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高中英语高考完形填空解题技巧


完形填空
能力考察: (1)词语辨析能力 (2)语法结构分析能力 (3)语篇理解能力 (4)逻辑推理能力 (5)文化背景透析能力 (6)作者意图剖析能力 (7)生活常识综合运用能力 命题分析:主要以记叙文、夹叙夹议型的文章为主,伴之以说明文和议论文。所选材料源于 生活,时代感强,语言地道,内容健康,情节丰富,寓意深刻,常涉及人物的心理活动描写, 集知识、文化、教育和娱乐为一体,具有极强的可读性。 选项的设置上越来越淡化语法结构, 重在文意的干扰, 即把具体的语言知识溶进具体的语言 情景中去,考查考生通过上下文的前后提示或暗示,对整体文意进行把握的能力。这种考查 方式所占的比例较大,且难度也大,若单纯从句子或个别段落来分析,或许所给的四个选项 在语法和结构上都是正确的,若放在全局,则不一定正确。因此,快速浏览全文,领悟文章 主 旨 , 通 过 上 下 文 的 语 境 来 选 择 正 确 答 案 是 解 决 这 类 题 的 关 键 。

考查内容和范围 1.考查的词类 广东卷完形填空只考查实词,主要是名词、动词(包括动词短语)、形容词、副词等。同 时, 每小题的四个选项均属同一词类或同一语法形式。 2.选文特点 广东卷完形填空的体裁可以是具有一定故事情节的记叙文, 或是夹叙夹议、富有哲理 的议论文, 也可以是说明文。 完形填空的首句是文章的窗口, 有助于考生了解和推测全文的大意, 所以短文首句均 不设空 广东卷完形填空的全部答案都是通过理解上下文来确定的, 也可以说是要求考生从文章中 找出直接或间接的答案。 它一般不设纯语法题, 如不设主谓一致题, 不设复合句的连接词, 不考介词、代词等。另外, 四个选项中一般不会出现很难辨析的同义词或近义词。逻辑推 理、背景知识、生活常识、习惯用法和搭配是命题者经常考虑的命题点。 3.考查的主要技能 首先, 考查结合文章上下文对词汇意义及其用法的理解和运用能力。 完形填空题型有相 当一部分试题是考查考生能否根据文章的上下文来正确辨别所给选项, 选出最适合文章语 境的词或词组。其次,考查考生灵活运用习惯用法和常用搭配的能力。另外,考查考生根 据生活常识进行推理和判断的能力。 探究点一 对名词和动词的考查 一、名词 对名词考查的主要项目是名词词义辨析,名词与介词的搭配、名词与动词的搭配等。 做题时应该注意:

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1.名词的基本意义以及同、近义名词的区分 例 1 Chinese arts have won the ________ of a lot of people outside China. A.enjoyment B.appreciation C.entertainment D.reputation 2.名词在特定情景、语境中的特殊含义 例 2 “The longer you stay away from the motherland, she said, “the sweeter your blood ” grows to the mosquitoes.” Well, less than a week after my arrival, I was already carpeted with a ________ of mosquito bites. A.shade B.pile C.cloud D.blanket 例 3 It didn’t matter whether you were black, white or Asian; everyone worked together for the ________ of the company. A.good B.boss C.rest D.right 3.名词与动词的搭配 例 4 I have read the material several times but it didn’t make any ________ to me. A.meaning B.importance C.sense D.significance 4.名词与介词的搭配 例 5 Other animals, it is true, communicate with one another by ________ of cries. A.ways B.means C.methods D.approaches 例 6 Don’t leave matches or cigarettes on the table within________ of little children. A.hand B.reach C.space D.distance 例 7 I keep medicines on the top shelf, out of the children’s ________. A.reach B.hand C.hold D.place 例 8 He and his wife are of the same ________ ; they both want their son to go to college. A.soul B.spirit C.heart D.mind 二、动词 动词是高考考查的热点。 命题者通过设计特定的、 真实的语境对动词和动词短语的用法 进行考查。做题时应该注意: 1.动词的基本意义、引申意义 例 9 Scientists around the world have been studying the warming of waters in the Pacific Ocean known as EL Nino.The appearance of EL Nino is known to ________ the weather around the world. A.effect B.affect C.spoil D.heat 例 10 People who are well adjusted are able to________ stressful situations better than others. A.handle B.create C.affect D.investigate 2.同、近义动词的区分 例 11 Hospital staff burst into cheers after doctors completed a 20 hour operation to have________ one year old twins at the head. A.cut B.separated C.divided D.removed 例 12 Four years of study in Hong Kong is not cheap, costing at least 400,000 yuan, but many top students ________ scholarships. A.accept B.receive C.require D.request 3.动词与介词的搭配 例 13 A month ago, right before leaving Kennedy Airport, my grandma________ me of the behavior of the native mosquitoes around the visitors like me.

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A.persuaded B.reminded C.warned D.informed 例 14 Scientists are ________ of the positive effect of laughter on physical and mental health. A.convinced B.persuaded C.allowed D.prevented 4.动词与名词的搭配 例 15 “But they are ________damage to our houses and shops of historical interest, said ” John Norris, one of the protesters. A.doing B.raising C.putting D.producing 例 16 He explained that I looked for the best in people, ...From then on, I’ always tried ve to________the principle in my life and later in running my company. A.revise B.Set C.review D.follow 5.动词短语的意义 例 17 They thought they would get the chance to ________ the new oil fields in this area. A.put up B.set up C.open up D.build up 例 18 …he told me I needed to relax because I looked nervous.After I ________ , I played better. A.fell down B.wrote down C.slowed down D.calmed down 例 19 He tried to make a telephone call, but was unable to________. A.get on B.get up C.get through D.get in 例 20 Scientists have found that the longer the voyage lasts, the more serious the problem of adjustment is.When men are ________ together for a long period, they begin to feel uneasy. A.shut up B.held up C.brought up D.picked up 探究点二 对形容词和副词的考查 1.形容词、副词的基本意义、引申意义 例 1 That his only son was killed in a car accident was a __________ blow to the old man. A.heavy B.broad C.huge D.main 例 2 She has the ability to keep________ in an emergency. A.quiet B.calm C.still D.silent 例 3 Mr.Smith used to smoke ________ but he has given it up. A.seriously B.heavily C.badly D.hardly 例 4 The final score of the basketball match was 93∶94.We were only ________ beaten. A.nearly B.slightly C.narrowly D.lightly 例 5 It is always difficult being in a foreign country, ________ if you don’t speak the language. A.extremely B.naturally C.basically D.especially 例 6 She devoted herself ________ to her research and it earned her a good reputation in her field. A.strongly B.extremely C.entirely D.freely 2.同、近义形容词、副词的区别 在对形容词和副词的考查中, 有时会碰到同义、近义词的辨析。辨析时, 单从汉语意思上 有时是无法辨清的。 我们要逆向思维, 采用反义对比、 分析构词等方法, 使语义一目了然。 例 7 When I took his temperature, it was two degrees above ________. A.average B.ordinary C.regular D.normal

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例8 Letter boxes are much more ________ in the UK than in the US, where most people have a mailbox instead. A.Common B.Normal C.ordinary D.usual 例 9 It’s in the ________ interest that we should have a well run health service. A.ordinary B.general C.Particular D.usual 例 10 Now, in our country, free medical treatment covers sickness of mind as well as ________sickness. A.normal B.average C.ordinary D.regular 3.形容词与介词的搭配 例 11 This magazine is very ________ with young people, who like its content and style. A.familiar B.popular C.similar D.particular 4.副词与动词的搭配 例 12 I ________ recognize the difficult situation the company is in. A.Strongly B.deeply C.sincerely D.fully 5.语境 对形容词、副词的考查, 侧重语境考查占较大比重。解答此类题目时不仅要理解形容 词和副词的词义, 而且对语境的正确理解更为重要。所以,要根据语境选择与短文所描述 的情景或叙述的人、物、事件的性质、特征等有关的形容词或副词, 选择与短文前后叙述 的话题、主题、中心内容相关的形容词或副词。 例 13 The committee is discussing the problem right now. It will ________ have been solved by the end of next week. A.eagerly B.hopefully C.immediately D.gradually 例 14 At times, worrying is a normal, ________ response to a difficult event or situation — a loved one being injured in an accident, for example. A.effective B.individual C.inevitable D.unfavorable 探究点三 前制性、后制性和语篇性的设空 完形填空答案有的由已读过的上文决定, 有的由未读过的下文决定, 还有的要综合上 下文而定, 这三种设空方法分别称为前制性设空、 后制性设空和语篇性设空。 毫无疑问, 前 制性设空难度低, 后制性设空难度较高, 语篇性设空难度最大。 1.前制性设空:答案由已读过的上文决定 例 1 I couldn’t bear the pain of the bites. I woke up my cousin, who was sleeping peacefully in the bed next to mine. Unhappy for being ______ she said, “There is nothing you can do…” A.blamed B.interrupted C.moved D.frightened 例 2 Being alone in outer space can be frightening. That is one reason why astronauts on solo space flights were given plenty of work to keep them ________ . A.tired B.asleep C.conscious D.busy 2.后制性设空:答案由未读过的下文决定 例 3 Ring up this lady. She wants a ________ immediately. In fact, you would have to start tomorrow by cooking a dinner for ten people. A.cook B.help C.teacher D.secretary 例 4 Liu Mei is among the ________ ones. The Chinese University of Hong Kong granted Liu a full scholarship — HK$500,000. Not all students are so fortunate. A.poor B.smart C.lucky D.silent 例 5 It had been a longstanding joke in our family that I wanted a piano so that I could

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________lessons. “Learn to play the piano, and I’ get you one.” was my husband’ response. ll s A.give B.take C.draw D.teach 3.语篇性设空:综合上下文后敲定答案 这种设题方式体现了“突出语篇”的命题思路。 例 6 I did very badly at school.My headmaster thought I was ________ and when I was 14 he said, “You’re never going to be anything but a failure.” A.bright B.useless C.simple D.hopeful 例 7 I played a racquetball game against my cousin Ed last week. It was one of the most ________ games I’ve ever had. When Ed suggested we play, I laughed quietly, figuring on an easy victory. ...When the game finally ended, both of us were lying flat on our backs. In a way, I think we both won: I won the game, but cousin Ed won my respect. A.encouraging B.hopeless C.surprising D.regular 探究点四 句子、句组和语篇的层次 完形填空题设空的答案有的由一个句子决定, 有的由相邻不远的一组句子决定, 还有 的由语篇内容综合决定。因此, 完形填空设空分为句子层次、句组层次和语篇层次。设空 的难度, 从句子层次到句组层次, 再到语篇层次, 依次递增。 1.句子层次 完形填空的设空答案由一个句子决定。 其所提供的四个选项往往在语法上都能成立,但 从语境来看, 却只有一个选项是最合适的。 例 1 I could hardly wait for him to open up his gift. In fact, I barely slept the night before. Upon awakening, I went to the kitchen to ________ the coffee, tea and morning goodies. A.start B.Cook C.set D.serve 例 2 For hours, the secretary took no notice of them, hoping that the couple would finally become ________ and go away. A.surprised B.disappointed C.worried D.troubled 例 3 I would go to the pile of letters marked with “Funny” if we needed a“________”, or... A.Cry B.Laugh C.Chat D.Sigh 2.句组层次 完形填空题有的设空仅仅根据一个句子往往解决不了问题, 必须联系上下句, 甚至更 多的句子才能得出答案。有的试题需要考生越过句子, 甚至是段落来进行理解和推断。句 组层次的题型, 比句子层次的在难度上提高了。 例 4 And they asked why I would risk everything for a dream. I made my __1__ to start my own company and leave my secure position after __2__ a regional sales meeting. The vicepresident of our company delivered a __3__ that changed my life. He asked us, “If a god would offer you three wishes, what would they be?” After giving us a moment to write down the three wishes, he then asked us, “Why do you need a god?” I would never forget the power I felt at that moment. 1.A.plan B.Promise C.decision D.mind 2.A.attending B.Joining C.entering D.holding 3.A.newspaper B.Book C.report D.speech 3.语篇层次 完形填空的设空答案若从单句或局部来分析, 所给的四个答案在语法或结构上都是正 确的, 若统观全篇, 则只有一个是正确的。语篇层次是完形填空命题的较高层次, 这个 层次的题难度较大, 做题时需要具备很强的阅读理解能力以及逻辑推理、 分析判断的能力。 例5

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Dear Laura, I just heard you tell an old story of gift giving and unselfish love in your program.You doubted that such unselfish love would happen in today’s world.Well, I’m here to give you ________ .... So I wanted you to know, that kind of love still exists and lives even in the everchanging world of me, me, me! I thought you’d love to share this story. A.hope B.Advice C.support D.courage 例 6 Four students from Burlington College of Higher Education are in the bell tower of the________ and have made up their minds to ring the bells nonstop for two weeks as a protest against heavy trucks which run day and night through the narrow High Street. ...“Not really,” she said, “actually we are proper bellringers. I mean we are assistant bellringers for the church...I left the church with the sound of the bells ringing in my ears.” A.college B.village C.town D.church 专题一 记叙文型完形填空 记叙文是高考完形填空的主打体裁。其主要特点是以记叙为主,辅以各种综合表达方法,包 括描写、说明、议论和抒情等。通过对人和事的描写表达作者的思想感情和中心思想。记叙 的要素包括时间、地点、人物、事件的起因、经过和结果。记叙文的另一特点就是有一定的 叙事线索,如:人物线索(人物的经历、见闻、感受等)、事件线索(中心事件的来龙去脉)、 感情线索(作者或作品中主要人物的思想感情变化)、时间线索、地点和空间线索等。作者在 叙述过程中往往会融入人物的语言、行为、心理的描写,这在一定程度上增加了考生理解文 章的难度。这时,考生必须理清上下文的脉络,对人物的语言、行为、心理等进行合理的想 象和推理,并仔细揣摩作者的用意,从而透彻理解文意,达到对语境的准确理解,这样才能 作出合理的选择。 “What a busy day! Babysitting the three boys aged eight, and four is extremely tiring, six ”Mary thought. Leaning back,she__1__ her feet onto the sofa to get comfortable.Whoever said babysitting was a(n)__2__way to make money obviously hadn’t met the three boys,she thought.The television was on,the room was warm,and the lights were dim.Mary’s __3__ felt heavier and heavier.I mustn’t sleep,she thought—which was __4__ what she did,of course. Strangely enough,she soon__5__that she was a worldfamous chef(主厨).She made a __6__and wore diamonds and designer clothes.Most days she relaxed by the pool,meeting the rich and famous or reading—her favorite hobby.She__7__took the leading role in her own TV show. That is, until she became too proud.“I am definitely the best in the world,”she thought,as she prepared a tasty chicken dish.But __8__ seemed to go right.She spilt the flour, dropped an egg she and she cut her finger.Despite all the troubles,she __9__ to get the chicken into the stove.Soon, smoke blanketed the room.The chicken was on fire.__10__set in,but Mary could not run—she was__11__to the spot.She tried hard to move,but could not,until a sharp sound awoke her. She got shocked and confused—__12__ was pouring from the kitchen.Rushing to investigate,she was met by three __13__ little faces and some very burnt bread.“Sorry,we were hungry and you were __14__,so we tried to make some bread,” explained a boy.Relieved,Mary made them a snack and sent them back to bed.She __15__ them never to fall asleep on the job again! ( )1.A.shook B.put C.bent D.kept ( )2.A.difficult B.boringC.important D.easy ( )3.A.eyes B.mind C.heart D.legs ( )4.A.nicely B.exactly C.curiously D.carelessly

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( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

)5.A.realized B.reminded C.learnt D.dreamt )6.A.decision B.fortune C.business D.plan )7.A.just B.ever C.even D.only )8.A.everything B.something C.anything D.nothing )9.A.tried B.arranged C.Managed D.prepared )10.A.Panic B.pain C.Noise D.Stress )11.A.frozen B.dragged C.pushed D.brought )12.A.smoke B.light C.water D.fire )13.A.cheerful B.Strange C.guilty D.confident )14.A.busy B.hungry C.worried D.asleep )15.A.promised B.allowed C.expected D.persuaded (一) As she waited at the edge of the ice for her music to start, Peggy took a quick look at her father standing nearby with a group of parents and teachers.He smiled at her. Then she__1__ out at the audience, hoping to see her mother.These two, Alvert and Doris Flemint, had __2__ all the way from California more than 2,000 miles away, to see their__3__ compete in this sport meet in Cleveland, Ohio.The music __4__ and Peggy moved onto the ice, letting the music __5__ her along into her turns, and she began skating with much __6__ in herself.The cold fear she always had in the __7__ seconds before skating onto the ice was __8__.She was feeling the movement of the__9__ and letting it carry her.She skated easily, then did some jumps, a final turn and her performance was __10__. The crowd loved it and cheered as she skated off the ice.“Nice job,” said one of the other__11__ .It was the remark that always came after a free skating performance.But what should the judges say?Standing beside her father, Peggy __12__ for the scoring to be finished.On all sides were other young skaters, some waiting __13__alone, others with a parent.Shortly before 10 o’clock the results were __14__.The new United States Women’s Figure Skating Champion was Peggy Fleming of Pasadena, __15__ . ( )1.A.looked B.watched C.found D.stepped ( )2.A.bicycled B.driven C.run D.walked ( )3.A.friend B.children C.son D.daughter ( )4.A.started B.played C.developed D.sang ( )5.A.allow B.set out C.carry D.support ( )6.A.thought B.belief C.success D.design ( )7.A.following B.last C.recent D.past ( )8.A.lost B.present C.strong D.gone ( )9.A.music B.fear C.ice D.audiences ( )10.A.satisfied B.unsatisfactory C.finished D.welcome ( )11.A.skaters B.parents C.judges D.teachers ( )12.A.waited B.looked C.wished D.asked ( )13.A.comfortably B.hurriedly C.happily D.anxiously ( )14.A.cried out B.let out C.announced D.declared ( )15.A.England B.Cleveland C.Ohio D.California (二) When I was in the final year of my graduation studies, we visited a friend’s home for lunch. I had

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no__1__about where he lived. I just knew that he took the bus from his home to our college. The __2__ we reached his house, I found the staircases of his building were not so good.I couldn’ t describe it __3__.It was not even the type of house in which a __4__ middle class Indian family lives. One of the greatest things I did find there was __5__ parents.We sat on the __6__ for lunch because they didn’t have a dining table.His mother __7__ very delicious food for us, __8__ throughout and showed care for the entire lunch, which I could never forget. His father worked as a normal mechanic and I __9__ if he could earn enough money to support his two sons.While we were having lunch, his father returned home to __10__ us.When he entered the home, his hands were dark black and his clothes were dirty.I remember our friend had no __11__ over introducing his father to us.I think it is rarely what we see in today’s __12__. Just 4-5 minutes after his father came in, our friend asked us if we wanted “Papad” (a typical Indian food) to eat.Before we could say __13__, his mother said there was no “Padad” in the house. Very gently and kindly, his father went into the kitchen, and came back a few minutes later with a full plate of “Papad” for us, even though he was looking very __14__. Don’t you think of this as __15__ of a poor family? ( )1.A.opinion B.Idea C.thought D.view ( )2.A.day B.Morning C.moment D.hour ( )3.A.in language B.with words C.with language D.in words ( )4.A.typical B.rich C.national D.reasonable ( )5.A.loving B.skilled C.humorous D.funny ( )6.A.door B.stairs C.ground D.bed ( )7.A.bought B.made C.prepared D.heated ( )8.A.spoke B.talked C.laughed D.smiled ( )9.A.wondered B.knew C.asked D.questioned ( )10.A.smile at B.look after C.meet up with D.put up with ( )11.A.mind B.hesitation C.concern D.upset ( )12.A.parents B.community C.generation D.society ( )13.A.everything B.nothing C.anything D.something ( )14.A.happy B.tired C.satisfied D.worried ( )15.A.richness B.fullness C.sweetness D.goodness

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