Meeting your ancestors
I. 教材内容分析 我们这一单元的目的是让学生了解考古学方面的有关知识,同时对人类文明和古代人的 生活有所知晓。 Warming Up 先让学生熟悉照片，然后导入要学的内容，并激发学生的兴趣。 Pre-reading 分组讨论几副图画，然后各小组选出代表猜测古代人的生活方式和使用工 具等方面的内容。 Comprehending 部分分三个步骤进行操作：让学生进行读前和读后的信息差异比较； 然后，指出在住房，工具和穿着打扮等方面古代人与现代人的差别；最后，找出考古学家对 周口店遗址考古研究的三个阶段。 Learning about Language 部分设计了一些针对性练习，以期增强学生对本单元语言的 学习。其中本部分要求学生掌握的语法是现在完成进行时。 Using Language 部分设计了听与说，读与说，写与说等三方面内容，使学生更进一步 了解古代人类的生活。 Summing UP 主要是对本单元进行概括总结。 Learning Tip 主要介绍多个形容词一起修饰一个名词或名词词组时所使用的一般顺序。 II. 本单元所涉及到的要点是： 1、教学重点 （1）了解考古学、人类学和人类史的基本知识； （2）了解有关北京猿人和三星堆等中国以及外国的考古发现情况； （3）掌握本单元教学目的和要求中的词汇、短语的用法。 2、教学难点 （1）熟练掌握英语动词的各种时态形式及其用法，并学习现在完成进行时； （2）比较准确地表达“存在”“度量”及人或事物的“特征” 、 。 III. 教学计划 本单元建议分为五课时： 第一课时：Warming Up, Listening (Workbook) & Talking (Workbook) 第二、三课时：Pre-reading, Reading & Comprehending 第四、五课时：Learning about language 第六、七课时：Reading and speaking(Using Language), Speaking and writing (Using Language) & Listening and speaking (Using Language) IV. 教学步骤： Period 1 Warming Up, Listening (Workbook) & Talking (Workbook) Teaching Goals: 1.To introduce Ss to some archaeological finds. 2.To develop Ss speaking ability. Teaching Procedures:
Step1. Leading-in Purpose: To activate Ss and arouse them to express their opinions about archeological questions. Ask Ss to talk about the following questions. (1) Have you ever seen any antiques? What are they? (2) How are the antiques used? (3) What are today’s alternatives of the antiques?
Step 2. Warming Up
Purpose: To lead Ss to the topic of this unit. 1. Ask Ss to look at the four pictures of Warming Up on P37 and think about the alternatives today?
2. Divide Ss into four groups and ask them complete the form of Warming Up 3. Ask Ss to talk about the following questions and encourage Ss to give some information about archaeology. (1) What does the object tell us about the life of people who use it? (2) What skill does it show the people had? 4. Ask Ss to look at the outline of archaeology and discuss it. The job of archaeologists
The life of early people
The study of ancient civilizations
The evidence from the zhoukoudian caves
The life and times of long dead people
life in Ancient Egypt
Conclusion: Archaeology is the ancient civilizations by scientific analysis of physical remains found in the ground. But unlike history it often has to deal with civilizations that have no written records. So it is the job of archaeologists to try to find out as much as they can about the life and time of long dead people by looking at the place where they lived, what they wore, what tools they used and how they buried their dead.
Step 3. Pre-Listening
Purpose: To help Ss learn about the context of the Listening part.
1. Group Work (1) Ask Ss to look at the following picture and talk about the questions.
① Who was the person in the picture? ② Can you say something about him?
(2) After talking, ask Ss to present their opinions to all classmates. Step 4: Listening (Workbook) Purpose: To get the main information in the listening part. . To develop Ss’s listening ability To learn something about the preservation of the Terracotta Warriors. 1. Ask Ss to listen to the tape and try to get the main idea of the listening text. 2. Ask Ss to answer the following questions. (1) What is the first problem? (2) What is the solution to the first problem? (3) What is the second problem? (4) What is the solution to the second problem? 3. Ask Ss to listen to the tape for the second time and finish Ex2 on P78. 4. Play the tape again and ask Ss to finish Ex3 on P79 in pairs. 5. Ask Ss to listen again and check the answers. Step 5. Talking (Workbook) Purpose: To get Ss to talk about how they could help save one of China’s greatest archaeological treasure. 1.Pre-speaking (1) Ask Ss to think about these questions and then present their views to all classmates. ① Do you like archaeology? ② Why do you like archaeology? ③ How much information have you collected about archaeology? (2) Ask Ss to discuss the questions below with their partners. ① What kind of qualities should an archaeologist have? ② If they want to succeed in their career, what difficulties should they overcome?
2. While-speaking Purpose: To get Ss to talk about something about archaeological treasure. (1) Show some pictures and ask Ss the following questions. (换图，秦皇墓)
① Do you know what it is? ② Is it a magnificent archaeological site? ③ Is it valuable to us?
(2) Ask Ss to discuss the following question. What can we do to preserve the tomb of Emperor Qin Shihuang? Useful Expressions: I think that we should ? because? If ? then maybe we ought to It seems likely/unlike that ? What if ?？ I suggest we? Perhaps we should/could? We must ask for help from?
(3) After the discussion, ask some pairs to present their ways to preserve it and let the whole class decide which is the best.
Step 6. Homework
1. Ask Ss to continue discussing archaeology with their partners. 2. Ask Ss to get on the line and prepare something for Reading. Periods 2&3 Pre-reading, Reading & Comprehending Teaching Goals: 1. To give Ss information about one site where early people lived in China. 2. Ito have an insight into the kind of questioning techniques. Teaching Procedures:
Step 1. Pre-reading
Purpose: To arouse Ss’ interest in learning about archaeology. 1. Show some pictures and encourage Ss to give as much information about the pictures as possible.
2. Ask Ss to complete the form of Pre-reading on P37 by discussing in pairs.
3. Ask Ss to look at the following pictures and answer the question.
What can you see from the pictures? Step 2. Fast reading Purpose: To get a brief understanding of the text. (1) Ask Ss to read the text quickly and complete the following form. Object Needle What can be discovered from it ? 1 They repaired or made clothes. 2. 3. conclusion: 1. They cared about their appearance. 2. conclusion: 3. conclusion: 4. conclusion:
Suggested Answer: Object Needle What can be discovered from it ? 1 They repaired or made clothes. 2 No methods of making material has been found. 3 Tools have been found to cut and clean animal skins. conclusion: So early people probably wore animal skins. 1 They cared about their appearance. 2 Some of the beads were made of animal bones. conclusion: So early people killed, cut up and most probably ate animals. 3 Some of the beads were made of animal bones. conclusion: So early people caught and probably ate fish in the nearly lake (as shown by botanical analyses). 4 Some of the beads were made of seashells. conclusion: So early people may have travelled to the sea or traded with people who had seashells.
(2) Get Ss to write down the three stages of the archaeologist’s part of the dialogue. Suggested Answers: Stage 1: Life in the cave Stage 2: What we can learn from a needle Stage 3: What we can learn from a necklace Step 3. Intensive reading Purpose: To get Ss to have some details in the text. (1) Ask Ss to read the text carefully and try to get some details from the text. Work in pairs and try to tell which of the following statements are true and which are false and why. ① The archaeologists have only found human and animal bones. ② The archaeologists have been finding the bones of tigers and bears in the caves. ③ The needle they used was very useless. ④ Early people really care about their appearance. Suggested Answers: ① F ② T ③ F ④ T (2) Ask Ss to take the quiz below and according to the questions, see whether Ss can grasp the details of the text. ① Through the conversation, everything about our earliest people is mentioned EXCEPT______. A. homes B. tools C. dress D. entertainment ② Our earliest people in the Zhoukoudian Caves kept themselves warm by ______. A. working B. fighting C. making fires D. hunting ③Evidence has showed that the earliest people in the Caves used_______ to make clothes according to the conversation.
A. leaves B. tree skins C. animal skins D. cotton ④The main idea of the text is about the ___ of our earliest people in the Zhoukoudian Caves. A. life and habits B. food and clothing C. homes and fishing D. farming and hunting ⑤From the conversation we can infer that the earliest people in the Caves were very _____. A. busy and rich B. idle and lazy C. clever and hard-working D. stupid and cruel Suggested Answers: ① D ② C ③ C ④ A ⑤ C (3) Ask Ss to finish Ex2 on P39 and discuss their answers. Step 4. Retelling Ask Ss to retell the text briefly in the first person with the following words and phrases. higher up, in the centre of, the bones of tigers and bears, wear clothes, cut up, rub an ample, on their journeys, grow their own crops Suggested Answers: We have found human and animal bones in those caves higher up the hill as well as tools and ornaments. We have discovered fireplaces in the centre of the caves where they constuted fires. We have been finding the bones of tigers and bears in the caves. Our evidence suggests they did indeed wear clothes made from animal skins. It seems that they might have used sharpened stone tools to cut up the animals and remove their skin. After that they would have had to rub an ample amount of salt inside the skin trade between early peoples or they traveled to the seaside on their journeys. They didn’t grow their own crops, but picked fruit and killed animals. Step 5. Word study. Purpose: To train Ss’s listening ability and language capacity.
Divided into three groups. Each group is supposed to read through each part, and then find the following phrases.
as well as keep out cut up clue to regardless of share…with keep…burning I wonder how… continue doing sth
a pleasure to be aware that in the centre of be made of be used to do sth on one' use…for mean to do make…soft move around
Step 6. Sentence study Explain some important sentences (1) You must be aware that we’ve found evidence of some of the earliest people who lived in this part of the world. (2) So we think it is reasonable to assume they lived in these caves, regardless of the cold. (3) That would have kept them warm, cooked the food and scared wild animals away as well. (4) We have been excavating layers of ash almost six meters thick, which suggests that they might have kept the fire burning all winter. (5) This one looks very like a fish bone. (6) That’s why they are called hunters and gatherers. Step 7. Discussion Ask Ss to discuss the following questions with their partners and give their own opinions. (1) How did the earliest people keep warm? (2) What animals were their most dangerous animals? (3) Did they grow their own crops? Suggested answers: (1) They set up fireplaces in the centre of the caves and hang animal skins at the cave mouth to keep out the cold. (2) Tigers and bears. (3) No, they didn’t. Encourage Ss to give their opinions.
Step 8. Homework
1. Ask Ss to use the new words and expressions to make some sentences. 2. Ask Ss to write a short passage about the story of the earliest people.
Period 4&5 Learning about Language
Teaching Goals: 1.To enable Ss to master some new words and expressions. 2. To get Ss to have knowledge of this grammar point: the present perfect continuous tense Teaching Procedures:
Step 1.Word study
1. Ask Ss to complete the following sentences according to the notes (1) The event has a far-reaching historical s_______. (2) ______（不知怎么地）he couldn’t get to sleep. (3) They will make a s_______（彻底的）search of the city. (4) The workers are ______（挖掘）a tunnel through the mountain. (5) We made a careful _______（分析）of the problem. Suggested Answers: (1). significance (2) Somehow (3) systematic (4) excavating (5) analysis 2. Ask Ss to choose the best answers to the following questions. (1) We_____ for the bus half an hour, but it has not come yet. A. have been waiting B. have waited C. are waiting D. have been waited (2) You are so late. We ____ you for a whole hour. A. waited B. had waited C. were waiting for D. have been waiting for (3) He ____ articles for our wall-newspaper the three years, and he _____about thirty articles. A. has written; has written B. has been writing; wrote C. is write; has been writing D. has been writing; has written (4) It _____ for two days. The roads will be blocked if it ______ soon. A. snowed; won’t B. has been snowing; doesn't stop C. has snowed; won’t stop D. snow ; doesn’t stop (5) It _____ for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on, so the match______. A. has been raining; has put off B. has rained; is put off C. was raining; has been put off D. has been raining; has been put off (6) He wanted to know how this _______. A. had happened B. happened C. has happened D. has been happening (7) I welcome any change that will _____ something better. A. lead in B. lead to C. bring in D. bring up (8) I think her ideas are right, but _____ I’m not completely sure. A. somewhat B. somehow C. somewhere D. sometime (9) He was late _______ the traffic jam. A. lead to B. as a result C. as a result of D. because (10) I ______ him, because he often tells lies. A. think much of B. think highly of C. think little of D. think high of Suggested Answers: (1) A (2) D (3) D (4) B (5) D (6) A (7) B (8) B (9) C (10) C
3. Ask Ss to complete the following sentences with the phrases in the form. in spite of ; think highly of; lead to; take turns to ;refer to; be fed up with
(1) Don’t _____ the dictionary if you come across a new word when you read a passage. (2) _____ the heavy rain, they went to school as usual. (3) I _____ his constant complaint about the had condition. (4) We’d better _____ drive the car , for it’s a long journey. (5) His carelessness _____ an accident. (6) I don’t ________________ her idea. Suggested Answers: (1) refer to (2) In spite of (3) am/was fed up with (4) take turns to (5) led to (6) think highly of
Step 2. Grammar
Purpose : To get Ss to have knowledge of the grammar point: the present perfect continuous tense. . 1. Explain the grammar point for Ss. (1) 现在完成时的“已完成”用法强调动作的完成，而现在完成进行时表示动作未完成。试 分析： I have read David Copperfield.（已看完） I have been reading the novel.（未看完） They have built an oil ship.（已造成） They have been building the oil ship.（未造成） (2) 在与表示一段时间的状语连用时，现在完成时的“未完成”用法和现在完成时都表示动 作过程的持续性，但用现在完成时更强调动作延续时间的长久。如： How long have you learned English?=How long have you been learning English? I’ve been staying in the hotel for six weeks. 我在这家旅馆一直住了六个星期。 My parents have lived in this city all their lives. 我的双亲在这住了一辈子。 (3) 现在完成时同某些频度副词或数字连用时，表示反复的（可能有间断）动作；现在完成 时可以表示反复的不间断动作，不能同表示具体次数和完成事物的具体数字并存。如： I’ve written two letters. 我写了两封信。 I’ve been writing letters. 我一直在写信。 I’ve read this poem six times this evening. I’ve been reading this poem six times this evening.(错句) (4) 现在完成时不带感情色彩，使用现在完成进行时带有感情色彩。试分析： He has been talking too much.(表示厌烦) Someone has been using my pen.(表示埋怨) (5) 表示状态动词的“未完成”用法，用现在完成时，不宜用现在完成进行时。如：
How long have you known each other? *How long have you been knowing each other? (6) 现代英语中，象 lie, rest, wait, stay, sleep 等动词更倾向于现在完成进行时。如： I’ve been waiting for a long time. He’s been sitting here all morning. 2. Ask Ss to choose the best answers to the following questions. (1) They on the program for almost one week before I joined them,and now we it as no good results have come out so far. A. had been working ;are still working B. had worked; were still working C. have been working; have worked D. have worked; are still working (2) Millions of pounds’ worth of damage by a storm which swept across the north of England last night. A. had been caused B. has been caused C. will be caused D. will have been caused (3) Now that she is out of job, Lucy going back to school , she hasn’t decided yet. A. had considered B. has been considering C. considered D. is going to consider (4) The crazy fans patiently for two hours, and they would wait till the movie star arrived. A. were waiting B. had been waiting C. had waited D. would wait (5) —Have you heard from Janet recently? — No, but I her over Christmas. A. saw B. will be seeing C. have seen D. have been seeing (6) You things about. Look, what a mess in your room! A. always throw B. have always thrown C. are always throwing D. have always been throwing (7) —Li Ming is said abroad. Do you know what country he studied in? — Yes, in Britain. A. to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying Suggested Answers: (1) A (2) A (3) B (4) B (5) B (6) C (7) A
3. Divide Ss into groups of four. The first person begins with a sentence and each person in the group adds extra and different information using the tenses, especially the present perfect continuous tense. Examples: S1: I am doing my homework. S2: I did my homework. S3: I have done my homework. S4: I have been doing my homework.
Step 3. Practice
Purpose: To get Ss to have knowledge of the grammar through exercises. Ask Ss to translate the following sentences: 1. 我整个早晨都在读书。 2. 他等公共汽车已经 3 个小时了，可公共汽车还没有来。 3. 在我们到达上海时，已经下了 3 天雨了。 4. 我们一直住在上海。 Suggested Answers: 1. I have been reading books the whole morning. 2. He has been waiting for the bus for 3 hour, but the bus hasn’t arrived. 3. It had been raining for 3 days when we arrived in Shanghai. 4. We have lived in Shanghai. Or we have been living in Shanghai.
Step 4. Homework
1. Ask Ss to finish the exercises of Learning about Language on P40～P41. 2. Ask Ss to preview Using Language.
Period 6 &7 Reading and speaking(Using Language), Speaking and writing (Using Language) & Listening and speaking (Using Language) Teaching Goals: 1. To get Ss to learn more about the knowledge about archaeology. 2. To get Ss to know something about the two main ways archaeologists use to date objects found in the ground. Teaching Procedure: Step 1. Reading and speaking(Using Language) 1. Leading-in Purpose: To lead Ss to the topic and arouse the Ss’ interest in the reading text. (1) Ask Ss to look at the two pictures on P43 and guess what the text is about. (2) Ask Ss to talk about the following question. What might the feast 18000 BC be like? 2. Fast reading Purpose: To get a brief understanding of the text.
Ask Ss to read the text in two minutes and ask Ss to discuss the question and then answer in pairs. What did Dahu do and what did Lala do? Suggested Answers:
DAHU: catch fish, repair stone tools, make scrapers and axe-heads LALA: collect fruit and nuts, prepare food 3. Intensive reading (1) Ask Ss to read the text carefully and choose the best answers to the following questions. ① From the first paragraph, we can learn that the family groups lived on . A. fish B. crops C. hunting D. farming ② Lala’s guests came to . A. dance B. talk about an important thing C. enjoy a feast D. see Lala ③ Dahu went out to sharpen the scrapers to . A. kill an enemy B. use them as weapons C. scrape the fish D. cut stones ④ This text is mainly an imaginative story about a family feast of . A. a girl B. a man C. a girl of the earliest people D. a modem girl ⑤ From the text we can infer that family groups . A. lived together B. lived far away C. lived in the same cave D. lived separately Suggested Answers: ① C ② C ③ A ④ B ⑤ A (2) Ask Ss to retell the reading text according to the form. Men’s tasks ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ Making and repairing tools Fishing Cutting down trees Hunting animals Protecting the group from harm ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ Women’s takes Collecting nuts, fruit and water Cutting up meat and fish cooking Preparing skins to make clothes Preparing food Looking after children
Step 2. Speaking and writing (Using Language)
1. Ask Ss to answer the following questions.
(1) Have you ever heard about Sanxingdui? (2) Do you know what has been found in Sanxingdui? 2. Ask Ss to look at the pictures on P44 and tell them they are what have been found in Sanxingdui. And then let them discuss the following question. What were these objects possibly used for? 3. Ask Ss to write a description of Sanxingdui Ruins. The following points must be included in the writing. (1) the name of the site where the four objects were found and their possible dates; (2) a description of each including appearance, shape and a guess about the material it was made of; (3) what each might have been used for; (4) what we can learn from these objects about the people who lived then. 4. Ask some Ss to read aloud their descriptions before the class.
Step 3. Listening (Using Language) 1. Ask Ss to discuss the following question. Do you know how to date bones? 2. Ask Ss to listen to the tape and finish Ex1 of Listening and speaking on P42. 3. Play the tape again and ask Ss to finish Ex2 of Listening and speaking on P42. 4. Ask Ss to look at the following pictures and try to work out their chronological order. Then let them give their reasons.
(1) ______________ (2) ______________ (3) ______________
Step 4. Homework
Ask Ss to choose the best answers to the following questions. 1. with a difficult situation, Arnold decided to ask his boss advice. A. To face B. Having faced C. Faced D. Facing 2. Sarah, hurry up. I’m afraid you can’t have time to before the party. A. get changed B. get change C. get changing D. get to change 3. I’m going to the supermarket this afternoon. Do you have anything ?
A. to be buying B. to buy C. for buying D. bought 4. Apples are usually sold by weight and eggs are sometimes sold by dozen. A. the; the B. /;a C. /;the D. the ;a 5. —You didn’t get hurt at all in the traffic accident? — . I was a lucky dog. A. No problem B. I don’t think so C. I’m afraid not D. Good heavens no 6. Johnson worked very hard he might fail the examination again. A. filling that B. fearing C. filling of D. filled with 7. He picked a book from the shelf books. A. filling with B. filled of C. feared of D. fearing of 8. She often London from Oxford at weekends. A. comes down to B. comes up to C. comes over D. comes on to 9. He tried to avoid responsibility the accident. A. to take; for B. taking; for C. taking; of D. to take; of 10. His bad manners suggest family education. A. lacking of B. a lack of C. lack for D. to lack 11. The little baby the little girl’s attention. A. rose B. raised C. sank D. dropped 12. My spirits when I heard the news that an earthquake had happened in my hometown. A. rose B. raised C. sank D. dropped 13. We must regard this situation very serious. A. with B. like C. as D. for 14. She shows toward her children. A. influence B. affection C. affect D. efforts 15. The way he explained to us was quite simple. A. in which B./ C. in that D. where Suggested Answers: 1～5 DBCDA 6～10 BADBB 11～15 BBCBB