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SAT 阅读理解题型
A. 写作目的题(Main Purpose Questions) 问题经常以以下形式出现: The primary purpose of the passage is to…… Both passages are primarily concerned with the…… The passage as a whole serves primarily to…… 例 1 I had grown up in the United States virtually without relatives, which, in my intense desire to assimilate, was quite all right with me. But this attitude dissolved when I walked into that apartment in Beijing. I realized then that my extended family is not just a collection of accidental alliances but a living body, an entity that will welcome me for being simply who I am: the daughter of my mother, the niece of my aunts and uncles. We had never before seen each other but, in that moment, we shared a sense of connection and loyalty unlike anything I had previously experienced. Question: The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) describe the author ?s travels to Beijing (B) reveal how lonely the author often felt (C) provide examples of the author ?s fondness for her relatives (D) convey the author ?s sudden awareness of the importance of family (E) illustrate the closeness that existed among the author ?s mother, aunts, and uncles. 例 2This passage is adapted from a 2003 novel about a character named Gogol Ganguli, the American-born son of Indian immigrants. Just before leaving home for college, Gogol changed his name to Nikhil. Question: Taken as a whole, the passage is best described as a portrayal of (A) two parents? acceptance of their son?s leaving home (B) an immigrant family?s adjustment to new surroundings (C) the stimulating possibilities open to a college student (D) a young man?s struggle to define himself (E) a young man?s success at achieving independence 例 3A century ago, opponents of women?s suffrage in the United States scoffed at the notion that extending the vote to women would make any difference. “Women will vote with their husband” was the commonly accepted wisdom. This was an argument made in the absence of evidence, as women did not yet have the vote. Ever since women won the vote, researchers have been keeping close track of female voting behavior. A “gender gap” in voting behavior has been found in the United States as in many other countries. In the United States, the 1994 and 1996 elections showed the largest gaps ever between candidates favored by women and those favored by men.

Question: The primary purpose of the passage is to (A) describe the evolution of a gender gap in the United States (B) present a concise history of the women?s suffrage movement (C) show the inaccuracy of a prediction about women?s suffrage (D) discuss the resistance women faced in acquiring the vote (E) explain the differences in voting behavior between men and women B. 主旨理解题(Central Idea Questions) 主旨理解题的问题经常以以下形式出现: What is the main idea of the passage? With which of the following statements would the author most likely agree? What is the best title for the passage? This passage is primarily concerned with…… 例4 Passage 1 (extract) Because chimpanzees exhibit behavior so remarkably similar to some human behavior, scientists observing them in the wild often develop a degree of empathy with the individuals being studied. In itself this is not a bad thing. Subtle communication cues among chimpanzees are more readily detected and recorded once an observer has established this empathy. Passage 2 (extract) My first day observing a community of forest chimpanzees showed me a richer and more satisfying world than I had imagined. I suddenly recognized why I, a non-scientist, or anyone should care about what happens to them: not, ultimately, because they use tools and solve problems and are intellectual beings, but because they are emotional beings, as we are, and because their emotions are so obviously similar to ours. Question: Both passages support which generalization about wild chimpanzees? (A) Their family structures are somewhat similar to those of humans. (B) Their behavior often resembles that of humans. (C) Their actions are prompted by strong psychological urges. (D) Their facial expressions can be interpreted accurately by nonspecialists. (E) Their reactions differ from those of other apes. 例 5: (Excerpt) The argument of both the hedonist and the guru is that if we were put to open ourselves to the richness of the moment, to concentrate on the feast before us, we would be filled with bliss. I have lived in the present from time to time and can tell you that it is much overrated. Occasionally, as a holiday from stroking one?s memories or brooding about future worries, I grant you, it can be a nice change of pace. But to “be here now”, hour after hour, would never work…….Besides, the present has a way of intruding whether you like it or not.

Question: With which of the following statements would the author most likely agree? (A) We should enjoy the present and value every moment of daily life. (B) Special attention should be paid to the most difficult aspects of life. (C) Taking holidays are necessary in one?s life to relieve daily pressure. (D) Sometimes, “the present” can be regarded as an unavoidable imposition. (F) Enjoying delicious dishes is a kind of luxury enjoyment. 例 6: (1) Sailing at night in luminescent seas is something splendid that is not given to everyone. (2) One source of such luminescence is an alga called Noctiluca. (3) Copepods don?t like prey that flashes. Grab it, it explodes into light in their scratchy little arms, and they drop it. (4) In some of the larger luminescent species, in which the patterns of light differ between sexes, it is a fair bet that luminescence serves as an identification signal, a means of bringing the sexes together in places that have so little that shapes and normal, reflected colors won?t do. (5) But by far the most widespread use is camouflage. Question: The passage as a whole is best characterized as (A) a case study of an unusual type of bioluminescence (B) a survey of popular misconceptions about the function of bioluminescence (C) a discussion of the evolutionary origins of bioluminescence (D) an overview of the various functions of bioluminescence in sea creatures (E) an examination of luminescent species that use camouflage C. 理解推断题(Extended Reasoning Questions) 理解推断题的问题经常以以下形式出现: The last paragraph of the passage suggests that…… In line 33-34, the phrase “……”implies that the author…… The lines 66-69, the author indicates…… “Generous” as used to describe “funds” (line 12) is intended to seem…… What can be inferred from the sentence……? 例 7: And the photographer-a young man who was more accustomed to fashion-plate beauties than to weatherworn archaeologists-did not know how to picture the crags and fissures of his face. Question: (“And……hands”) suggest primarily that the photographer (A) is flustered by an unfamiliar situation (B) does not know how to take good pictures (C) is excited by a new challenge (D) does not respond well to criticism

(E) is averse to photographing older subjects 例 8: Some people like to act like things come easy to them. Take Cynthia Procter, for instance. If there?s a test tomorrow, she?ll say something like, “Oh, I guess I?ll watch television tonight.” When I pass her house, she is practicing the scales on the piano over and over. Then in music class she always lets herself get bumped around so she falls accidentally on purpose onto the piano stool and is so surprised to find herself sitting there that she decides just for fun to try out the ole keys. And what do you know-Chopin’s waltzes just spring out of her fingertips. A regular prodigy. Question: Which best describes the tone of sentences “And……prodigy”? (A) Sardonic (B) Anxious (C) Nonchalant (D) Reverent (E) Amazed 例 9: (Excerpt) “Don?t think”, Gabriel wrote, “that I have come to believe our land is a paradise. I know all too well that life is a struggle everywhere. But I cannot conceal from you the sorrow that your words have caused me, and a few paragraphs in your letter have struck me with the impact of cold water.” “In the first paragraph, Father, you wrote just as stirring the air with a fan will never split mountains, fits of lyrical passion will not solve arduous problems. Those words caused me to tear up an ?Ode to the Patria? which I had written. In the ode, I sang the glories of my land, basing it upon its natural opulence and upon the romanticism of a great cloud of loving sentiment. I tore it up, convinced that it was like the breeze of a fan, spending its force in the void of futility.” Question: (A) Juan voiced doubts about Gabriel?s economic decisions. (B) Juan encouraged Gabriel to consider practicing law in Spain. (C) Gabriel sought his father ?s advice on affairs of the heart. (D) Gabriel displayed a clear reluctance to accept criticism. (E) Gabriel expressed some loftily idealistic thoughts. Practice: Section A-C Directions: Carefully read the passage below and answer the questions that follow the passage. Answer the questions based on the content of the passage: both what is stated and what is implied in the passage as well as any introductory material before the passage. This passage is adapted from a work about travel published in 1814.

In the early period of human history, when voyages and travels were not undertaken from the view of amusement or instruction, or from political or commercial motives, the discovery of adjacent countries was chiefly affected by war, and of distant regions by commerce. The wars of the Egyptians with the Scythians, mentioned in the pristine pages of history, must have opened faint sources of information concerning the neighboring tribes. Under the Grecian empire of Alexander and his successors, the progress of discovery by war is first marked on the page of history; and science began to attend the banners of victory. The opulence of nature was now to be disclosed; and Greece was astonished at the miracles of India. The Romans not only inherited the Grecian knowledge, but, extending the arms to the North and West, accumulated discoveries upon regions dimly descried by the Greeks, through the obscurity in which the Phoenicians enveloped their commercial advantages. 1. The primary purpose of this passage is to A. criticize a strategy B. justify an undertaking C. explain a phenomenon D. defend an approach E. provoke a response 2. The main idea of this passage is A. the search for scientific information engendered the desire to travel B. the wealth of the western world was mostly derived from looting conquered regions C. the systematic conquest of weaker tribes decimated the ancient world D. the Greeks were the leaders in the fields of science in the classic world E. an increase in knowledge was a corollary of warfare 3. The author suggests that science and warfare A. are equally important motivations for nations to undertake exploration B. are mutually exclusive C. are painful reminders of mankind?s desire to destroy that which is unfamiliar D. are related in that scientific knowledge is increased by contact predicated on conquest E. are obscure historical processes rather than commercial enterprises D. 阅读词汇理解题(Vocabulary in Context Questions) 例 10: The world has outgrown its quaint rural intimacies, and now it?s the modern age: an order is put in for fifty cakes of Coal Tar Soap, and a few days later, a cart arrives and the order is delivered. Question:According to the text,“ an order” most nearly means (A) a command from a military authority (B) an instruction to provide something (C) an established system of organizations (D) a customary procedure

(E) a logical arrangement 例 11: Just before leaving home for college, Gogol changed his name to Nakhil. Later that evening, out to dinner with Jonathan, Ashima slips, asking, “Gogol, have you decided yet what your major will be?” Question: According to the text,“Slips” most nearly means (A) moves stealthily (B) slides involuntarily (C) forgets momentarily (D) addresses awkwardly (E) escapes easily 例 12: With its sizeable free-ranging population now confined to Namibia, the cheetah is being pitched as a uniquely Namibian cat and thus a source of national pride. More than an ideal genetic profile, the cheetah needs a bit of panting room and all the public relations its noble bearing can buy. Question: According to the text, “bearing” most nearly means (A) relationship or interconnection (B) the power of producing offspring (C) something that supports weight (D) demeanor or presence (E) awareness of a situation E. 语气、态度和语言问题 (Tone, Attitude, and Language Questions) 有些考题会让你判断一句话, 一段话甚至一篇文章的语气, 有些考题会考查你关于作者 对某个问题的看法或态度。如果全文为叙述语气(一个故事) ,那么问题有可能是关于主人 公对某事或某人的态度。一定要确定你在推测谁的(whose)语气,而且是在推测谁(who) 对什么事物(what)的语气或态度。还会有些问题考查你对修辞(rhetoric)的理解或认识,或 者某个语句的理解或认识。 除此之外, 你应该能够分清语言的本义(literal meaning) 和修辞义(metaphorical language)。 本义指文中意义和语言本身意义一致, 修辞义指文中意思是并非语言本义。 “My pockets are empty”可能本义指我的兜里是空的,什么东西都没有, 但是修辞意义可能是指我破产了或者 我很穷。 以下是一些 SAT 语气态度的关键词: Indignant: 因为不公平不公正而感到愤慨 Objective:中立的,客观的 Subjective: 主观的,基于个人情感经验的 Whimsical: 古怪的,异想天开的 Comedic, humorous: 有意思的,幽默的(SAT 考试中的幽默不是简单的开玩笑,而是有 寓意在里面的。 ) Ironic:反语的,讽刺的 Nostalgic: 思乡的,怀旧的

Detached: 中立的,不掺入私人情感因素在里面 Resigned: 顺从地接受 Wistful: 渴望的 Scornful, disdainful, contemptuous: 鄙视的,轻蔑的 Equivocal: 故意模糊或误导的 Ambivalent: 模棱两可的 Cynical: 愤世嫉俗的,悲观的 Witty: 智慧的,狡黠的 Didactic: 说教的 Awe: 敬畏 Derisive, sardonic, sarcastic: 讽刺的 Skeptical, incredulous, dubious: 不相信的,怀疑的 Adulatory, laudatory: 高度赞扬的,崇拜的 例 13: (节选) Mr. Beebe, a clergyman, is speaking with Cecil Vyse about a mutual acquaintance, Lucy Honeychurch. “Lucy Honeychurch has no faults,” said Cecil, with grave sincerity. Question: Cecil?s remark in line 1 (“Lucy…faults”) is made in a tone of (A) great conviction (B) studied neutrality (C) playful irony (D) genuine surprise (E) weary cynicism 例 14: For the reader armed with these data, the story becomes more accessible as a lesson in contract law, with several additional minor themes. Question: The author ?s attitude toward the story is best described as (A) excitement at an unexpected discovery (B) admiration of the storyteller ?s performance (C) appreciation of the folktale as a means of communication values (D) enthusiasm for the cultural concept of legality (E) enjoyment of the comical aspects of the folklore F.划线内容理解题(Main Purpose Questions) 1.细节理解题 问题经常以以下形式出现: The question in lines 4-5 is based on which of the following assumptions? The author uses which of the following in the fourth paragraph? In line 16-18 the author distinguishes between……

例 15 To conduct some forms of sleep research, we have to find a way to track sleepiness over the day. Some people might believe that measuring sleepiness is a fairly trivial task. Couldn’t you, for instance, simply count the number of times a person yawns during any given hour or so? Question: The questionin italics is based on which of the following assumptions? (A) Direct observation is the only reliable method of conducting sleep research. (B) People will yawn most frequently in the moments before they fall asleep. (C) There is a direct correlation between yawning and sleepiness. (D) Yawning is a behavior over which individuals exert little conscious control. (E) Conducting sleep research is a time-consuming process. 例 16 All along the burnished footpaths of Greek Street, the shopkeepers are out already, the second wave of early risers. Of course they regard themselves as the first wave. The grim procession of factory workers less than an hour ago might as well have happened in another country in another age. Welcome to the real world. Question: The shopkeepers? attitude toward the workers who are described in italics is best characterized as (A) ambivalent (B) dismissive (C) combative (D) fearful (E) suspicious 2. 目的功能题 问题经常以以下形式出现: The author refers to Moses, Plato, and Milton (line 7) in order to…… In lines 4-5, the author refers to a “fashion maven?s” tone primarily in order to…… Which best describes the function of the statement in lines 10-13 (“So it……galaxy”)? 例 17 I read a lot of books about mythology, and then about science: not the missiles and spaceships Brother preferred, but the birds and the bees-literally. I brought home a giant book of birds and searched the skies and tress for anything than robins and pigeons. And I read about bees because I liked the idea that all of them listened to the queen and couldn?t go on without her. I went through a phase of loving books with practical science experiments and used up a whole bottle of white vinegar by pouring it on the sides of our apartment building to prove that it was constructed of limestone. Question: The primary purpose of this paragraph is to (A) contrast the books about mythology and science that the author had been reading

(B) (C) (D) (E)

discuss why the author enjoyed books that were about birds and bees characterize the author ?s reading interests during a particular period of time distinguish between books preferred by the author and those preferred by her brother provide several examples of practical science experiments that the author conducted

例 18: The ability to see the situation as your opponents see it, as difficult as it may be, one of the most important skills that you can possess as a negotiator. You must know more than simply that they see things differently. It is not enough to study them like beetles under a microscope; you need to know what it feels like to be a beetle. To accomplish this you should be prepared to withhold judgments as you “try on” their views. Your opponents may well believe that their views are right as strongly as you believe yours are. Question: The reference to beetles in lines 5-6 serves to suggest that (A) people need to be more attuned to their surroundings (B) effective negotiation is more of a science than an art (C) people can be made to do what they would prefer not to do (D) effective negotiation requires identifying with a different viewpoint (E) people feel uncomfortable when their actions are under scrutiny G. 双篇文章理解题(Synthesis Questions) 理解推断题的问题经常以以下形式出现: The author of Passage 2 would most likely view Julian?s statement in Passage 1 with…… Unlike the author of Passage 2, the author of Passage 1 develops his or her argument by…… Which best characterizes the overall relationship between the two passages? Both passages call attention to which aspect of……? The author of Passage 2 would most likely criticize the author of Passage 1 for…… 例 19: Passage 1 A reform movement in journalism is afoot in newsroom and boardrooms across the country. Industry organizations are launching initiatives, offering training and fostering new ways of thinking about news coverage and its effects. The goals are to reinstall journalism?s core values, regain credibility, and generally better the media?s performance. What really is wrong with journalism? Lack of accuracy and fairness, too much sensationalism and bias are all components of the problem, but the number one issue is that “people distrust our motives” said Tome Rosenstiel, founding director of the Project for Excellence in Journalism, who hopes to get more journalists thinking about standards. Passage 2 Conditions for journalism have never been better: robust media profits, strong legal protections, and sophisticated technology. Yet there is an influential movement, representing the consensus of the profession?s elite, dedicated to convincing us that all is not well. Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel , arguably the two most prominent media critics in America, are the go-to people if you need a quotation lamenting the sensationalism of television newscasts or other media ills.

Their recent book The Elements of Journalism suggests that unless a certain “theory of news” is adhered to , the United States might be annihilated. Such factually uncluttered hyperbole does not merely invite a certain awe but also quite plausibly violates their number one axiom: “journalism?s first obligation is to the truth.” Question: Which best describes the relationship between Passage 1 and Passage 2? (A) Passage 1 describes a particular campaign for change, whereas Passage 2 challenges the necessity of that change. (B) Passage 1 describes the causes of sensationalism in journalism, whereas Passage 2 explores its effects. (C) Passage 1 praises an individual?s influence on journalism, whereas Passage 2 questions that individual?s contributions. (D) Passage 1 suggests that journalism is evolving whereas Passage 2 argues that it is stagnating. (E) Passage 1 defines the purpose of journalism, whereas Passage 2 examines journalism?s impact on society. Passage 1 Food has always been considered one of the most salient markers of cultural traditions. When I was a small child, food was the only thing that helped identify my family as Filipino American. We ate pansit lug-lug (a noodle fish) and my father put patis(salty fish sauce) on everything. However, even this connection lessened as I grew older. As my parents, became more acculturated, we ate less typically Filipino food. When I was twelve, my mother took cooking classes and learned to make French and Italian dishes. When I was in high school, we ate chicken marsala and shrimp fraDiablo more often than Filipino dishes like pansit lug-lug. Passage 2 Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin-who in 1825 confidently announced. “Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you who you are”- would have no trouble describing cultural identities of the United States. Our food reveals us as tolerant adventurers who do not feel constrained by tradition. We “play with our food” far more readily than we preserve the culinary rules of our varied ancestors. Americans have no single national cuisine. What unites American eaters culturally is how we eat, not what we eat. As eaters, Americans mingles the culinary traditions of many regions and cultures. We are multiethnic eaters. Question: The author of Passage 2 would most likely regard the mother ?s willingness to “make French and Italian dishes” (line 9-10, Passage 1) as (A) laughably pretentious (B) understandably conservative (C) typically American (D) a regrettable compromise (E) a surprising attitude


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