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高中英语《完形填空解题技巧》PPT课件


命题特点:

1. 短文长度300词左右,记叙文、说明文和议论文为主。 记叙文故事情节多有曲折,结果出乎意料,是幽默所 在;议论文结构严谨层次分明,有很多对仗现象。 2. 首句无空格,提供语境。5-10词设一空,人名、 地名、 日期、数字不在之列。 3. 选项多为一词,偶会为词组。四选项为同一类词或属 同一范畴,或近义或形异义,或与前后配成词组。故 干扰性、迷性大。有时单独看一句话语法都是正确的, 但根据上下文只有一个正确答案。

4. 考查单词以实词(v, n, adj, adv, pron.)为主,虚 词(conj.,prep.)为辅。实词一般占80%-90%。 5. 以考查学生对文章的整体理解(篇章逻辑题)和 词汇的意义(词汇题)把握为主。有些要结合 常识才能正确选项;有些甚至要求在通篇理解 的基础上,正确把握上下文的逻辑关系,才能 正确判断和选择。 6. 有些空格答案由上文决定(前置性设空),有些 由后文决定(后置性设空),有些要综合上下 文才能得到答案(语篇性设空),以后置性设 空为主。

英语完形填空解题步骤
1.

2.
3.

4.

速览全文,把握大意。 ≈2mins 细读首句,摸清文路。 ≈1mins 瞻前顾后,准确选择。 ≈10mins 复核全文,调整答案。 ≈2mins

做完形填空必须读懂文章,前后逻辑一致;完形填空 每个小题的正确答案都是有充分根据的,可以在文章 汇总找到具体的突破口也就是信息点。解题时应联系 上下文寻找相关线索,如某一个词的原词、指代词、 同义词、近义词、上义词、下义词和概括词等。

答题方法: ? 1)择优法:根据文章及结构边读边填,如 果能够立刻判定最佳答案的,不必再去逐 个考证其余答案。 ? 2)排除法:如答案一时难以确定,可按空 格位置,从语法结构、词语搭配、上下文 语境、习惯用法、词义辨析等方面,对选 项逐项分析试填。排除干扰项,从而确定 正确答案。
?

Here are some Basic skills of cloze

Skill 1:Choosing by context(上下文、语境)
eg. Many old people don’t have good _____. A. hearing B. health C. eyesight C 1) They can’t watch TV, but they can listen to music or news over the radio. A2) They can’t listen to music or news over the radio, but they can read with glasses.
B 3) They can’t walk outside, but they can watch

TV or listen to music or news over the radio at home.

eg2. Wait till you are more _____. A. relaxed B. satisfied C. certain C 1) It’s better to be sure than sorry.

B 2) I’ll improve it once more. A 3) Or else you’ll be more nervous on the
stage. eg3.Traveling ____, today becomes yesterday; traveling west it is tomorrow. A. south B. east C. north D. west eg4. Some parts of the water are very shallow. But in some places it is very, very ____. A. deep B. high C. cold D. dangerous

Skill 2:logic(逻辑推理)
eg1. When we talked, I discovered(发现) some differences in school life between the US and China. For example, each class lasts fifty minutes in the US. It is a little ____ than that in China. We usually have forty-five minutes in each class.

A. shorter

B. longer

eg2. My mother often asked me,“What is the most important part of the body?” I thought sound was very important to us as humans,so I said.“My ________, Mommy.” She said,“No.Many people are deaf(聋的)… A. ears B. eyes C. body D. head



C. earlier

D. later



Skill 3:Choosing by meanings of words and expressions (词汇和短语用法)
eg1. At this moment, the air hostess 1 . She looked pale, but was quite 2 . Vt. 1. A. showed Vt. B. presented C. exposed Vt. D. appeared Vi
2. A. well B. still C. calm D. quiet

eg2. In the morning, the king went to visit the pond. To his surprise, the pond was only filled with water! What happened? Yes! Everyone had the thesame sameidea __that man. A. with B. to C. as D. of

Skill4: Choosing by grammar(语法分析)
eg1.…and the officers then began to eat their meal, saying that the mushrooms had a very strange ____ quite pleasant taste. A. beside B. but C. and D. or


Skill 5: Choosing by common sense(常识)
eg1.I turned the key in the lock and _____the door open. A. knocked B. forced C. pushed D. tried eg2. All over the world people swim for fun. Swimming is enjoyed by people of ______ages, from the very young to the very old. There are many places for people to swim in 。 swimming pools. A. all B. none C. some D. both

eg3. (Immediately) the officers jumped into their cars and rushed to the_____hospital. A. animal B. biggest C. plant D. nearest

The skills of finishing Cloze?
Skill1: Choosing by 上下文、语境

Skill2: Choosing by 逻辑推理
Skill3: Choosing by 词汇和短语用法

Skill4: Choosing by 语法分析
Skill5: Choosing by 常识

完形填空四利用:
1. 利用复现或同类的词汇答题。 ? 2. 利用前后文的对仗关系。 ? 3. 利用上下文的逻辑关系。 ? 4. 生活常识。
?

完形填空三忌:
忌不看首句,直奔空格处作答。 ? 忌当做语法填空来做。完形填空很多选项 必须根据上下文才能选出,不是孤立的看 本句话。 ? 忌先入为主,一气呵成。做题时先填把握 的空格,对不是很有把握的先放一放,在 后文的到答案或在做完全文后回头看才会 获得答案。
?

Cloze is interesting, though difficult.

The more we practice, the easier it will be!

记叙文型
1.记叙文型完形填空的特点 (1)在记事记叙文的完形填空中,作者在文章的开头就把事 件及其发生的时间、地点交代清楚,然后对这件事情的发 生、发展进行陈述,反映出作者的某种思想,最后得出事 件的结果。 (2)在记人记叙文的完形填空中,作者往往在文章的第一句 话就交代出所述人物的姓名、身份、成就,让读者对他有 一个总体的印象。然后,对这个人的成长经历作出详细的 介绍,从而让读者对他有更清楚的认识。 (3)记叙文的人称通常有第一人称和第三人称。采用第一人 称,便于直抒胸臆,读起来有种亲切感和真实感。采用第 三人称,不受时空限制,能从多方面自由叙述。

实例透析 (2011· 四川卷)I truly feel that my mother led me here,to Morzaine , and to my future as a happy wife and businesswoman.When Mum
death 可知,当时母亲已去世。

21

从第 26 个空后出现的 her

in October 2007,I was a cook.In 22 23 , 从空后的 I was distraught

December that year,while I was working for a wedding,a pearl necklace Mum had left me
及下文对项链去向的猜测可知答案。

I was distraught ( 忧心如焚
几天后,我被告知那个和我们

的).Some days later,I was
一起工作的家伙??

that a guy who was working with us that 24
根据逻辑

day,“could probably have made a fortune
推理,此人应该是将捡到的项链卖掉,以换取钱财。

the necklace he

found.”

25

, 幸 运 地 是 , 他 把 它 还 回 来 了 。 he returned 26
从后文的 for six months before her death

it.Hearing how I’d

及他对作者提出的外出放松一下的建议来看, 作者应该是照顾了母亲很长时间。

Mum

for six months before her death, he said, “Christmas is going to be 27
按逻辑推理,没有亲人的陪伴,圣诞节会让作者更难过。

—why not go out

to the Alps for a couple of weeks?” I came to Morzaine,a small,friendly village in the Alps and 28
作者来到了一个很小却友善的村庄,并立刻喜欢上了它。fell

in love with

it.What was

29

固定短语 be supposed to“被认为是”。to

be a stopgap

(权宜之计) trip turned into a new life.I kept travelling between London and here and felt 30
由上下文可知, 这次旅行医治了作者内心 的伤痛,其心情也逐渐轻松起来。than

I had in months.In December 2008,

I was

31

句意为: 我被聘为一家旅馆经理。

as a hotel manager and

moved here full time. A month later,I met Paul,who was travelling here.We fell in love.In the beginning,I didn’t want to discuss
开始,我并未想到要谈婚论嫁。because

32

,一

the sadness of losing Mum great.Paul understood that but, by summer, 35 .根据下

33

失去母亲的悲痛仍然折磨着我。felt

and never

34

保罗理解那种感觉, 从不催促我。 me

we got married.A year later,we used his saving,and the money from the sale of Mum’s house,to build our own We want to give our guests a 36

文和前文作者曾做过旅馆经理的经历可推断出作者建立了自己的旅馆。 我们想给我们的客人家的感

觉。 feel, so

each room is themed (以??为主题) around memories 37

from our lives.There are also styles to remind me of Mum—a tiny chair which
子。be 其中一个房间里就摆放了母亲卧室里曾摆放过的一把小椅

in her bedroom is set in one room. 38
句意为:我们 根据

We are having a wonderful life and Mum
生活得很好,母亲会很自然地感受到这些。naturally 前后文逻辑关系及语意可知。there’s

part of it, 39

no way we would be here if it gave me.I know she’s here in

wasn’t for the

40

根据该句中的定语从句 she gave me 并结合前文可知,

此处作者指的是母亲送给她的项链。she

spirit,keeping an eye on us.

21.A.died C.returned 22.A.burned C.broke 23.A.shown C.persuaded 24.A.hiding C.selling 25.A.Luckily C.Surely 26.A.nursed C.missed 27.A.long C.merry

B.came D.visited B.disappeared D.dropped B.comforted D.told B.stealing D.wearing B.Naturally D.Hopefully B.cured D.guarded B.hard D.free

28.A.suddenly C.nearly 29.A.said C.supposed 30.A.smarter C.firmer 31.A.honoured C.regarded 32.A.travel C.children 33.A.recently C.still 34.A.left C.surprised

B.finally D.immediately B.proved D.judged B.higher D.lighter B.hired D.trained B.business D.marriage B.once D.firstly B.pushed D.interrupted

35.A.hotel C.home 36.A.homely C.motherly 37.A.ought to C.might 38.A.takes C.looks 39.A.unless C.because 40.A.money C.house
答案 21~25 ABDCA 36~40 ABDCD

B.restaurant D.shop B.lively D.friendly B.used to D.could B.keeps D.feels B.while D.though B.chair D.necklace
26~30 ABDCD 31~35 BDCBA

考题印证 Test 1 (2011· 陕西卷)In a land far away, once upon a time there was great poverty,and only the rich could manage without great 2 village. The first could not stand seeing the poverty, and shared 5 4 he took all the gold and jewels from his waggons (四轮载重马车) out among the villagers.He wished them all the best of luck,and he left. 1 .Three of those rich men and their servants were 3 together on a road when they came to a very

The second rich man,seeing the stopped for a short time and gave drink,since he 8 to them.He made sure that they each and would have enough food to he left. 11 7 10

6

situation, 9

all his food and their fair share

see that money would be of little

for some time.Then, and

The third rich man, on seeing such poverty, 12 went straight through the each other was help. 15 14 13

without stopping.The two

other rich men saw this from a distance and commented with the third rich man lacked sympathy.It that they themselves had been there to offer

However,three days later,they quickly,but his waggons, been 18

16

the third rich man, 17 travelling 20 .He

who was coming in the opposite direction.He was

the gold and valuables they had

19 ,were now full of farming tools and bags of

was rushing back to help them out of poverty.

1.A.loss C.success

B.expectations D.problems

解析

句意为: ?? 只有富人能够毫无困难地应付。

loss“损失”;expectation“期望”;success“成功”; problem“问题,难题”。由句意可知 D 项正确。

答案

D

2.A.standing C.gathering
解析

B.travelling D.running

句意为:三个富人和他们的仆人一起在路上行驶,

这时他们来到了一个很穷的村子。根据后文,我们知道, 他们是乘着四轮马车来的, 所以用 travelling。 stand“站”; gather“聚集”;run“跑”。

答案

B

3.A.faraway C.different
解析

B.poor D.ancient

从下文知,他们到的这个村庄很穷。 faraway“遥远

的”;poor“贫穷的”;different“不同的”;ancient“古代的”。

答案

B
B.because

4.A.unless

C.so D.if 解析 句意为:第一个人看到这儿很穷,感到不忍心,于
是他把马车上所有的金子和首饰卸下来,在村民们之间分 了。unless“除非”;because“因为”;so“因此”;if“如果”。 此处为因果关系,所以选 so。

答案

C

5.A.them C.nothing
解析

B.anything D.those

them 指代前面的 all the gold and jewels。

答案

A
B.worrying

6.A.curious

C.dangerous D.puzzling 解析 句意为:第二个富人看到这令人担忧的情
形……curious“好奇的”,常用来修饰人;worrying“令人担 忧的”;dangerous“危险的”,本文只说这个地方穷,并未说 危险;puzzling“令人困惑的”。根据语境应选 worrying。

答案

B

7.A.the villagers C.the others

B.his servants D.the rest

解析 此处表示把食物和饮料给了村民(the villagers)。

答案
8.A.could

A
B.might D.must

C.should

解析

句意为: ……因为他能够看到钱对他们来说几乎没

有用。could“能够”;might“也许;可能”;should“应该”; must“一定;必须”。根据句意选 could。

答案

A

9.A.interest C.use
解析

B.concern D.attraction

interest“ 兴 趣 ” ; concern“ 关 心 ” ; use“ 用 处 ” ;

attraction“吸引力”。be of little use“几乎没有用”。

答案

C
B.gained D.received

10.A.returned C.offered

解析

句意为:他确保他们每个人都得到了公平的一份

而且有足够的食物维持一段时间。return“归还;返回”; gain“赢得,博得”;offer“提供”;receive“收到”。根据句 意及语境,应选 D 项。

答案

D

11.A.remain C.supply

B.last D.share

解析 last“维持”,符合句意。如 enough food to last three days“足够维持三天的食物”。 remain“剩下, 剩余; 仍然是”; supply“提供”;share“分享”。

答案

B

12.A.turned back C.showed off
解析

B.set out D.speeded up

根据后面前两个富人对第三个富人的评价及

“__17__ travelling quickly” 可 知 , 此 处 应 为 “ 加 快 速 度”(speed up)。turn back“返回”,与 went straight 矛盾; set out“动身,出发”;show off“炫耀”。A、B、C 三项均 不合题意,所以选 D 项。

答案

D

13.A.village C.field
解析 庄”(village)。

B.land D.road

由上下文可知,此处应为径直穿过这个“村

答案

A
B.how D.when

14.A.whether C.where 解析 在此表示程度。

句意为: ……第三个富人是多么缺乏同情心。 how

答案

B

15.A.good C.true
解析

B.certain D.strange

句意为:他们自己在那儿提供了帮助,这件事真

好 。 good“ 好 的 ” ; certain“ 确 定 的 ” ; true“ 真 正 的 ” ; strange“奇怪的”。

答案

A
B.met D.persuaded

16.A.welcomed C.accepted 解析

句意为:然而,三天后,他们遇到了第三个富人。

meet“遇到”; welcome“欢迎”; accept“接受”; persuade“说 服”,根据语境,选 met。

答案

B

17.A.still C.always

B.already D.indeed

解析 句意为: 他仍然走得很快……照应上文第 12 题空 白处。 still“仍然”; already“已经”; always“总是”; indeed“确 实”。

答案

A
B.instead of D.along with

18.A.except for C.apart from

解析 句意为:……但是他的马车上,没有了原来装载 的金子和贵重物品,现在装满了家具和一袋袋的种子。 except for“除了”;instead of“不是;代替”;apart from“除 了”;along with“和……一起”。

答案

B

19.A.loading C.carrying

B.treasuring D.earning

解析 carry“携带;搬运”。

答案
20.A.food

C
B.jewels D.seeds

C.money 解析

根据前面的 farming tools 可以推断此处应为

seeds(种子)。

答案

D

2.vocabulary: (1)manage v.完成(困难的事);能解决(问题);应付(困难 局面等) manage without 没有??也行

manage to do... 设法做??
If we can’t afford a new car,we shall have to

manage

without .
如果我们买不起汽车,就只好将就了。 (2)lack v.& n.缺少

for/through lack of 因缺少

no lack of 充足的 for lack 缺少??
be lacking

in 缺少??

1.How did the third rich man help the villagers?

He provided them with farming tools and bags
of seeds.
1 . Using a proverb to describe the third rich man’s behavior.

Give a man a fish,and you have fed him for today.Teach a man to fish,and you have fed him for a lifetime.

2.记叙文型完形填空的备考策略 (1)重视首句,把握开篇 完形填空一般首句不设空,是完整的一句。细读此句可以 判断文章的体裁,预测全文大意和主旨。 读懂首句可以帮助你建立正确的思维导向, 避免误入歧途, 对理解全文起重要的作用。 (2)速读全文,掌握大意 速读全文要一气呵成, 尽管有空格、 生词或不明白的地方, 仍要快速读下去,不要急于看选项。一遍读不懂可以再迅 速读一遍,要重点了解文中所叙述的人物、时间、地点、 事件,即 who,when,where,what 等。掌握大概,总体 把握文章内容、结构、时态、语态变化、情节的展开、结 局的形成,然后答题。

(3)弄清作者对人物和事件的态度 弄清作者对人物和事件的态度也是做好记叙文型完形填空的 关键。分析近几年高考题,有不少题需要在正确把握反映作 者情感态度的关键词的基础上才能做好。 (4)理顺事件的发生、发展和结局 记叙文型完形填空多数是按事件发生的顺序进行叙述,正确 把握文章的发展顺序对把握文章的主脉有着重要的意义。因 此,在选择答案时可以事先理清人物间的关系及各自所做的 事情。


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