。 应该有所了解的是仅通过一个或其他参数的一点细微变化表示满足或失去平衡计 算不管如何表示已接近目标。在安全和非安全之间就没有清晰的分界线。因此该系固装 置应有所改进。 When employing the advanced calculation methode, the way of collecting data should be followed as shown in the calculated example. It is acceptable to estimate securing angles, to take average angles for a set of lashings and similarly to arrive at reasonable figures of the levers a,b and c for the balance of moments. It should be borne in mind that meeting or missing the balance calculation just by a tiny chance of one or the other parameters indicates to be near the goal anyway. There is no clear-cut borderline between safety and non-safety, If in doubt, the arrangement should be improved. 7. 根据 OMCS 附则 13,以下给出推荐的专用计算表格: According to OMCS supplementary provisions 13 , provide the special-purpose
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computation sheet recommended as follows:
计算表格 1 加速度值 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 K8 船长 型宽 航速 初稳性高度 GM0 货物单元的重心距 A.P 的距离 K6=K5/K1 与船长和航速有关的修正系数 B/GM0<13 时的修正系数 (m ) (m ) (kn ) (m ) (m ) (- ) (- ) (- ) 基本加速度值 甲二层 甲二层 二甲板 底货舱 K9 K10 K11 纵向基本加速度 垂向基本加速度(根据 K6 查表 1) 横向基本加速度(根据 K6 查表 1) 加速度值 甲二层 甲二层 二甲板 底货舱 K12 K13 K14 纵向加速度=K9*K7 垂向加速度=K10*K7 横向加速度=K11*K7*K8 (m/s2) (m/s2) (m/s2) (m/s2) (m/s2) (m/s2)

GM0

K8 甲二层 甲二层 二甲板 底货舱

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计算表格2 横向滑移和翻转 方向: 左舷或右舷 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 货物单元质量 翻转力臂 稳定力臂 摩擦系数 横向加速度 受风面积 受飞溅面积 绑扎编号 K12 MSL〔kN〕 K13 垂向绑扎角 K14 f值(查表4) K15=0.67*K12*K14 K15 滑移(kN) K16 系固力臂(m) K17=0.67*K12*K16 K17 翻转(kN.m) 滑移 (kN) 翻转
(kN.m)

(t) (m) (m) (-) (m/s ) m2 m2 1 2 K10 K11 3 4
2

外力计算 K8 K9 滑移力=K1*K5+K6*p1+K7*p2 翻转力矩=K8*K2 货物稳定特性 摩擦力=9.81*K1*K4 稳定力矩=9.81*K3*K1
绑扎表

(kN) (kN.m)

(kN) (kN.m)
10

5

6

7

8

9

K18=∑K151-10

K18
K19=∑K171-10

K19 平衡计算及衡准 K10 K18 < + + = K11+K19 不满足/满足 < = K10+K18 不满足/满足

K8 K9

注:风力 p1=1kN/m2 飞溅力 p2=1kN/m2

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计算表格3 纵向滑移 方向: 船艏或船艉 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 货物单元质量 摩擦系数 纵向加速度 垂向加速度 受风面积 受飞溅面积 绑扎编号 K9 MSL〔kN〕 K10 垂向绑扎角 K11 f值(查表4)
K12=0.67*K9*K11或K12=0.67*0.5*K9(取较小值)(注:该系索为横向系索)

(t) (-) (m/s2) (m/s2) m2 m2 1 2 K8 3 K7

外力计算 滑移力=K1*K3+K5*p1+K6*p2 货物稳定特性 摩擦力=(9.81-K4)*K1*K2
绑扎表

(kN)

(kN)
10

4

5

6

7

8

9

K12=0.67*K9*K11(注:该系索为纵向系索) K12 滑移(kN) 平衡计算及衡准 K8 K13 K7 滑移 < + (kN)
注:风力 p1=1kN/m2 飞溅力 p2=1kN/m2

K13=∑K121-10

K13 K8+K13 不满足/满足 =

3.3

各种货物单元、 各种货物单元、车辆和积载容器上的可移动系固装置的使用 Application of portable securing devices on various cargo units, vehicles

and stowage blocks

3.3.1 正确使用可移动系固装置的注意事项 Attention to the correct application of portable securing devices 长应认真注意可移动系固装置的正确使用,考虑下列各种因素:
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The master is to pay careful attention to the correct application of portable securing devices taking into account the following: 航程时间 duration of the voyage; 航程的地理区域,特别应考虑可移动系固装置的最低安全工作温度; geographical area of the voyage with particular regard to the minimum safe operational temperature of the portable securing devices; 可预见的海况; sea condition which may be expected; 船舶的大小、设计及特点; dimensions, design and characteristic of the ship; 航行中可预见的静、动态外力; expected static and dynamic forces during the voyage; 所运载的货物单元和车辆的种类和包装形式; type and packaging of cargo units including vehicles; 货物单元和车辆的预计积载形式; intended stowage pattern of the cargo units including vehicles; 货物单元和车辆的重量和尺寸。 mass and dimensions of the cargo units and vehicles. 可移动系固装置的使用方法 Application of portable cargo securing devices 使用可移动系固装置时,应特别注意以下几点: particular attention is to be given to the following points when applying
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.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

.7

.8

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portable securing devices: 系固任何货物之前,要确认所有系固装置均处于良好工作状态。 Prior to securing of any cargo, it should be confirm that all securing devices are in good working condition. 应特别注意尽实际可能使货物系固装置间受力均匀。 Particular care should be taken to distribute forces as evenly as practicable between the cargo securing devices. 如货物和平轨架集装箱底部或货物单元间的摩擦力不足以避免滑动的危险,则

.1

.2

.3

应使用软板、垫板或其他止滑材料来增加摩擦力以防止滑动或错动。 Where friction between the cargo and the bottom of flat rack containers or between cargo units is insufficient to avoid the risk of sliding, suitable material such as soft boards, dunnage, or other anti-skid material should be used to increase friction and prevent such sliding or slippage. 对货物积载和系固的位置和方法的指导和建议

3.3.3

Guidance as to recommended location and method of stowage and securing of cargoes

对货物积载和系固的位置和方法的指导和建议在下面的 “OMCS 规则”附则中给出: Guidance as to recommended location and method of stowage and securing of cargo is shown in Annex to OMCS Code listed below:

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附则 1 (ANNEX 1) ) 不是特别设计和装备用于运输集装箱的船舶 甲板上的集装箱的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of containers on deck of ships which are not specially designed and fitted for the purpose of carrying containers
1. 积载(Stowage) 1.1 装在这类船舶甲板或舱口盖上的集装箱最好沿首尾方向积载。 Containers carried on deck or on hatches of such ships should preferably be stowed in the fore-and-aft direction. 1.2 集装箱不应超出船舷。当集装箱伸出舱口盖或甲板结构物外时应提供适当的支架。 Containers should not extend over the ship’s sides. Adequate supports should be provided when containers overhang hatches or deck structures. 1.3 集装箱的积载和系固应能允许从事船舶必要作业的人员安全走近或通过。 Containers should be stowed and secured so as to permit safe access for personnel in the necessary operation of the ship. 1.4 集装箱在任何时候都不应使承载它们的甲板或舱口盖受到过度应力。 Containers should at no time over stress the deck or hatches on which they are stowed. 1.5 底层集装箱, 当不是放在堆码装置上时, 应积载在有足够厚度的木材上, 其布置应 能使堆积的负荷均匀地转移到积载区域的结构物上。 Bottom-tier containers, when not resting on stacking devices, should be stowed on timber of sufficient thickness, arranged in such a way as to transfer the stack load evenly on to the structure of the stowage area. 1.6 在堆置集装箱时, 在集装箱间应视情况使用锁紧装置、定位锥或相似的堆垛器材。 When stacking containers, use should be made of locking devices, cones, or similar stacking aids, as appropriate, between them. 1.7 当在甲板或舱口盖上积载集装箱时, 应考虑到系固点的位置和强度。 When stowing containers on deck or hatches, the position and strength of the
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securing points should be taken into consideration. 2. 系固(Securing) 2.1 所有集装箱应有效地系固, 使之不会滑动和翻倒。承载集装箱的舱口盖应适当地系 固在船上。 All containers should be effectively secured in such a way as to protect them from sliding and tipping. Hatch covers carrying containers should be adequately secured to the ship. 2.2 集装箱应使用图 1 推荐的三种方法之一或与此等效的方法系固。 Containers should be secured using one of the three methods recommended in figure 1 or methods equivalent thereto.

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2.3 绑绳最好由钢丝绳或链条或具有等效强度和伸长特性的材料构成。

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Lashings should preferably consist of wire ropes or chains or material with equivalent strength and elongation characteristics. 2.4 木横支架的长度不应超过 2 米。 Timber shoring should not exceed 2m in length. 2.5 钢丝夹应有适量油脂, 并拉紧至钢丝绳的终端明显受到压力(图 2) Wire clips should be adequately greased, and tightened so that the dead end of the wire is visibly compressed(figure 2)

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2.6 绑绳在可能时应受到均匀的拉力。 Lashings should be kept, when possible, under equal tension.

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附则 2 (Annex 2) ) 移动式罐柜的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of portable tanks

1.1 本附则的规定适用于移动式罐柜, 在本附则中, 它们系指非永久性系固在船上、 容积 大于 450 升、其外壳装有外部稳定构件和运输液体、固体或气体所必须的维修工具和结 构性设备的罐柜。 The provisions of this annex apply to a portable tank, which in the context of this annex, means a tank which is not permanently secured on board the vessel and has a capacity of more than 450 L and a shell fitted with external stabilizing members and items of service equipment and structural equipment necessary for the transport of liquids, solids or gases. 1.2 这些规定不适用于容积等于或小于 450 升、运输液体、固体或气体的罐柜。 These provisions do not apply to tanks intended for the transport of liquids, solids or gases having a capacity of 450 l or less. 注: 装运气体的移动式罐柜的容积应等于或大于 1000 升。 Note: The capacity for portable tanks for gases is 1000 l or more. 2. 对移动式罐柜的一般规定 General provisions for portable tanks 2.1 移动式罐柜应能在不必移开其结构设备的情况下装卸, 并能在装有货物时在船上吊 上吊下。 Portable tanks should be capable of being loaded and discharged without the need of removal of their structural equipment and be capable of being lifted onto and off the ship when loaded. 2.2 经修正的《1972 年国际集装箱安全公约》的适用要求, 符合该公约集装箱定义的任 何罐柜式集装箱均应满足。此外, 《国际危规》总前言第 13 节的规定, 在罐柜用于运输 危险货物时, 也应予以满足。 The applicable requirements of the International Conversion for Safe Containers, 1972, as amended, should be fulfilled by any tank-container which meets the definition of a container within the terms of that Conversion. Additionally, the provisions of section 13 of the General Introduction to the IMDG Code should be met
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when the tank will be used for the transport of dangerous goods. 2.3 未装满的移动式罐柜, 由于罐柜内的晃动会产生不能接受的液压力, 不应用于船运。 Portable tanks should not be offered for shipment in an ullage condition liable to produce an unacceptable hydraulic force due to surge within the tank. 2.4 运输危险货物的移动式罐柜, 应按照《国际危规》规定, 由主管批准当局或由该当局 授权的机构提供证书。 Portable tanks for the transport of dangerous goods should be certified in accordance with the provisions of the IMDG Code by the competent approval authority or a body authorized by that authority. 3. 移动式罐柜的装置 Portable tank arrangements 3.1 移动式罐柜的外部稳定构件可由垫木或支架构成, 此外, 该罐柜可系固在有架式底 部的集装箱上。或者, 罐柜可固定在国际标准化组织或非国际标准化组织框架尺寸的框 架内。 The external stabilizing members of a portable tank may consist of skids or cradles and, in addition, the tank may be secured to a platform-based container. Alternatively, a tank may be fixed within a framework of ISO or non-ISO frame dimensions. 3.2 移动式罐柜的装置应包括船上的提升和系固配件。 Portable tank arrangements should include fittings for lifting and securing on board. 注: 所有上述移动式罐柜可在多用途船上装运, 但需要对船上的绑扎和系固给予特别注 意。 Note: All types of the aforementioned portable tanks may be carried on multipurpose ships but need special attention for lashing and securing on board. 4. 货物资料 Cargo information 4.1 至少应向船长提供下述资料: The master should be provided with at least the following information: .1 如系非危险货物: 移动式罐柜的尺寸和货品; 如系危险货物: 按照《国际危规》要 求的资料; dimensions of the portable tank and commodity if non-dangerous and, if
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dangerous, the information required in accordance with the IMDG Code; .2 移动式罐柜的毛重; 和 the gross mass of the portable tank; and .3 移动式罐柜是否长期系固在有架式底座的集装箱上, 或系固在框架里, 是否有系固 点。 whether the portable tank is permanently secured onto a platform-based container or in a frame and whether securing points are provided. 5. 积载 Stowage

5.1 在决定移动式罐柜应装在甲板上还是甲板下时, 应考虑船舶加速度的典型分布。 The typical distribution of accelerations of the ship should be borne in mind in deciding whether the portable tank will be stowed on or under deck. 5.2 罐柜应沿首尾方向在甲板上和甲板下积载。 Tanks should be stowed in the fore-and-aft direction on or under deck. 5.3 积载的罐柜不应超出船舷。 Tanks should be stowed so that they do not extend over the ship’s side. 5.4 罐柜的积载应能使从事船舶必要作业的人员安全走近或通过。 Tanks should be stowed so as to permit safe access for personnel in the necessary operation of the ship. 5.5 任何时候罐柜都不应超过甲板或舱盖的应力; 舱盖应系固在船上以防止整个舱盖翻 倒。 At no time should the tanks overstress the deck or hatches; the hatch covers should be so secured to the ship that tipping of the entire hatch cover is prevented. 6. 防止滑动和翻倒的系固 Securing against sliding and tipping 6.1 非标准化移动式罐柜 Non-standardized portable tanks 6.1.1 在非标准化移动式罐柜上和船上的系固装置应安装得能承受可能引起的滑动和翻 倒的横向力和纵向力。防滑动的系索角度不应高于 25 度, 防翻倒的系索角度不低于 45 至 60 度(图 1) The securing devices on non-standardized portable tanks and on the ship should be arranged in such a way as to withstand the transverse and longitudinal forces,
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which may give rise to sliding and tipping. The lashing angles against sliding should not be higher than 25 and against tipping not lower than 45 to 60 (figure 1)
o o o

6.1.2 在必要时, 在甲板表面和移动式罐柜底部结构间应使用木材以增加摩擦力。这不 适用于木制装置上的罐柜或有相似的高摩擦系数的底部材料的罐柜。 Whenever necessary, timber should be used between the deck surface and the bottom structure of the portable tank in order to increase friction. This does not apply to tanks on wooden units or with similar bottom material having a high coefficient of friction. 6.1.3 如允许在甲板下积载, 积载应能使移动式罐柜直接落在其位置和基座上。 If stowage under deck is permitted, the stowage should be such that the portable non-standardized tank can be landed directly on its place and bedding. 6.1.4 罐柜上的系固点应有适当强度并作出明显标志。 Securing points on the tank should be of adequate strength and clearly marked. 注: 为公路和火车运输设计的系固可能不适合于海上运输。
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Note: Securing points designed for road and rail transport may not be suitable for transport by sea. 6.1.5 缚在无系固点的罐柜上的系索应绕罐柜一周, 系索两端应系固在罐柜的同一边 (图 2)。 Lashings attached to tanks without securing points should pass around the tank and both ends of the lashing should be secured to the same side of the tank(figure 2)

6.1.6 应将足够的系固装置布置成每一装置均分担负荷并有足够的安全系数。 Sufficient securing devices should be arranged in such a way that each device takes its share of the load with an adequate factor of safety. 6.1.7 当罐柜装在甲板或舱口部件上时及布置和安装系固装置时, 应考虑甲板或舱口部 件的结构强度。 The structural strength of the deck or hatch components should be taken into consideration when tanks are carried thereon and when locating and affixing the securing devices. 6.1.8 移动式罐柜的系固应使罐柜或附件上的负荷不超出其设计负荷。 Portable tanks should be secured in such a manner that no load is imposed on
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the tank or fittings in excess of those for which they have been designed. 6.2 标准化移动式罐柜(罐柜集装箱) Standardized portable tanks(tank-containers) 6.2.1 符合国际标准化组织框架尺寸的标准化移动式罐柜应按照船舶装备的索具系统加 以系固, 并考虑到罐柜在甲板以上的高度和罐柜中的罐亏。 Standardized portable tanks with ISO frame dimensions should be secured according to the system of 7. 系固装置的保持 Maintenance of securing arrangements 7.1 系固装置的完整性应在整个航次中得到保持。 The integrity of the securing arrangements should be maintained throughout the voyage. 7.2 对需要拉紧系索、夹子和扣钩以防止因磨损而弱化一事应予特别注意。 Particular attention should be paid to the need for tight lashings, grips and clips to prevent weakening through chafing. 7.3 应定期检查系索和重新收紧 Lashings should be regularly checked and re-tightened. lashing with which the ship is equipped, taking into

consideration the height of the tank above the deck and the ullage in the tank.

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附则 3

Annex 3

移动式容器的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of portable receptacles
1. 前言 Introduction 1.1 在本指南中, 移动式容器系指不是移动式罐柜的容器, 它们不是永久地系固在船上、 容量为 1000 升或小于 1000 升, 在长度、宽度、高度和形状上有不同的尺寸, 用于运输 气体或液体。 A portable receptacle, in the context of these guidelines, means a receptacle not being a portable tank, which is not permanently secured on board the ship and has a capacity of 1000 l or less and has different dimensions in length, width, height and shape and which is used for the transport of gases or liquids. 2. 移动式容器可分为以下几种: Portable receptacles can be divided into: .1 没有系固点、容量不超过 150 升的不同尺寸的圆筒; cylinders of different dimensions without securing points and having a capacity not exceeding 150 l; .2 除符合 2.1 的圆筒外的容量不小于 100 升并不大于 1000 升的不同尺寸的容器, 不 论是否装有足够强度的提升装置; 和 receptacles of different dimensions with the exception of cylinders in conformity with 2.1 having a capacity of not less than 100 l and not more than 1000 l and

whether or not fitted with hoisting devices of sufficient strength; and .3 符合 2.1 中的圆筒的组件, 称作“框架”, 圆筒由歧管在框架内互相连接并用金属 配件牢固连接在一起; 框架装有足够强度的系固和装卸装置(即圆筒状容器装备有滚动 箍而容器系固在垫木上)。 assemblies, known as “frames” of cylinders in conformity with 2.1, the cylinders , being interconnected by a manifold within the frame and held firmly together by metal fittings. The frames are equipped with securing and handling devices of sufficient strength (e.g. cylindrical receptacles are equipped with rolling hoops and receptacles are secured on skids).
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3. 货物资料 Cargo information 3.1 至少应向船长提供下述资料: The master should be provided with at least the following information: .1 容器和货物的尺寸(如系非危险货物); 如系危险货物, 则按照《国际危规》所要 求的资料; dimensions of the receptacle and commodity if non-dangerous and, if dangerous, the information as required in accordance with the IMDG Code; .2 容器毛重; 和 gross mass of the receptacles; and .3 容器是否装有足够强度的提升装置。 whether or not the receptacles are equipped with hoisting devices of sufficient strength. 4. 积载 Stowage 4.1 在决定容器装在甲板上或甲板下时, 应考虑到船舶加速度的典型分布。 The typical distribution of accelerations of the ship should be borne in mind in deciding whether the receptacles should be stowed on or under deck. 4.2 容器最好在甲板上或甲板下纵向积载。 The receptacles should preferable be stowed in the fore-and-aft direction on or under deck. 4.3 容器应予衬垫以防止其直接放在钢甲板上。除作为一个装置安装在框架内外, 在积 载容器时, 如必要, 应用楔子止动。装运液化气的容器应直立积载。 Receptacles should be dunnaged to prevent their resting directly on a steel deck. They should be stowed and chocked as necessary to prevent movement unless mounted in a frame as a unit. Receptacles for liquefied gases should be stowed in an upright position. 4.4 容器在直立积载时, 应以方型积载, 用合适和坚固木材制作的木筐或木箱围住。 木箱 或木筐应在下边垫起以便在钢甲板上有一空隙。木箱或木筐中的容器应予围紧, 以免移 动。箱或筐应牢固地塞紧和绑牢以避免任何方向的移动。 When the receptacles are stowed in an upright position, they should be stowed in a block, cribbed or boxed in with suitable and sound timber. The box or crib should
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be dunnaged underneath to provide clearance form a steel deck. The receptacles in a box or crib should be braced to prevent movement. The box or crib should be securely chocked and lashed to prevent movement in any direction. 5. 防止滑动和移动的系固 Securing against sliding and shifting 5.1 圆筒( Cylinders ) 圆筒应在横向垫木上纵向积载。如可行, 货堆应使用横向放置的两根或更多的钢丝绳 系固, 钢丝绳在装货前放上, 绕货堆一周, 系在相对各边的系固点上。 使用合适的收紧装 置收紧钢丝绳以使货堆密实。在装货期间, 为防止圆筒滚动, 必要时应使用楔子。 Cylinders should be stowed fore-and-aft on athwartships dunnage. Where practicable, the stow should be secured by using two or more wires, laid athwartships prior to loading, and passed around the stow to securing points on opposite sides. The wires are tightened to make a compact stow by using appropriate tightening devices. During loading, wedges may be necessary to prevent cylinders rolling. 5.2 集装箱中的圆筒( Cylinder in containers ) 在可行时, 圆筒应直立积载, 阀在顶部, 防护盖盖紧。 圆筒应使用钢带装置或导向集装 箱底的绑扎点的等效装置给予适当系固, 以至能经受预期航次的严酷条件。当集装箱不 能在封闭集装箱中直立装载时, 它们应装在开顶或搁架式底盘的集装箱内。 Cylinders should, whenever practicable, be stowed upright with their valves on top and with their protective caps firmly in place. Cylinders should be adequately secured, so as to withstand the rigours of the intended voyage, by means of steel strapping or equivalent means led to lashing points on the container floor. When cylinders cannot be stowed upright in a closed container, they should be carried in an open top or a platform-based container. 5.3 容器( Receptacles ) 装在甲板上或甲板下的容器应按下述方法系固: Securing of receptacles stowed on or under deck should be as follows: .1 应按图 1 所示放置系索; lashings should be positioned as shown in figure 1;

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.2 可能时, 容器上的提升装置应用于绑住它们; 和 where possible, the hoisting devices on receptacles should be used to lash them; and .3 系索应定期检查和重新收紧。 at regular times the lashings should be checked and re-tightened.

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Annex

4

轮载(滚动) 轮载(滚动)货物的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of wheel-based(rolling)cargoes ( )
1. 前言 Introduction 在本指南中, 轮载货物为所有装有轮子或履带的货物, 包括用于积载和运输其它货 物的轮子和履带, 拖车和公路列车除外(由本规则第四章管辖), 但包括公共汽车、带 有或不带履带的军用车辆、拖拉机、运土设备和轮式拖车等等。 Wheel-based cargoes, in the context of these guidelines, are all cargoes which are provided with wheels or tracks, including those which are used for the stowage and transport of other cargoes, except trailers and road-trains(covered by chapter 4 of this Code), but including buses, military vehicles with or without tracks, tractors, earth-moving equipment, roll-trailers, etc. 2. 一般建议 General recommendations 2.1 积载轮载货物的货物处所应是干燥、清洁而没有油脂的。 The cargo spaces in which wheel-based cargo is to be stowed should be dry, clean and free from grease and oil. 2.2 轮载货物应备有合适而明显的标志的系固点或可用于绑扎的足够强度的其它等效装 置。 Wheel-based cargoes should be provided with adequate and clearly marked securing points or other equivalent means of sufficient strength to which lashings may be applied. 2.3 没有系固点的轮载货物应具备可使用系索并明显标志的部位。 Wheel-based cargoes which are not provided with securing points should have those places, where lashings may be applied, clearly marked. 2.4 没有增加摩擦力的下层表面的橡胶轮子或履带的轮载货物始终应在垫木或其它增加 摩擦力的材料上积载, 如软板、橡胶垫等。 Wheel-based cargoes, which are not provided with rubber wheels or tracks with friction-increasing lower surface, should always be stowed on wooden dunnage or
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other friction-increasing material such as soft boards, rubber mats, etc. 2.5 当在积载位置上时, 应使用轮载装置刹车制动(如有的话)。 When in stowage position, the brakes of a wheel-based unit, if so equipped, should be set. 2.6 船上系固轮载货物的系索的材料, 其强度和拉伸特性应至少等同于钢链或钢绳。 Wheel-based cargoes should be secured to the ship by lashings made of material having strength and elongation characteristics at least equivalent to steel chain or wire. 2.7 可能时, 作为货物组成部分装运的轮载货物, 应紧靠船舷积载或装在备有足够强度 的足够的系固点的位置上, 或在整个货物处所中塞紧装载。 Where possible, wheel-based cargoes, carried as part cargo, should be stowed close to the ship’s side or in stowage positions which are provided with sufficient securing points of sufficient strength, or be block-stowed from side to side of the cargo space. 2.8 为了防止没有合适系固点的轮载货物的任何横向移动, 在可行时, 这些货物应紧靠 船舷并相互紧靠装载, 或由其它合适的成组货物如已满载集装箱等挡住。 To prevent any lateral shifting of wheel-based cargoes not provided with adequate securing points, such cargoes should, where practicable, be stowed close to the ship’s side and close to each other, or be blocked off by other suitable cargo units such as loaded containers, etc. 2.9 为了防止轮载货物移动, 可行时, 最好把这些货物作纵向而不是横向积载。 如果轮载 货物不可避免地只能横向积载, 则足够强度的额外系固可能是必需的。 To prevent the shifting of wheel-based cargoes, it is , where practicable, preferable to stow those cargoes in a fore-and-aft direction rather than athwartships. if wheel-based cargoes are inevitably stowed athwartships, additional securing of sufficient strength may be necessary. 2.10 轮载货物的轮子应塞牢止动。 The wheels of wheel-based cargoes should be blocked to prevent shifting. 2.11 装在轮载装置上的货物应适当地系固在积载平台上或在备有合适工具时, 系固到 其边上。装在轮载装置上的任何活动的外部件, 如吊杆、臂状物或转塔, 应在位置上适 当锁牢或系固。 Cargoes stowed on wheel-based units should be adequately secured to stowage
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platforms or, where provided with suitable means, to its sides. Any movable external components attached to a wheel-based unit, such as derricks, arms or turrets should be adequately locked or secured in position.

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附则 5

Annex 5

机车、 机车、变压器等重件货的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of heavy cargo items such as locomotives, transformers, etc.
1. 货物资料 Cargo information 应向船长提供任何要装船重货的足够资料, 以使他能适当地计划其积载和系固; 该资 料应至少包括下述内容: The master should be provided with sufficient information on any heavy cargo offered for shipment so that he can properly plan its stowage and securing; the information should at least include the following: .1 毛重: gross mass; .2 如可能, 带有图纸或图片说明的主要尺寸; principal dimensions with drawings or pictorial descriptions, if possible; .3 重心位置; location of the centre of gravity; .4 基座面积和特定基座的防护措施(如适用) bedding areas and particular bedding precautions if applicable; .5 吊点和吊货位置; 和 lifting points or slinging positions; and .6 系固点(如有的话), 包括其强度详情。 securing points, where provided, including details of their strength. 2. 积载位置 Location of stowage 2.1 当考虑重件货积载位置时, 应计及船舶加速度的典型分布: When considering the location for stowing a heavy cargo item, the typical distribution of accelerations on the ship should be kept in mind: .1 在船中段和露天甲板以下发生的向下加速度; 和 lower accelerations occur in the mid-ship sections and below the weather deck;
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and .2 端部和露天甲板以上发生的向上加速度。 higher accelerations occur in the end sections and above the weather deck. 2.2 当重件在甲板上积载时, 如可能应考虑到具体航次的“风雨舷”。 When heavy items are to be stowed on deck, the expected “weather side” the of particular voyage should be taken into account if possible. 2.3 重件最好纵向积载。 Heavy items should preferably be stowed in the fore-and-aft direction. 3. 重量分布 Distribution of Weight 重件的重量分布应避免对船舶结构的不利应力。特别在甲板或舱盖上运输重件时, 应使用具有适当强度的木材或钢梁将重件的重量转移到船舶结构上。 The weight of the item should be distributed in such a way as to avoid undue stress on the ship’s structure. Particularly with the carriage of heavy items on decks or hatch covers, suitable beams of timber or steel of adequate strength should be used to transfer the weight of the item onto the ship’s structure. 4. 在开敞集装箱内,在平台或平台集装箱上的货物堆装 Cargo stowed in open containers, on platforms or platform-based containers 4.1 当在集装箱船或可以安装或装载集装箱的船上的开敞集装箱 ISO 标准的平台或平台 集装箱(平支架)上进行堆装及系固时,应按照该系统的说明进行, 应按 IMO/ILO 关于运输 集装箱或汽车上包装货物导则的规定进行此类集装箱的货物堆装及系固。 While the stowage and securing of open containers, ISO platforms or platform-based containers (flatracks) on a container ship or a ship fitted or adapted for the carriage of containers should follow the information for that system, the stowage and securing of the cargo in such containers should be carried out in accordance with the IMO/ILO Guideline for Packing Cargo in Freight Containers or vehicles. 4.2 当在 ISO 标准平台或平台集装箱(平支架)上运输重型货物时,应按照本附则的建议进 行。另外,应考虑下列因素: When heavy cargo items are carried on ISO plat-form-based containers (flatracks) the provisions of this annex should be followed. Additionally, the following items should be taken into account.
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.1

所采用的 ISO 标准平台等,应为考虑到系固点的强度和 MSL 相适应的形式; The ISO standard platform, etc., used should be of a suitable type with

regard to strength and MSL of the securing points; .2 重型货物的重量应适当分布; The weight of the heavy cargo item should be properly distributed. .3 当需要在 ISO 标准平台或平台集装箱等上运输重型货物时,不应只系固在平台

或平台集装箱等上,还应系固在相邻平台或系固于船上固定结构的系固点上。 最后一道绑 扎的弹性变形应能符合安装重型货物下的堆装块的全部弹性变形以避免这些绑扎过载。 Where deemed necessary, the heavy cargo item(s) carried on ISO standard platform(s) or platform-based containers, etc., should not only be secured to the platform(s) or platform-based containers, etc., but also to neighboring platform(s),etc., or to securing points located at fixed structure of the ship. The elasticity of the last-mentioned lashings should be sufficiently in line with the overall elasticity of the stowage block underneath the heavy cargo item(s) in order to avoid overloading those lashings. 5. 防滑动和翻倒的系固 Securing against sliding and tipping 5.1 在可能时, 在积载表面和装置底部之间应使用木材以增加摩擦力。 这不适用于装在木 支架上或橡胶胎上或有高摩擦系数的相似底部材料上的重件。 Whenever possible, timber should be used between the stowage surface and the bottom of the unit in order to increase friction. This does not apply to items on wooden cradles or on rubber types or with similar bottom material having a high coefficient of friction. 5.2 系固装置的布置应能经受可能造成滑动或翻倒的横向力和纵向力。 The securing devices should be arranged in a way to withstand transverse and longitudinal forces which may give rise to sliding or tipping. 5.3 防滑动的最佳绑扎角度为 25 度, 而防翻倒的最佳绑扎角度一般认为在 45 至 60 度 之间(图 1)。 The optimum lashing angle against sliding is about 25o, while the optimum lashing angle against tipping is generally found between 45o and 60o(figure 1)

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5.4 如重件是在加了润滑油的滑板上或以降低摩擦力的其它方法拖到位置上, 防滑动的 系索数量应相应增加。 If a heavy cargo item has been dragged into position on greased skid boards or other means to reduce friction, the number of lashings used to prevent sliding should be increased accordingly. 5.5 如由于当时情况, 仅能用大角度绑扎, 则必须用木支柱、 焊接配件或其它适当方法防 止滑动,任何焊接应按可接受的热加工程序进行。 If, owing to circumstances, lashings can be set at large angles only, sliding must be prevented by timber shoring, welded fittings or other appropriate means. Any welding should be carried out in accordance with accepted hot work procedures. 6. 甲板上抗恶劣海况的系固 Securing against heavy seas on deck 虽然人们认识到在甲板上对货物进行抗恶劣海况的系固是困难的, 但应做出一切努 力保证这些货物和其支撑能经受这种冲击, 并考虑使用特殊的系固方法。 Whilst it is recognized that securing cargo items against heavy seas on deck is
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difficult, all efforts should be made to secure such items and their supports to withstand such impact and special means of securing may have to be considered. 7. 伸出舷外的重件货 Heavy cargo items projecting over the ship’s side 伸出舷外的重件货另应加用在纵向和垂向上起作用的系索系固。 Items projecting over the ship’s side should be additionally secured by lashings acting in longitudinal and vertical directions. 8. 系索在重件货上的系缚 Attachment of lashings to heavy cargo items 8.1 如系索要系缚在货物的系固点上, 则这些系固点应有适当强度和明显标志。 应考虑到 设计用于公路或火车运输的系固点可能不适合在船上系固货物。 If lashings are to be attached to securing points on the item, these securing points should be of adequate strength and clearly ,road or rail transport may not be suitable for securing the items on board ship. 8.2 系索在没有系固点的货物上系缚时, 应围绕货物或其刚性部分一周, 系索两端应系 固在装置的同一边(图 2)。 Lashings attached to items without securing points should pass around the item, or a rigid part thereof, and both ends of the lashing should be secured to the same side of the unit(figure 2).

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9. 系固装置的构造和应用 Composition and application of securing devices 9.1 系固装置应安装得使每一部件有相等强度。 Securing devices should be assembled so that each component is of equal strength. 9.2 连接件和收紧装置应正确使用,应对航行中因腐蚀、疲劳或机械变型等引起的系索 强度降低予以考虑,并采用强度更好的系固材料予以补偿。 Connecting elements and tightening devices should be used in the correct way. Consideration should be given to any reduction of the strength of the lashings during the voyage through corrosion, fatigue or mechanical deterioration and should be compensated by using stronger securing material. 9.3 对于正确使用钢丝绳、夹具和夹子应给予特别注意。夹子的鞍形部分应用于活载荷 部分而 U 形螺栓应用于静载荷或收短端部分。 Particular attention should be paid to the correct use of wire, grips and clips. The saddle portion of the clip should be applied to the live load segment and the U-bolt to the dead or shortened end segment.
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9.4 系固装置的安排应使每一装置按其强度承受负荷。 Securing devices should be arranged in such a way that each device takes its share of load according to its strength.. 9.5 将不同强度和伸长特性的装置混合在一起的系固布置应予避免。 Mixed securing arrangements of devices with different strength and elongation characteristics should be avoided. 10. 系固装置的保持 Maintenance of securing arrangements 10.1 应在整个航次保持系固布置的完整性。 The integrity of the securing arrangements should be maintained throughout the voyage. 10.2 应特别注意需要收紧系索、 夹具和夹子和防止因摩擦而弱化。 应对木托及框架予以 检查。 Particular attention should be paid to the need for tight lashings, grips and clips and to prevent weakening through chafing. Timber cradles, beddings and shorings should be checked. 10.3 在夹子和松紧螺套的螺纹加润滑油可增加夹持能力和防锈蚀。 Greasing the thread of clips and turnbuckles increases their holding capacity and prevents corrosion. 11. 系固计算 Securing calculation 在必要时, 重件货的系固装置应用本规则附则 13 中的计算方法进行验证。 Where necessary, the securing arrangements for heavy cargo items should be verified by an appropriate calculation in accordance with annex 13 to the code.

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附则 6

Annex 6

成卷钢板的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of coiled sheet steel
1. 总则 General 1.1 本附件仅论述在圆面上积载的成卷钢板。垂向积载不予论述, 因为这种积载不会造 成特别的系固问题。 This annex deals only with coiled sheet steel stowed on the round. Vertical stowage is not dealt with because this type of stowage does not create any special securing problems. 1.2 通常成卷钢板的每卷毛重超过 10 吨。 Normally, coils of sheet steel have a gross mass in excess of 10 tonnes each. 2. 卷材 Coils 2.1 卷材应为底积载, 在可能时, 应以规律的层次自一舷至另一舷在船上装满。 Coils should be given bottom stow and, whenever possible, be stowed in regular tiers from side to side of the ship. 2.2 卷材应在横向放置的垫木上积载。卷材应使轴线在纵向积载。每卷应紧靠另一卷积 载。在装卸时为防止移动, 必要时应使用楔子(图 1 和图 2)。 Coils should be stowed on dunnage laid athwartships. Coils should be stowed with their axes in the fore-and-aft direction. Each coil should be stowed against its neighbour. Wedges should be used as stoppers when necessary during loading and discharging to prevent shifting(figures 1 and 2)

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2.3 每排最后一卷通常应放在临近的两卷上边。这卷的质量将固定住该排的其它卷材。 The final coil in each row should normally rest on the two adjacent coils. The mass of this coil will lock the other coils in the row. 2.4 如果有必要在第一层上装第二层, 那么第二层的卷材应装在第一层的卷材之间(图 2)。 If it is necessary to load a second tier over the first, then the coils should be stowed in between the coils of the first tier(figure 2) 2.5 在最高一层中卷材间的任何空挡应以适当系固(图 3)。 Any void space between coils in the topmost tier should be adequately secured (figure 3)

3. 系索 Lashing 3.1 目的是通过将它们绑在一起使之在舱里形成一个大的不可移动的卷材组。一般来说, 最高一层最后三排的带钢卷材应予绑扎。由于它们的易损特性, 为防止纵向移动在无外
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包装卷材的顶层不应使用成组绑扎, 顶层最后一排应用垫木和钢丝绳系固, 并应从一侧 到另一侧拉紧和使用附加钢丝绳固定于舱壁。 当卷材装满整个底下处所并有良好支撑时, 除用于固定卷材本身外, 不需要系索(图 4、5、6)。 The objective is to form one large, immovable block of coils in the hold by lashing them together. In general, strip coils in three end rows in the top tier should be lashed. To prevent fore-and-aft shifting in the top tier of bare-wound coils group-lashing should not be applied due to their fragile nature; the end row of a top tier should be secured by dunnage and wires, which are to be tightened from side to side, and by additional wires to the bulkhead. When coils are fully loaded over the entire bottom space and are well shored, no lashings are required except for locking coils (figures 4, 5, and 6).

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3.2 系索可以是使用钢丝绳或任何等效方法的常规类型。 The lashings can be of a conventional type using wire or any equivalent means. 3.3 常规系索应由有足够拉力强度的钢丝绳构成。第一层应用楔子塞紧。在航行中应能 重新收紧系索。 Conventional lashings should consist of wires having sufficient tensile strength. The first tier should be chocked. It should be possible to retighten the lashings during
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the voyage (figures 5 and 6) 3.4 钢丝系索应有防止利刃损坏的保护。 Wire lashings should be protected against damage from sharp edges. 3.5 如只有少量卷材, 或仅有一个卷材, 它们应适当地系固在船上, 可以把它们放在支 架里, 用楔子塞牢或给予支撑和绑扎, 以防止横向和纵向移动。 If there are few coils, or a single coil only, they should be adequately secured to the ship, by placing them in cradles, by wedging, or by shoring and then lashing to prevent transverse and longitudinal movement. 3.6 集装箱、火车车厢和公路车辆中装载的卷材应装在支架里或特别制作的底座上, 并 应以适当的系固防止移动。 Coils carried in containers, railway wagons and road vehicles should be stowed in cradles or specially made beds and should be prevented from moving by adequate securing.

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附则 7

Annex

7

重金属制品的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of heavy metal products
1. 总则 General 1.1 在本规则中, 重金属制品包括任何金属制造的重件, 如棒材、管材、盘条、板材和线 材卷等等。 Heavy metal products in the context of this Code include and heavy item made of metal, such as bars, pipes, rods, plates, wire coils, etc. 1.2 海上运输重金属制品会给船舶造成下述危险: The transport of heavy metal products by sea exposes the ship to the following principal hazards: .1 船舶结构的过度超极限应力, 如果超过船壳容许应力或甲板容许负荷: overstressing of the ship’s structure if the permissible hull stress or permissible deck loading is exceeded; .2 由于超过稳心高度造成短横摇周期而使船舶结构承受过度超限应力, 和 overstressing of the ship’s structure as a result of a short roll period caused by excessive metacentric height; and .3 由于不当系固造成货物移动引起失去稳性或对船壳造成损害或二者。 cargo shifting because of inadequate securing resulting in a loss of stability or damage to the hull or both. 2. 建议 Recommendations 2.1 积载重金属制品的货物处所应是干净、干燥和没有油脂的。 The cargo spaces in which heavy metal products are to be stowed should be clean, dry and free from grease and oil. 2.2 货物应避免以不当船壳应力方式配载。 The cargo should be so distributed as to avoid undue hull stress. 2.3 不应超过允许的甲板和舱顶负荷。 The permissible deck and tank top loading should not be exceeded.
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2.4 在积载和系固重金属制品时, 应采取下述措施: The following measures should be taken when stowing and securing heavy metal products: .1 货物应从船舶一侧向另一侧密实积载, 在货物间不要留出空档, 如必要在货物间使 用木块; cargo items should be stowed compactly from one side of the ship to the other leaving no voids between them and using timber blocks between items if necessary; .2 在可能和可行时, 货物应装平; cargo should be stowed level whenever possible and practicable; .3 货物表面应予系固; 和 the surface of the cargo should be secured; and .4 支柱应由牢固、无裂纹的木头制成, 其尺寸应足以经受加速力。船舶的每根肋骨应 用一个横支柱, 但间隔不应小于 1 米。 the shoring should be made of strong, non-splintering wood and adequately sized to withstand the acceleration forces. One shoring should be applied to every frame of the ship but at intervals of not less than 1 m. 2.5 对于薄板和小包件, 已证明纵向和横向交替积载是令人满意的。应在不同层次间使 用足够的干垫木或其它材料增加摩擦力。 In the case of thin plates and small parcels, alternate fore-aft and athwartships stowage has proved satisfactory. The friction should be increased by using sufficient dry dunnage or other material between the different layers. 2.6 管材、铁轨、型钢和钢坯等等应纵向积载以避免货物移动对船舶造成损害。 Pipes, rails, rolled sections, billets, etc., should be stowed in the fore-and-aft direction to avoid damage to the sides of the ship if the cargo shifts. 2.7 货物, 特别是最高一层货物, 可用下述方式系固: The cargo, and especially the topmost layer, can be secured by: .1 在其上部装有其它货物; 或 having other cargo stowed on top of it; or .2 用钢丝绳绑扎、塞牢或类似方法。 lashing by wire, chocking off or similar means. 2.8 当重金属制品不是从船的一侧装到另一侧时, 对适当地系固这种积载要给予特别的 注意。
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Whenever heavy metal products are not stowed from side to side of the ship, special care should be taken to secure such stowage adequately. 2.9 在系固货物表面时, 每根系索应是相互独立的, 对货物表面施加垂向压力, 并应使 货物任何部分均得到系固。 Whenever the surface of the cargo is to be secured, the lashings should be independent of each other, exert vertical pressure on the surface of the cargo, and be so positioned that no part of the cargo is unsecured. 3. 线材卷 Wire coils 3.1 线材卷应放平积载, 以使每卷靠在临近一卷上。逐层积载的卷材应使每一卷材叠放 在下边的卷材上。 Wire coils should be stowed flat so that each coil rests against an adjacent coil. The coils in successive tiers should be stowed so that each coil overlaps the coils below. 3.2 线材卷应紧紧地积载在一起并应使用牢固的系固装置。在卷材间空挡不能避免时或 在货物处所边上或端部有空挡时, 货堆应有适当的系固。 Wire coils should be tightly stowed together and substantial securing arrangements should be used. Where voids between coils are unavoidable or where there are voids at the sides or ends of the cargo space, the stow should be adequately secured. 3.3 当系固象桶一样多层侧置积载的线材卷时, 要记住除非顶层被系固住, 不然放在货 堆中的卷材会因为船舶的运动被下边的卷材挤出货堆。 When securing wire coils stowed on their sides in several layers like barrels, it is essential to remember that, unless the top layer is secured, the coils lying in the stow can be forced out of the stow by the coils bellow on account of the ship’s motions.

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Annex

8

锚链的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of anchor chains
1. 总则 General 1.1 船舶和近海结构物的锚链通常是成捆或连续长度装载的。 Anchor chains for ships and offshore structures are usually carried in bundles or in continuous lengths. 1.2 只要在装载前、装载中和装载后采取一定安全措施, 锚链可成捆地直接放在积载处 而不需要做进一步处理; 或沿着船舶整个或部分货物处所纵向积载。 Provided certain safety measures are followed prior to, during and after stowage, anchor chains may be lowered directly onto the place of stowage in bundles without further handling or stowed longitudinally either along the ship’s entire cargo space or part thereof. 1.3 如果船舶文件中提供的货物积载图没有具体要求, 货物在底层舱和甲板间的配载应 使得到的稳性值将能保证适当的稳性。 If the cargo plans given in the ship’s documentation contain no specific requirements, the cargo should be distributed over the lower hold and tween-decks in such a way that stability values thus obtained will guarantee adequate stability. 2. 建议 Recommendations 2.1 积载锚链的货物处所应是清洁和无油脂的。 Cargo spaces in which chains are stowed should be clean and free from oil and grease. 2.2 锚链仅应装在永久覆盖有木质舱底铺板或覆盖有足够的垫木层或其它增加摩擦力的 材料的表面上。锚链决不应直接在金属表面上积载。 chains should only be stowed on surfaces which are permanently covered either by wooden ceiling or by sufficient layers of dunnage or other suitable friction-increasing materials. Chains should never be stowed directly on metal surfaces.

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3. 成捆锚链的积载和系固 Stowage and securing of chains in bundles 3.1 成捆锚链可直接被吊到积载处, 而不需作进一步处理, 吊索应留在锚链上, 另用钢 丝绕在锚链捆上系扎。 Chains in bundles, which are lifted directly onto their place of stowage without further handling, should be left with their lifting wires attached and should preferably be provided with additional wires around the bundles for lashing purposes. 3.2 不需要用垫木等增加摩擦力的材料来隔开锚链层, 因为锚链捆会相互夹持。锚链捆 的最高一层应用合适的系索系在船舶两舷。锚链捆可用吊索独立或成组系扎。 It is not necessary to separate layers of chain with friction-increasing material such as dunnage because chain bundles will grip each other. The top layer of chain bundles should be secured to both sides of the ship by suitable lashings. Bundles may be lashed independently or in a group using the lifting wires. 4. 纵向积载的锚链的积载和系固 Stowage and securing of chains which are stowed longitudinally 4.1 在可能和可行时, 每层锚链的积载应在接近船舷处开始或结束。应注意堆货的密实。 Stowage of each layer of chain should, whenever possible and practicable, commence and terminate close to the ship’s side. Care should be taken to achieve a tight stow. 4.2 不需要用垫木等增加摩擦力的材料来隔开锚链层, 因为锚链各层会相互夹持。 It is not necessary to separate layers of chain with friction-increasing material such as dunnage because chain layers will grip each other. 4.3 根据预计的气候和海况、航次长度和性质及装在锚链顶上的货物的性质, 每一货堆 的顶层应由适当强度的系索横向系固, 系索在货堆上的间距要适当, 以便固定住整个货 堆。 Bearing in mind the expected weather and sea conditions, the length and nature of the voyage and the nature of the cargo to be stowed on top of the chain, the top layer of each stow should be secured by lashings of adequate strength crossing the stow at suitable intervals and thus holding down the entire stow.

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Annex

9

散装金属废料的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of metal scrap in bulk
1. 前言 Introduction 1.1 本附件论述因其大小、形状和质量难以紧密积载的金属废料的积载, 不适用于象金 属钻屑、刨屑或车床切屑等金属废料, 此种废料的运输在《固体散装货物安全作业规则》 中有规定。 This annex deals with the stowage of metal scrap which is difficult to stow compactly because of its size, shape and mass, but does not apply to metal scrap such as metal borings, shavings or turnings, the carriage of which is addressed by the Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes. 1.2 运输金属废料的危险包括: The hazards involved in transporting metal scrap include: .1 货堆移动, 它会造成横倾; shifting of the stow which in turn can cause a list; .2 个别重件移动, 它会击穿水线下船侧外板而造成严重浸水; shifting of individual heavy pieces which can rupture the side plating below the waterline and give rise to serious flooding; .3 液舱顶或甲板间超负荷; 和 excessive loading on tank tops or tween-decks; and .4 过大的稳心高度造成的激烈横摇。 violent rolling caused by excessive metacentric height. 2. 建议 Recommendations 2.1 在装货前, 货舱壁护条的下层板条应用牢固垫木保护以减少损失和防止重的和锐利 的废料接触船侧板。只有木板保护的空气管、声纳管和污水和压载水管应作类似保护。 Before loading, the lower battens of the spar ceiling should be protected by substantial dunnage to reduce damage and to prevent heavy and sharp pieces of scrap coming in contact with the ship’s side plating. Air and sounding pipes, and bilge
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and ballast lines protected only by wooden boards, should be similarly protected. 2.2 在装货时, 应注意保证第一批装入的货物不能从可能损坏液舱顶部的高度上掉下。 When loading, care should be taken to ensure that the first loads are not dropped from a height which could damage the tank tops. 2.3 如轻的和重的废料装在同一货物处所, 应先装重废料。废料绝不在金属车床切屑或 类似形式的废金属顶上积载。 If light and heavy scrap is to be stowed in the same cargo space, the heavy scrap should be loaded first. Scrap should never be stowed on top of metal turnings, or similar forms of waste metal. 2.4 废料应密实和均匀积载, 没有空挡或没有松散的废料的无支撑面。 Scrap should be compactly and evenly stowed with no voids or unsupported faces of loosely held scrap. 2.5 重件废物可能因移动而造成船侧板或端舱壁损坏, 因此应在上面压载或用适当的系 索系固。因废料的性质使用撑挡可能无效。 Heavy pieces of scrap, which could cause damage to the side plating or end bulkheads if they were to move, should be overstowed or secured by suitable lashings. The use of shoring is unlikely to be effective because of the nature of the scrap. 2.6 应注意避免在液舱顶上和甲板上超负荷积载。 Care should be taken to avoid excessive loading on tank tops and decks.

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Annex

10

挠性中间散装容器的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of flexible intermediate bulk containers
1. 前言 Introduction 1.1 在本指南中, 挠性中间散装容器指容积不大于 3 米 3(3000 升), 用于运输固体的 挠性移动式包装, 设计用于机械装卸, 经测试能满意地承受运输和运输应力, 可为单用 途或多用途设计。 A flexible intermediate bulk container(FIBC), in the context of these guidelines, means a flexible portable packaging to be used for the transport of solids with a capacity of not more than 3 m3(3000 l)designed for mechanical handling and

tested for its satisfactory resistance to transport and transport stresses in a one-way type or multi-purpose design. 2. 货物资料 Cargo information 至少应向船长提供下述资料: The master should at least be provided with the following information: .1 挠性中间散装容器的总数量和要装的是何种货物; the total number of FIBCs and the commodity to be loaded; .2 挠性中间散装容器的尺寸: the dimensions of the FIBCs; .3 挠性中间散装容器的总质量; the total gross mass of the FIBCs; .4 是单用途或多用途设计; 和 one-way type or multi-purpose design; and .5 吊具种类(使用单钩或多钩)。 the kind of hoisting (one hook or more hooks to be used). 3. 建议 Recommendations 3.1 运输挠性中间散装容器的理想船舶是大舱口船, 因为可将该种容器直接放到积载位
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置上而不需移动。 The ideal ship for the carriage of FIBCs is one with wide hatches so that the FIBCs can be landed directly in the stowage positions without the need for shifting. 3.2 在可行时, 货物处所应是矩形的并且没有障碍物。 The cargo spaces should, where practicable, be rectangular in shape and free of obstructions. 3.3 积载处所应是干净、干燥的, 并没有油和钉子。 The stowage space should be clean, dry and free from oil and nails. 3.4 当该种容器在深舱翼部积载时, 应有供适合改装的叉车使用的方便通道和足够的活 动空间。 When FIBCs have to be stowed in deep hatch wings, easy access and sufficient manoeuvring space for suitabley adapted fork-lift trucks should be available. 3.5 当该种容器仅在舱口积载时, 货物处所的翼侧和前后端应装有其它合适货物或用东 西挡住, 以便此种容器得到适当支撑。 When FIBCs are stowed in the hatchway only, the space in the wings and the forward and aft end of the cargo space should be loaded with other suitable cargo or blocked off in such a way that the FIBCs are adequately supported. 4. 积载 Stowage 4.1 当装该种容器时, 应注意船舶加速度的典型分布。 The typical distribution of the accelerations of the ship should be kept in mind when FIBCs are loaded. 4.2 将船舶宽度除以该种容器宽度便得出横向积载该种容器的数目和余下的空挡。如有 空挡, 则该种容器应从两侧向中心积载, 使任何空挡均在舱口的中央。 The width of the ship divided by the width of the FIBC will give the number of FIBCs which can be stowed athwartships and the void space left. If there will be a void space, the stowage of the FIBCs should start from both sides to the centre, so that any void space will be in the centre of the hatchway. 4.3 该种容器应互相尽可能靠紧积载, 任何空挡均应塞牢。 FIBCs should be stowed as close as possible against each other and any void space should be chocked off. 4.4 以后各层这种容器应以相同方法积载, 使其完全覆盖住下边的该种容器。如这层余
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有空挡, 也应在舱口中央部位予以塞牢。 The next layers should be stowed in a similar way so that the FIBCs fully cover the FIBCs underneath. If in this layer a void space is left, it should also be chocked off in the centre of the hatchway. 4.5 当在舱口位置有足够空间在下面几层之上积载另一层时, 应确定舱口围板能否作为 围壁。如不能够, 应采取措施防止该种容器移动到舷侧敞露部位。否则该种容器应在舱 口围板间装满积载。在这两种情况下, 任何空挡均应在中央部位并予以塞牢。 When there is sufficient room in the hatchway on top of the layers underneath to stow another layer, it should be established whether the coamings can be used as bulkheads. If not, measures should be taken to prevent the FIBCs shifting to the open space in the wings. Otherwise, the FIBCs should be stowed from one coaming to another. In both cases any void space should be in the centre and should be chocked off. 4.6 为防止该种容器向任何一侧移动和防止在恶劣气候下船舶倾斜, 在上述两种情况下, 塞牢该种容器是必要的(图 1)。 Chocking off is necessary in all cases to prevent shifting of the FIBCs to either side and to prevent a list of the ship developing in rough weather (figure 1)

5. 系固 Securing 5.1 在甲板间或底舱仅有一个部分用来装挠性中间散装容器的情况下, 应采取措施防止 其移动。这些措施应包括用足够的格子板或胶合板顶住这些容器和使用钢丝绳从一侧到
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另一侧系固住挠性中间散装容器货物。 In cases where only a part of a tween-deck or lower hold is used for the stowage of FIBCs, measures should be taken to prement the FIBCs from shifting. These measures should include sufficient gratings or plywood sheets placed against the FIBCs and the use of wire lashings from side to side to secure the FIBC cargo. 5.2 用于系固的钢丝绳和胶合板应定期检查, 特别在恶劣气候前和后, 如必要时, 要重 新收紧。 The wire lashings and plywood sheets used for securing should be regularly checked, in particular before and after rough weather, and retightened if necessary.

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附则 11

Annex

11

原木在甲板下积载的一般指南 General guidelines for the under-deck stowage of logs
1. 前言 Introduction 本附件的目的是建议原木甲板下积载的安全做法和用于确保此类货物安全运输的其 它操作性安全措施。 The purpose of this annex is to recommend safe practices for the underdeck stowage of logs and other operational safety measures designed to ensure the safe transport of such cargoes. 2. 装货前 Prior to loading: .1 确定每个货物处所的形状(长、宽、深)、有关货物处所的包装舱容、待装原木的 不同长度、体积(原木平均值)和装原木的用具的能力; each cargo space configuration(length, breadth and depth),the cubic bale capacity of the respective cargo spaces, the various lengths of logs to be loaded, the cubic volume(log average), and the capacity of the gear to be used to load the logs should be determined; .2 使用上述资料, 制订积载前计划, 使处所得到最大利用, 甲板下积载做得越好, 则 可安全地在甲板上承运的货物就愈多。 using the above information, a pre-stow plan should be developed to allow the maximum utilization of the available space; the better the under-deck stowage, the more cargo can safely be carried on deck; .3 应检查货物处所和有关设备以查明结构部件、 框架和设备的情况是否会影响原木货 的安全运输。在此种检查中发现的任何损坏应以适当方式修复; the cargo spaces and related equipment should be examined to determine whether the condition of structural members, framework and equipment could affect the safe carriage of the log cargo. Any damage discovered during such an examination should be repaired in an appropriate manner; .4 应检查舱底水吸口滤网, 保证它们清洁、有效并得到适当维修, 防止碎片进入污水
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管系统; the bilge suction screens should be examined to ensure they are clean, effective and properly maintained to prevent the admission of debris into the bilge piping system; .5 污水井应没有树皮和木屑之类的外来物质; the bilge wells should be free of extraneous material such as wood bark and wood splinters; .6 污水泵系统的能力应予查清。得到适当保养和操作的系统是对船舶安全至关重要 的。具有足够功率和扬程的移动式排水泵是防止污水管系堵塞的额外的措施; the capacity of the bilge pumping system should be ascertained. A properly maintained and operating system is crucial for the safety of the ship. A portable dewatering pump of sufficient capacity and lift will provide additional insurance against a clogged bilge line; .7 设计用于保护内壳的部件, 如货舱舷侧护条、管道防护装置等, 应在其位置上; 和 side sparring, pipe guards etc., designed to protect internal hull members should be in place; and .8 船长应保证任何高位压载放泄阀的开启和关闭均适当地记入航海日志。 如果这种高 位压载舱对方便装载是必要的, 根据《1966 年国际载重线公约》第 22(1)条关于要求 在重力舷外排水管系内装有螺旋阀的规定, 船长应保证这种泵阀得到适当监视, 以防止 水意外地重新进入这些舱内。使这些舱通海可导致明显的不可解释的倾斜、甲板货的移 动和潜在的倾覆危险。 the master should ensure that the opening and closing of any high ballast dump valves are properly recorded in the ship’s log. Given that such high ballast tanks are necessary to facilitate loading and bearing in mind regulation 22(1) of the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, which requires a screw-down valve fitted in gravity overboard drain lines, the master should ensure that the dump valves are properly monitored to preclude the accidental readmission of water into these tanks. Leaving these tanks open to the sea could lead to an apparently inexplicable list, a shift of deck cargo, and potential capsize. 3. 装载作业期间 During loading operations:
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.1 每吊原木均应在船舶附近处吊到船上, 以减少被吊货物的任何潜在摆动; each lift of logs should be hoisted aboard the ship in close proximity to the ship to minimize any potential swinging of the lift; .2 应考虑到船舶损坏的可能性和在货物处所中工作人员的安全。 原木在降放到处所时 不应摆动。如必要, 应使用舱口围板, 将原木轻轻靠在围板内侧上放下, 或在降下前, 落 在上边, 以便消除原木的任何摇摆; the possibility of damage to the ship and the safety of those who work in the cargo spaces should be considered. The logs should not be swinging when lowered into the space. The hatch coaming should be used, as necessary, to eliminate any swinging of the logs by gently resting the load against the inside of the coaming, or on it, prior to lowering; .3 原木应密实积载, 以便消除尽可能多的空挡。积载在甲板下的原木数量和垂直重心 将决定可以在甲板上安全积载货物的数量。根据这一原则, 最重的原木应首先放入货物 处所内; the logs should be stowed compactly, thereby eliminating as many voids as is practicable. The amount and the vertical centre of gravity of the logs stowed under deck will govern the amount of cargo that can be safely stowed on deck. Inconsidering this principle, the heaviest logs should be loaded first into the cargo spaces; .4 一般而言, 原木应纵向密实积载, 较长者应放在处所的前、后部区域。如果纵向长 度间有空挡, 应沿处所宽度垫进横向积载的原木, 根据原木长度的许可情况, 尽量填满 空隙; logs should generally be stowed compactly in a fore-and-aft direction, with the longer lengths towards the forward and aft areas of the space. If there is a void in the space between the fore and aft lengths, it should be filled with logs stowed athwartships so as to fill in the void across the breadth of the spaces as completely as the length of the logs permits; .5 如果处所中的原木仅能以一根长度纵向积载, 任何在前或后部余下空挡应沿处所 宽度以横向积载的原木填入, 根据原木长度的许可情况, 尽量填满; where the logs in the spaces can only be stowed for-and-aft in one length, any remaining void forward or aft should be filled with logs stowed athwartships so as to fill in the void across the breadth of the space as completely as the length of the logs
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permits; .6 横向空挡应在装货过程中逐层填入; athwartship voids should be filled tier by tier as loading progresses; .7 原木的粗端应首尾交替放置, 以达到较平的积载, 但内底舷弧过大者除外; butt ends of the logs should be alternately reversed to achieve a more level stowage, except where excess sheer on the inner bottom is encountered; .8 应尽最大可能避免原木成金字塔形。如处所的宽度大于舱口的宽度, 将纵向装入的 原木滑入处所的左、右舷端部, 可避免金字塔形。将原木滑入处所的左、右舷端部的做 法应从装货的早期开始(在内层底上的高度达到 2 米后), 并应在装货过程中继续; extreme pyramiding of logs should be avoided to the greatest extent possible. If the breadth of the space is greater than the breadth of the hatch opening, pyramiding may be avoided by sliding fore-and-aft loaded logs into the ends of the port and starboard sides of the space. This sliding of logs into the ends of the port and starboard sides of the space should commence early in the loading process(after reaching a height of approximately 2 m above the inner bottom)and should continue throughout the loading process; .9 可能有必要使用活动滑车以把重原木运到舱口范围外甲板下区域。滑车、滑车组和 其它活动滑车应装在带环螺栓或眼板之类为此目的提供的、经适当加固的固定物上。但 如果遵照这一程序, 应注意避免用具超负荷; it may be necessary to use loose tackle to manoeuvre heavy logs into the under-deck areas clear of the hatchways. Blocks, purchases and other loose tackle should be attached to suitably reinforced fixtures such as eyebolts or padeyes provided for this purpose. However, if this procedure is followed, care should be taken to avoid overloading the gear; .10 在整个装货期间, 船上人员应仔细观察, 以保证不发生结构性损坏。任何影响船舶 适航性的损坏均应予以修复; a careful watch by ship’s personnel should be maintained throughout the loading to ensure no structural damage occurs. Any damage which affects the seaworthiness of the ship should be reqaired; .11 当原木高度达到在前或后横向舱口围板下约 1 米处时, 应减少每吊原木的尺寸, 以 便于在余下区域积载; 和 when the logs are stowed to a height of about 1 m below the forward or aft
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athwartship hatch coaming, the size of the lift of logs should be reduced to facilitate stowing of the remaining area; and .12 在舱口围板区域的原木应尽量密实积载至最大容量。 logs in the hatch coaming area should be stowed as compactly as possible to maximum capacity. 4. 装货后, 应对船舶进行彻底检查, 以确定其结构情况。应对污水进行测深, 核实船舶 的水密完整性。 After loading, the ship should be thoroughly examined to ascertain its structural condition. Bilges shoud be sounded to verify the ship’s watertight integrity. 5. 在航行中 During the voyage: .1 航行时应对船舶的倾斜角和摇摆周期进行定期检查; the ship’ heeling angle and rolling period should be checked, in a seaway, on a regular basis; .2 如提供楔子、纱头、锤子和活动泵, 则应存放在易于得到处; 和 wedges, wastes, hammers and portable pump, if provided, should be stored in an easily accessible place; and .3 船长或负责驾驶员应以下述方式保证进入围蔽货物处所的安全: the master or a responsible officer should ensure that it is safe to enter an enclosed cargo space by: .3.1 保证以自然或机械方式对处所进行彻底通风; ensuring that the space has been thoroughly ventilated by natural or mechanical means; .3.2 在有适当仪器时, 检查处所不同高度上的空气有无缺氧及有害气体的情况; testing the atmosphere of the space at different levels for oxygen deficiency and harmful vapour where suitable instruments are available; and .3.3 如怀疑处所通风不足, 则要求进入该处所的人带上独立的呼吸装置或在进入前 先进行测试。 requiring self-contained breathing apparatus to be worn by all persons entering the space where there is any doubt as to the adequacy of ventilation or testing before entry.

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附则 12

Annex 12

成组货物的安全积载和系固 Safe stowage and securing of unit loads
1. 前言 Introduction 就本附则而言, 成组货物系指一些包装货物: Unit load for the purposes of this annex means that a number of package are either: .1 在货盘等承货板上放置或堆载并用扎带、收紧包装或其它适当方式系固; 或 placed or stacked, and secured by strapping, shrink-wrapping or other suitable means, on a load board such as a pallet; or .2 放置在货箱之类保护性外包装里; 或 placed in a protective outer packaging such as a pallet box; or .3 作为一吊货永久地系固在一起。 permanently secured together in a sling. 注: 移动式罐柜或容器、中间散装容器或货运集装箱等单件的大包装货物不包括在本 附则的建议内。 Note: A single large package such as a portable tank or receptacle, intermediate bulk container or freight container is excluded from the recommendations of this annex. 2. 货物资料 Cargo information 至少应向船长提供下述资料: The master should be provided with at least the following information: .1 成组货物的总件数和待装货物; the total number of unit loads and commodity to be loaded; .2 所用的包扎类型; the type of strapping or wrapping used; .3 以米计的成组货物尺码; 和 the dimensions of a unit load in metres; and
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.4 以千克计的成组货物毛重。 the gross mass of a unit load in kilogrammes. 3. 建议 Recommendations 3.1 将要积载成组货物的船舶货物处所应是干净、干燥和没有油脂的。 The cargo spaces of the ship in which unit loads will be stowed should be clean, dry and free from oil and grease. 3.2 包括液舱顶部在内的甲板应全部是平的。 The decks, including the tank top, should be flush all over. 3.3 货物处所最好在水平和垂直方向上都是矩形。前货舱或甲板间的其它形状货物处所 应使用适当的木料将其形状在横向和纵向上均改成矩形(图 1)。 The cargo spaces should preferably be of a rectangular shape, horizontally and vertically. Cargo spaces of another shape in forward holds or in tween-decks should be transformed into a rectangular shape both athwartships and longitudinally by the use of suitable timber (figure 1).

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4. 积载 Stowage 4.1 成组货物的积载应做到, 如必要, 能从货堆的所有面上进行系固。 The unit loads should be stowed in such a way that securing, if needed, can be performed on all sides of the stow. 4.2 积载成组货物时, 在货物与船舷之间不应有任何空挡, 以防止成组货物倾斜。 The unit loads should be stowed without any void space between the loads and the ship’s sides to prevent the unit loads from racking. 4.3 当成组货物需要重叠积载时, 应注意货盘强度和成组货物的形状和状况。 When unit loads have to be stowed on top of each other, attention should be paid to the strength of pallets and the shape and the condition of the unit loads. 4.4 当使用机械装卸时, 应采取预防措施, 避免成组货物受损。 Precautions should be taken when unit loads are mechanically handled to avoid damaging the unit loads. 5. 系固 Securing 应确保成组积载在成组货物间不留空挡。 Block stowage should be ensured and no void space be left between the unit loads. 6. 横向积载时的系固 Securing when stowed athwartships 6.1 当成组货物在底舱或甲板间靠着舱壁从一侧装到另一侧时, 应靠着成组货物货堆垂 直安置格子板或胶合板。应用钢丝系索从一侧拉到另一侧, 以固定住格子板或胶合板使 之能紧贴货堆。 When unit loads are stowed in a lower hold or in a tween-deck against a bulkhead from side to side, gratings or plywood sheets should be positioned vertically against the stack of the unit loads. Wire lashings should be fitted from side to side keeping the gratings or plywood sheets tight against the stow. 6.2 此外, 为进一步收紧货堆, 钢丝系索可以不同间隔从舱壁绕过货堆联结到横向放置 的钢丝系索上。 Additionally, lashing wires can be fitted at different spacing from the bulkhead
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over the stow to the horizontally placed wire lashings in order to further tighten the stow. 7. 在货物处所一侧两边不靠的积载 Stowage in a wing of a cargo space and free at two sides 当成组货物积载于货物处所的前部或后部, 有可能在向两个方向上移动时, 应在货 堆无系固面垂直安置格子板或胶合板。 将钢丝绳从一侧绕过货堆至另一侧固定在舱壁上。 在钢丝绳可能损坏成组货物处(特别是在货堆角上), 应安置格子板和胶合板使角隅处 不会损坏。 When unit loads are stowed in the forward or after end of a cargo space and the possibility of shifting in two directions exists, gratings or plywood sheets should be positioned vertically to the stack faces of the unit loads of the non-secured sides of the stow.Wire lashings should be taken around the stow from the wings to the bulkhead. Where the wires can damage the unit loads(particularly on the corners of the stow), gratings or plywood sheets should be positioned in such a way that no damage can occur on corners. 8. 三边不靠的积载 Stowage free at three sides 当成组货物沿船舷积载而可能在三面移动时, 应在成组货物堆装面上垂直安置格子 板和胶合板。特别要注意货堆的角隅, 防止钢丝系索损坏成组货物。应在不同高度上使 用钢丝系索, 收紧边上装有格子板或胶合板的货堆(图 2)。 When unit loads are stowed against the ship’ sides in such a way that shifting is possible from three sides, gratings or plywood sheets should be positioned vertically against the stack faces of the unit loads. Special attention should be paid to the corners of the stow to prevent damage to the unit loads by the wire lashings. Wire lashing at different heights should tighten the stow together with the gratings or plywood sheets at the sides(figure 2)

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9. 通则 General 9.1 可使用铝质撑柱或足够强度的板条代替格子板或胶合板。 Instead of gratings or plywood sheets, other possibilities are the use of aluminium stanchions or battens of sufficient strength. 9.2 在航行中, 应定期检查钢丝系索, 如必要, 松动的系索应予重新收紧。特别是在恶劣 气候后, 应检查钢丝系索的状况, 如必要应予重新收紧。 During the voyage the wire lashings should be regularly inspected and slack wires should be retightened if necessary. In particular, after rough weather, wire lashings should be checked and retightened if necessary.

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