Unit 3 The world of colours and light
Grammar and usage
1.What is inversion?
Inversion is the changing of the order of the words in the sentence. When we use inversion, we put the predicate or part of it before the subject.
2.Why do we use inversion?
To put emphasis on the predicate instead of on the subject.
3.In what cases can we use inversion? Some examples?
Did you go to visit the Louvre?
What do you know about van Gogh? Conclusion
When we use inversion, we put ____________ the predicate _______________before the subject. or part of it
Part A (P 41)
Li Ming got to London and wrote an e-mail to his parents. Read what he wrote and underline the inversions included in the text.
1. Aunt really enjoyed France and so did I. 2. Hardly had we left the dormitory the next morning when we realized we had forgotten our map in the room.
3. Had you come with us, I think you would have enjoyed Europe too. 4. Is there anything special that I can bring you?
部分倒装 将谓语的一部分提到主语之前 全部倒装 将谓语的全部提到主语之前
1. 句首状语为否定副词或半否定副词的句子 这类词或短语主要有: not, no, never, neither, nor, few, little, seldom, rarely, hardly, scarcely, no sooner, not only, in no way, at no time, 等
He did not like the painting. Neither did I. Neither am I impressed by the paintings nor do I like them. Never in my life have I seen such wonderful pictures. Not a word did he say about his visit to the art museum. At no time during the tour was I bored. Seldom does he paint now. Hardly had I got to Amsterdam when it began to snow.
如果上述否定副词出现在强调句型中的前半部分， 不用倒装： It was not until he went abroad that he know the truth of the fact.
如果hardly, scarcely后面接的是any, ever, at all时， 意义类似almost no/ not/ never（几乎不、从不）， 则无须倒装。 Hardly any people having been invited went there.
Practice: ① Hardly ____ the airport when the plane took off. A. I had arrived at B. had I arrived C. had I reached D. I had got to ② —Have you ever seen anything like that before? —No, ________ anything like that before. A. I never have seen B. never I have seen C. never have I seen D. I have seen ③ She is not fond of cooking, ________ I. A. so am B. nor am C. neither D. nor do
2. only + 状语放在句首,要部分倒装。 Only on such a trip can you learn as much about European artists. (介词短语) Only by this means is it possible to explain it. (介词短语) Only then did I realize the importance of math. (副词) Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able (从句)to get happily back to work.
Practice: ④ Only in this way ____make progress in your English. A.you B.can you C.you be able to D.will you able to
⑤ Only when the meeting was over____ go back to meet his friend. A. he could B. he was able to C. was he able to D. was able to he
3. so(也)或so / such...that结构引导的短语放在句首 So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him.
Li Ming enjoyed the museum. So did his grandmother and aunt. So crowded was the art gallery that I could hardly move about. To such length did she go in rehearsal that the two actors walked out.
Practice: ⑥ I like sports and ________ my brother. A. so does B. so is C. so can D. so likes ⑦The doctor told Charlie to breathe deeply and __. A. so did Charlie B. Charlie did so C. Charlie does so D. did Charlie so ⑧ So loudly _____ that ______ hear her clearly. A. did she speak; could everyone B. did she speak; everyone could C. she spoke; could everyone D. she spoke; everyone could
4. “Not only + 分句,but also + 分句”句型中的前一 分句要部分倒装。 Not only does John love Chinese, he is also good at speaking it. Not only the mother but also the children are sick. not only...but also...连接主语时,不倒装。 Practice: ⑨ _____himself wrong, but his friends were wrong. A. Not was only he B. Not only he C. Not only was he D. Not only was
5. Not until放在句首,从句不倒装,主句倒装。
Not until last week did they find the lost bike. (简单句)
Not until my son had entered the university did he realize the importance of time. 复合句)
Practice: ⑩ Not until the early years of the 19th century _____ know what heat is. A.man did B.man C.didn't man D.did man
⑾Not until I began to work ___ realize how much time I had wasted. A. didn?t I B. did I C. I didn?t D. I
6. 在以often, well, many a time, now and again 等 方式或频度副词(短语)开头的句子中,要用部分倒 装结构。 Many a time has John given me good advice. Often have we made that test.
Practice: ⒀ Many a time ________ swimming alone. A. the boy went B. went the boy C. did the boy go D. did go the boy
7.虚拟语气中省略if时，主谓部分倒装。 If I were a teacher, what would you do then? Were I a teacher , what would you do then? Had we made adequate preparations , the party would have been a success. If we had made adequate preparations, the party would have been a success. Practice: If the picture were unique, it would be valuable. Were the picture unique, it would be valuable.
If the museum had been closed, we would have been upset. Had the museum been closed, we would have been upset.
If you should have gone on the trip, you would have learnt a lot about painting. Should you have gone on the trip, you would have learnt a lot about painting.
To sum up
1. 句首状语为否定副词或半否定词副的句子 2. only + 状语放在句首 3. so(也)或so / such...that结构引导的短语放在句首 4. “Not only + 分句,but also + 分句”句型 5. Not until放在句首 6. 以often, well, many a time, now and again 等方式或频度副词(短语)开头的句子 7.虚拟语气中省略if时
More practice: (Part B on P 41) Invert the following sentences using the structures with negative words. 1 I have never seen such beautiful flowers in the city. 2 I do not have time to go to the museum today and I also do not want to. 3 I had hardly started to look at the paintings, when the teacher said it was time to leave the museum. 4 The artist is always drawing; he is seldom seen without a notebook in his hand.
1 Never have I seen such beautiful flowers in the city.
2 Neither do I have time to go to the museum today and nor do I want to. 3 Hardly had I started to look at the paintings when the teacher said it was time to leave the museum. 4 The artist is always drawing; seldom is he seen without a notebook in his hand.
1. There be结构。另外,在此结构中可以用来代替 be动词的动词有:exist, seem, happen, appear, live, rise, stand等。 There stood a dog before him. There exist different opinions on this question.
Practice: ① __ a beautiful palace ___ the foot of the hill. A. There stand; at B. There stands; under C. Stands there; under D. There stands; at
2. “Here, There, Now, Then + come (或be等) + 主 语" 结构。 Here comes the old lady! Then came the hour we had been looking forward to. There comes the bus. Now comes your turn.
除了then引导的句子常用过去式,如果表示一种生动的 描述时则常用一般现在时。其次,如果主语是人称代词, 就不用倒装。如:
Here you are. There she comes.
Practice: ② There ________. And here ________. A. goes the phone; she comes B. is the phone going; is she C. does the phone go; does she come D. the phone goes; come she
3. 表示方向的副词out, in, up, down等置于句首,要 用全部倒装,且主语名词时 In came Mr White. Up went the arrow into the air. Away went the boy. Practice: ③ Out ________, with a stick in his hand. A. did he rush B. rushed he C. he rushed D. he did rush ④ ___________ from the top of the building when the policeman pointed the gun at him. A. Jumped down the robber B. Jumped the robber down C. Down jumped the robber D. Down the robber jumped
4. "分词(代词such) + be + 主语"结构。 Walking at the head of the line was our teacher. Such was the story he told me. Practice: ⑤ ________, a man of achievements, deep thoughts, but with simple habits. A. Einstein was such B. Such was Einstein C. Einstein was so D. So was Einstein ⑥ _______ are the days when teachers were looked down upon. A. Gone B. Go C. To go D. Going
5. 表示地点的介词短语 (如on the wall, under the tree, in front of the house, in the middle of the room等)放在句首时且主语名词时,要全部倒装。 On the top of the hill stands a pine tree. In front of the classroom is a playground. Practice: ⑦ Near the church ________ cottage. A. was such an old B. had a so old C. was such old a D. is so an old
6.句首为直接引语时 “I'd like to come back and see Monet's garden,” said my aunt. “This,”said the artist, “is the most beautiful place I have ever seen.” 7.当主语较长，谓语很短时，为了使句子平衡把某 一成分放在句首，主谓全部倒装。 Gone are my friends from the cotton fields away. Present at the conference were General Manager, Vice-general Managers and 215directors.
To sum up
1. There be (exist, seem, happen, appear, live, rise, stand)结构. 2. “Here, There, Now, Then + come (be) + 主 语" 结构. 3.方向副词out, in, up, down等置于句首且主语名词时 4. “分词(代词such) + be + 主语”结构. 5.表示地点的介词短语 (如on the wall, under the tree, in front of the house, in the middle of the room等)放在句首时,且主语名词时 6.句首为直接引语时 7. 句子平衡
1.由as, however (no matter how), though和be 引起 的让步状语从句主谓不倒装,只须把形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前提到as前,且单数可数名词提 到主语前时不带冠词。 Tired as he was, he kept on running. Try as I might, I couldn?t lift the box. Child as he was, he could work out the problem. However hard I try, I can?t understand the question. Close though the union of small particles is, we have found ways of breaking them. Be the rain ever so heavy, I will go there now. Practice: ⑿________, he's honest. A. As he is poor
B. Poor is he
May our country become prosperous and strong!
1.___come to our country as today. A.Foreign guests who have never B.Never so many foreign guests have C.Never have so many foreign guests D.The foreign guests aren't ever
2.___that he could not speak for a long time. A.So frightened was he B.So frightened he was C.Was he so frightened D.Frightened was he
3.Many a time ___good advice. A.gives me his B.he gives me C.I give him D.does he give me
4.Rarely___so difficult a choice. A.she could have faced with B.could have she faced with C.she could have been faced with D.could she have been faced with 5.In a phycial change no new substance is formed, ___in the composition of mater. A.nor does any change take place B.nor any change takes place C.not any change takes place D.either any change take place
6.Only in a few countries__a reasonable standard of living.
A.the whole of the population enjoy B.the whole of the population enjoys C.does the whole of the population enjoy D.has a whole of the population enjoy
7.Seldom___to come over to have a chat with him in those days. A.have I have time B.did I have time C.I have time D.I have got time 8."Tomorrow will be Sunday." "___." A.So it will B.So will it C.Either it will D.Either will it 9.Little _that the district was very rich in resources. A.we suspectected B.we did suspect C.did we suspect D.do we suspect
10.The teacher is not too happy with the student, and ___ is his father. A.not B.neither C.either D.so
11.No sooner had they reached the station ___ the train let. A.until B.when C.then D.than
12.Under no circumstances and at no time ___the first to use nuclear weapon. A.we are B.we will be C.were we D.shall we be
13.___,he sat up late writing his book. A.As he was tired B.Tired though he was C.Tired as was he D.It is bcause he was tired
14.Never before that night___the extent of my own power. A.had I felt B.I felt C.did I feel D.I had felt
15.Only when you have acquired a good knowledge of English grammar_writer in English correctly. A.you will B.can you C.you can D.you could
1.Neither am I impressed by the paintings nor do I like them.
V. 留下印象 be impressed by [at, with] 被深深打动[感动] impress sth. in [on] one's memory 使...铭记在心 n. 印记, 痕迹, 特征 the impress of one's personality 一个人的性格特征 Time has left its impress upon him. 时代给他留下了痕迹。
保留, (旅馆房间等)预定, 预约
我毫无保留地接受。 I accept without reservations! 如果你想去听音乐会，你得（事先）预（票）,否 则会没有票的。 If you want to go to the concert, you'll have to make a reservation, or there will be no tickets.
vt. reserve 保留；预订 I have reserved a room for you at the hotel. 我已在旅馆为你预订了一个房间。
； http://www.6789cp.com/ pk10开奖结果
家庄，有一位姓张的老乡也在汉口镇上与人合伙做日杂店的生意，并且该老乡准备很快就回老家看望家小了。耿老爹喜出望外，赶快修的书信 一封。当日晚饭后，就带上耿正兄妹三人一起出门儿了。父子四人先在镇上最大的食品铺子里称了二斤上好的点心，然后专程上张老乡的住所 拜访去了。双方互道姓名认了老乡并问了年庚之后，方知这位张氏老乡还大耿老爹一岁呢。两人当下就以兄弟相称，甚是投缘儿。耿老爹又将 耿正兄妹仨挨个儿介绍给这位张老乡。三人都向张伯伯问了好，道了谢。原来，这位张老乡的老家也在相邻县界的边儿上，所以，“三六九镇” 与张家庄之间相距只有二十五里远的路程。俗话说“人不亲土亲”，两人都有一种相见恨晚的感觉，越谈越高兴。叙了一会儿话后，耿老爹从 怀里拿出书信，对张老乡说：“听说张兄近日准备回归故里看望高堂和妻儿。请回家后一定抽时间辛苦一趟，帮我把这封书信送到我婆姨郭氏 的手里。我家的住址和我的名字，我已经详细地写在信封上了。唉，我们走的时候，我的小女儿耿兰才只有四岁，还不大记事儿呢。等到我们 十年八载的回去了，只怕早就不认得我这个爹了哇！”人常说“老乡见老乡，两眼泪汪汪”，这话实在不假。这位张老乡对于耿老爹思念妻儿 的心情恰是感同身受，而耿老爹家中的妻子对于出门人的挂念他又何尝不能理解呢！于是，他很爽快地答应了耿老爹的请求，说：“唉，出门 在外的不容易啊！家中弟妹也一定在日夜牵挂着你们父子四个呢。莫说是来回只有五十里路，就是再远一些，我也一定帮你送到，只管放心就 是了。送到以后，我让弟妹也修一封家书，待我返回来的时候再给你们带回来！”耿老爹感激地说：“那感情好啊！我开的‘耿记粮油零售店’ 就在镇西人口居住最集中的地方，是一个带有小后院儿的临街两层小楼，上面两间我们父子四个人住，下面两间是店铺。”张老乡说：“哦， 那一片儿我很熟悉的。待十一月里我返回来以后，就给你送去家书，顺便到你们的店铺里看看！”对于这位张老乡的豪爽与好意，耿老爹实在 是千恩万谢难以表达。他挨个儿看过耿正兄妹三个对张老乡说：“我这三个娃娃张大哥你也看到了，都好着呢。你见了他们的娘就告诉她，娃 娃们都很好，叫她放心就是。告诉她娃娃们还长高了呢，尤其是我这小儿子，窜高了一大截子不说，也懂事了不少。现在，他已经成了哥哥的 好帮手了，每日里随他哥哥跑外进货呢。还有，我这女娃儿和我在店里做零售，接待顾客和管理账目都挺顺手的，是我的好帮手哩！”张老乡 再次挨个儿看过耿正兄妹三人，赞叹地说：“耿兄弟这三个娃娃可真齐整，一看就知道是聪明能干的孩子。放心，我一定把你说的话都给弟妹 带到！”耿老爹笑着