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SAT Online Course Test 4 Answer


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Answers and Explanations

Test Sections

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Section 1

Essay
Online - Practice Test #4

Section 2

Section 4

Section 5

Section 6

Section 7

These sample essays were originally handwritten by students but are shown typed here for ease of reading. The essays are displayed exactly as students wrote them, without any corrections to spelling, punctuation, or syntax. One handwritten sample essay is provided to illustrate the need for legible and clear handwriting.

Section 8

Section 9

Exemplars:

Section 10

Essay Prompt

Think carefully about the information presented in the following excerpt and the assignment below.

Are people's lives the result of the choices they make? Plan and write an essay in which you develop your point of view on this issue. Support your position with reasoning and examples taken from your reading, studies, experience, or observations.

eg

Copyright ? 2006 The College Board. All rights reserved.



U

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is



te

re


d

People's lives are the result of the choices they make—or fail to make. The path one takes in life is not arbitrary. Choices and their consequences determine the course of every person's life. All people, whatever their circumstances, make the choices on which their lives depend.

! 途

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Answers and Explanations

Test Sections

Back to Score Report

Section 1

View Answers and Explanations
Online - Practice Test #4

Section 2

Section 4

Section 5

1

The total cost of

equally priced notebooks is

If the cost per notebook is

Section 6

reduced by
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

how much will

of these notebooks cost at the new rate?

Section 7

Section 8

Section 9

Section 10

re


Explanation for Correct Answer A : Choice (A) is correct. Since the total cost of

equally priced notebooks was

d

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

originally

the original cost per notebook was

! 途

The

te
is the cost of

cost per notebook is reduced by

so the new cost of each notebook is

Therefore, the cost of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B :

eg
is the cost of

Choice (B) is not correct.

nR


but

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C :







is



notebooks at the new rate is

notebooks at the original price,

notebooks at the new rate.

Choice (C) is not correct.

is the cost of

notebooks at the original price,



U

minus

But the reduction in price is

for each of the

notebooks:

Thus, the total cost of

notebooks at the new

rate is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D :

Choice (D) is not correct.

is the cost of

notebooks at the original price,

but the question asks for the cost of

notebooks at the new rate, which is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E :

Choice (E) is not correct.

is the cost of

notebooks at the original price,

minus

however, to find the cost of

notebooks at

the new rate,

must be subtracted from the cost of

notebooks at the

original price:

2

If
(A)
(B)
(C)

which of the following could be a value of

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(D)
(E)

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS
since

Explanation for Correct Answer A : could be Choice (A) is correct. The value of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : cannot be Choice (B) is not correct. The value of

since

not

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : cannot be Choice (C) is not correct. The value of

since

not

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : cannot be Choice (D) is not correct. The value of

not

3

The digits of the positive three-digit integer



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(A)

values are there for

Three

(B)

Four

(C) Six

(D) Eight

(E)









is
and

te r
not

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : cannot be Choice (E) is not correct. The value of



ed

are
since

! 途
since

and

How many possible

Nine

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS
there are three

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. For the positive three-digit integer

Once the hundreds digit is or possibilities for the hundreds digit: it can be determined, there are two possibilities for the tens digit. After the tens digit is determined, there is only one possible value for the units digit. Therefore, there are

different possible three-digit numbers

with digits

and

An alternative solution would be to list and count all possible values of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. The possible values for there are six possible values for

each have three digits, but

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is not correct. There are more than four possible three-digit integers and They are and with digits

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D :

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Choice (D) is not correct. This incorrect answer could be the result of using

instead of

to count the possible values for

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E :

Choice (E) is not correct. This incorrect answer could be the result of using

instead of

to count the possible values for

4

In the figure above,

and

each have measure

If

what

is the value of
(A)
(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

eg

Explanation for Correct Answer E : and Choice (E) is correct. Since

follows from the figure that

that



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so

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. The measure of





which gives





is

te re d

and



! 途
it

each have measure

Since

it follows

Therefore,

is equal to

Since

is the

measure of

it follows from the figure that

Therefore,

cannot be

equal to

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is not correct. The measure of

is equal to

Since

is the

measure of

it follows from the figure that

Therefore,

cannot be

equal to

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : and Choice (C) is not correct. Since

each have measure

it

follows from the figure that

and

Thus,

Since

it follows that

not

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. This choice,

could be the result of visually estimating

but the question does not ask for an estimate.

5

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are added together, the and In the figure above, if the coordinates of points result will be the coordinate of a point between which two consecutive integers?
(A)

and

(B)

and

(C)

and

(D)

and

(E)

and

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS
is approximately

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. The coordinate of point

and the

Therefore, if the coordinates of points is approximately coordinate of point are added together, the result will be approximately and

which is between

and

ed


Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. The coordinate of point

is greater than

coordinate of point

which is positive, is added to the coordinate of point

result must be greater than

Therefore, this result cannot be between

! 途

If the

the

and

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is not correct. When the coordinate of point

er


is added to the

coordinate of point

is t

and

the result will be the coordinate of a point located

approximately

units to the right of point

on the number line, because point

is

units to the right of

Therefore, this result cannot be between

and

nR eg
of the coordinates of points and between

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. The coordinate of point

greater than the coordinate of point



U

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : is negative, and the coordinate Choice (E) is not correct. The coordinate of point This implies that the sum of the coordinates of points is less than of point and Therefore, this sum cannot be between must be less than and







is negative with absolute value

which is positive. This implies that the sum

must be negative and, therefore, cannot be

6

and each number after the first is In a sequence of numbers, the first number is times the preceding number. What is the third number in the sequence? more than
(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer E : Choice (E) is correct. The second number in the sequence is equal to

and the third number in the sequence is

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. This choice,

is too small. The second and third

numbers in the sequence are

and

not

and

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : is the second number in the sequence. Choice (B) is not correct. This choice, The question asks for the third number.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is not correct. This choice,

is the third number in a different

times the less than sequence: one where each number after the first is preceding number. The question asks for the third number where each number times the preceding number. more than after the first is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. The third number in the sequence is

not

This

choice could be the result of mistakenly computing the second number as times the first. more than times the first, instead of than

less

7



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(A)

hours to drive from Ashton to Farley, passing through Belville, Clinton, It took Kia Dryden, and Edgewood on the way. The graph above shows where she was along the hours of the trip. According to the graph, approximately how long, route during the in hours, did it take Kia to drive from Dryden to Edgewood?



(B)

(C)

(D)
(E)

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer A : Choice (A) is correct. According to the graph, Kia reached Dryden approximately

hours after she began her trip. She was in Edgewood approximately

hours after the beginning of her trip. Therefore, it took Kia approximately

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B :

eg






AND EXPLANATIONS

hour to drive from Dryden to Edgewood.

is



te

re d


! 途

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Choice (B) is not correct. It took Kia approximately

hours to drive from Dryden

to Farley, but it took her approximately

hour to drive from Dryden to Edgewood.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C :

Choice (C) is not correct. It took Kia approximately

hours to drive from Ashton

to Dryden. If it had taken

more hours for her to drive to Edgewood, she could

not have completed the trip in

hours.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D :

Choice (D) is not correct. It took Kia approximately

hours to drive from Ashton

to Dryden, but it took her approximately

hour to drive from Dryden to Edgewood.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E :

Choice (E) is not correct. It took Kia approximately

hours to drive from Ashton

to Edgewood, but it took her approximately Edgewood.

hour to drive from Dryden to

8

If the average of

and

is

and the average of

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

nR eg

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer D :

Choice (D) is correct. If the average of

equation

then



U






so



is

te

and

re

is

d
then

average of

and

! 途
and

is

what is the

satisfies the

and

If the average of

and

is

Therefore, the average of

and

is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. The average of

and

is

but the question asks for

the average of

and

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B :

Choice (B) is not correct. The average of

and

is

but the question asks for

the average of

and

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C :

Choice (C) is not correct. If the average of

and

is

then the value of

is

but the question asks for the average of

and

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is not correct. If the average of

and

is

then the value of

is

but the question asks for the average of

and

9

Which of the following could be the graph in the

-plane of the function

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(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)



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(E)

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer D :







AND EXPLANATIONS
-plane of the function

is te

and a



re


! 途

d
Choice (D) is correct. The graph in the

is

a line with a slope of

-intercept of

All five choices show the graph of

a straight line, but only the line in choice (D) has a positive slope and a positive intercept.

-

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A :

Choice (A) is not correct. The graph in the

-plane of the function

is a line with a positive slope and a positive

-intercept. The line in choice (A) is

horizontal and, therefore, has a slope of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B :

Choice (B) is not correct. The graph in the

-plane of the function

-intercept. The line in choice (B) is a is a line with a positive slope and a positive vertical line and, therefore, has an undefined slope and no -intercept.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C :

Choice (C) is not correct. The graph in the

-plane of the function

is a line with a positive slope and a positive a negative slope.

-intercept. The line in choice (C) has

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer E :

Choice (E) is not correct. The graph in the

-plane of the function

is a line with a positive slope and a positive -intercept. a negative

-intercept. The line in choice (E) has

10

If

is a positive odd integer, then
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

could equal which of the following?

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer C : is a positive even is a positive odd integer, then Choice (C) is correct. If Thus, the only integers between is the next integer after integer, and

and

that can be written as

where

integer, are

and

integer.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. The only number less than

is te


where

is a positive odd integer, is



re


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Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. The only numbers less than

eg
where

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is not correct. The only number less than

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E :



U

Choice (E) is not correct.







is a positive odd integer, is

where

is a positive odd integer, are

but this product does not satisfy all the

d
and

given, only

can be written as

where

! 途

is a positive odd

Therefore, of the numbers

is a positive odd

that can be written as

that can be written as

that can be written as

given conditions. In the product

the value of

would be

However, the question states that

is a positive odd integer.

11

Point

is the point with the greatest

-coordinate on the semicircle shown above.

What is the

-coordinate of point

(A)
(B)

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(C)
(D)

(E)

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer E : be the point at the right-hand end of the semicircle; let Choice (E) is correct. Let

point

be the midpoint of

as shown below.

Since

is the midpoint of the diameter

it must be the center of the

semicircle. Thus, the distance from

to any point on the semicircle must be the

same. Since

is the point with the greatest

-coordinate on the semicircle, the

d

radius

must be parallel to the

-axis, that is, a vertical line segment. Thus,

has coordinates

and the semicircle has radius

is

units to the left of

on the

-coordinate

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : -coordinate of Choice (A) is not correct. The



U

12

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is not correct. Since the center of the semicircle is not the origin, the -coordinate on the is not equal to the negative of the greatest coordinate of semicircle.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is not correct. This choice may be the result of visually estimating the answer instead of applying geometric principles.



Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. This choice may be the result of visually estimating the answer instead of applying geometric principles.

bottles of shampoo of various brands, the cost and volume of each are For displayed in the scatterplot above, and the line of best fit for the data is shown. Of the following, which is closest to the average (arithmetic mean) cost per ounce for bottles? the

eg


coordinates of

and then taking the negative of this sum.





is



te

re


-axis and, therefore, has

! 途

It follows that point

is not found by summing the

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(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. The vertical axis of the graph gives the cost of the bottle of shampoo, and the horizontal axis gives the number of ounces of shampoo in the bottle. Since the line of best fit for the data passes through the origin, the price of a bottle of shampoo is about directly proportional to the number of ounces in the bottle. The slope of the line of best fit, therefore, gives the approximate average bottles. At the horizontal coordinate of cost per ounce of shampoo for the

ounces, the vertical coordinate of the line of best fit is slightly more than

Therefore, the average cost per ounce for the

bottles is very slightly more than

per ounce.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A :

Choice (A) is not correct. Every bottle of shampoo shown costs more than

greater than

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B :

ounce, and many of the bottles cost more than this. Therefore, the average price

per ounce for all

nR eg

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. Although some of the bottles of shampoo cost more than

per ounce and some cost less than this, the line of best fit has a slope that

is much closer to



Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is not correct. Almost every bottle of shampoo shown costs less than

U







bottles must be greater than

is

Choice (B) is not correct. Every bottle of shampoo shown costs at least



te r

where

per ounce. Therefore, the average price per ounce for all

ed

per ounce.

! 途

bottles must be

per

per ounce than to

per ounce. Consequently, the line of best fit has a slope that is much less

than

per ounce. Therefore, the average price per ounce for all

bottles

must be less than

13

The graph of a quadratic function and the graph of a linear function in the -plane can intersect in at most how many points?
(A)

One

(B)

Two

(C) Three

(D) Four

(E)

More than four

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. The graph of a quadratic function and the graph of a linear -plane can intersect in at most two points. The quadratic function function in the

must be of the form

and

are constants, and

the linear function must be of the form

where

and

are

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constants. The

-coordinates of the intersection points can be found by setting the

two functions equal,

and then solving for

When

simplified, this becomes a quadratic equation, so there can be at most two solutions Therefore, the two graphs can intersect in at most two points. for

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. The graphs could have only one point in common, but

they could also have two points in common. For example,

and

have

two points in common,

and

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is not correct. The graph of a linear function is a line, and the graph of a quadratic function is a parabola, and a line and a parabola cannot intersect in three points.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. The graph of a linear function is a line, and the graph of a quadratic function is a parabola, and a line and a parabola cannot intersect in four points.

14

er

is
could be

If the length of

is

and the length of

the length of
(A)
(B)
(C)



U

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(D)
(E)

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer E :

Choice (E) is correct. The length of




and



AND EXPLANATIONS
Since

is t

and

ed


Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is not correct. The graph of a linear function is a line, and the graph of a quadratic function is a parabola, and a line and a parabola can intersect in at most two points.

! 途

which of the following could be

(and

), the points

could form a triangle with sides of

length

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. Since the shortest distance between two points is a

straight line, the length of

must be less than the distance between

and

plus the distance between

and

Thus, the length of

must be less than

and

cannot equal

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is not correct. Since the shortest distance between two points is a

straight line, the length of

must be less than the distance between

and

plus the distance between

and

Thus, the length of

must be less than

and

cannot equal

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is not correct. Since the shortest distance between two points is a

straight line, the length of

must be less than the distance between

and

plus the distance between

and

Thus, the length of

must be less than

and

cannot equal

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. Since the shortest distance between two points is a

straight line, the length of

must be less than the distance between

and

plus the distance between

and

Thus, the length of

must be less than

and

cannot equal

15

If

and
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

are positive integers and

what is

in terms of

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS
for

Explanation for Correct Answer A :

Choice (A) is correct. Substituting

in the equation

The expressions

and

Since the expressions

and

are equivalent, the exponents

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B :

is

Choice (B) is not correct. If

eg

imply that

was equal to

were equal, which is not possible.

nR

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C :

Choice (C) is not correct. If


and

U

equal, which is not possible.









were equal to



te
were equal to

re

then
then

and

must be equal. Therefore,

which gives

! 途

gives

are equivalent, so

d
then

would be equal to

This together with

would

However, this could only be true if

and

would be equal to

This together with

would imply that

was equal to

However, this could only be true if

and

were

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D :

Choice (D) is not correct. If

were equal to

would be equal to

This together with

would imply that

was equal to

However, this could only be true if

were equal, which is not possible.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E :

Choice (E) is not correct. If

were equal to

then

would be equal to

This together with

would imply that

was equal to

However, this could only be true if

and

were equal, which is not possible.

16

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The tin can in the figure above is a cylinder that is

inches high and has a base of

radius

inches. Of

pencils with lengths

inches,

inches,

inches,

inches, and
(A)

inches, how many CANNOT fit entirely inside the can?

One

(B)

Two

(C) Three

(D) Four

(E)

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer B :

Choice (B) is correct. In the figure below, the diameter

and segment

which is perpendicular to



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禁 用



is

triangle,





te

By the Pythagorean Theorem, the hypotenuse,

inches, and it is the longest line segment within the can.

Therefore, any pencil with length greater than

re d

inches,

Five

! 途
of the base of the can

form the two legs of a right

of this right triangle has length

inches cannot fit entirely inside

the can. The lengths of the pencils are

inches,

inches,

inches, so inches. Exactly two of these pencils are longer than inches, and these two pencils are the only ones that cannot fit entirely inside the can.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. Any pencil longer than

inches cannot fit entirely inside

the can. Two of the pencils are of lengths

inches and

inches, so there is

more than one pencil that is too long to fit entirely inside the can.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is not correct. Three pencils ARE short enough to fit entirely within the

can. These are the pencils with lengths

inches,

inches, and

inches. Of

the

pencils, there are two that CANNOT fit entirely inside the can.

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : pencils, fewer than four are too long to fit Choice (D) is not correct. Of the entirely inside the can. Exactly two of the pencils are too long to fit.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : pencils cannot fit entirely inside Choice (E) is not correct. It is not true that all the can. There are three pencils that are short enough to fit inside the can.

17

When the number

is multiplied by

the result is the same as when

is added to

What is the value of
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

When

is added to

the result is

er ed
is multiplied by

Explanation for Correct Answer E : Choice (E) is correct. When the number

Since the results of these two

operations are the same, it follows that

sides of this equation gives

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. The statement in the question yields the equation

eg

which is

This incorrect answer is the value of

value of



is t






Subtracting

! 途

the result is

from both

but the question asks for the

nR

value of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is not correct. The statement in the question yields the equation This incorrect answer may arise from mistranslating the statement as

and then finding the value of

instead of the value of



U

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is not correct. The statement in the question yields the equation

It follows that the value of

is

but the question asks for the

which is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. The statement in the question yields the equation This incorrect answer may arise from mistranslating the statement as

18

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A circle (not drawn) passes through point

in the figure above. What could be the

total number of points of intersection of this circle and
I.

II.

III.

(A)

I only

(B)

II only

(C) I and II only

(D) II and III only

(E)

I, II, and III

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer E : Choice (E) is correct. In the figure below,

the circle passes through point

the circle and

In the figure below,



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the circle and

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is



is



the circle passes through point

In the figure below,

the circle passes through point

the circle and

Therefore, I, II, and III each give a number that could be the total number of points and a circle that passes through of intersection of

is
is

and the total number of points of intersection of



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and the total number of points of intersection of

and the total number of points of intersection of

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : and Choice (A) is not correct. A circle can be drawn that passes through point point. However, another circle can be drawn that in only intersects

passes through point

and intersects

in

points. Also, a third circle can

be drawn that passes through point

and intersects

in

points.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is not correct. A circle can be drawn that passes through point

and

intersects

in

points. However, another circle can be drawn that passes

through point

and intersects

in only

point. Also, a third circle can be

drawn that passes through point

and intersects

in

points.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is not correct. A circle can be drawn that passes through point

and

intersects

in

point. Another circle can be drawn that passes through

point

and intersects

in

points. However, a third circle can be drawn

that passes through point

and intersects

in

points.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. A circle can be drawn that passes through point

and

intersects

in

points. Another circle can be drawn that passes through

point

and intersects

in

points. However, a third circle can be drawn

that passes through point

and intersects

in

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The function



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values of



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is
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)



is te




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point.

graphed above is defined for

(E)

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer D : Choice (D) is correct. A number is less than its absolute value if the number is negative, and equal to its absolute value if the number is nonnegative. Thus,

if and only if

is negative. We can see from the graph that

which is negative. Therefore,

given for

is positive.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A :

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For which of the following

For all of the other choices

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Choice (A) is not correct. If

then

must be negative. But we

can see from the graph that

which is positive. Therefore,

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B :

Choice (B) is not correct. If

then

must be negative. But we

can see from the graph that

is positive. Therefore,

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C :

Choice (C) is not correct. If

then

must be negative. But we

can see from the graph that

which is not a negative number. Therefore,

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E :

Choice (E) is not correct. If

then

must be negative. But we

can see from the graph that

which is positive. Therefore,

20

If

and

are numbers such that

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Explanation for Correct Answer D :

eg

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Choice (D) is correct. If

nR

then



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expression is


and

is




is

is te

then either



re d

then either

value of

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what is the smallest possible

or

If

The smallest possible value of

the expression will have this value when

If

then

The smallest possible value for this

which will occur when

In either case, the smallest

possible value of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A :

Choice (A) is not correct. If

then both

and

This is not

possible; if

or

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B :

Choice (B) is not correct. If

then either

or

Therefore, either

or

In either case,

so

cannot

be the smallest possible value of

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C :

Choice (C) is not correct. If

then either

or

Therefore, either

or

In either case,

so

cannot be the smallest possible value of

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer E :

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Choice (E) is not correct. If

and

then

However, if

and

then

yet

Therefore, the smallest possible value of

cannot be

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Answers and Explanations

Test Sections

Back to Score Report

Section 1

View Answers and Explanations
Online - Practice Test #4

Section 2

Section 4

Section 5

1

Section 6

Section 7

The architect advised tearing down the old structure, since he did not consider it sufficiently ------- to ------- the heavy winds of the tropical storm the peninsula was expecting. (A) flimsy . . forestall
(B)

Section 8

Section 9

hardy . . forecast

Section 10

(C) robust . . withstand

(D) noteworthy . . justify

(E)

ramshackle . . repel

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS



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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. “Flimsy” means lacking in physical strength or substance. “To forestall” means to prevent by taking precautionary measures. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “The architect advised tearing down the old structure, since he did not consider it sufficiently flimsy to forestall the heavy winds of the tropical storm the peninsula was expecting.” It is illogical to suggest that a structure, especially a “flimsy” one, could “forestall,” or prevent, the heavy winds of a tropical storm.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. “Hardy” means capable of withstanding adverse conditions. “To forecast” means to calculate or predict something in advance. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “The architect advised tearing down the old structure, since he did not consider it sufficiently hardy to forecast the heavy winds of the tropical storm the peninsula was expecting.” It is illogical to suggest that a structure could “forecast,” or predict, the heavy winds of a tropical storm.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. “Noteworthy” means deserving notice or attention. “To justify” means to prove to be right or reasonable. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “The architect advised tearing down the old structure, since he did not consider it sufficiently noteworthy to justify the heavy winds of the tropical storm the peninsula was expecting.” An old structure might be “noteworthy,” or deserving of attention, but it is illogical to suggest that a structure could “justify,” or prove reasonable, the heavy winds of a tropical storm.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. “Ramshackle” means carelessly or loosely constructed. “To repel” means to drive back or to resist something. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “The architect advised tearing down the old structure, since he did not consider it sufficiently ramshackle to repel the

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Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. “Robust” means sturdy or strongly constructed. “To withstand” means to resist the effect of something. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “The architect advised tearing down the old structure, since he did not consider it sufficiently robust to withstand the heavy winds of the tropical storm the peninsula was expecting.” It is reasonable to suggest that the architect advised that the old structure be torn down because he did not think it was “robust,” or sturdy, enough to “withstand,” or resist the effect of, the heavy winds. A structure that is not strongly constructed would likely be damaged or destroyed during a tropical storm.

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! 途

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heavy winds of the tropical storm the peninsula was expecting.” It is illogical to suggest that a structure could be “sufficiently ramshackle” to “repel, ” or drive back, the heavy winds of the tropical storm. A carelessly constructed structure would be more likely to be damaged by the winds than to repel the winds.

2

When x-rays were discovered around the turn of the twentieth century, doctors quickly began to ------- their newfound ability to diagnose maladies by peering beneath the surface of the human body. (A) bequeath
(B)

deny

(C) exploit

(D) finesse

(E)

divulge

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS



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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. “To bequeath” means to hand down. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “When x-rays were discovered around the turn of the twentieth century, doctors quickly began to bequeath their newfound ability to diagnose maladies by peering beneath the surface of the human body.” In order for the term “bequeath” to make sense in this context the sentence would have to indicate to whom the ability was bequeathed, or handed down. Additionally, although doctors still use x-rays to diagnose maladies, it is awkward to suggest that this ability was handed down to them.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. “To deny” means to claim to have no association with or responsibility for something. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “When x-rays were discovered around the turn of the twentieth century, doctors quickly began to deny their newfound ability to diagnose maladies by peering beneath the surface of the human body.” There is no reason to believe that doctors were quick to “deny” their new ability. There is nothing inherently negative about x-rays that would cause doctors to “deny,” or disclaim association with or responsibility for, the abilities that x-rays allowed.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. “To finesse” means to handle something with skillful maneuvering. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “When x-rays were discovered around the turn of the twentieth century, doctors quickly began to finesse their newfound ability to diagnose maladies by peering beneath the surface of the human body.” Although doctors might be eager to use a newfound technology in ever more sophisticated ways, “finesse” contains a suggestion of subtlety, and even of evasion, that does not really apply to a scientist doing medical research.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. “To divulge” means to make something known, usually something private or secret. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “When x-rays were discovered around the turn of the twentieth century, doctors quickly began to divulge their newfound ability to diagnose maladies by peering beneath the surface of the human body.” Although doctors may have quickly made it known that they could use x-rays to diagnose maladies, there is no reason to believe that this ability was a secret or something private. Therefore, it does not make logical sense to suggest that the doctors were quick to “divulge” their newfound ability.

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Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. “To exploit” means to utilize or to make productive use of something. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “When x-rays were discovered around the turn of the twentieth century, doctors quickly began to exploit their newfound ability to diagnose maladies by peering beneath the surface of the human body.” Before x-rays were discovered, doctors did not have the ability to peer beneath the surface of the human body in order to diagnose maladies. Once x-rays were discovered, doctors were quick to “exploit,” or make productive use of, this new ability.

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3

Though he was fascinated by the ------- behavior of others, Darek was, by contrast, the model of ------- in his own comportment. (A) hedonistic . . recklessness
(B)

unorthodox . . conformity

(C) restless . . agitation

(D) egotistical . . extremity

(E)

unwieldy . . rigidity

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. “Unorthodox” means not following tradition or convention. “Conformity” is a tendency to behave in ways that are socially acceptable. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Though he was fascinated by the unorthodox behavior of others, Darek was, by contrast, the model of conformity in his own comportment.” The word “Though” and the phrase “by contrast” indicate that the missing terms will describe opposing types of behavior. The “unorthodox,” or unconventional, behavior of others contrasts with Darek’s own “conformity.”



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Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. “Restless” means continuously moving or unsettled. “Agitation” is a state of emotional disturbance. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Though he was fascinated by the restless behavior of others, Darek was, by contrast, the model of agitation in his own comportment.” The word “Though” and the phrase “by contrast” indicate that the missing terms will describe opposing types of behavior. The terms “restless” and “agitation” are not necessarily in opposition to each other because both terms can refer to a state of being unsettled or disturbed.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. “Egotistical” means having an exaggerated sense of selfimportance. “Extremity” is a tendency to commit drastic or desperate acts. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Though he was fascinated by the egotistical behavior of others, Darek was, by contrast, the model of extremity in his own comportment.” The word “Though” and the phrase “by contrast” indicate that the missing terms will describe opposing types of behavior. The terms “egotistical” and “extremity” are not necessarily in opposition to each other. Someone could have both an exaggerated sense of self-importance and a tendency to commit drastic acts.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. “Unwieldy” means not easily managed or handled because of weight or complexity. “Rigidity” is the quality of being unyielding and inflexible. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Though he was fascinated by the unwieldy behavior of others, Darek was, by contrast, the model of rigidity in his own comportment.” Although the second term makes sense in this context, the first term does not. While the term “unwieldy” can be used to describe something that is difficult to handle because of its physical properties or that is difficult to manage because of its complexity, it does not make sense to describe a person’s behavior as “unwieldy.”

Teachers who consider cartoons and comic books harmful to students’ literacy skills often use class time to ------- these media.

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. “Hedonistic” means pursuing pleasure and happiness. “Recklessness” is irresponsibility and a lack of caution. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Though he was fascinated by the hedonistic behavior of others, Darek was, by contrast, the model of recklessness in his own comportment.” The word “Though” and the phrase “by contrast” indicate that the missing terms will describe opposing types of behavior. The terms “hedonistic” and “reckless” are not necessarily in opposition to each other. Hedonism, or the pursuit of pleasure, can sometimes involve irresponsible behavior and a lack of caution.

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(A)

deride

(B)

rationalize

(C) vindicate

(D) foster

(E)

annotate

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer A : Choice (A) is correct. “To deride” means to ridicule or treat with contemptuous mirth. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Teachers who consider cartoons and comic books harmful to students’ literacy skills often use class time to deride these media.” Teachers who think cartoons and comic books are harmful to their students’ literacy skills would probably want to discourage their students from reading these media. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that these teachers often use class time to “deride,” or ridicule, cartoons and comic books.



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(A)

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. “To foster” means to encourage or to promote the growth of something. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Teachers who consider cartoons and comic books harmful to students’ literacy skills often use class time to foster these media.” It is unlikely that teachers would “foster,” or promote the growth of, cartoons and comic books if they consider these media to be harmful to their students’ literacy skills.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. “To annotate” means to provide explanatory notes for a written work. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Teachers who consider cartoons and comic books harmful to students’ literacy skills often use class time to annotate these media.” Teachers who consider cartoons and comic books to be harmful to students’ literacy skills would probably not “annotate” these media. It is unlikely that these teachers would use class time to provide explanatory notes for written works they consider harmful.

Because he had decided not to ------- himself through the sales of his new product, the inventor anonymously donated all profits to charity.

compromise

(B)

invigorate

(C) impoverish

(D) aggrandize

(E)

debilitate

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer D :

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. “To vindicate” means to defend or to provide justification. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Teachers who consider cartoons and comic books harmful to students’ literacy skills often use class time to vindicate these media.” It is unlikely that teachers would “vindicate,” or defend, cartoons and comic books if they consider these media to be harmful to their students’ literacy skills.

AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. “To rationalize” means to cause something to seem reasonable. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Teachers who consider cartoons and comic books harmful to students’ literacy skills often use class time to rationalize these media.” It is unlikely that teachers would “rationalize” media that they consider to be harmful to their students’ literacy skills.

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Choice (D) is correct. “To aggrandize” means to make wealthy. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Because he had decided not to aggrandize himself through the sales of his new product, the inventor anonymously donated all profits to charity.” Donating profits to charity is a logical result of the inventor’s decision not to “aggrandize” himself, or make himself wealthy.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. “To compromise” means to expose oneself to suspicion. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Because he had decided not to compromise himself through the sales of his new product, the inventor anonymously donated all profits to charity.” Nothing in the sentence indicates that the inventor would be compromised, or exposed to suspicion, if he kept the profits from his new product. There is not necessarily anything suspicious about making a profit from the sale of a product.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. “To invigorate” means to energize. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Because he had decided not to invigorate himself through the sales of his new product, the inventor anonymously donated all profits to charity.” Although one might find it invigorating to successfully sell a new product, it is illogical to suggest that the inventor’s decision to anonymously donate his profits was a result of his decision not to “invigorate,” or energize, himself.

6



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(A)

Once he had ------- sufficient ------- information, Randall felt confident in publishing his daring article incriminating the local politician.

(B)



written . . substantial

believed . . sensational

(C) obtained . . corroborating

(D) reported . . hackneyed

(E)

discovered . . contradicting

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. “To obtain” means to gather or to gain. “Corroborating” means supporting or confirming with evidence. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Once he had obtained sufficient corroborating information, Randall felt confident in publishing his daring article incriminating the local politician.” If Randall wrote an article that would incriminate, or expose the crimes or fault of, the local politician, he would need evidence to support his claims. Obtaining, or gathering, “corroborating” information would most likely make Randall feel confident in publishing his article.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. “To write” means to compose a written work. “Substantial” means important and essential. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Once he had written sufficient substantial

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. “To debilitate” means to weaken. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Because he had decided not to debilitate himself through the sales of his new product, the inventor anonymously donated all profits to charity.” There is no reason to believe that keeping profits from the sales of the product would weaken the inventor, so it does not make sense to say that the inventor donated the profits in order to avoid debilitating himself.



AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. “To impoverish” means to make poor. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Because he had decided not to impoverish himself through the sales of his new product, the inventor anonymously donated all profits to charity.” It is illogical to suggest that the inventor would donate his profits in order to avoid making himself poor.

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information, Randall felt confident in publishing his daring article incriminating the local politician.” The first term makes sense in this context, but the second term does not. Although Randall would most likely include important information in his article, information that is “substantial” would not necessarily incriminate, or expose the crimes or fault of, the local politician.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. “To believe” means to accept as true or real. “Sensational” means arousing strong interest or curiosity. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Once he had believed sufficient sensational information, Randall felt confident in publishing his daring article incriminating the local politician.” While it is likely that Randall would believe that the information in his article was true, it does not make sense to say that Randall would have to believe a “sufficient” amount of “sensational” information before he could feel confident about publishing his article.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. “To report” means to give an account. “Hackneyed” means overly familiar and not original. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Once he had reported sufficient hackneyed information, Randall felt confident in publishing his daring article incriminating the local politician.” While the first term makes sense in this context, the second does not. If Randall reported “hackneyed,” or overly familiar, information, it is unlikely that his article would be daring.

7

Since her personal pleas had failed to make her noisy neighbors change their ways, the homeowner felt that her only ------- was to notify the police.
(A)

backlash

(B)

recourse



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ANSWERS

(C) bromide

(D) reckoning


(E)

forbearance

Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. “Recourse” is a source of help or strength. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Since her personal pleas had failed to make her noisy neighbors change their ways, the homeowner felt that her only recourse was to notify the police.” Because the homeowner’s personal pleas did not quiet her noisy neighbors, she felt that the police were her only “recourse,” or source of help.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. “Backlash” is a strong adverse reaction. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Since her personal pleas had failed to make her noisy neighbors change their ways, the homeowner felt that her only backlash was to notify the police.” While the noisy neighbors might see notifying the police as a “backlash, ” or an adverse reaction to their behavior, the homeowner would almost certainly consider it the normal course of action for someone whose personal pleas had failed to work.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. “Bromide” is a commonplace or tiresome statement or idea. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Since her personal pleas had failed to make her noisy neighbors change their ways, the homeowner felt that her only bromide was to notify the police.” It does not make

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AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. “To discover” means to find or obtain knowledge of something. “Contradicting” means opposing or implying the opposite of something. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Once he had discovered sufficient contradicting information, Randall felt confident in publishing his daring article incriminating the local politician.” It is not clear what the information Randall had “discovered” was “contradicting.” If he had found pieces of information that contradict each other, it is unlikely that Randall would feel confident in publishing his article.

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sense to say that notifying the police was the homeowner’s only “bromide.” Requesting the help of the police is not a tiresome or hackneyed statement or idea.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. “Reckoning” is a settling of accounts. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Since her personal pleas had failed to make her noisy neighbors change their ways, the homeowner felt that her only reckoning was to notify the police.” While the homeowner might see notifying the police as a settling of the problem with her neighbors, it does not really make sense in this context to refer to the problem as an account that could be settled.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. “Forbearance” is an act of patience. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “Since her personal pleas had failed to make her noisy neighbors change their ways, the homeowner felt that her only forbearance was to notify the police.” It is somewhat illogical to say that notifying the police was an act of patience. On the contrary, it is most likely that the homeowner decided to notify the police because she had lost her patience with her noisy neighbors.

8

Despite pressure from reporters to discuss the scandal in which Senator Scottsdale was currently ------- , the press secretary would not ------- the details of the senator’s upcoming public address.

(B)

connected . . consort

(C) entangled . . repeal

(E)

compliant . . quash

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS



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Explanation for Correct Answer D : Choice (D) is correct. “Embroiled” means involved in a difficulty or conflict. “To divulge” means to reveal or make public. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Despite pressure from reporters to discuss the scandal in which Senator Scottsdale was currently embroiled, the press secretary would not divulge the details of the senator’s upcoming public address.” The use of “despite” implies that the reporters were applying pressure in order to get the press secretary to give them details about the senator’s upcoming speech; in spite of this pressure, however, the press secretary refuses to make public the contents of this speech so that the reporters, interested in news about the scandal, do not know what to expect.

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. “Imbued” means inspired, influenced thoroughly, or pervaded. “To rescind” means to remove or take back. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Despite pressure from reporters to discuss the scandal in which Senator Scottsdale was currently imbued, the press secretary would not rescind the details of the senator’s upcoming public address.” Neither term makes sense in this context. Even if the senator had been influenced by the scandal or it had pervaded his life, it would not make sense to say he was “imbued” in it. It is also illogical to say that the press secretary refused to take back information that has not yet been given out.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. “Connected” means linked. “To consort” means to unite or associate. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Despite pressure from reporters to discuss the scandal in which Senator Scottsdale was currently connected, the press secretary would not consort the details of the senator’s upcoming public address.” While the senator certainly could be linked to a scandal, it does not make sense to say that the secretary would not "consort," or associate with, the details.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. “Entangled” means involved, usually in a perplexing or troublesome situation. “To repeal” means to revoke or rescind by an

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(D) embroiled . . divulge

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(A)

imbued . . rescind

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authoritative act. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Despite pressure from reporters to discuss the scandal in which Senator Scottsdale was currently entangled, the press secretary would not repeal the details of the senator’s upcoming public address.” The first term makes sense here: the senator could certain be involved in a troublesome way in a scandal. But it makes little sense to say that the secretary refused to “repeal,” or revoke, information that has not yet been given out.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. “Compliant” means submissive or willing to comply. “To quash” means to suppress or extinguish. If one were to insert these terms into the text, the sentence would read “Despite pressure from reporters to discuss the scandal in which Senator Scottsdale was currently compliant, the press secretary would not quash the details of the senator’s upcoming public address.” It is unlikely that a senator would be submissive to or willing to comply with a scandal. Additionally, it makes little sense to say that the secretary refused to “quash,” or suppress, information that has not yet been given out.

Modern historians use the terms “feudalism” and “manorialism” to refer to the ways that medieval European societies were organized.

Passage 1

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Passage 2

Older historians used the term “feudalism” for the whole medieval social order, which was a peasant society dominated by a military, land-owning aristocracy. Modern 20 usage generally restricts the word to the network of relations between tenants and lords within the aristocracy. The system governing the peasant’s relation to the lord, which was the economic foundation 25 of medieval society, is usually designated the “manorial system.” The relationships embodied in the feudal and manorial systems were simple enough in theory: In the manorial system, a peasant labored 30 for a lord in return for land of his own; in the feudal system, a lord held lands from the king or the overlord in return for
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“Feudalism” is one of those words that have taken on so many extended and figurative meanings that the original Line meaning has been obscured. Today any 5 oppressive government, greedy landholder, or brutal exploiter of labor is called feudal—always with disapproval. This is unfair to feudalism. The word is also often confused with the “manorial 10 system,” which tied peasants to the land they worked. Feudalism is a total organization of society. It is a scheme of political organization, based in law and overlapping with social and economic 15 organization.

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supplying soldiers on demand.
9

Which of the following is closest to what the author of Passage 1 means by the phrase “This is unfair to feudalism” (line 8)?
(A)

“Feudalism” should not be used figuratively.

(B)

“Feudalism” should not be used to refer to a system of government.

(C) Those who lived in feudal societies would disapprove of the way the term is currently used.

(D) “Feudalism” should not necessarily have only negative connotations.

(E)

“Feudalism” has been misused to the extent that the term no longer has a meaning.

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer D : Choice (D) is correct. In this section of the passage, “this” refers back to the previous sentence: “Today any oppressive government, greedy landholder, or brutal exploiter of labor is called feudal—always with disapproval.” The author of Passage 1 has also just reminded us that “the original meaning [of feudalism] has been obscured” through overuse and misuse. It can be inferred, then, that the unfairness the author sees is a result of this oversimplification and that the term, in the author’s view, should not have “only negative connotations,” or should not be associated only with greed, oppression, and brutality.



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(A)

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. The author of Passage 1 does not comment on how those who lived under feudalism would have felt about the term itself, nor that they even used the term.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. The author of Passage 1 does think that the term “feudalism” has been misused, but does not say that the term has become meaningless; on the contrary, the author says that the “original meaning” of the word has become “obscured,” and that in current usage, the term has only negative connotations.

The word “extended” in line 2 most nearly means

prolonged

(B)

expanded

(C) removed

(D) allocated

(E)

intensive

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. In this sentence, the author is saying that the term “feudalism” has acquired so many “extended and figurative” meanings that its original meaning has been mostly forgotten. Before finally defining feudalism at the end of Passage 1, the author goes through various negative meanings that the

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. The author of Passage 1 does not say that “feudalism” should not be used to refer to a system of government; rather, the author says that the term should not be associated only with oppressive forms of government.

AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. The author of Passage 1 does not comment on whether or not the term “feudalism” should be used figuratively, but, rather, is concerned that the term has unfortunately taken on nothing but negative connotations. This author is not stating or suggesting that “feudalism” should be used only in the literal sense.

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word has “taken on” to its detriment. From its start as “a total organization of society,” feudalism has, in the modern mind, come to symbolize oppression, servitude, and other such woes; these are part of its “extended,” or expanded, meanings—in the author’s view, erroneous ones.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. In this sentence, the author is decrying the “extended and figurative” meanings that the term “feudalism” has acquired. While the new definitions may indeed be “prolonged” in the sense of being long-lasting, it is the number of new connotations that the author is concentrating on here—the term’s “expansion.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. In this sentence, the author is decrying the “extended and figurative” meanings that the term “feudalism” has acquired. While “removed” can mean “distanced,” and while the author can be said to be speaking of definitions that are “distanced” from the original, this would be a cumbersome and awkward way of getting at the intended meaning—that the term has “expanded” in definition.

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(A)

the whole medieval social order

(B)

the relationships among the members of the medieval aristocracy

(C) the economic relationship between medieval peasants and lords



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(D) the exchange of military protection for land ownership


(E)

the system of laws governing overlords

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. In the third sentence of Passage 2—while trying to distinguish between manorialism and feudalism—the author says that the manorial system is usually defined as “the system governing the peasant’s relation to the lord, which was the economic foundation of medieval society.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. The author of Passage 2 does mention “the whole medieval social order,” but connects it with the term “feudalism” rather than with the term “manorialism”: “Older historians used the term ‘feudalism’ for the whole medieval social order.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. The author of Passage 2 does mention relationships “between tenants and lords within the aristocracy,” but connects these relationships with the term “feudalism” rather than with the term “manorialism”: “Modern usage generally restricts the word to the network of relations between tenants and lords within the aristocracy.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. The author of Passage 2 does mention the exchange of military protection for land ownership, but connects it with the term “feudalism”

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According to the author of Passage 2, the term “manorial” refers to

AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. In this sentence, the author is decrying the “extended and figurative” meanings that the term “feudalism” has acquired. In this context, it would make little sense to say that the term has taken on “intensive,” or concentrated, new meanings.

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. In this sentence, the author is decrying the “extended and figurative” meanings that the term “feudalism” has acquired. In this context, it would make little sense to say that the term has taken on “allocated,” or designated, new meanings.

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rather than with the term “manorialism”: “in the feudal system, a lord held lands from the king or the overlord in return for supplying soldiers on demand.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. The only mention in Passage 2 of overlords has to do with military protection in feudalism, not manorialism: “in the feudal system, a lord held lands from the king or the overlord in return for supplying soldiers on demand.”

12

Compared with the tone of Passage 1, the tone of Passage 2 is more
(A)

objective

(B)

disdainful

(C) lively

(D) unsympathetic

(E)

argumentative

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS



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In the following excerpt from a novel, Samuel Tyne, a Canadian of Ghanaian descent, returns to work at the Canadian Ministry of Economics after attending his uncle’s funeral.

His overt melancholy aggravated his boss, for it made Samuel hard to approach. Just a glance into Samuel’s Line cubicle gave his co-workers much to gloat 5 about. It seemed a wonder he was such an exacting employee, with the swift but pitiful stride that brought him,
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Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. It would be hard to find anything particularly “lively” or colorful in Passage 2, either in comparison with Passage 1 or not. The tone of Passage 2 is objective, dispassionate, and explanatory.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. While it might be valid to call Passage 1 “unsympathetic”—that is, unsympathetic with those who have overused and misused the term “feudalism—the tone of Passage 2 is objective, dispassionate, and explanatory.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. While Passage 1 could accurately be called “argumentative”—that is, it argues that the term “feudalism” has unfairly been misused and overused—the tone of Passage 2 is, by comparison, objective, dispassionate, and explanatory.

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. While it might be valid to call Passage 1 “disdainful”— that is, disdainful of those who have overused and misused the term “feudalism”—the tone of Passage 2 is objective, dispassionate, and explanatory.

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Explanation for Correct Answer A : Choice (A) is correct. Whereas the tone of Passage 1 is opinionated, even argumentative—“Today any oppressive government, greedy landholder, or brutal exploiter of labor is called feudal—always with disapproval. This is unfair to feudalism”—the tone of Passage 2 is, by comparison, unemotional, or “objective.” Since Passage 2 is largely concerned with definitions, this objectivity is appropriate: “Older historians used,” “Modern usage generally restricts,” and other such phrases inject a decidedly unemotional, rational tone.

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50 Dombey and Son *, as he’d nicknamed

them, at his desk. Dombey’s German sense of humor failed to translate, at least to Samuel, who always overdid his laugh to mask confusion. Son, whose current 55 prestige was pure nepotism, looked at Samuel with the coldness that cloaked all of his dealings, as if he knew he was inept and needed to compensate.

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disillusioned, to the threshold of every meeting. Yet he was so indispensable in that ministry that his co-workers regretted every slur they flung at him, lest the slights drive him to suicide. For not only would the department collapse without his doting, steady logic to balance it, but it seemed at times that the entire Canadian economy depended on the reluctant, softwristed scribbling he did in his green ledger. There Samuel sat each day, painfully tallying his data, his pencil poised like a scalpel in his hand, frowning at the gruesome but inevitable task ahead of him. Dwarfed by a monstrous blue suit, Samuel would finger the mournful pre-war bowler that never left his head. And it was such an earnest sight, such an intimate window into a man whose nature seemed to be all windows—people wondered if he actually had a public self— that he might have been the only man in the world to claim vulnerability as his greatest asset. The day after the funeral, Samuel returned to work to find a note from his bosses on his desk: Come See Us. What could they possibly reprimand him for? He was a fast and diligent worker, with enough gumption to use a little imaginative reasoning when some economic nuisance called for it. He was punctual and tidy, not overly familiar with his co-workers; quite simply, the best employee they had. Rather than indignation, though, Samuel only felt fear. To buy himself time, he crumpled a few clean papers from his ledger, and walked the narrow aisles between cubicles to throw them in the hallway garbage bin. He returned to find both bosses,



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“Tyne,” Dombey said, “we need to 60 talk about the Olds account.” Samuel pinched the brim of his hat with his thumbs. “Ah, yes. Sorry, yes. I think, sir, I handed that in before I took day leave for my uncle’s funeral.” 65 “It contains a dreadful error,” said Son, blinking violently behind his glasses. He jerked the report at Samuel. There it was, plain as day, on page six. A miscalculation Samuel must have 70 made while thinking about Jacob’s death and the house. He stood there, hat in hand, aghast. “We realize,” continued Son, “that the job sometimes gets stressful. That, 75 per se, there are times when one cannot always be as on-the-ball as is required. But this defies all. Not only is it not up to standard, it’s downright misleading.” That was the way Son spoke, as 80 though he hadn’t mastered the bureaucratic language, wielding phrases such as “per se” and “not up to standard” like the residue of some management handbook. Even Dombey seemed 85 perplexed by this at times. The muscle in Samuel’s cheek trembled. He nodded. “We understand you’ve just suffered a big loss, Samuel,” said 90 Dombey, “but as you know this is a federal workplace. What would happen, say, if you made this kind of error daily? Now, we’re certainly not saying that you do. But what would happen? I’ll tell you 95 what would happen. You’d have ladies collapsing in ten-hour lines just to get a loaf of bread to feed their families. You’d have children skipping school because there aren’t enough clothes to go around. 100 Babies dying without milk. Old folks crumbling in their rockers. It’d be pandemonium with a capital P— depression. We are the economy. We answer to the prime minister. There is no 105 room for error here.” Dombey scratched his head and looked wistful. “Oh, don’t look so glum.” Again, Samuel nodded. Son, fearing his role in the



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110 reprimand unnecessary, added, “We are,

of course, deeply sorry for your loss, but you must remember our country is in your hands.” Dombey frowned at Son, and the 115 two men walked off. When they left, Samuel heard through the divider the rude laughter of Sally Mather. His face burning, he sat at his desk, and picking up his green ledger, tried to make up for the 120 ten minutes lost time.
* Dombey and Son is a novel by the English writer Charles Dickens.
In line 20, the word “painfully” is closest in meaning to (A) laboriously
(B)

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critically

(C) sensitively

(D) harmfully

(E)

acutely



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Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. Although Tyne’s work might be critical (“it seemed at times that the entire Canadian economy depended on” Tyne), Tyne does not perform his job “critically,” or in a critical manner. Instead, “painfully” most closely means “laboriously.” Tyne’s job is “tallying … data” and is a “gruesome but inevitable task,” descriptions that imply something monotonous and never-ending but something he has to do.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. Tyne’s job does not require Tyne to perform it with sensitivity. Instead, “painfully” most closely means “laboriously.” Tyne’s job is “tallying … data” and is a “gruesome but inevitable task,” descriptions that imply something monotonous and never-ending but something he has to do.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. Tyne does not perform his job in a harmful way, and performing the job does not harm Tyne. Instead, “painfully” most closely means “laboriously.” Tyne’s job is “tallying … data” and is a “gruesome but inevitable task,” descriptions that imply something monotonous and never-ending but something he has to do.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. It would make no sense to say that Tyne performs his job “acutely,” or severely. Instead, “painfully” most closely means “laboriously.” Tyne’s job is “tallying … data” and is a “gruesome but inevitable task,” descriptions that imply something monotonous and never-ending but something he has to do.

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Explanation for Correct Answer A : Choice (A) is correct. In this context, “painfully” most closely means “laboriously.” Tyne’s job is “tallying … data” and is a “gruesome but inevitable task,” descriptions that imply something monotonous and never-ending but something he has to do. Even so, Tyne performs the task with concentrated attention because he is an “exacting employee” and a “fast and diligent worker.”

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ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

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14

In line 22, the word “gruesome” is closest in meaning to (A) shocking
(B)

repugnant

(C) frightening

(D) crude

(E)

sensational

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. As used in line 22, “gruesome” most closely means “repugnant.” Although Tyne is an “exacting employee” and a “fast and diligent worker,” he dislikes the work. Each day Tyne sits at his desk, “painfully tallying his data” and “frowning” at the work in front of him.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. Tyne’s work is not “crude.” It is boring and “repugnant” paperwork.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. Tyne’s work is not “sensational” or exciting. On the contrary, it is boring and “repugnant” paperwork.

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(E)
(A)

The second paragraph implies that Tyne’s clothes make him appear which of the following?

Casual

(B)

Pathetic

(C) Stylish

(D) Proud

Inappropriate

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. Tyne’s clothes make him appear “pathetic.” The suit Tyne wears every day is much too large for him (“dwarfed by a monstrous blue suit”), and his hat, which “never left his head,” is very much out of style (“mournful pre-war bowler”). These descriptions imply that the clothes are hand-me-downs or perhaps purchased from a used-clothing store and certainly that they were not Tyne’s originally. The description is meant to suggest that he looks silly.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. Tyne’s clothes are not “casual.” Tyne wears a suit and hat to work.

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AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. Although “gruesome” can mean “frightening,” that is not the meaning here. Tyne is not frightened by his work. He is bored and disgusted with it.

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. Tyne’s work is not “shocking” or surprising to him. He performs the work each day. Instead, the work is “repugnant.” Although Tyne is an “exacting employee” and a “fast and diligent worker,” he dislikes the work. Each day Tyne sits at his desk, “painfully tallying his data” and “frowning” at the work in front of him.

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. Tyne’s clothes are certainly not “stylish.” Instead, they are unstylish and make Tyne appear “pathetic.” The suit Tyne wears every day is much too large for him (“dwarfed by a monstrous blue suit”), and his hat, which “never left his head,” is very much out of style (“mournful pre-war bowler”). These descriptions imply that the clothes are hand-me-downs or perhaps purchased from a used-clothing store and certainly that they were not Tyne’s originally.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. Instead of “proud,” Tyne’s clothes make him appear “pathetic.” The suit Tyne wears every day is much too large for him (“dwarfed by a monstrous blue suit”), and his hat, which “never left his head,” is very much out of style (“mournful pre-war bowler”). These descriptions imply that the clothes are hand-me-downs or perhaps purchased from a used-clothing store and certainly that they were not Tyne’s originally.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. Tyne’s clothes are not “inappropriate.” A suit and hat are appropriate attire in the workplace. Instead, Tyne’s clothes make him appear “pathetic.” The suit Tyne wears every day is much too large for him (“dwarfed by a monstrous blue suit”), and his hat, which “never left his head,” is very much out of style (“mournful pre-war bowler”). These descriptions imply that the clothes are hand-me-downs or perhaps purchased from a used-clothing store and certainly that they were not Tyne’s originally.

(A)

sinister and calculating

(B)

happy and ambitious

(C) insubordinate and stubborn

(D) cheerful and obedient

(E)

professional and morose

ANSWERS



Explanation for Correct Answer E : Choice (E) is correct. Tyne’s attitude at work is professional but morose. His professionalism can be inferred not only from the descriptions of Tyne as an “exacting,” “punctual,” and “diligent” employee but also from his reaction to the reprimand. When his bosses reprimand Tyne for his error, he neither talks back nor makes excuses for himself. Instead, he “stood there, hat in hand, aghast” and nodded. He then returns to his desk and starts working immediately “to make up for the ten minutes lost time.” Although he is professional, Tyne is morose. In fact, “his overt melancholy aggravated his boss, for it made Samuel hard to approach.” This melancholy is not simply a temporary reaction to the death of his uncle. He walks with a “pitiful stride” and frowns while he works. More importantly, his co-workers think he could be driven to commit suicide by “the slurs they flung at him.”

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. Tyne is neither sinister nor calculating. In fact, he is a “man whose nature seemed to be all windows.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. Tyne is not happy, but morose: “His overt melancholy aggravated his boss, for it made Samuel hard to approach.” This melancholy is not simply a temporary reaction to the death of his uncle. He walks with a “pitiful stride” and frowns while he works. Also, Tyne is professional but not ambitious. He arrived at meetings “disillusioned.” Nowhere in the passage does it suggest that Tyne is interested in advancing himself in the company.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. Tyne might be a little stubborn (he puts off the meeting with his bosses by throwing clean paper in the trash), but he is not insubordinate. Instead, he is professional about his work. His professionalism can be inferred not only from the descriptions of Tyne as an “exacting,” “punctual,” and “diligent” employee but also from his reaction to the reprimand. When his bosses reprimand Tyne for his error, he neither talks back nor makes excuses for himself.

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Tyne’s attitude at work could best be described as

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Instead, he “stood there, hat in hand, aghast” and nodded. He then returns to his desk and starts working immediately “to make up for the ten minutes lost time.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. Tyne is obedient in that he is very professional about his work, but he is morose, not happy. In fact, “his overt melancholy aggravated his boss, for it made Samuel hard to approach.” This melancholy is not simply a temporary reaction to the death of his uncle. He walks with a “pitiful stride” and frowns while he works. More importantly, his co-workers think he could be driven to commit suicide by “the slurs they flung at him.”

17

The phrase “whose nature seemed to be all windows” in lines 27-28 suggests that (A) Tyne’s colleagues all had different opinions of him
(B)

Tyne behaved in many inconsistent ways

(C) Tyne’s true feelings were easy to observe

(D) Tyne did not appear to be a solid person

(E)

Tyne always talked about himself to his colleagues

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS



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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. The description “whose nature seemed to be all windows” does not mean that Tyne’s colleagues all have different opinions of Tyne. In fact, they all apparently have the same opinion of their colleague: “Yet he was so indispensable in that ministry that his co-workers regretted every slur they flung at him.” The description of Tyne’s nature means that Tyne’s feelings were easy to observe. He shows his melancholy so openly (“overt melancholy”) that it aggravates his boss, and his co-workers need only a “glance” to have “much to gloat about.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. The description “whose nature seemed to be all windows” does not mean that Tyne behaved inconsistently. On the contrary, he is apparently very predictable, behaving the same way every day: “There Samuel sat each day …” The description instead means that Tyne’s feelings were easy to observe. He shows his melancholy so openly (“overt melancholy”) that it aggravates his boss, and his co-workers need only a “glance” to have “much to gloat about. ”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. Tyne, in fact, is a very solid person, at least at work: He is an “exacting employee” whose “doting, steady logic” kept the ministry in balance. The description “whose nature seemed to be all windows” means that Tyne’s feelings were easy to observe. He shows his melancholy so openly (“overt melancholy”) that it aggravates his boss, and his co-workers need only a “glance” to have “much to gloat about.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. Tyne is a very melancholy man who is “not overly familiar with co-workers,” so he must not have talked much about himself. Instead, the description “whose nature seemed to be all windows” means that Tyne’s feelings were easy to observe. He shows his melancholy so openly (“overt melancholy”) that it aggravates his boss, and his co-workers need only a “glance” to have “much to gloat about.”

In line 41, the word “familiar” is closest in meaning to

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Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. The description “whose nature seemed to be all windows” means that Tyne’s feelings were easy to observe. He shows his melancholy so openly (“overt melancholy”) that it aggravates his boss, and his co-workers need only a “glance” to have “much to gloat about.” Tyne lacks a “public self” or, in other words, he made no attempts to present himself differently from how he felt. This makes him vulnerable to the observation of his colleagues.

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(A)

common

(B)

expected

(C) forward

(D) natural

(E)

recognizable

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. From the context and other descriptions of Tyne, the word “familiar” most closely means “forward.” Therefore, the statement means that Tyne does not share his private life with his co-workers and does not inquire into theirs. The adverbs “not overly” imply that Tyne is probably polite but certainly not “chummy.” Descriptions that show Tyne’s professionalism (“exacting,” “fast and diligent”) also support this idea: Tyne is at work to work, not to pass the time in conversations with his colleagues.



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Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. The word “familiar” does not mean “natural” here. Instead, the word “familiar” most closely means “forward.” Therefore, the statement means that Tyne does not share his private life with his co-workers and does not inquire into theirs. The adverbs “not overly” imply that Tyne is probably polite but certainly not “chummy.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. The word “familiar” can mean “recognizable,” but that is not the meaning here. Instead, the word “familiar” most closely means “forward.” Therefore, the statement means that Tyne does not share his private life with his co-workers and does not inquire into theirs. The adverbs “not overly” imply that Tyne is probably polite but certainly not “chummy.”

The description of Tyne’s job performance in lines 37-43 primarily serves to

illustrate that Tyne enjoyed doing his job

(B)

imply that Tyne deserves a promotion

(C) suggest that Tyne’s work habits are generally beyond reproach

(D) indicate that Tyne’s bosses will probably not discipline him

(E)

demonstrate that Tyne’s bosses have always liked him

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. The description of Tyne’s work performance (“fast and diligent,” “punctual and tidy,” “ the best employee”) suggests that Tyne’s work is generally beyond reproach. The author uses this description of Tyne’s usual good behavior at work to suggest that Tyne is not usually summoned by his bosses to be reprimanded.

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. Although “familiar” can mean “expected” (as in “The old house was a familiar sight”), that is not the meaning in this sentence. Instead, the word “familiar” most closely means “forward.” Therefore, the statement means that Tyne does not share his private life with his co-workers and does not inquire into theirs. The adverbs “not overly” imply that Tyne is probably polite but certainly not “chummy.”

AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. The word “familiar” can mean “common,” but that is not the meaning here. Instead, from the context and other descriptions of Tyne, the word “familiar” most closely means “forward.” Therefore, the statement means that Tyne does not share his private life with his co-workers and does not inquire into theirs. The adverbs “not overly” imply that Tyne is probably polite but certainly not “chummy.”

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. Nothing in the description of Tyne’s work habits indicates that that Tyne enjoyed his job. In fact, other statements suggest that he does not like his work (“Samuel sat each day … frowning at the gruesome but inevitable task ahead”). Instead, the description in lines 37–43 (“fast and diligent,” “punctual and tidy,” “the best employee”) suggests that Tyne’s work is generally beyond reproach.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. For the most part, this description does not suggest that Tyne does anything beyond his job; occasionally he uses a “little imaginative reasoning” to solve a problem. Instead of suggesting that Tyne deserves a promotion, the description (“fast and diligent,” “punctual and tidy,” “the best employee”) suggests that Tyne’s work is generally beyond reproach.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. The description in lines 37–43 certainly indicates that Tyne does not deserve a reprimand, but the description does not indicate whether or not he will actually receive one. Instead, the description of Tyne’s work habits (“fast and diligent,” “punctual and tidy”) indicates only that his performance is generally beyond reproach.

20

The gesture in lines 45-48 (“To buy…bin”) is meant primarily to indicate Tyne’s
(A)

desire to look busy

(C) avoidance of work

(D) attempt to escape punishment

(E)



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ANSWERS

dissatisfaction with his surroundings

Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. Tyne crumples clean paper and walks to the hallway trash bin to dispose of it “to buy himself time” because he is unwilling to meet with his bosses. He simply does not like to deal with his bosses, whom he has nicknamed “Dombey and Son” (a derogatory nickname), partly because he does not understand Dombey’s “German sense of humor,” and Son treats the workers with a “coldness that cloaked all his dealings.” Going to the trash bin to throw out the paper is a way of delaying the unwanted confrontation with his bosses.



Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. Tyne crumples clean paper and walks to the hallway trash bin to dispose of it “to buy himself time,” not to look busy. Tyne apparently always has enough work to keep him busy, so he need not try to look busy.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. Tyne crumples clean paper and walks to the hallway trash bin to dispose of it “to buy himself time,” not to avoid work. Descriptions of Tyne’s work habits (for example, “fast and diligent”) and his trying “to make up for the ten minutes lost time” after the reprimand indicate that Tyne works hard.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. Tyne crumples clean paper and walks to the hallway trash bin to dispose of it “to buy himself time.” He is not trying to avoid punishment because he has no reason to think that he will be reprimanded. After all, he was the

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(B)

unwillingness to meet with his bosses

AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. Nothing in this description suggests that Tyne’s bosses liked him. In fact, Dombey finds Tyne hard to approach, and Son appears to take himself and his status too seriously to like anyone. Instead, the description in lines 37–43 (“fast and diligent,” “punctual and tidy,” “the best employee”) suggests that Tyne’s work is generally beyond reproach.

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“best employee they had.” Furthermore, he does eventually go meet with his
bosses. If he wanted to avoid punishment, he would have probably waited until they came to him again.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. Tyne is not dissatisfied with his surroundings; in fact, he is probably not very aware of his surroundings because he works so diligently. Although Tyne is not overly thrilled with his work, nothing in the passage reveals his opinion about his work environment.

21

The narrator most likely refers to Tyne’s second boss only as “Son” throughout the passage in order to
(A)

imply that his authority is undeserved

(B)

indicate his official title at work

(C) reinforce his position of power

(D) suggest a friendship between him and Tyne

(E)

portray him as an approachable manager

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS



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(A)

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. “Son” is not the official title of Tyne’s second boss. It is, in fact, derogatory and implies that the man’s position is undeserved. Indeed, the author states earlier that Son’s “current prestige was pure nepotism,” meaning that Son was given his position as a favor to a relative, not as a reward for hard work or knowledge or experience. The consistent reference to the second boss as “Son” makes him nameless, a non-person.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. Calling Tyne’s second boss “Son” implies that his position is undeserved; it does not reinforce his position of power. Indeed, the author states earlier that Son’s “current prestige was pure nepotism,” meaning that Son was given his position as a favor to a relative, not as a reward for hard work or knowledge or experience. The consistent reference to the second boss as “Son” makes him nameless, a non-person.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. There is no friendship between Tyne and his second boss. In fact, Son cloaks all of his dealings with coldness, not with friendliness. Instead, calling Tyne’s second boss “Son,” rather than by a title or even a name, implies that his position is undeserved.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. Tyne’s second boss is certainly not approachable. In fact, Son cloaks all his dealings with coldness. As used here, “Son” is not a kind form of address; instead, it is derogatory and implies that the man’s position is undeserved.

The narrator suggests that Son’s comment to Tyne in lines 110-113 demonstrates

genuine concern for Tyne’s loss

(B)

a misunderstanding of Tyne’s situation

(C) a disagreement with Dombey about the error

(D) a desire to be seen as important

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Explanation for Correct Answer A : Choice (A) is correct. Calling Tyne’s second boss “Son,” rather than by a title or even a name, implies that his position is undeserved. Indeed, the author states earlier that Son’s “current prestige was pure nepotism,” meaning that Son was given his position as a favor to a relative, not as a reward for hard work or knowledge or experience. The consistent reference to the second boss as “Son” makes him nameless, a non-person.

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(E)

an effort to help Tyne improve his performance

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer D : Choice (D) is correct. As the narrator states, Son fears that his part in the reprimand has been unnecessary (“fearing his role … unnecessary”) and adds the comments in lines 110–113 to make himself feel important. This idea is supported by an earlier description of Son: He treats others coldly “as if he knew he was inept and needed to compensate.” Son’s comments show this coldness because, in effect, he is saying that Tyne’s job is more important than anything in Tyne’s personal life, even his uncle’s death.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. Son’s comments do not show a genuine concern for Tyne. The comments actually show Son’s coldness because in effect, he is saying that Tyne’s job is more important than anything in Tyne’s personal life, even his uncle’s death. Instead, Son fears that his part in the reprimand has been unnecessary (“fearing his role … unnecessary”) and adds these comments to make himself feel important.

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(A)

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. Earlier descriptions of Son indicate that he would not be inclined to help the employees in any way. He treats others coldly “as if he knew he was inept and needed to compensate.” Son’s comments show this coldness because, in effect, he is saying that Tyne’s job is more important than anything in Tyne’s personal life, even his uncle’s death. Instead, Son fears that his part in the reprimand has been unnecessary (“fearing his role … unnecessary”) and adds the comments in lines 110–113 to make himself feel important.

Tyne’s response to his bosses’ reprimand could best be characterized as

defensive

(B)

passionate

(C) rude

(D) submissive

(E)

deceitful

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer D : Choice (D) is correct. Tyne’s response to his bosses’ reprimand is submissive. When Tyne is shown his error, he does not make excuses for himself or say anything. He simply stands there “hat in hand, aghast.” During the reprimand, Tyne simply nods, again silent. After the reprimand, Tyne does not show anger or defensiveness (for example, by talking back, muttering to himself, pounding his desk, or complaining to his co-workers). Instead, Tyne silently returns to his desk, “his face burning,” and tries to “make up for the ten minutes lost time.”

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. Son does not disagree with Dombey. His comments actually follow the same line as Dombey’s speech—exaggerating the significance of their work and of Tyne’s job. Instead, Son fears that his part in the reprimand has been unnecessary (“fearing his role … unnecessary”) and adds the comments in lines 110–113 to make himself feel important.

AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. Son’s comments do not show an understanding of Tyne’s loss or of Tyne’s job. The comments actually show Son’s coldness because in effect, he is saying that Tyne’s job is more important than anything in Tyne’s personal life, even his uncle’s death. Instead, Son fears that his part in the reprimand has been unnecessary (“fearing his role … unnecessary”) and adds these comments to make himself feel important.

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. Tyne’s response to his bosses’ reprimand is submissive, not defensive. When Tyne is shown his error, he does not make excuses for himself or say anything. He simply stands there “hat in hand, aghast.” During the reprimand, Tyne simply nods, again silent. After the reprimand, Tyne does not show anger or defensiveness (for example, by talking back, muttering to himself, pounding his desk, or complaining to his co-workers). Instead, Tyne silently returns to his desk, “his face burning,” and tries to “make up for the ten minutes lost time.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. Tyne’s response is not passionate. In fact, the only signs of emotions are Tyne’s trembling cheek and his burning face, signs of fear and embarrassment, not passion. Instead, Tyne is submissive. When Tyne is shown his error, he does not make excuses for himself or say anything. He simply stands there “hat in hand, aghast.” During the reprimand, Tyne simply nods, again silent. After the reprimand, Tyne does not show anger or defensiveness (for example, by talking back, muttering to himself, pounding his desk, or complaining to his co-workers). Instead, Tyne silently returns to his desk, “his face burning,” and tries to “make up for the ten minutes lost time.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. Tyne does not respond to his bosses’ reprimand deceitfully, by denying that he made the error or by casting blame on someone else. Instead, Tyne is submissive. When Tyne is shown his error, he does not make excuses for himself or say anything. He simply stands there “hat in hand, aghast.” During the reprimand, Tyne simply nods, again silent. After the reprimand, Tyne does not show anger or defensiveness (for example, by talking back, muttering to himself, pounding his desk, or complaining to his co-workers). Instead, Tyne silently returns to his desk, “his face burning,” and tries to “make up for the ten minutes lost time.”

24



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(A)

The author mentions the “rude laughter of Sally Mather” in line 117 primarily in order to

(B)


(E)

indicate that most of Tyne’s colleagues dislike him

imply that Sally Mather has reported Tyne’s error to his bosses

(C) underscore the humiliation Tyne is experiencing

(D) show that Tyne’s bosses wanted his colleagues to know about his error

suggest that Tyne’s bosses are making fun of him

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. The “rude laughter of Sally Mather” underscores the humiliation Tyne feels. Immediately following this statement, Tyne is described: “His face burning, he sat at his desk.” He neither speaks nor looks with anger or indignation at the two bosses as they leave, and he does not respond to Sally’s rude laughter. His face is burning, not from anger or indignation, but from deep humiliation. Not only did he receive a humiliating reprimand from his bosses, but now he has to endure the fact that his colleague overheard the scolding and is laughing at him.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is incorrect. Although Tyne’s colleagues may dislike him (“Just a glance into Samuel’s cubicle gave his co-workers much to gloat about”), only one, Sally Mather, has laughed at his reprimand. None of Tyne’s other colleagues are mentioned.

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AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. Tyne is definitely not rude. His response is submissive. When Tyne is shown his error, he does not make excuses for himself or say anything. He simply stands there “hat in hand, aghast.” During the reprimand, Tyne simply nods, again silent. After the reprimand, Tyne does not show anger or defensiveness (for example, by talking back, muttering to himself, pounding his desk, or complaining to his co-workers). Instead, Tyne silently returns to his desk, “his face burning,” and tries to “make up for the ten minutes lost time.”

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. Sally Mather’s rude laughter does not imply that she reported Tyne’s error. Tyne’s co-workers may dislike him, but they consider him “indispensable in that ministry” and “regretted every slur … lest the slights drive him to suicide.” Sally Mather’s rude laughter underscores the humiliation Tyne feels.

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. Nothing in the passage indicates that the bosses intend Tyne’s colleagues to hear his reprimand. In fact, Tyne had been asked to go the bosses’ office (the note on his desk read, “Come See Us”).

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. Nothing in this passage implies that the bosses are making fun of Tyne. Both bosses take themselves, their jobs, and the reprimand very seriously. They did not joke during the reprimand, but rather spoke with elevated self-importance and seriousness.

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Answers and Explanations

Test Sections

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Section 1

View Answers and Explanations
Online - Practice Test #4

Section 2

Section 4

Section 5

1

Unlike with many animals, humans do not swim by instinct.
(A)

Section 6

with many animals

Section 7

(B)

what many animals do

Section 8

(C) many animals

Section 9

Section 10

(D) many animals who do it

(E)

many animals do

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by removing the unnecessary pronoun “with” so that the sentence logically compares two nouns, “animals” and “humans.”



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(A)

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) creates an illogical comparison. The clause “what many animals do” is compared to a noun “humans.” It does not make sense to compare humans to swimming by instinct (“what many animals do”).

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) contains an improper pronoun and wordiness. The pronoun “who” should be used to refer to humans, not to animals or things. Also, the clause “many animals who do it” can be replaced with the simpler phrase “many animals.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) creates an illogical comparison. The clause “many animals do” is compared to the noun “humans.” It does not make sense to compare humans to swimming by instinct (“many animals do”).

First run in 1867 and still taking place every summer, the Belmont Stakes, a horse race for thoroughbred three-year-olds, was one of the oldest races in the United States.

was

(B)

is

(C) were

(D) are

(E)

has been

ANSWERS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) contains an unnecessary preposition that creates a comparison between unparallel elements. The preposition “with” creates a comparison between a prepositional phrase (“with many animals”) and a noun (“humans”), instead of between a noun (“many animals”) and another noun (“humans”).



AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. It avoids the verb-tense error of the original by replacing the past-tense “was” with the present-tense “is.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) involves an error in verb tense. The present tense should be used to express an action that occurs regularly. The verb of the main clause (“the Belmont Stakes … was one …”) should be in the present tense (“is”) because the race regularly takes place every summer.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) creates errors in subject–verb agreement and verb tense. The subject of the main clause, “Belmont Stakes,” is singular (it is “a horse race”) and so requires a singular verb, not the plural verb “were.” Also the verb of the main clause should be in the present tense (“is”) because the race still takes place every summer.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) creates an error in subject–verb agreement. The subject of the main clause, “Belmont Stakes,” is singular (it is “a horse race”) and so requires the singular verb “is,” not the plural verb “are.”

3

Folklore scholars think of fables probably originating among the Semitic peoples of the Middle East, moving first to India and then west to Greece.
(A)

of fables probably originating

(C) that the fable’s origins were probably

(D) that the origin of fables probably was

(E)



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ANSWERS

that fables probably originated

Explanation for Correct Answer E : Choice (E) is correct. It avoids the errors of the original by providing a noun clause (“that fables probably originated”) that serves as the direct object of the verb “think.” In the context of the sentence, it does not make sense to say that “scholars think of fables.” In addition, the participial phrase that begins with “moving” illogically modifies “scholars,” making the sentence suggest that “scholars” are “moving first to India and then west to Greece.”



Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) involves an error in modification and faulty logic. In the context of the sentence, it does not make sense to say that “scholars think of fables.” In addition, the participial phrase that begins with “moving” illogically modifies “scholars,” making the sentence suggest that “scholars” are “moving first to India and then west to Greece.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) involves an error in modification and faulty logic. In the context of the sentence, it does not make sense to say that “scholars think of fables.” In addition, the participial phrase that begins with “moving” illogically modifies “scholars,” making the sentence suggest that “scholars” are “moving first to India and then west to Greece.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) involves awkward phrasing and an error in modification that produces faulty logic. The awkward clause “that the fables origin’s probably were” can be

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(B)

of fables that probably originated

AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) creates an error in verb tense. The verb of the main clause should be in the present tense (“is”), not the present perfect (“has been”), because the present tense is used to express an action that occurs regularly, and the race regularly takes place every summer.

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reduced to the simpler clause “that fables probably originated.” In addition, the participial phrase that begins with “moving” illogically modifies “the fable’s origins,” making the sentence suggest that “origins” are “moving first to India and then west to Greece.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) involves awkward phrasing and an error in modification that produces faulty logic. The awkward clause “that the origin of fables probably was” can be reduced to the simpler clause “that fables probably originated.” In addition, the participial phrase that begins with “moving” illogically modifies “the origin,” making the sentence suggest that “the origin” is “moving first to India and then west to Greece.”

4

Althea Gibson, the first African American tennis player that they recognized as a world champion, began playing amateur tennis in the 1940's.
(A)

that they recognized as

(B)

that was recognized to be

(C) recognized because she was

(D) to be recognized as

(E)

recognizing her as



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Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) involves wordiness and an improper idiom. The clause “that was recognized to be” can be replaced with the simpler phrase “to be recognized as.” The phrase “that was” is awkward and unnecessary. In addition, the phrase “to be” is not idiomatic after “recognized.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) involves faulty logic. It is not logical to say that Althea Gibson was the first African American tennis player because she was a world champion.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) involves an incorrect verb form that results in faulty logic. The participial phrase “recognizing her as” illogically suggests that Althea Gibson recognized herself as a world champion.

Societies acting through their governments make the rules to state which acts are illegal, but although war is the most violent of human activities, it has not been declared illegal by any of the world’s governments or their agencies.

to state

(B)

stating

(C) when they state

(D) that are stating

(E)

where they state

ANSWERS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) involves awkward phrasing and an error in pronoun use. The awkward phrase “that they” is unnecessary and should be changed to “to be.” Also, the plural pronoun “they” has no antecedent to which it can logically refer.

AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Correct Answer D : Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the pronoun error of the original by replacing the clause “that they recognized as” with the infinitive phrase “to be recognized as.”

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ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. It avoids the error of the original by using an idiomatic verb form, the present participle “stating,” to modify the noun “rules.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) involves an error in verb form. The participle “stating,” instead of the infinitive “to state,” is the idiomatic verb form to modify the noun “rules.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) creates faulty logic and involves an unclear pronoun reference. The clause “when they state” modifies the verb “make,” but it is not clear what kinds of rules are being discussed. Also, the plural pronoun “they” has no clear antecedent; it could refer to “societies,” “governments,” or “rules.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) creates an unnecessary shift in verb tense. The progressive tense of “are stating” is inconsistent with the simple present tense of the main verb “make.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) involves an unclear pronoun reference and improper phrasing. The plural pronoun “they” has no clear antecedent; it could refer to “societies,” “governments,” or “rules.” Also, “where” should be used to refer to a noun that is a place, but in this case it modifies a noun that is a thing.

6

(A)

teacher, she gained

(B)

teacher, she had gained

(D) teacher who gained

(E)

teacher having gained



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ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer D : Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the comma-splice error of the original by turning the independent clause “she …rights” into a subordinate clause introduced by the relative pronoun “who.” The subordinate clause serves as an adjective modifying the proper noun “Shirin Ebadi.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) creates a comma splice. Two independent clauses are connected only by a comma instead of by a semicolon or a coordinating conjunction and a comma.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) creates a comma splice. Two independent clauses are connected only by a comma instead of by a semicolon or a coordinating conjunction and a comma.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) involves an unclear modifier that results in faulty logic. Changing the second independent clause into a participial phrase eliminates the comma-splice error of the original, but the participial phrase “gaining prominence” creates faulty logic. The phrase illogically modifies the subject of the sentence, “The 2003 Nobel Peace Prize.” It does not make sense to say that the prize gained prominence.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) involves an ambiguous modifier and awkward phrasing. Changing the second independent clause into a participial phrase eliminates the comma-splice error of the original, but the participial phrase “having gained prominence” possibly creates faulty logic. It is not clear whether the phrase modifies the subject of the sentence, “The 2003 Nobel Peace Prize” or Ebadi. Furthermore, the

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AND EXPLANATIONS

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The 2003 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Shirin Ebadi, an Iranian lawyer, writer, and teacher, she gained prominence as an advocate for democracy and human rights.

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awkward “having gained” should be changed to “who gained” so that the sentence clearly indicates that it was Ebadi who “gained prominence…”

7

Because its early history is not fully known, origami, the art of folding objects out of paper without cutting, pasting, or decorating, seems to have developed from the older art of folding cloth.
(A)

Because

(B)

In that

(C) Since

(D) Although

(E)

As

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer D : Choice (D) is correct. It avoids the faulty logic of the original by introducing the subordinate clause with “although,” which correctly indicates a contrast between the idea stated in the subordinate clause (“Although … known”) and the idea stated in the main clause (“origami … cloth”).

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) involves an imprecise word that creates faulty logic. The subordinating conjunction “because” implies a reason. It is not logical to say that origami developed “because its history is not fully known.”



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(A)

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) involves an imprecise word that creates faulty logic. The subordinating conjunction “since” can imply a reason (like “because”). In the context of the sentence, it is not logical to say that origami developed “since,” or because, “its history is not fully known.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) involves an imprecise word that creates faulty logic. The subordinating conjunction “as” implies a reason (like “because”). It is not logical to say that origami developed because “its history is not fully known.”

One of the most popular singers of his time, more than twenty languages were mastered by Paul Robeson, allowing him to perform classical repertory, spirituals, and folk songs from around the world.

more than twenty languages were mastered by Paul Robeson, allowing him to perform

(B)

Paul Robeson’s mastery of more than twenty languages allowed him to perform

(C) mastering more than twenty languages allowed Paul Robeson to perform

(D) his mastery of more than twenty languages allowed Paul Robeson to be performing

(E)

Paul Robeson mastered more than twenty languages, allowing him to perform

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer E : Choice (E) is correct. It is the only option that presents a noun (“Paul Robeson”) that can logically be modified by the sentence’s opening phrase, “One of the most popular singers of his time.”

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) involves an imprecise phrase that creates faulty logic. The phrase “In that” is used as a subordinating conjunction and means “because.” It is not logical to say that origami developed “in that,” or because, “its history is not fully known.”



AND EXPLANATIONS

te re
业 用

! 途

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) involves an error in modification that results in faulty logic. It does not make logical sense to say that “more than twenty languages” were “One of the most popular singers of his time.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) involves an error in modification that results in faulty logic. It does not make logical sense to say that “Paul Robeson’s mastery” was “One of the most popular singers of his time.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) involves an error in modification that results in faulty logic. It does not make logical sense to say that the gerund “mastering” was “One of the most popular singers of his time.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) involves an error in modification that results in faulty logic. It does not make logical sense to say that “his mastery” was “One of the most popular singers of his time.”

9

(A)

having been

(B)

that he was

(C) for being

(E)

as



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禁 用 于

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer E : Choice (E) is correct. It avoids the improper phrasing of the original by replacing the verb phrase “having been” with the preposition “as.”



Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) involves improper phrasing and inconsistent verb tense. In the context of this sentence, the verb “regarded” must be followed by the preposition “as” (“… regarded by many as the greatest …”). In addition, the present progressive tense of the verb phrase “having been” is inconsistent with the simple present tense of the verbs “is regarded” and “remains.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) involves improper phrasing. In the context of this sentence, the verb “regarded” must be followed by the preposition “as” (“… regarded by many as the greatest …”). Also, the noun clause “that he was” is used as a direct object, even though a direct object cannot be used with a passive verb (“is regarded”).

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) involves improper phrasing. In the context of this sentence, the verb “regarded” must be followed by the preposition “as” (“… regarded by many as the greatest …”), not by the preposition “for.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) involves improper phrasing. In the context of this sentence, the verb “regarded” must be followed by the preposition “as” (“… regarded by many as the greatest …”), not by an infinitive (“to be”).

Digital technology, as every marketer knows, is synonymous to speed, precision, and the future.

is

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(D) to be

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d

Babe Ruth is regarded by many having been the greatest baseball player in history, and he remains arguably the most celebrated figure in North American sports.

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(A)

to

(B)

of

(C) with

(D) for

(E)

through

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. It avoids the word-choice error of the original by replacing the preposition “to” with the preposition “with,” which is the idiomatic preposition to follow “synonymous.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) involves a word-choice error. The idiomatic preposition to follow “synonymous” is “with,” not “to.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) involves a word-choice error. The idiomatic preposition to follow “synonymous” is “with,” not “of.”

11

After carefully studying both of the articles, Dr. Rodriguez and Nurse Alba found that the only difference between them were their titles.
(A)

them were their titles



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(B)

them were the titles


(E)

(C) the articles were the titles

(D) the articles was that of the titles

the articles was their titles

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer E : Rationale (justify the key): Choice (E) is correct. It avoids the use of an unclear pronoun and an error in subject–verb agreement. First, the plural pronoun “them” in the subordinate clause could refer to “the articles” or to “Dr. Rodriguez and Nurse Alba.” Replacing “them” with “the articles” makes clear which two things were different. Second, the subject of the subordinate clause (“that … titles”) is the singular noun “difference,” which requires a singular verb, “was.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) contains an unclear pronoun reference and an error in subject–verb agreement. The plural pronoun “them” in the subordinate clause (“that … titles”) could refer either to “the articles” or to “Dr. Rodriguez and Nurse Alba.” In addition, the subject of the subordinate clause (“that … titles”) is the singular noun “difference,” which requires a singular verb, not the plural verb “were.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) involves an unclear pronoun reference and an error in subject–verb

eg i
用 于

AND EXPLANATIONS

st


Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) involves a word-choice error. The idiomatic preposition to follow “synonymous” is “with,” not “through.”

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业 用

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) involves a word-choice error. The idiomatic preposition to follow “synonymous” is “with,” not “for.”

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d

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agreement. The plural pronoun “them” in the subordinate clause (“that … titles”) could refer either to “the articles” or to “Dr. Rodriguez and Nurse Alba.” Replacing the second plural pronoun “their” with “the” does not solve this problem. In addition, the subject of the subordinate clause (“that … titles”) is the singular noun “difference,” which requires a singular verb, not the plural verb “were.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) creates an error in subject–verb agreement. The subject of the subordinate clause (“that … titles”) is the singular noun “difference,” which requires a singular verb, not the plural verb “were.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) involves wordiness. Replacing the original phrase “them were their titles” corrects the unclear pronoun reference and the subject–verb disagreement of the original. However, the phrase “the articles was that of their titles” is unidiomatic in this context. The pronoun “that” refers logically to “the difference,” but it is not idiomatic to say that the difference between the articles was “that [the difference] of the titles.” The preposition “in” would be needed instead.

12

At

the meeting of the planning board, the councilwoman

ANSWERS

Corrected Sentence: At the meeting of the planning board, the councilwoman assured her constituents that she was actively seeking a long-term solution to the city’s parking problem.

Explanation for Correct Answer D : The error in this sentence occurs at (D), where an adjective (“active”) is incorrectly used to modify a verb (“was seeking”). An adverb (“actively”) is needed instead.



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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The preposition “At” properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“At … board”) that modifies the verb “assured.”



Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : There is no error at (B). The past tense of the verb “assured” appropriately indicates an action that was completed in the past.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The singular helping verb “was” agrees with the singular subject of the dependent clause, “she,” and the past progressive tense (“was seeking”) appropriately expresses an action that was continuing at the time of the meeting.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

Used in sculpture, carving is the process of reducing substances such as stone, wood,

or ivory to a desired shape by cutting or to chip away unnecessary parts. No error

eg is te r
AND EXPLANATIONS









ed


she

was active

seeking a long-term solution to the city’s parking problem.

! 途

assured her constituents that

No error

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ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Corrected Sentence: Used in sculpture, carving is the process of reducing substances such as stone, wood, or ivory to a desired shape by cutting or chipping away unnecessary parts.

Explanation for Correct Answer D : The error in this sentence occurs at (D), where there is a lack of parallelism. The compound objects of the preposition “by” should be grammatically parallel. The infinitive “to chip” is not parallel to the gerund “cutting.” The gerund “chipping” is needed instead.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The singular verb “is” agrees with its singular subject “carving,” and the noun phrase “the process” appropriately serves as a subject complement that renames, or describes, the subject of the sentence (“carving”).

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : There is no error at (B). The preposition “to” is an idiomatic preposition to follow “reducing,” and it properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“to … shape”) that modifies the verb form “reducing.”

14

New York City is an important center of American Buddhism, in part becauseits

residents included immigrants from most of the countries that have strong Buddhist



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ANSWERS

traditions. No error

Corrected Sentence: New York City is an important center of American Buddhism, in part because its residents include immigrants from most of the countries that have strong Buddhist traditions.

Explanation for Correct Answer C : The error in this sentence occurs at (C), where there is an improper verb tense. The tense used in the dependent clause (“in part because…traditions”) should be consistent with the tense used in the main clause (“New York City…Buddhism”), but it is not. To fix this problem, the present-tense verb “include” should be used.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The article “an” and the adjective “important” properly modify the noun “center.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : There is no error at (B). The subordinating conjunction “because” properly introduces the clause that modifies the verb of the main clause, “is.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D :

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用 于 商 业

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The adjective “desired” properly modifies the noun “shape,” and the noun “shape” correctly serves as the object of the preposition “to.”

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There is no error at (D). The preposition “from” is an idiomatic preposition to follow “immigrants,” and it properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“from most”) that modifies the noun “immigrants.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

15

In addition to being

a talented pianist and composer, Béla Bartók was a

respected

musicologist

who wrote

several books on Hungarian, Slovakian, and Romanian folk

music.

No error

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Corrected Sentence:

Explanation for Correct Answer E : There is no error in this sentence.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The participle “respected” appropriately serves as an adjective that modifies the noun “musicologist.”

16



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ANSWERS

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The pronoun “who” properly refers to a person, Béla Bartók, and the past tense of the verb “wrote” correctly shows an action completed in the past.

Whereas the caterpillars of most butterflies are harmless, moth caterpillars caused an

enormous amount of damage to plants, forest and shade trees, clothing, and

household goods. No error

Corrected Sentence: Whereas the caterpillars of most butterflies are harmless, moth caterpillars can cause an enormous amount of damage to plants, forest and shade trees, clothing, and household goods.

Explanation for Correct Answer B : The error in this sentence occurs at (B), where there is an improper verb tense. Statements of general truth, such as the statement about moth caterpillars, require the present tense (“can cause”), not the past tense (“caused”).

eg
用 于

AND EXPLANATIONS

is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : aThere is no error at (B). The gerund “being” appropriately serves as the object of the multi-word preposition “In addition to.”



te


Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The phrase “In addition to” is an idiomatic multi-word preposition and properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“In … composer”) that modifies the proper noun “Béla Bartók. ”

re


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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The preposition “of” properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“of most butterflies”) that modifies the noun “caterpillars,” and the adjective “most” properly modifies the noun “butterflies.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The noun “damage” correctly serves as the object of the preposition “of.” The preposition “to” is an idiomatic preposition to follow “damage,” and it properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“to … goods”) that modifies the noun “damage.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The coordinating conjunction “and” is correctly used to introduce the last object of the preposition “to” in the series of four prepositional objects (“plants,” “trees,” “clothing,” and “goods”).

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

17

employingtheir sense of smell to Homing pigeons can navigate over long distances,
ascertain their initial location and using the positionof the Sun determiningthe

Corrected Sentence: Homing pigeons can navigate over long distances, employing their sense of smell to ascertain their initial location and using the position of the Sun to determine the direction in which they must fly.



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Explanation for Correct Answer D : The error in this sentence occurs at (D), where a participle (“determining”) is incorrectly used. An infinitive (“to determine”) is the correct verb form to modify the participle “using.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The verb “navigate” can be plural or singular and agrees with the plural subject “pigeons.” The preposition “over” is an idiomatic preposition to follow “navigate,” and it properly introduces the prepositional phrase that modifies the verb “navigate.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : There is no error at (B). The participle “employing” properly introduces the phrase that modifies the noun “pigeons.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The noun phrase “the position” properly serves as the object of the verb form “using.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

Salt is valued not only because of its properties as a condiment and preservative,

eg i
用 于

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

st


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direction in which they must fly. No error

ed


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the health of they are but also humans and animals. essential to because

No error

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Corrected Sentence: Salt is valued not only because of its properties as a condiment and preservative, but also because it is essential to the health of humans and animals.

Explanation for Correct Answer C : The error in this sentence occurs at (C), where an improper pronoun is used. The plural pronoun “they” is used incorrectly to refer to the singular subject “salt.” The singular pronoun “it” should be used instead. In addition, the plural verb “are” should be changed to the singular “is.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The singular possessive pronoun “its” correctly refers to the singular noun “salt,” and the noun “properties” correctly serves as the object of the two-word preposition “because of.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

19



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ANSWERS

After two terms in the Texas State Senate, Barbara Jordan electedto the United

States House of Representatives, where she served from 1973 to 1979. No error

Corrected Sentence: After two terms in the Texas State Senate, Barbara Jordan was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where she served from 1973 to 1979.

Explanation for Correct Answer B : The error in this sentence occurs at (B), where a sentence fragment is created. A main verb (“was elected”) is needed to indicate that Barbara Jordan, the subject of the sentence, is performing the action described in the sentence (“After two terms in the Texas State Senate,” Barbara Jordan was elected…”)

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The preposition “After” properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“After … Senate”) that modifies the verb “elected.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The subordinating conjunction “where” properly introduces the clause (“where … 1979”) that modifies the proper noun “House of Representatives.”

eg
用 于

AND EXPLANATIONS

is t


Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The noun phrase “the health” correctly serves as the object of the preposition “to,” and the preposition “of” properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“of … animals”) that modifies the noun “health.”

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业 用

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : There is no error at (B). The conjunction “but also” is the second part of the correlative conjunction pair “not only … but also,” and it properly introduces the subordinate clause that modifies the verb “is valued.”

! 途

d

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The past-tense verb “served” is used correctly to show an action that was completed in the past.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

20

A sweetener, normally

are used either in almost all bread sugar or syrup,

for taste or

as

an aid to yeast growth.

No error

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Corrected Sentence: A sweetener, normally either sugar or syrup, is used in almost all bread for taste or as an aid to yeast growth.

Explanation for Correct Answer B : The error in this sentence occurs at (B), where the plural verb “are used” does not agree with the singular subject “sweetener.” The singular verb “is used” is needed instead.

21



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ANSWERS

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The preposition “as” is an idiomatic preposition to follow “used,” and it properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“as … growth”) that modifies the verb “used.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

Willie Dixon's upbeat blues compositions helped usher in the Chicago blues sound

during the 1950’s and have become standard numbers for the many young rock

groups trying to achieve popularity during the 1960’s. No error

Corrected Sentence: Willie Dixon’s upbeat blues compositions helped usher in the Chicago blues sound during the 1950’s and became standard numbers for the many young rock groups trying to achieve popularity during the 1960’s.

Explanation for Correct Answer B : The error in this sentence occurs at (B), where there is an improper verb tense. The verb “helped” and the phrases “during the 1950’s” and “during the 1960’ s” clearly establish the past tense, but the verb “have become” is in the present perfect tense. The present perfect tense indicates an action that is still occurring, but clearly the action of the sentence was completed in the 1960’s.

eg
用 于

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The preposition “for” properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“for taste”) that modifies the verb “used.”

AND EXPLANATIONS

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The conjunction “either” properly functions as the first part of the paired correlative conjunctions “either … or” (“either sugar or syrup”).

er


ed

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The adjectives “upbeat” and “blues” appropriately modify the noun “compositions.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The participle “trying” properly modifies the noun “groups,” and the word “to” is part of the infinitive “to achieve,” which is the idiomatic verb form to follow a participle (“trying to achieve”).

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The preposition “during” properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“during the 1960’s”) that modifies the participle “trying.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

22

When

the Spanish conquistadors reached Peru in 1532,

modern Ecuador to central Chile and



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禁 用 于

Corrected Sentence: When the Spanish conquistadors reached Peru in 1532, they encountered the vast empire of the Incas, which extended along the Pacific coast of South America from modern Ecuador to central Chile and inland across the Andes.

Explanation for Correct Answer C : The error in this sentence occurs at (C), where an independent clause (“it extended…Andes”) is connected to the preceding independent clause (“they … Incas”) by only a comma. A subordinating conjunction (“which extended…”) is needed along with the comma.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The subordinating conjunction “When” properly introduces the clause (“When … 1532”) that modifies the verb “encountered.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : There is no error at (B). The plural pronoun “they” correctly refers to the plural noun “conquistadors” and properly serves as the subject of the independent clause. Furthermore, the past-tense verb “encountered” appropriately shows an action completed in the past.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The adverb “inland” properly modifies the verb “extended,” and the preposition “across” properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“across … Andes”) that modifies the adverb “inland.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

Unlike her best friend Margie, making the varsity soccer team as a freshman, Jill

is

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS



te re d
业 用

empire of the Incas,

it extended along the Pacific coast of South America from

No error inland across the Andes.

! 途

they encountered the vast

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No error did not make the team until her junior year.

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Corrected Sentence: Unlike her best friend Margie, who made the varsity soccer team as a freshman, Jill did not make the team until her junior year.

Explanation for Correct Answer B : The error in this sentence occurs at (B), where the improper use of a gerund (“making”) results in a sentence fragment. There is no main verb to indicate that Margie is performing the action described in the first part of the sentence. The pronoun “who,” combined with the past-tense verb “made,” is needed (“Unlike…Margie, who made…”).

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The singular pronoun “her” correctly refers to the singular proper noun “Jill.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

24



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禁 用 于
ANSWERS



, Although the precise date and place of the origin of baseball are hotly debated it is

beyond dispute that the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn playan

important role in its early development. No error

AND EXPLANATIONS

Corrected Sentence: Although the precise date and place of the origin of baseball are hotly debated, it is beyond dispute that the New York City boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn played an important role in its early development.

Explanation for Correct Answer C : The error in this sentence occurs at (C), where the present tense of a verb (“play”) is incorrectly used to express an action that was completed in the past. The past-tense verb “played” is needed instead.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The adverb “hotly” appropriately modifies the verb “debated,” and the past participle (“debated”) appropriately completes the passive verb phrase “are debated.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : There is no error at (B). The prepositional phrase “beyond dispute” is idiomatic

is

te


Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The past-tense helping verb “did” appropriately expresses an action that was completed in the past, and the adverb “not” is properly placed before the main verb “make.”

re


Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The preposition “as” properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“as a freshman”) that modifies the gerund “making.” (Please see the explanation of the correct answer to see why “making” is not used properly in this sentence.)

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and appropriately serves as an adjective complement describing the subject “it.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The singular possessive pronoun “its” properly refers to the singular noun “baseball.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

25

By 2003,

more than

684,000 students in the United States had enrolled in charter

schools, publicly funded schools

that pledged better academic results and were

unencumbered by

many of the regulations

No error governing ordinary public schools.

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Corrected Sentence:

Explanation for Correct Answer E : There is no error in this sentence.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The comparative phrase “more than” is idiomatic and properly introduces the complete subject of the sentence, “more … States.”



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ANSWERS

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The adjective “unencumbered” functions properly as a subject complement after the linking verb “were,” and the preposition “by” properly introduces the prepositional phrase that modifies the adjective “unencumbered.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The participle “governing” properly modifies the noun “schools.”

The common cold, like chickenpox, measles, and many other viral diseases,

can be spread both before and after their symptoms emerge. No error

Corrected Sentence: The common cold, like chickenpox, measles, and many other viral diseases, can be spread both before and after its symptoms emerge.

Explanation for Correct Answer D : The error in this sentence occurs at (D), where the plural possessive pronoun “their” does not agree with the singular noun, “cold,” to which it refers. The singular possessive pronoun “its” is needed instead.

eg
用 于

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : There is no error at (B). The relative pronoun “that” properly refers to the noun “schools” and introduces the subordinate clause that modifies “schools.” The past tense of the verb “pledged” is consistent with the past tense of the other verb in the subordinate clause (“were”).



AND EXPLANATIONS

is

te


re

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The preposition “like” properly introduces the prepositional phrase (“like … diseases”) that modifies the noun “cold.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : There is no error at (B). The adjectives “many” and “other” properly modify the noun “diseases” and combine to form an idiomatic phrase.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The verb phrase “can be spread,” which can be singular or plural, agrees with the singular subject, “cold.” The passive voice of the verb is appropriately formed with the past participle of a main verb (“spread”) and a form of “be.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

27

Although

he had never played organized sports, whenever Justin,

who was

uncommonly tall,

ask him for attends an a basketball game, fans would

autograph.

No error



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Explanation for Correct Answer C : The error in this sentence occurs at (C), where there is an improper verb form. Because the action of the dependent clause (“whenever … game”) occurred before the action of the main clause (“fans … autograph”), the past-tense verb “attended” should be used.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The subordinating conjunction “Although” properly introduces the dependent clause (“Although … sports”) that modifies the verb of the main clause (“would ask”).

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : There is no error at (B). The relative pronoun “who” properly refers to a person (“Justin”), and the singular verb “was” agrees with the singular subject of the relative clause, “who.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The verb form “ask” is the appropriate form to combine with the helping verb “would.” The singular pronoun “him” agrees with the singular noun (“Justin”) to which it refers and is the correct case to serve as the indirect object of the verb “would ask.” The preposition “for” is the idiomatic preposition to follow “ask,” and it appropriately introduces the prepositional phrase (“for an autograph”) that modifies the verb “would ask.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

From its modest beginnings as a series of brief vignettes and its establishment as the

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用 于

Corrected Sentence: Although he had never played organized sports, whenever Justin, who was uncommonly tall, attended a basketball game, fans would ask him for an autograph.

is t


ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

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longest-running prime-time comedy series on television, The Simpsons has

transformed

the way that both audiences and television programmers

view the

animated sitcom.

No error

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Corrected Sentence: From its modest beginnings as a series of brief vignettes to its establishment as the longest-running prime-time comedy series on television, The Simpsons has transformed the way that both audiences and television programmers view the animated sitcom.

Explanation for Correct Answer B : The error in this sentence occurs at (B), where a coordinating conjunction (“and”) is improperly used. The preposition “to” is the idiomatic preposition to follow “From” and to introduce the prepositional phrase (“to … television”) that modifies the proper noun “The Simpsons.”

29



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ANSWERS

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : There is an error in the sentence.

Venezuela devotes a higher percentage of its budget to education than do other large

Latin American countries such as Mexico and Brazil. No error

Corrected Sentence:

Explanation for Correct Answer E : There is no error in this sentence.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The singular verb “devotes” agrees with the singular subject “Venezuela.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : There is no error at (B). The preposition “of” properly introduces the prepositional phrase that modifies the noun “percentage,” and the singular

eg i
用 于

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The plural verb “view” agrees with the plural compound subjects “audiences” and “programmers,” and its present tense appropriately expresses an action that occurs after the action of the present perfect main verb “has transformed.”

AND EXPLANATIONS

st


Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The noun phrase “the way” properly serves as the direct object of the verb “has transformed,” and the relative pronoun “that” appropriately introduces the clause that modifies the noun “way.”

er


Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : There is no error at (A). The preposition “From” appropriately introduces the first prepositional phrase that modifies the proper noun “The Simpsons.”

ed


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pronoun “its” correctly refers to the singular noun “Venezuela.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : There is no error at (C). The word “than” appropriately completes the comparative phrase “more . . . than,” and the plural verb “do” agrees in number with the plural noun “countries.”

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : There is no error at (D). The phrase “such as” is used idiomatically to introduce the “other countries” that the sentence talks about.

(1) Aristotle was a great philosopher and scientist. (2) Aristotle lived in Greece over 2300 years ago. (3) Aristotle was extraordinarily curious about the world around him. (4) He was also a master at figuring out how things worked. (5) Aristotle passed it on to his pupil Theophrastus.

(6) Theophrastus was famous among his contemporaries as the co-founder of the Lyceum, a school in Greece, he is best known today as "the father of botany." (7) Botany is the branch of science dealing with plants. (8) Two famous books he wrote were Natural History of Plants and Reasons for Vegetable Growth. (9) His books were translated from Greek into Latin in 1483—1800 years after he wrote them—they influenced thousands of readers.

30

Aristotle was a great philosopher and scientist. Aristotle lived in Greece over 2300 years ago.



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(B)
(A)

philosopher and a scientist, living

philosopher and scientist who lived

(C) philosopher, and, as a scientist, lived

(D) philosopher and scientist; Aristotle lived

(E)

philosopher, scientist, and lived

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. It properly uses a relative clause (“who lived…”) to connect the information about Aristotle in sentence 2 to the information in sentence 1.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is unsatisfactory because it results in an awkward sentence.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is unsatisfactory because it unnecessarily separates the idea of Aristotle as a philosopher from the idea of Aristotle as a scientist. According to the passage, he practiced both philosophy and science in Greece 2300 years ago.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is unsatisfactory because the resulting sentence repeats "Aristotle" unnecessarily.

eg
用 于

Which of the following is the best version of the underlined portion of sentence 1 and sentence 2 (reproduced below)?

AND EXPLANATIONS

is t


(10) Theophrastus made accurate observations about all aspects of plant life, including plant structure, plant diseases, seed use, and medicinal properties. (11) He even described the complex process of plant reproduction correctly, hundreds of years before it was formally proven. (12) In 1694 Rudolph Jakob Camerarius used experiments to show how plants reproduced. (13) According to some accounts, Theophrastus did his research in a garden he maintained at his school which was called the Lyceum. (14) But Theophrastus also wrote about plants that grew only in other countries, which he heard about from returning soldiers. (15) By comparing these plants to plants he grew in his garden, Theophrastus established principles that are still true today.

er


ed


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Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is unsatisfactory because it creates a non-parallel series. If the sentence were "Aristotle was a great philosopher, scientist, and mathematician," such a formulation would be correct, but that is not the case here.

31

What would best replace "it" in sentence 5?
(A)

that

(B)

them

(C) these traits

(D) the world

(E)

his things

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is unsatisfactory because, while Aristotle passed two traits on to Theophrastus, the traits need to be identified as such; "them" is ambiguous in context.



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(A)

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is unsatisfactory because it makes no sense to say that Aristotle passed on "the world" to his student.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is unsatisfactory because, while Aristotle may have passed "his things" (physical possessions) on to Theophrastus, the passage does not indicate this. On the other hand, the passage makes it clear that Theophrastus possessed both curiosity and ingenuity.

What word should be inserted between "Greece," and "he" in sentence 6 (reproduced below)?

Theophrastus was famous among his contemporaries as the co-founder of the Lyceum, a school in Greece, he is best known today as "the father of botany."

and

(B)

but

(C) for

(D) thus

(E)

moreover

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. The conjunction "but" properly indicates the relationship

eg is
用 于

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is unsatisfactory because the paragraph specifies two traits that Aristotle possessed. It is illogical to conclude that he only passed one of them to Theophrastus.



AND EXPLANATIONS

te r


ed


Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. Sentence 3 and sentence 4 refer to qualities, or traits, that Aristotle possessed. Sentence 5 indicates that Aristotle passed something on to his pupil Theophrastus, and we know from context that Theophrastus possessed both of these traits, so it makes sense to say that Aristotle passed the traits on to Theophrastus.

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between the two contrasting statements about Theophrastus's fame.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is unsatisfactory because, while "and" creates a correct sentence, it is not as effective in context as "but." The word "and" suggests that the two statements about Theophrastus's fame are complementary facts with no contrast.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is unsatisfactory because the word "for" makes no sense in context.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is unsatisfactory because the word "thus" implies a cause-effect relationship that does not exist.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is unsatisfactory because the word "moreover" signifies that the second statement is "in addition" to the first. "Moreover" does not show the necessary contrast.

33

Which sentence should be inserted between sentence 8 and sentence 9?

(C) The first book is still studied today in botany classes.

(E)

Theophrastus also taught botany to hundreds of students.

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS



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Explanation for Correct Answer A : Choice (A) is correct. The inserted sentence connects logically to both sentence 8 ("ideas" clearly refers to the content of the books) and sentence 9 (the "lasting impact" is shown by the success of the 1483 translation) and supports the claim made in the first sentence of the paragraph.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is unsatisfactory because, while Theophrastus's books may have been instantly successful (although the fact that he was famous among his contemporaries for other things suggests otherwise), this success is not mentioned in the passage, and is not relevant in context.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is unsatisfactory because the inserted sentence is out of order chronologically. It would make more sense to discuss Theophrastus's relevance today after discussing his relevance in the 1400’s.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is unsatisfactory because there is no support in the passage for the claim that Theophrastus's books challenged the conclusions of Aristotle.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is unsatisfactory because any sentence inserted between sentence 8 and sentence 9 should discuss Theophrastus's books (or the ideas in these books), not his teaching.

Which revision appropriately shortens sentence 13 (reproduced below)?

According to some accounts, Theophrastus did his research in a garden he maintained at his school which was called the Lyceum.

eg






is

te

(D) They challenged the conclusions of Aristotle.



re


(B)

Theophrastus's books were instantly successful.

d

(A)

Theophrastus's ideas had a lasting impact.

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(A)

Delete "his school which was called".

(B)

Delete "According to some accounts,".

(C) Delete "in a garden he maintained".

(D) Replace "According to some accounts" with "Therefore".

(E)

Replace "Theophrastus" with "he".

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer A : Choice (A) is correct. The resulting sentence ends "…did his research in a garden he maintained at the Lyceum." As the reader already knows that the Lyceum is the name of Theophrastus's school (sentence 6), this revision is appropriate and necessary.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is unsatisfactory because "According to some accounts" suggests that there is some doubt about the information presented. It would not be appropriate to delete this important qualifier.

35

The third paragraph would be improved by the deletion of which sentence?



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(A)

(B)

(C) Sentence 12



Sentence 10

Sentence 11

(D) Sentence 14

(E)

Sentence 15

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. Sentence 12 discusses the achievements of Camerarius, which are only loosely related to those of Theophrastus.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is unsatisfactory because sentence 10 provides important introductory information about the details of Theophrastus's achievements.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is unsatisfactory because sentence 11, which is directly linked to sentence 10 through the word "even," highlights a key achievement of Theophrastus.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is unsatisfactory because if sentence 14 is deleted, the phrase "these plants" in sentence 15 will make no sense.

eg




AND EXPLANATIONS

is t


Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is unsatisfactory because sentence 12 refers to the botanist Camerarius. Sentence 13 must then identify Theophrastus by name, not by "he."

er


Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is unsatisfactory because "Therefore" makes no sense in context.

ed


Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is unsatisfactory because it removes the important fact about the garden and maintains the redundancy of the original.

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Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is unsatisfactory because sentence 15 connects Theophrastus's research methods to his achievements, thus bringing together the two ideas of the paragraph.

页码,23/23

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eg




is t


er

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Answers and Explanations

Test Sections

Back to Score Report

Section 1

View Answers and Explanations
Online - Practice Test #4

Section 2

Section 4

Section 5

1

A new roll of film has

pictures. After

pictures are taken, there are

pictures

Section 6

left. What is
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

in terms of

and

Section 7

Section 8

Section 9

Section 10

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. The new roll of film has

re

not

pictures; thus, after

! 途

d

pictures are

taken, there are

pictures left. It follows that

which implies

nR eg

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. The number of pictures on the new roll,

sum of the number of pictures taken,

is,

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is not correct. The new roll of film has

are taken, there are



U





Solving for



is te

gives



is equal to the

and the number of pictures left,

That

pictures; thus, after

pictures

pictures left. It follows that

which implies

not

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : the number of pictures taken, will not be Choice (D) is not correct. In general,

equal to

For example, if

pictures are on the roll and

pictures

are taken, then

pictures will be left. However,

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : the number of pictures taken, will not be Choice (E) is not correct. In general,

equal to

For example, if

pictures are on the roll and

pictures

are taken, then

pictures will be left. However,

2

The prime number

is a factor of

and is also a factor of

How many possible

values are there for
(A)

One

(B)

Two

Three

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(C)
(D) Four

(E)

Five

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS
are

Explanation for Correct Answer B : Choice (B) is correct. The prime factors of

and

and the prime

factors of

are

and

Therefore,

has two possible values:

or

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : has two possible values: Choice (A) is not correct.

or

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : has two possible values: Choice (C) is not correct.

or

The number

is a

factor of both

and

but

is not a prime number.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : has two possible values: Choice (D) is not correct.

are factors of both

and

but neither is a prime number.

numbers that are factors of both

and

3



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According to the graph above, for which month was sales minus cost greatest?

(A)

June

(B)

July

(C) August

(D) September

(E)

October

ANSWERS

Explanation for Correct Answer D : Choice (D) is correct. According to the graph, in September, sales minus cost was

eg







AND EXPLANATIONS

is



te
or

approximately

minus

minus cost for any of the other four months shown.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A :

Choice (A) is not correct. In June, sales minus cost was approximately

re


Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : has two possible values: Choice (E) is not correct.

but they are not prime numbers.

! 途
or

The numbers

and

d
or

There are other

This was greater than sales

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minus

or

Sales minus cost was greater for September.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B :

Choice (B) is not correct. In July, sales minus cost was approximately

minus

or

Sales minus cost was greater for September.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C :

Choice (C) is not correct. In August, sales minus cost was approximately

minus

or

Sales minus cost was greater for September.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E :

Choice (E) is not correct. In October, sales minus cost was approximately

minus

or

Sales minus cost was greater for September.

4

In the figure above,

is the center of the circle and segment

circle at point

If the measure of

there for

(A)

One

(B)

Two



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(C) Three

(D) Four

(E)

ANSWERS


is

More than four

Explanation for Correct Answer A :

eg


then





AND EXPLANATIONS
is a radius of the circle, and segment

is



te
It follows that

re

is
and

! 途
is tangent to the

d
Choice (A) is correct. Segment

how many possible values are

is

tangent to the circle at point

are perpendicular.

This means that the measure of

must be

Thus, if the measure of

must be equal to

Therefore, there is only one possible

value for

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : The Choice (B) is not correct. It is not true that there are two possible values for is the only possible Therefore, must be which is measure of

value for

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is not correct. It is not true that there are three possible values for

The measure of

which is

must be

Therefore,

is the only

possible value for

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. It is not true that there are four possible values for

The measure of

which is

must be

Therefore,

is the only

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possible value for

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is not correct. It is not true that there are more than four possible values

The measure of for only possible value for

which is

must be

Therefore,

is the

5

The bus fare from city

to city

is

more for adults than for children. If a group

of

adults and
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

children pay a total of

to travel by bus from city

to city

what is the cost of the ticket for one adult?

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

d
not

Explanation for Correct Answer C : be the cost, in dollars, of one adult bus ticket from city Choice (C) is correct. Let more for adults than for children, so the cost of each The fare is to city

child’s ticket is

dollars. If

adults and

children pay a total of

travel from city

to city

then

adult is

eg

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A :

Choice (A) is not correct. If the cost of a ticket for one adult were

cost of a ticket for one child would be

nR

children would then pay

to city

adult ticket cannot be


city

U

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B :

Choice (B) is not correct. If the cost of a ticket for one adult were









is

te

not

Solving for

re
gives



This is equivalent to

! 途
A group of

to

so the cost of a ticket for one

then the

adults and

to travel from city

However, this cost is

Therefore, the cost of one

then the

cost of a ticket for one child would be

A group of

adults and

children would then pay

to travel from

to city

However, this cost is

not

Therefore, the cost of

one adult ticket cannot be

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D :

Choice (D) is not correct. If the cost of a ticket for one adult were

then the

cost of a ticket for one child would be

A group of

adults and

children would then pay

to travel

from city

to city

However, this cost is

Therefore, the cost

of one adult ticket cannot be

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E :

Choice (E) is not correct. If the cost of a ticket for one adult were

then the

cost of a ticket for one child would be

A group of

adults and

children would then pay

to travel

from city

to city

However, this cost is

not

Therefore, the cost

of one adult ticket cannot be

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6

are all equal in size. If the area of and Figure The smallest squares in Figure square centimeters, what is the area, in square centimeters, of is Figure

Figure
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

is t


Explanation for Correct Answer C : of the smallest squares. Since the consists of Choice (C) is correct. Figure square centimeters, the area of each of the smallest is area of Figure

er e
业 用
Figure

! 途
of the smallest

squares, in square centimeters, is

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禁 用

squares. Therefore, the area, in square centimeters, of Figure



d
Figure

consists of

is



Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : square centimeters, is Choice (A) is not correct. Since the area of Figure of the smallest squares, the area of each of the and this figure consists of

U

smallest squares, in square centimeters, is

consists of

of the

smallest squares, not

Therefore, the area, in square centimeters, of Figure

is

not

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : square centimeters, is Choice (B) is not correct. Since the area of Figure of the smallest squares, the area of each of the and this figure consists of

smallest squares, in square centimeters, is

Figure

consists of

of the

smallest squares, not

Therefore, the area, in square centimeters, of Figure

is

not

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : square centimeters, is Choice (D) is not correct. Since the area of Figure of the smallest squares, the area of each of the and this figure consists of

smallest squares, in square centimeters, is

Figure

consists of

of the

smallest squares, not

Therefore, the area, in square centimeters, of Figure

is

not

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is not correct. This choice could be the result of mistakenly using an area square centimeters for each of the smallest squares. The smallest squares of square centimeters. each have an area of

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7

1.

Add

to

2.

Multiply the sum by

3.

Subtract

from the product.

If the steps above are followed in order, which of the following is a simplified expression for the result?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS
the result is

Explanation for Correct Answer E :

Choice (E) is correct. After step

and after step

the result is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A :

te r
However, step

Choice (A) is not correct. After step

is

This incorrect answer could arise from taking the result

of step

and subtracting

not

from the result of step

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B :

eg

Choice (B) is not correct. After step

is

nR

of step

and adding

the result of step



U

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is not correct. This incorrect answer could arise from an algebraic error.

After step









is



ed
the result is



! 途
After step

the result is

After step

the result

calls for subtracting

the result is

After step

the result

This incorrect answer could arise from taking the result

However, step

calls for subtracting

from

the result is

After step

the result is

and after step

the result is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is not correct. This incorrect answer could arise from an algebraic error.

After step

the result is

After step

the result is

and after step

the result is

8

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In triangle

above,

and

What is the area of triangle

(A)

(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS
is the length of altitude

Explanation for Correct Answer D :

Choice (D) is correct. The height of triangle

which is

The base of triangle

is the length of

which is

Therefore, the area of triangle

is

Explanation for Incorrect Answer A : Choice (A) is not correct. The area of triangle

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is not correct. The product of half of

st er
is half the product of

for the area of triangle

the area of triangle

eg i

Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is not correct. The height of triangle

triangle

is

is

nR

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is not correct. The area of triangle

for the area of triangle

9



U







not


not



ed

is

! 途
is

but the question asks

and half of

is

but

and

which is

The base of

Therefore, the area of triangle

is

but the question asks

At a science conference, the length of the question period is directly proportional to -minute question period in a the length of the session. If there is a -minute session, how many minutes long is the question period -minute session at this conference? in an

Your Response:

Correct Response(s): 20

Explanation:

. Since the length of the question period is directly The correct answer is proportional to the length of the session, the relationship between them can be

written as

where

is the length, in minutes, of the question period,

is

the length, in minutes, of the session, and

is a constant. Since there is a

question period of

minutes in a

-minute session, it follows that

so that

and

Therefore, for an

-minute session, the

question period is

minutes long.

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10

What is the volume, in cubic feet, of a cube with edges of length

feet?

Your Response:

Correct Response(s): 1000

Explanation:

The correct answer is

. If a cube has edges of length

feet, then the

volume of the cube is

cubic feet.

11

If

what is the value of

when

Your Response:

Correct Response(s): 15/7, 2.14

ed


Explanation:

The correct answer is

or

. Since

! 途

substituting

eg is te r
The answer can be gridded as

gives

This simplifies to

Solving for

gives

equivalent,

.

12

nR


To hold a birthday party for is given by the function









or as its rounded decimal

people, the amount a party planner charges, in dollars, above. How much, in dollars, does the planner charge



U

to hold a birthday party for answer.)

people? (Disregard the

sign when gridding your

Your Response:

Correct Response(s): 179

Explanation:

. Since the planner is holding a birthday party for The correct answer is Therefore, the planner’s charge for the party, in dollars, is people,

13

For all

the function

is defined by

and the function

is defined by

What is the value of

Your Response:

Correct Response(s): 152

Explanation:

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The correct answer is

. Since

and

it follows that

Therefore,

14

Table above shows the number of juniors and seniors taking Physics and Statistics above gives the enrollment at Midland High School. The partially completed Table which are the only periods Physics and Statistics for these classes in periods and are taught. If only juniors and seniors take these classes, what is the total number of students who take Physics or Statistics in period

Your Response:

Correct Response(s): 39

Explanation:

Thus, from Table

the total enrollment in Physics is

students who take Physics or Statistics in period

15

eg is
用 于
. Since the

The

term of a sequence is given by the formula

term of the sequence than the



te r

is

and so

Therefore, from Table

ed

term?
term is

seniors take juniors and shows that . Table The correct answer is Physics. Only juniors and seniors take Physics, so the total enrollment for Physics is are the only periods in which Physics is taught. and Periods

! 途

It follows that

the total number of

How much larger is the

Your Response:



U

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Explanation:

Correct Response(s): 21

The correct answer is



term of the sequence is given by the

formula

it follows that the

term of the sequence is

and the

Therefore, the

term is larger than the

term by

16

In the figure above,

is similar to

What is the length of side

Your Response:

Correct Response(s): 10.5, 21/2

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2006-11-12

The Official SAT Online Course

页码,10/11

Explanation:

The correct answer is

or

. Triangle

is similar to triangle

so

From the figure,

and

so

Therefore,

This answer can also be

gridded as the equivalent improper fraction

.

17

When the positive integer

is divided by

the remainder is

What is the

remainder when

is divided by

Your Response:

Correct Response(s): 12

Explanation:

The correct answer is

. When the positive integer

remainder is

Thus,

can be written as

nonnegative integer. Multiplying both sides of the equation

gives

Now rewrite the right-hand side of this equation so that

eg

Therefore, the remainder when

18

nR

In the

What is one possible value of



U



-coordinate plane, the distance between points







is



te

re

is

it is

times some nonnegative integer plus a remainder between

! 途
where

is divided by

the

is some

by

d
.

and

is divided by

and

is

Your Response:

Correct Response(s): 3 or 25

Explanation:

The possible correct answers are

and

. If the distance between points

and

is

then by the distance formula,

This equation simplifies to

Squaring both sides now yields

This equation is equivalent to

Therefore,

must equal

or

If

then

If

then

Either

or

may be gridded as the answer.

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U

nR



eg




is t


er

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ed


! 途

2006-11-12

The Official SAT Online Course

页码,1/23

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Answers and Explanations

Test Sections

Back to Score Report

Section 1

View Answers and Explanations
Online - Practice Test #4

Section 2

Section 4

Section 5

1

Section 6

Section 7

Section 8

The critics found the play -------, in that its social message was unfortunately lost in the awkward twists and turns of the plot. (A) convoluted
(B)

Section 9

susceptible

Section 10

(C) suspect

(D) condemnatory

(E)

preachy

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS



U

Explanation for Incorrect Answer B : Choice (B) is incorrect. “Susceptible” means impressionable or open to influence. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “The critics found the play susceptible, in that its social message was unfortunately lost in the awkward twists and turns of the plot.” Although a play with awkward twists and and turns could be described as susceptible to misunderstanding, it is illogical to suggest that a play could be merely “susceptible,” or impressionable.

nR


Explanation for Incorrect Answer C : Choice (C) is incorrect. “Suspect” means regarded with doubt or suspicion. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “The critics found the play suspect, in that its social message was unfortunately lost in the awkward twists and turns of the plot.” The sentence structure indicates that what follows the comma will explain the idea that precedes it. The missing term must describe a play with twists and turns. A plot with twists and turns would not necessarily cause a play to be “suspect,” or regarded with doubt.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer D : Choice (D) is incorrect. “Condemnatory” means declaring something to be wrong or unfit. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “The critics found the play condemnatory, in that its social message was unfortunately lost in the awkward twists and turns of the plot.” The sentence structure indicates that what follows the comma will explain the idea that precedes it. The missing term must describe a play with twists and turns. A play that is “condemnatory,” or declares something to be wrong, does not necessarily have a plot with twists and turns.

Explanation for Incorrect Answer E : Choice (E) is incorrect. “Preachy” means self-righteous or smug. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “The critics found the play preachy, in that its social message was unfortunately lost in the awkward twists and turns of the plot.” The sentence structure indicates that what follows the comma will explain the idea that precedes it. The missing term must describe a play with twists and turns. A plot with twists would not necessarily cause a play to be “preachy,” or self-righteous.

eg
用 于

is te
商 业

Explanation for Correct Answer A : Choice (A) is correct. “Convoluted” means complicated or having many twists and turns. If one were to insert this term into the text, the sentence would read “The critics found the play convoluted, in that its social message was unfortunately lost in the awkward twists and turns of the plot.” The sentence structure indicates that what follows the comma will explain the idea that precedes it. The missing term must describe a play with twists and turns. “Convoluted” precisely describes a play with twists and turns of plot.

re


! 途

d

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页码,2/23

2

Muriel was so fond of her dog that their brief separation left her not just saddened, but in a state of -------. (A) vagary
(B)

abhorrence

(C) bereavement

(D) degeneration

(E)

elation

ANSWERS

AND EXPLANATIONS

Explanation for Correct Answer C : Choice (C) is correct. “B


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