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英语构词法讲解及相关练习_图文

2013 届连江黄如论中学高三英语

英语构词法 2012.10.30

高中英语构词法讲解与练习
在英语中,词的构成方式主要有三种:派生、合成、和转化。 一、派生 Derivation 前缀 前缀 含义 a处在…… en使可能 dis不,否定 un不 做相反动作 inimirilnondeantimisre coex tele superunderintersubtransvicesemibi tri mulkilo后缀 后 缀 -er -ess -or -ar -ese -ian -ist -ent/-ant -ment -ness -tion -ing -ship 例 词 farmer, weaver, pain-killer, murderer, , villager, stranger, speaker, cooker, recorder, heater actress, waitress, princess, hostess conductor, sailor, transistor, operator, beggar Chinese, Portuguese, Japanese musician, Egyptian, physician scientist, dentist, communist, socialist, assistant argument, judgment, government happiness, greatness, illness, coldness, sleeplessness dictation, preparation, repetition, action, information, invention building, wedding, painting leadership, friendship, hardship
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例词 arise, aside, alone enrich, enable, enslave dissatisfy, dishonest, disappear, disorder, disagree unable, unknown, uncommon, uncomfortable, unfair, unclose, undress, uncover, untie

不,非

inactive, incapable, inpatient, incorrect impossible, impersonal, impolite, immature, impractical irregular, irresponsible illogical, 不,非 non existent, non-interference, non-conductor, non-stop 向 相 反 方 向 发 Decentralize(分散), defrost(解冻) 展 反(对) anti-freeze, anti-fascist 错误的,坏的 misdoings, misunderstand, misfortune 重复,再 rewrite, remarry, reunite, recycle, 共同 co-exist, co-operate, co-education 以前的 Ex-husband, ex-president 远程 telephone, telegraph, telescope 在上面,超级 supermarket, superpower, 在……之下 underline, underestimate, underground, 相互,之间 international, interact, inter-change 下,次 subtitle, submarine, subconscious, subcontinent, 过,穿过,变 transformation(变形), translate 副 vice-premier, vice-president 半 semifinal, semicircle, semi-automatic 两个 bicycle, biennial 两年一次的 三个 triangle 三角形, tricycle 三轮脚踏车, triplets 三胞胎 多,多种 multiply, multi-national, multi-coloured 千 kilometre, kilogram

名 词

2013 届连江黄如论中学高三英语

英语构词法 2012.10.30

-age -ty -th -ance -ence -ful -al -y -dom -ism

shortage, marriage, leakage loyalty, cruelty, penalty, sixty, twenty, thirty, certainty truth, warmth, length, growth, fifteenth, fourth acceptance, assistance, reliance, appearance dependence, confidence, reference, entrance, defence mouthful, handful, plateful, refusal, denial, arrival difficulty, possibility, freedom, wisdom, kingdom socialism, materialism

注意: -ese, -ian, -ist 既可以构成名词,又可以构成形容词。 -er 构成的名词,既有表示人的,又有表示物的。 后 缀 例 词 -al central, industrial, national, natural -an European, American, Australian -ern eastern, northern, southern -able reasonable, horrible, terrible, believable, comfortable, forgettable, sensible -ful careful, cheerful, grateful, faithful, -ish childish, Swedish, selfish -ive destructive, collective, active, creative, effective -y thirsty, dirty, windy, sunny, cloudy, healthy, funny -less careless, hopeless, helpless, homeless, sleepless, fearless, limitless -en golden, wooden, woolen -ous courageous, famous, continuous, serious, various -ary imaginary, revolutionary, secondary 形 -ic realistic, historic, poetic 容 -some troublesome, burdensome, lonesome, handsome 词 -like childlike, womanlike, manlike -ant ignorant, significant, observant, important -ent diligent, silent, excellent, frequent -ly lively, friendly, lovely, weekly, brotherly, motherly -ish childish, foolish 后 缀 -ize -en -fy 例 词 realize, modernize, mechanize, criticize, widen, strengthen, lengthen, sharpen, widen, shorten, quicken, deepen Simplify, beautify, terrify,

动 词

后 缀 例 词 -ward(s) forward, northward, backward, downward 副 词 -ly slowly, quickly, carefully, loudly, happily, friendly 二、合成 Compounding 两个或更多的词合成一个词。 方式:1. 直接写在一起。 2. 用连字符(-)连接。 3. 由两个分开的词构成。 (1) 合成形容词 方式 例词 1 形容词+形容词 red-hot 2 形容词+名词 first-class, full-time, part-time 3 形容词+现在分词 good-looking, free-thinking, 4 形容词+过去分词 ready-made 5 形容词+名词-ed good-tempered, middle-aged, cold-blooded 6 名词+名词-ed iron-willed 7 名词+形容词 world-famous, day-long 8 名词+现在分词 beauty-loving, freedom-loving, job-hunting,
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2013 届连江黄如论中学高三英语

英语构词法 2012.10.30

9 名词+过去分词 10 副词+形容词 11 副词+现在分词 12 副词+过去分词 13 数词+名词 14 数词+名词+形容 词 15 数词+名词-ed

man-made, water-covered, ever-green hard-working, far-seeing well-prepared, quickly-cured, well-known five-year five-year-old four-legged, six-storied

(2)合成动词 构成方式 例词 1 名词+动词 day-dream 2 副词+动词 overcome, upturn 翻起 3 形容词+动词 white-wash (3)合成名词 构成方式 例词 1 名词+名词 horseback , bank-note, newspaper, cellphone, 2 形容词+名词 back-yard, forehead, 3 动名词+名词 hiding place, reading-room 4 动词+副词 get-off, break in, 5 副词+动词 output, overflow (4)合成副词 however, maybe, wherever, whenever, forever (5)合成代词 whoever,, whatever, everyone, nobody, myself, something, anything,
三、转化 Conversion: 指一个词不变化词形,而由一种此类转化为另一种词类或几种词类。 1. 名词和动词之间的转化 telephone 电话——打电话, mirror 镜子——像镜子一样反映, drink 喝——饮料, record 录音——记录, name, date, hand, study, 2. 形容词转化为动词 perfect 完美的——使完善 3.名词转化为形容词(副词) front 前面——前面的 4.形容词转化为名词 chief 主要的——首领 巩固练习

Ⅰ用适当的形式填空。 1. The mother didn’t know why her daughter was crying _______. (noise) 2. He was one of the best _______ in yesterday’s football match. (play) 3. Look! How ______ Kate is laughing! (happy) 4. It snowed _____ last night and now the streets are covered with snow. (heavy) 5. Edison was a great ______. During his life he had many ______. (invent) 6. More and more _____ have come to visit China over these years. (foreign) 7. We want _________ reasons for your failure to help. (satisfy) 8. Please give me some reference work. It will ______ my task. (simple) 9. The doctor said that Mary’s mother needed an _______.(operate) 10. Thank you for your _________. (kind) 11When in Rome, do as the _____ do. (Rome) 12. The teacher was pleased with her _______. (honest) Ⅱ.单选 1. That man was ________enough not to tell the manager that he would not do the job. A. care B. careful C. careless D. carelessness 2. The soldier died for saving the child,so his________ is heavier than Mount Tai. A. die B. dead C. died D. death 3. The three- ________chair isn’t suitable for a young child. He may fall off. A. legging B. legged C. legs D. leged 4.When the teacher praised him for working out the maths problem, Jack looked________about at his classmates. A. proud B. proudly C. pride D. pridely 5.To everyone’s ________,the girl finished the job quite well. A. satisfied B. satisfactory C. satisfying D. satisfaction
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2013 届连江黄如论中学高三英语

英语构词法 2012.10.30

6.—What are you doing here? —Oh,my teacher asked me to write a passage about ________in English. —You can write________passage in English? A. 600 words;a 600-words B. 600-word;a 600-words C. 600 words;a 600-word D. 600 words;a 600-words 7. No one should enter the spot without the________of the police. A. permit B. permission C. permitting D. permittence 8. You must come with us to the police ________.Our head is waiting for you. A. headquarters B. headline C. headmaster D. headache 9.Letting that animal escape was no accident;you did it ________. A. intend B. intention C. intentionally D. intentional 10. The shop owner welcomed all the guests with a________smile. A. practice B. practice C. practical D. practiced 11. My TV is out of order. Can you tell me what is the________news about Iraq War? A. lately B. latest C. later D. latter 12. Canada is mainly an________country. A. English-speaking B. speak-English C. spoken-English D. English-spoken 13. How________ he is! He is always acting________.He is really a ________. A. foolish;foolishly;fool B. fool;foolish;fool C. foolish;fool;fool D. foolishly;foolish;fool 14. The necklace that she lost is very expensive. It’s of great ________. 15. We have to learn ________technology from other countries. A. advance B. advancing C. advantage D. advanced 16. The children live in a village ________.They come here almost every day. A. nearby B. near C. nearly D. near by 17.You’d better give up smoking if you want to keep ________. A. health B. healthy C. healthily D. healthier 18.________ speaking,I didn’t do it on purpose. A. Honestly B. Honest C. Honesty D. Dishonest Ⅲ.根据上下文语境和提示的首字母,在划线处写出一个合适的词。 A. Efforts It’s universally a__________ that what makes a big d___________ in the course of studies is_______(勤奋)and _________(耐心).We are s__________ to attach great i____________ to _______(努力)rather than good _______(运气),as a consequence of the fact that ________(成 功)arises from hard work. Anyhow, those who are of_____________(聪明)need to spare no effort with the purpose of_______(实现)their goals as well. I see to it that only in this way can we arose our p_________(潜力)and work out d_____________. B. Are we endangered? Steve Jones is an environmental expert who tries to keep animals and plants from becoming endangered. If we know more about what causes e________, we may be able to take m_______ before it is too late. A species can become e_______ for different reasons. Animals and plants must have a habitat or home, which is c_______ and clean, and where there is enough food and other resources. They are all used to their environment; that is, they have learnt how to live s_______ in their habitat. Keys: Ⅰ.1. G 2. E 3. F 4. D 5. A 6. H 7. C 8. B Ⅱ.1. noisily 2. players 3. happily 4. heavily 5. inventor; inventions 6. foreigners 7. satisfactory 8. simplify 9. appearance 10. uncovered 11. operation 12. musician 13. spoken 14. boiling 15. kindness 16. expenses 17. business 18. uncorrected 19. Romans 20. honesty Ⅲ. A 篇 nature, fallen, excitement, adventurous, quickly, careful, Whitewater
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2013 届连江黄如论中学高三英语

英语构词法 2012.10.30

B. 篇 endangerment, measures, endangered, comfortable, successfully

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